Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Molecular Sequence Data
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Sequence Analysis, DNA
DNA Transposable Elements
Colony Count, Microbial
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Amino Acid Sequence
Root Canal Irrigants
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Dental Pulp Cavity
Serine-Type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase
Urinary Tract Infections
Gene Transfer, Horizontal
Multilocus Sequence Typing
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Dental Pulp Diseases
Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests
Anti-Infective Agents, Local
RNA, Ribosomal, 23S
Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylmuramic Acid
Drug Therapy, Combination
Serum Bactericidal Test
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Open Reading Frames
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Root Canal Filling Materials
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections
Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (1/1212)BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design. (+info)
Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans. (2/1212)BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. AIMS: To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. METHODS: Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily. RESULTS: A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0. 05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora. (+info)
Diperamycin, a new antimicrobial antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities. (3/1212)Antibacterial antibiotics, diperamycin (1) was produced in the culture broth of Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. Various spectroscopic analyses of 1 suggested that 1 belonged to a member of cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic. Antibiotic 1 had potent inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria including Enterococcus seriolicida and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (+info)
Molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in enterococci from humans and animals. (4/1212)We report on a detailed study on the molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from humans and animals. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the VanA transposon of 97 VRE revealed seven different Tn1546 types. Subsequent sequencing of the complete VanA transposons of 13 VRE isolates representing the seven RFLP types followed by sequencing of the identified polymorphic regions in 84 other VanA transposons resulted in the identification of 22 different Tn1546 derivatives. Differences between the Tn1546 types included point mutations in orf1, vanS, vanA, vanX, and vanY. Moreover, insertions of an IS1216V-IS3-like element in orf1, of IS1251 in the vanS-vanH intergenic region, and of IS1216V in the vanX-vanY intergenic region were found. The presence of insertion sequence elements was often associated with deletions in Tn1546. Identical Tn1546 types were found among isolates from humans and farm animals in The Netherlands, suggesting the sharing of a common vancomycin resistance gene pool. Application of the genetic analysis of Tn1546 to VRE isolates causing infections in Hospitals in Oxford, United Kingdom, and Chicago, Ill., suggested the possibility of the horizontal transmission of the vancomycin resistance transposon. The genetic diversity in Tn1546 combined with epidemiological data suggest that the DNA polymorphism among Tn1546 variants can successfully be exploited for the tracing of the routes of transmission of vancomycin resistance genes. (+info)
Transmission dynamics of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in England and Wales. (5/1212)A simple epidemiological framework for the analysis of the transmission dynamics of hospital outbreaks of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals in England and Wales is presented. Epidemic strains EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16 are becoming endemic in hospitals in the United Kingdom, and theory predicts that EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16 will reach respective endemic levels of 158 (95% confidence interval [CI], 143-173) and 116 (95% CI, 109-123) affected hospitals with stochastic fluctuations of up to 30 hospitals in each case. An epidemic of VRE is still at an early stage, and the incidence of hospitals newly affected by VRE is growing exponentially at a rate r=0.51/year (95% CI, 0.48-0.54). The likely impact of introducing surveillance policies if action is taken sufficiently early is estimated. Finally, the role of heterogeneity in hospital size is considered: "Super-spreader hospitals" may increase transmission by 40%-132% above the expected mean. (+info)
The Enterococcus hirae copper chaperone CopZ delivers copper(I) to the CopY repressor. (6/1212)Expression of the cop operon which effects copper homeostasis in Enterococcus hirae is controlled by the copper responsive repressor CopY. Purified Zn(II)CopY binds to a synthetic cop promoter fragment in vitro. Here we show that the 8 kDa protein CopZ acts as a copper chaperone by specifically delivering copper(I) to Zn(II)CopY and releasing CopY from the DNA. As shown by gel filtration and luminescence spectroscopy, two copper(I) are thereby quantitatively transferred from Cu(I)CopZ to Zn(II)CopY, with displacement of the zinc(II) and transfer of copper from a non-luminescent, exposed, binding site in CopZ to a luminescent, solvent shielded, binding site in CopY. (+info)
Mutational analysis of active-site residues of the enterococcal D-ala-D-Ala dipeptidase VanX and comparison with Escherichia coli D-ala-D-Ala ligase and D-ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase VanY. (7/1212)BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are pathogenic bacteria that attenuate antibiotic sensitivity by producing peptidoglycan precursors that terminate in D-Ala-D-lactate rather than D-Ala-D-Ala. A key enzyme in effecting antibiotic resistance is the metallodipeptidase VanX, which reduces the cellular pool of the D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide. RESULTS: We constructed eleven mutants, using the recently determined VanX structure as a basis, to investigate residue function. Mutating Asp142 or Ser114 showed a large effect principally on KM, consistent with roles in recognition of the D-Ala-D-Ala termini. The drastic reduction or absence of activity in the Arg71 mutants correlates with a role in the stabilization of an anionic tetrahedral transition state. Three residues of the Escherichia coli D-Ala-D-Ala ligase (Ddl), Glu15, Ser 281 and Arg255, are similarly conserved and have equivalent functions with respect to VanX, consistent with a convergent evolution of active sites to bind D-Ala-D-Ala and lower energy barriers for formation of the tetrahedral intermediate and transition states. In the N-acyl-D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase VanY, all active-site residues are conserved (except for the two responsible for recognition of the dipeptide amino terminus). CONCLUSIONS: The mutagenesis results support structure-based functional predictions and explain why the VanX dipeptidase and Ddl ligase show narrow specificity for the D,D-dipeptide substrate. The results reveal that VanX and Ddl, two enzymes that use the same substrate but proceed in opposite directions driven by distinct cofactors (zinc versus ATP), evolved similar architectural solutions to substrate recognition and catalysis acceleration. VanY sequence analysis predicts an active site and mechanism of reaction similar to VanX. (+info)
Proficiency of clinical laboratories in and near Monterrey, Mexico, to detect vancomycin-resistant enterococci. (8/1212)Early detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci is important for preventing its spread among hospitalized patients. We surveyed the ability of eight hospital laboratories in and near Monterrey, Mexico, to detect vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus spp. and found that although laboratories can reliably detect high-level vancomycin resistance, many have difficulty detecting low-level resistance. (+info)
Some common examples of gram-positive bacterial infections include:
1. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections: These are infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is a type of gram-positive bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics.
2. Streptococcal infections: These are infections caused by streptococcus bacteria, such as strep throat and cellulitis.
3. Pneumococcal infections: These are infections caused by pneumococcus bacteria, such as pneumonia.
4. Enterococcal infections: These are infections caused by enterococcus bacteria, such as urinary tract infections and endocarditis.
5. Candidiasis: This is a type of fungal infection caused by candida, which is a type of gram-positive fungus.
Gram-positive bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin and ampicillin, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has made the treatment of these infections more challenging. In some cases, gram-positive bacterial infections may require more aggressive treatment, such as combination therapy with multiple antibiotics or the use of antifungal medications.
Overall, gram-positive bacterial infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Causes and risk factors:
The most common cause of bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and travels to the heart. This can occur through various means, such as:
* Injecting drugs or engaging in other risky behaviors that allow bacteria to enter the body
* Having a weakened immune system due to illness or medication
* Having a previous history of endocarditis or other heart conditions
* Being over the age of 60, as older adults are at higher risk for developing endocarditis
The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the infected area. Some common symptoms include:
* Joint pain or swelling
* Shortness of breath
* Heart murmurs or abnormal heart sounds
Bacterial endocarditis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
* Blood cultures to identify the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
* Echocardiogram to visualize the heart and detect any abnormalities
* Chest X-ray to look for signs of infection or inflammation in the lungs or heart
* Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the electrical activity of the heart
The treatment of bacterial endocarditis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria and reduce inflammation, while surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. In some cases, the infected heart tissue may need to be removed.
Preventing bacterial endocarditis involves good oral hygiene, regular dental check-ups, and avoiding certain high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles. People with existing heart conditions should also take antibiotics before dental or medical procedures to reduce the risk of infection.
The prognosis for bacterial endocarditis is generally good if treatment is prompt and effective. However, delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or death. Patients with pre-existing heart conditions are at higher risk for complications.
Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year in the United States. However, people with certain risk factors such as heart conditions or prosthetic heart valves are at higher risk for developing the infection.
Bacterial endocarditis can lead to a number of complications, including:
* Heart failure
* Stroke or brain abscess
* Kidney damage or failure
* Pregnancy complications
* Nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
* Skin or soft tissue infections
* Bone or joint infections
* Septicemia (blood poisoning)
Preventive measures for bacterial endocarditis include:
* Good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups to reduce the risk of dental infections
* Avoiding high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles
* Antibiotics before dental or medical procedures for patients with existing heart conditions
* Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment
* Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis (prevention) in high-risk patients.
Newly emerging trends in the management of bacterial endocarditis include:
* The use of novel antibiotics and combination therapy to improve treatment outcomes
* The development of new diagnostic tests to help identify the cause of infection more quickly and accurately
* The increased use of preventive measures such as antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients.
Future directions for research on bacterial endocarditis may include:
* Investigating the use of novel diagnostic techniques, such as genomics and proteomics, to improve the accuracy of diagnosis
* Developing new antibiotics and combination therapies to improve treatment outcomes
* Exploring alternative preventive measures such as probiotics and immunotherapy.
In conclusion, bacterial endocarditis is a serious infection that can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures such as good oral hygiene and antibiotic prophylaxis can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic techniques, developing new treatments, and exploring alternative preventive measures.
In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.
Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:
1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.
Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.
In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.
Bacteremia can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through various means, such as:
* Infected wounds or surgical sites
* Injecting drug use
* Skin infections
* Respiratory tract infections
* Urinary tract infections
* Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)
The symptoms of bacteremia can vary depending on the type of bacteria and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:
* Muscle aches
* Shortness of breath
Bacteremia is diagnosed by blood cultures, which involve collecting blood samples and inserting them into a specialized container to grow the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Prevention measures for bacteremia include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing personal items like toothbrushes or razors
* Properly cleaning and covering wounds
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can lead to bacteremia
* Following proper sterilization techniques during medical procedures
Overall, bacteremia is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure effective treatment.
Symptoms of a UTI can include:
* Painful urination
* Frequent urination
* Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
* Blood in the urine
* Pelvic pain in women
* Rectal pain in men
If you suspect that you have a UTI, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. UTIs can lead to more serious complications if left untreated, such as kidney damage or sepsis.
Treatment for a UTI typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. It is important to complete the full course of treatment to ensure that the infection is completely cleared. Drinking plenty of water and taking over-the-counter pain relievers may also help alleviate symptoms.
Preventive measures for UTIs include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as wiping from front to back and washing hands after using the bathroom
* Urinating when you feel the need, rather than holding it in
* Avoiding certain foods that may irritate the bladder, such as spicy or acidic foods
* Drinking plenty of water to help flush bacteria out of the urinary tract.
Some common examples of bacterial infections include:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.
In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.
Types of Dental Pulp Diseases:
1. Pulpal necrosis: This is a condition where the dental pulp becomes damaged or dies due to injury, infection, or exposure to extreme temperatures.
2. Dental abscess: A bacterial infection that can cause pain, swelling, and pus formation in the tooth and surrounding tissues.
3. Periapical granuloma: A non-cancerous inflammatory response to a pulpal or periodontal infection.
4. Periapical cyst: A fluid-filled sac that forms as a result of the inflammatory response to a pulpal or periodontal infection.
5. Radiculitis: Inflammation of the nerves that extend from the tooth into the jawbone and skull, causing pain and swelling.
6. Osteonecrosis: A condition where the jawbone dies due to a lack of blood supply, often caused by a dental infection or trauma.
7. Periodontal disease: A bacterial infection that affects the gums and supporting tissues of the teeth, leading to inflammation and damage to the gum and bone tissues.
Symptoms of Dental Pulp Diseases:
1. Toothache or sensitivity to temperature changes
2. Swelling and redness in the gums and surrounding tissues
3. Pain when chewing or biting
4. Bad breath or a bad taste in the mouth
5. Swollen lymph nodes in the neck or jaw
6. Fever and general feeling of illness
Treatment Options for Dental Pulp Diseases:
1. Root canal treatment: A procedure to remove the infected dental pulp, clean and disinfect the inside of the tooth, and fill the tooth with a special material.
2. Extraction: Removal of the affected tooth if the infection is severe or if the tooth cannot be saved.
3. Antibiotics: Medication to treat bacterial infections, such as abscesses or periapical infections.
4. Pain management: Over-the-counter pain medications, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, can help manage toothache pain and inflammation.
5. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged tissues.
Prevention of Dental Pulp Diseases:
1. Regular dental check-ups and cleanings to catch any problems early on and prevent infections from developing.
2. Good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day with fluoride toothpaste and flossing once a day, to remove plaque and bacteria from the teeth.
3. Avoid sugary or acidic foods and drinks that can damage the teeth and lead to infections.
4. Wear a mouthguard when participating in sports to protect the teeth from injury.
5. Avoid smoking and using tobacco products, which can increase the risk of dental pulp diseases.
Early diagnosis and treatment of dental pulp diseases are crucial to preventing more severe complications and preserving the affected tooth. If you suspect that you have a dental pulp disease, it is essential to visit a dentist as soon as possible for proper evaluation and treatment.
The symptoms of peritonitis can vary depending on the severity and location of the inflammation, but they may include:
* Abdominal pain and tenderness
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Loss of appetite
* Low blood pressure
Peritonitis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as a CT scan, MRI or ultrasound. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to clear the infection and supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be required to remove any infected tissue or repair damaged organs.
Prompt medical attention is essential for effective treatment and prevention of complications such as sepsis, organ failure, and death.
There are two main types of pulpitis:
1. Reversible pulpitis: This type of pulpitis is reversible and can be treated with conservative measures such as a filling or a root canal. The inflammation and infection in the pulp tissue can resolve with proper treatment, and the tooth can survive.
2. Irreversible pulpitis: This type of pulpitis is irreversible and cannot be treated with conservative measures. The inflammation and infection in the pulp tissue are severe and have damaged the pulp beyond repair. In this case, the only option is to extract the tooth.
Symptoms of pulpitis may include:
* Sensitivity to hot or cold foods and drinks
* Pain when biting or chewing
* Swelling and tenderness in the affected gum tissue
* Discoloration of the tooth
If left untreated, pulpitis can lead to more severe conditions such as an abscess or bacterial endocarditis, which can have serious consequences. Therefore, it is essential to seek professional dental care if symptoms of pulpitis are present. A dentist will perform a thorough examination and may take X-rays to determine the extent of the damage and recommend appropriate treatment.
Treatment options for pulpitis depend on the severity of the condition and may include:
* Conservative measures such as fillings or crowns to address any underlying decay or structural issues
* Root canal therapy to remove the infected pulp tissue and preserve the tooth
* Extraction of the affected tooth if the damage is too severe or if the tooth cannot be saved.
Symptoms of periapical periodontitis may include:
* Pain or tenderness in the affected tooth
* Swelling and redness in the gum tissue
* Bad breath or a bad taste in the mouth
* Discharge of pus from the affected tooth
Periapical periodontitis is typically diagnosed through a combination of clinical examination and diagnostic tests such as radiographs (x-rays) or dental scans. Treatment may involve antibiotics, a root canal, or extraction of the affected tooth, depending on the severity of the infection and the extent of damage to the pulp and surrounding tissues.
Some common types of streptococcal infections include:
1. Strep throat (pharyngitis): an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
2. Sinusitis: an infection of the sinuses (air-filled cavities in the skull) that can cause headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause cough, fever, chills, and shortness of breath.
4. Cellulitis: an infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth over the affected area.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves, which can cause fever, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and abdomen.
6. Meningitis: an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord that can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
7. Septicemia (blood poisoning): an infection of the bloodstream that can cause fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
Streptococcal infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent complications. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Prevention measures for streptococcal infections include:
1. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is sick.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have streptococcal infections.
3. Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered to prevent bacterial entry.
4. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of streptococcal infections through sexual contact.
5. Getting vaccinated against streptococcus pneumoniae, which can help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by this bacterium.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have a streptococcal infection, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Symptoms of endocarditis may include fever, fatigue, joint pain, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, the condition can lead to serious complications, such as heart valve damage, stroke, or death.
Treatment for endocarditis typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. Preventive measures include good dental hygiene, avoiding risky behaviors such as injecting drugs, and keeping wounds clean and covered.
Endocarditis is a serious condition that can have long-term consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for patients.
Endophthalmitis can be classified into several types based on its causes, such as:
1. Postoperative endophthalmitis: This type of endophthalmitis occurs after cataract surgery or other intraocular surgeries. It is caused by bacterial infection that enters the eye through the surgical incision.
2. Endogenous endophthalmitis: This type of endophthalmitis is caused by an infection that originates within the eye, such as from a retinal detachment or uveitis.
3. Exogenous endophthalmitis: This type of endophthalmitis is caused by an infection that enters the eye from outside, such as from a penetrating injury or a foreign object in the eye.
The symptoms of endophthalmitis can include:
1. Severe pain in the eye
2. Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva
3. Difficulty seeing or blind spots in the visual field
4. Sensitivity to light
5. Increased sensitivity to touch or pressure on the eye
6. Fever and chills
7. Swollen lymph nodes
8. Enlarged pupil
9. Clouding of the vitreous humor
If you suspect that you or someone else has endophthalmitis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent vision loss. Treatment options for endophthalmitis may include antibiotics, vitrectomy (removal of the vitreous humor), and in some cases, removal of the affected eye.
Gram-negative bacterial infections can be difficult to treat because these bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics. In addition, some gram-negative bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases, which break down the penicillin ring of many antibiotics, making them ineffective against the infection.
Some common types of gram-negative bacterial infections include:
* Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
* Bloodstream infections (sepsis)
* Skin and soft tissue infections
* Respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and sinusitis
Examples of gram-negative bacteria that can cause infection include:
* Escherichia coli (E. coli)
* Klebsiella pneumoniae
* Pseudomonas aeruginosa
* Acinetobacter baumannii
* Proteus mirabilis
Gram-negative bacterial infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures, urine cultures, and tissue samples. Treatment typically involves the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems or cephalosporins, which are effective against many types of gram-negative bacteria. In some cases, the infection may require hospitalization and intensive care to manage complications such as sepsis or organ failure.
Prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections includes good hand hygiene, proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate use of antibiotics. In healthcare settings, infection control measures such as sterilization and disinfection of equipment, and isolation precautions for patients with known gram-negative bacterial infections can help prevent the spread of these infections.
Overall, gram-negative bacterial infections are a significant public health concern, and proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission.
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Detection of Vancomycin resistant Enterococci from clinical specimens at University Teaching Hospitals
- The identification of enterococci was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers to E. faecalis , E. faecium , E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus , and antibiotic resistance was tested by the disk diffusion method. (scirp.org)
- A. Lombardi, D. Cariolato and C. Andrighetto, "Occurrence of Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Resistances in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Collected from Dairy and Human Samples in North Italy," Food Control, Vol. 19, No. 9, 2008, pp. 886-892. (scirp.org)
- R. Leclercq, E. Derlot, J. Duval and P. Courvalin, "Plasmid Mediated Resistance to Vancomycin and Teicoplanin Resistance in Enterococcus faecium," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 319, 1988, pp. 157-161. (scirp.org)
- The efficacy and safety of quinupristin/dalfopristin for treatment of infections due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium were evaluated in 24 hospitalized patients with documented infections (19 bacteremias, 5 localized infections) caused by vancomycin-resistant E. faecium that was susceptible to quinupristin/dalfopristin in vitro. (nih.gov)
- Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections. (nih.gov)
- From 2015 onwards, the number of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates increased in Tasmania. (edu.au)
- Out of 817 specimens, 25 (3%) Enterococcus isolates, comprising 22 Enterococcus faecalis and 3 Enterococcus faecium, were Vancomycin resistant as shown by chromogenic media and Vitek 2 compact. (unza.zm)
- Vancomycin resistant Enterococci were isolated, with the main isolate being E. faecalis as compared to E. faecium. (unza.zm)
- METHODS: Six vanA clumping-positive E. faecalis isolates (five human and one food sample) carrying one or more AS genes (prgB, asa1, asa373) were analysed for co-transfer of vanA and AS genes to E. faecalis JH2-2 and Enterococcus faecium 64/3. (univpm.it)
- Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus , Enterococcus faecium , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum . (medscape.com)
- 6. Control of a nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium in a paediatric oncology unit: risk factors for colonisation. (nih.gov)
- 18. Infection and colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in an acute care Veterans Affairs Medical Center: a 2-year survey. (nih.gov)
- Organism-specific therapeutic regimens for prostatitis are provided below, including those for Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas , Enterococcus , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and Chlamydia trachomatis . (medscape.com)
- For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). (cdc.gov)
Caused by Enterococcus faecalis2
- T. J. Eaton and M. J. Gasson, "Molecular Screening of Enterococcus Virulence Determinants and Potential for Genetic Exchange between Food and Medical Isolates," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 67, No. 4, 2001, pp. 1628-1635. (scirp.org)
- Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Characterization of Virulence Genes of Enterococcus faecalis Isolates from Teeth with Failure of the Endodontic Treatment. (bvsalud.org)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of virulence factors and the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecalis isolates of teeth with failure of the endodontic treatment . (bvsalud.org)
- OBJECTIVES: The study was undertaken to investigate vancomycin-resistant (vanA) Enterococcus faecalis isolates carrying aggregation substance (AS) gene(s) for their ability to co-transfer vanA and AS genes. (univpm.it)
- If these germs develop resistance to vancomycin, an antibiotic that is used to treat some drug-resistant infections, they become vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). (cdc.gov)
- The van ( A ) gene was detected in 100% of vancomycin resistant enterococci. (scirp.org)
- Enterococcus germs can become resistant to vancomycin and therefore are not killed. (medlineplus.gov)
- These resistant bacteria are called vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). (medlineplus.gov)
- Two studies feed the debate on active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci carriage: to screen or not to screen? (nih.gov)
- The vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis alkyl hydroperoxide reductase complex (AhpR) with its subunits AhpC (EfAhpC) and AhpF (EfAhpF) is of paramount importance to restore redox homeostasis. (ntu.edu.sg)
- McKinnell, JA & Arias, CA 2015, ' Editorial Commentary: Linezolid vs Daptomycin for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: The Evidence Gap between Trials and Clinical Experience ', Clinical Infectious Diseases , vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 879-882. (houstonmethodist.org)
- We compared the Rodac imprint technique to selective enrichment broth for detecting vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDRE) on surfaces. (northwestern.edu)
- To isolate and determine the occurrence of Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE), and the genes responsible for VRE resistance from blood, urine and pus specimens received in the Microbiology Laboratory at the UTH's, Lusaka. (unza.zm)
- 1. Infection-control measures reduce transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an endemic setting. (nih.gov)
- 2. Costs and savings associated with infection control measures that reduced transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an endemic setting. (nih.gov)
- 3. Epidemiology and control of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a regional neonatal intensive care unit. (nih.gov)
- 4. A comparison of the effect of universal use of gloves and gowns with that of glove use alone on acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a medical intensive care unit. (nih.gov)
- 7. Failure to eradicate vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a university hospital and the cost of barrier precautions. (nih.gov)
- 9. Outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization among pediatric oncology patients. (nih.gov)
- 10. A prospective study to determine whether cover gowns in addition to gloves decrease nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an intensive care unit. (nih.gov)
- 11. The effect of vancomycin and third-generation cephalosporins on prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in 126 U.S. adult intensive care units. (nih.gov)
- 12. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE): transmission and control. (nih.gov)
- 13. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in intensive care hospital settings. (nih.gov)
- 14. Surgical Infection Society position on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. (nih.gov)
- 16. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. (nih.gov)
- 17. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci. (nih.gov)
- 19. Epidemiology and control of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an adult and children's hospital. (nih.gov)
- 20. Control of endemic vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus among inpatients at a university hospital. (nih.gov)
- The aim of this research was to study the incidence of antibiotic resistance in 56 Enterococcus strains isolated from dairy products. (scirp.org)
- Next, they tested the ability of seven representative Enterococcus strains to transform L-dopa. (nih.gov)
- Seo Y, Lee G. Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern in Enterococcus faecalis Strains Isolated From Expressed Prostatic Secretions of Patients With Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis. (medscape.com)
- They have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens due to their ability to acquire and confer antimicrobial resistance genes, hence making management of infections due to Enterococcus species difficult. (unza.zm)
- L. Furlaneto-Maia, K. Rocha, F. Henrique, A. Giazzi and M. Furlaneto, "Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus sp Isolated from Soft Cheese in Southern Brazil," Advances in Microbiology , Vol. 4 No. 3, 2014, pp. 175-181. (scirp.org)
- The presence of Enterococci is considered one of th e key fecal indicators of water , since these bacteria are found in the intestinal microbiota of both healthy people and some animals. (condalab.com)
- Enterococcus species, Streptococcus gallolyticus group, and leuconostoc species. (medlineplus.gov)
- This report aims to add to the current veterinary literature on two opportunistic bacterial species ( Enterococcus hirae and Enterobacter xiangfangensis) associated with bloodstream infections in small animals admitted to the Bologna University Veterinary Hospital. (biomedcentral.com)
- Enterococci are bacteria (germs) that are normally present in the human intestines and in the female genital tract, and are often found in the environment, like in soil and water. (cdc.gov)
- Enterococci bacteria are constantly finding new ways to avoid the effects of the antibiotics used to treat the infections they cause. (cdc.gov)
- Enterococcus is a germ (bacteria). (medlineplus.gov)
- Enterococci are commensal gram-positive bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. (unza.zm)
- Enterococci were isolated from urine, pus and blood specimens submitted to UTH's Microbiology Laboratory from July to August 2017. (unza.zm)
- Considering the results of our study, dairy enterococci can be considered a potential source for dissemination of antibiotic resistances. (scirp.org)
- Corso A , Faccone D , Gagetti P , Togneri A , Lopardo H , Melano R , First report of van A Enterococcus gallinarum dissemination within an intensive care unit in Argentina. (cdc.gov)
- B. D. Shepard and M. S. Gilmore, "Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococci: The Mechanisms and Dynamics of Drug Introduction and Resistance," Microbes and Infection, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2002, pp. 215-224. (scirp.org)
- But enterococcus can cause an infection if it gets into the urinary tract, bloodstream, or skin wounds or other sterile sites. (medlineplus.gov)
- Patients with the enterococcus germ who do not have symptoms of an infection do not need treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- E. gallinarum and the other motile enterococci are thought to infrequently cause infection. (cdc.gov)
- Enterococcus faecalis is one of these microorganisms and has the ability to penetrate as far as 250 μ m into the dentinal tubules, which provides showing resistance to irrigation solutions usually used during the instrumentation of root canals [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- However, our finding, 7 years after the European Union ban, highlights that resistance genotypes in motile enterococci should be closely monitored ( 11 ). (cdc.gov)
- They found what they were looking for in a bacterial group known as Enterococcus , which often inhabits the human gastrointestinal tract. (nih.gov)
- More enterococci were isolated from urine compared to pus and blood, with most patients affected being aged between 28 and 46. (unza.zm)
- The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl] 2 ) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis . (hindawi.com)
- Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of sonic and syringe irrigation of NaOCl and Ca(OCl) 2 on Enterococcus faecalis in extracted human teeth. (hindawi.com)
- Celebrant and.Enterococcus faecalis virulence gene and biofilm formation relationship of study [J].Tooth dental pulp Periodontal Disease of magazine201323(10):627-632. (usp-pl.com)
- G. Giraffa, D. Carminati and E. Neviani, "Enterococci Isolated from Dairy Products: A Review of Risks and Potential Technological Use," Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 60, 1997, pp. 732-738. (scirp.org)
- PDB-2f02: Crystal Structure of LacC from Enterococcus Faecalis in complex w. (pdbj.org)
- 2013. Modeling sediment-related enterococci loading, transport, and inactivation at an embayed nonpoint source beach. (nih.gov)
- Conclusion: The propolis extract suspension at 5% and 10% in propylene glycol did not present antimicrobial activity in vitro against Enterococcus faecalis. (bvsalud.org)
- After three days, hyperthermia, leukopenia and hyperlactatemia were recorded, and blood culture revealed positivity for Enterococcus hirae , identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The patient's general conditions progressively worsened, and the patient was euthanized. (biomedcentral.com)
- Enterococci isolation was done by culture of specimens on blood agar, cystine lactose electrolyte deficient medium (CLED), and Bile Esculin Azide (BEA) agar. (unza.zm)