A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.
Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A class of natural cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by certain subspecies of STREPTOMYCES. They include two structurally unrelated components, STREPTOGRAMIN GROUP A and STREPTOGRAMIN GROUP B, which generally act synergistically to inhibit bacterial growth.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A specific streptogramin group A antibiotic produced by Streptomyces graminofaciens and other bacteria.
Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.
A carboxypeptidase that is specific for proteins that contain two ALANINE residues on their C-terminal. Enzymes in this class play an important role in bacterial CELL WALL biosynthesis.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to tyramine and carbon dioxide. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which is formed from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and phosphoenolpyruvate. It serves as the building block upon which peptidoglycan is formed.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
A family of LINCOMYCIN-related glycosides that contain a pyrrolidine ring linked via an amide-bond to a pyranose moiety. Individual members of this family are defined by the arrangement of specific constituent groups on the lyncomycin molecule. Many lincosamides are ANTIBIOTICS produced by a variety STREPTOMYCES species.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).
Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)
Food products manufactured from poultry.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (1/1212)

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans. (2/1212)

BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. AIMS: To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. METHODS: Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily. RESULTS: A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0. 05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora.  (+info)

Diperamycin, a new antimicrobial antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities. (3/1212)

Antibacterial antibiotics, diperamycin (1) was produced in the culture broth of Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. Various spectroscopic analyses of 1 suggested that 1 belonged to a member of cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic. Antibiotic 1 had potent inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria including Enterococcus seriolicida and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  (+info)

Molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in enterococci from humans and animals. (4/1212)

We report on a detailed study on the molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from humans and animals. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the VanA transposon of 97 VRE revealed seven different Tn1546 types. Subsequent sequencing of the complete VanA transposons of 13 VRE isolates representing the seven RFLP types followed by sequencing of the identified polymorphic regions in 84 other VanA transposons resulted in the identification of 22 different Tn1546 derivatives. Differences between the Tn1546 types included point mutations in orf1, vanS, vanA, vanX, and vanY. Moreover, insertions of an IS1216V-IS3-like element in orf1, of IS1251 in the vanS-vanH intergenic region, and of IS1216V in the vanX-vanY intergenic region were found. The presence of insertion sequence elements was often associated with deletions in Tn1546. Identical Tn1546 types were found among isolates from humans and farm animals in The Netherlands, suggesting the sharing of a common vancomycin resistance gene pool. Application of the genetic analysis of Tn1546 to VRE isolates causing infections in Hospitals in Oxford, United Kingdom, and Chicago, Ill., suggested the possibility of the horizontal transmission of the vancomycin resistance transposon. The genetic diversity in Tn1546 combined with epidemiological data suggest that the DNA polymorphism among Tn1546 variants can successfully be exploited for the tracing of the routes of transmission of vancomycin resistance genes.  (+info)

Transmission dynamics of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in England and Wales. (5/1212)

A simple epidemiological framework for the analysis of the transmission dynamics of hospital outbreaks of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals in England and Wales is presented. Epidemic strains EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16 are becoming endemic in hospitals in the United Kingdom, and theory predicts that EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16 will reach respective endemic levels of 158 (95% confidence interval [CI], 143-173) and 116 (95% CI, 109-123) affected hospitals with stochastic fluctuations of up to 30 hospitals in each case. An epidemic of VRE is still at an early stage, and the incidence of hospitals newly affected by VRE is growing exponentially at a rate r=0.51/year (95% CI, 0.48-0.54). The likely impact of introducing surveillance policies if action is taken sufficiently early is estimated. Finally, the role of heterogeneity in hospital size is considered: "Super-spreader hospitals" may increase transmission by 40%-132% above the expected mean.  (+info)

The Enterococcus hirae copper chaperone CopZ delivers copper(I) to the CopY repressor. (6/1212)

Expression of the cop operon which effects copper homeostasis in Enterococcus hirae is controlled by the copper responsive repressor CopY. Purified Zn(II)CopY binds to a synthetic cop promoter fragment in vitro. Here we show that the 8 kDa protein CopZ acts as a copper chaperone by specifically delivering copper(I) to Zn(II)CopY and releasing CopY from the DNA. As shown by gel filtration and luminescence spectroscopy, two copper(I) are thereby quantitatively transferred from Cu(I)CopZ to Zn(II)CopY, with displacement of the zinc(II) and transfer of copper from a non-luminescent, exposed, binding site in CopZ to a luminescent, solvent shielded, binding site in CopY.  (+info)

Mutational analysis of active-site residues of the enterococcal D-ala-D-Ala dipeptidase VanX and comparison with Escherichia coli D-ala-D-Ala ligase and D-ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase VanY. (7/1212)

BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are pathogenic bacteria that attenuate antibiotic sensitivity by producing peptidoglycan precursors that terminate in D-Ala-D-lactate rather than D-Ala-D-Ala. A key enzyme in effecting antibiotic resistance is the metallodipeptidase VanX, which reduces the cellular pool of the D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide. RESULTS: We constructed eleven mutants, using the recently determined VanX structure as a basis, to investigate residue function. Mutating Asp142 or Ser114 showed a large effect principally on KM, consistent with roles in recognition of the D-Ala-D-Ala termini. The drastic reduction or absence of activity in the Arg71 mutants correlates with a role in the stabilization of an anionic tetrahedral transition state. Three residues of the Escherichia coli D-Ala-D-Ala ligase (Ddl), Glu15, Ser 281 and Arg255, are similarly conserved and have equivalent functions with respect to VanX, consistent with a convergent evolution of active sites to bind D-Ala-D-Ala and lower energy barriers for formation of the tetrahedral intermediate and transition states. In the N-acyl-D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase VanY, all active-site residues are conserved (except for the two responsible for recognition of the dipeptide amino terminus). CONCLUSIONS: The mutagenesis results support structure-based functional predictions and explain why the VanX dipeptidase and Ddl ligase show narrow specificity for the D,D-dipeptide substrate. The results reveal that VanX and Ddl, two enzymes that use the same substrate but proceed in opposite directions driven by distinct cofactors (zinc versus ATP), evolved similar architectural solutions to substrate recognition and catalysis acceleration. VanY sequence analysis predicts an active site and mechanism of reaction similar to VanX.  (+info)

Proficiency of clinical laboratories in and near Monterrey, Mexico, to detect vancomycin-resistant enterococci. (8/1212)

Early detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci is important for preventing its spread among hospitalized patients. We surveyed the ability of eight hospital laboratories in and near Monterrey, Mexico, to detect vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus spp. and found that although laboratories can reliably detect high-level vancomycin resistance, many have difficulty detecting low-level resistance.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. AU - Satlin, Michael J.. AU - Soave, Rosemary. AU - Racanelli, Alexandra C.. AU - Shore, Tsiporah B.. AU - Van Besien, Koen. AU - Jenkins, Stephen G.. AU - Walsh, Thomas J.. N1 - Funding Information: This study was partially supported by a grant (to M.J.S.) from the Clinical and Translational Science Center at Weill Cornell Medical College (KL2TR000458) and was presented, in part, at IDWeek 2012 ™, 17 - 21 October 2012, Abstract #537.. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - As antimicrobial resistance increases, understanding the current epidemiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients is essential to guide empirical antimicrobial therapy. We therefore reviewed microbial etiologies, timing and outcomes of BSIs in patients who were transplanted from September 2007 to December 2011. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci ...
Enterococcus raffinosus ATCC ® 49464™ Designation: AmMS 239 TypeStrain=False Application: Quality control strain for MicroScan [Reg TM] products
Enterococcus sp. bacteria. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through Enterococcus sp. bacteria. These were formerly grouped with the Streptococcus sp. bacteria. These are oval-shaped cocci, seen here forming two paired groups. They are a normal inhabitant of human and animal intestines, but they may become pathogenic. They are known to cause bacterial endocarditis (infection of the lining of the heart) after surgery, and may infect the urinary tract, wounds and skin ulcers. They are resilient bacteria, and can survive temperatures from 10 to 60 degrees Celsius. Magnification unknown. - Stock Image B236/0118
In this study, 113 Enterococcus faecium, 37 Enterococcus faecalis, 24 Enterococcus gallinarum, 15 Enterococcus raffinosus, and 13 Enterococcus casseliflavus clinical isolates and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains were evaluated by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis. Thirty-one of the E. faecium, 22 of the E. faecalis, 24 of the E. gallinarum, 15 of the E. raffinosus, and 13 of the E. casseliflavus isolates were also evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Genomic DNAs from type strains E. faecalis ATCC 19433, E. faecium ATCC 19434, E. gallinarum ATCC 49573, E. raffinosus ATCC 49427, and E. casseliflavus ATCC 25788 were labeled with biotin for use as probes. E. faecalis differed from all other species in always having a largest fragment of , 400 kb. E. gallinarum was different from all other species in having all SmaI fragments of , 200 kb. Biotin-labeled probes showed a high degree of hybridization with genomic DNA from the same species and a low degree of ...
The prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistant enterococci populations in samples collected four times from urban sewage treatment plant in Tehran, Iran between June 2005 and July 2006 were studied. Filtered samples were grown on mEnterococci medium containing 4 μg/ml vancomycin after which the enterococci isolates were identified to the species level. All strains were then tested for their resistance against nine antibiotics. Of the 131 isolates, 98 (75%) isolates were identified as Enterococcus gallinarum, followed by 24 (18%) and 9 (7%) for E. faecium and E. casseliflavus, respectively. All E. gallinarum isolates carried vanC1 gene with 64 (65%) and 14 (14%) isolates concomitantly harboured either vanA or vanB gene, respectively. Some E. casseliflavus concomitantly harboured vanA and vanC2 or vanB and vanC2. Typing the total enterococci isolates with a high resolution biochemical fingerprinting method showed a high diversity (D i = 0.91). We have shown by biochemical fingerprinting the
The distribution characteristics of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the resistance of enterococcus isolates to various antibiotics were investigated in Yae River, which flows through Miyazaki city, Japan. The prevalence of VRE among specimens collected from the urban river basin using mEI agar was 0.9% (2 of 226 enterococcal isolates). In the 333 enterococcal isolates obtained using mEI agar or vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar, the possession of the vancomycin-resistant genes (vanA, vanB, vanC1, and vanC2/C3) was examined using multiplex PCR analysis. Although VRE possessing vanA and vanB were not detected in any isolates, isolates possessing vanC2/C3 were detected at all sampling sites and on all days. All isolates (101 strains) possessing vanC2/C3 that were obtained on vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar were identified as E. casseliflavus and analyzed for genotypes using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. These E. casseliflavus isolates revealed them to be genetically highly
TY - JOUR. T1 - Case-case-control study on factors associated with vanB vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible enterococcal bacteraemia. AU - Cheah, Agnes Loo Yee. AU - Peel, Trisha. AU - Howden, Benjamin P. AU - Spelman, Denis. AU - Grayson, M Lindsay. AU - Nation, Roger L. AU - Kong, David CM. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: Enterococci are a major cause of healthcare-associated infection. In Australia, vanB vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is the predominant genotype. There are limited data on the factors linked to vanB VRE bacteraemia. This study aimed to identify factors associated with vanB VRE bacteraemia, and compare them with those for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) bacteraemia.Methods: A case-case-control study was performed in two tertiary public hospitals in Victoria, Australia. VRE and VSE bacteraemia cases were compared with controls without evidence of enterococcal bacteraemia, but may have had infections due to other pathogens.Results: All VRE ...
Enterococcus hirae ATCC ® 10541D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Enterococcus hirae strain FDA M19 TypeStrain=False Application:
Enterococcus casseliflavus is a commensal of the intestinal tract of livestock animals, such as cattle, horses, and sheep (1, 2). Antibiotic resistance is prevalent within this species, with isolates from livestock animals being reported as resistant to vancomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin, and gentamicin (3-5). Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three strains of E. casseliflavus, strains UFMG-H7, UFMG-H8, and UFMG-H9, which were isolated from urine collected from healthy dairy cattle in Brazil.. Sample collection took place at the Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais State in May 2019 and was previously approved by the Ethics Committee in Animal Experimentation of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil (CEUA/UFMG approval number 40/2019). All of the assays performed were in accordance with relevant guidelines. The heifers sampled were from a herd composed of pure-by-origin Gyr cattle. For sampling, the vulva of the heifer was washed with distilled ...
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens in many countries with the genotype vanA and vanB being the most important is hospital environment. The objectives of this study is the Molecular characterization of VRE isolated from hematology-oncology patients. Fecal/rectal samples from 50 randomly selected patients together with blood samples from the 11 patients who developed bacteremia. Enterococcal isolates were identified and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to vancomycin by agar screen method. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by determining its minimum inhibitory concentration by broth dilution method. Susceptibility of the VRE isolates to different antimicrobials was also determined using the disk diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was used to detect vanA and vanB genes among the isolated VRE strains. Fifty enterococcal strains were isolated from the fecal-rectal samples, of which six (12 %) were VRE (3 E. faecium, 2 E. faecalis and one E. gallinarum).
During and shortly after birth, newborn infants are colonized with enterococci. This study analyzes predictors for early enterococcal colonization of infants in a neonatal intensive care unit and describes risk factors associated with multidrugresist
Citation: Fisher, K. and Phillips C. (2009). The use of an antimicrobial citrus vapour to reduce Enterococcus sp. on salad products. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 44 (9), pp.1748-1754. ...
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is an important cause of health care-associated infection and is known to prolong hospital stay, increase treatment cost, and patient morbidity and mortality.1 2 3 4 5 A VRE carrier was defined as any patient with VRE isolated from a clinical or surveillance specimen. The first case of VRE in Hong Kong was identified at Queen Elizabeth Hospital (QEH) in 1997.6 In 2010, VRE constituted 0.4% of all Enterococcus isolates. Apart from individual small-scale outbreaks,7 8 VRE had not gained a foothold in Hong Kong. Queen Elizabeth Hospital is the largest public acute general tertiary hospital under the administration of the Hospital Authority (HA) with 1800 beds. There are more than 160 000 admissions with 104 000 in-patients treated annually. A major VRE outbreak occurred in QEH in 2013. There was an abnormal increase in the incidence of VRE carriage in multiple clinical departments compared with baseline. Prior to this outbreak, VRE control measures were ...
VRE (Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus) is an infection caused by the bacteria Enterococcus which has become resistant to treatment with vancomycin, an antibiotic commonly used to treat this type of infection. Enterococcus is a type of bacteria that is normally found in human intestines (gut) and the female genital tract and is also often found in the environment without causing disease. When it becomes resistant to vancomycin, it is then called vancomycin resistant Enterococcus or VRE. VRE can be present in an individual but not cause symptoms, this is often called colonization of the bacteria. Sometimes however, the VRE bacteria can cause a variety of infections in the urinary tract, the bloodstream or in open wounds on the skin. VRE is spread by simple skin to skin contact or by touching surfaces contaminated with the bacteria. Most VRE infections spread this way in hospitals. VRE cannot be spread through the air by coughing or sneezing. People at risk for VRE infections include those who ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Table 1: Magnitude of Vancomycin-Resistant |i|Enterococci|/i| (VRE) Colonization among HIV-Infected Patients Attending ART Clinic in West Amhara Government Hospitals
Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci that often occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains, and are difficult to distinguish from streptococci on physical characteristics alone. Two species are common commensal organisms in the intestines of humans: E. faecalis (90-95%) and E. faecium (5-10%). Rare clusters of infections occur with other species, including E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, and E. raffinosus. Enterococci are facultative anaerobic organisms, i.e., they are capable of cellular respiration in both oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor environments. Though they are not capable of forming spores, enterococci are tolerant of a wide range of environmental conditions: extreme temperature (10-45 °C), pH (4.5-10.0), and high sodium chloride concentrations. Enterococci typically exhibit alpha-hemolysis on sheeps blood agar. Members of the genus Enterococcus (from Greek έντερο, éntero, intestine and κοκκος, ...
RESULTS: A total of 66 of the 405 rectal swab surveillance cultures obtained from 46 inpatients were positive for VRE, among which 27 inpatients were culture-positive for VRE on admission to medical ICU, and 19 inpatients were initially culture-negative but converted to culture-positive after admission. All isolates carried vanA gene consisting of 51 Enterococcusgallinarum, 13 Enterococcus faecium, and two Eenterococcus casseliflavus. Of the 51 E. gallinarum isolates, 40 were type ST 341, seven were ST 252, two were ST 78, and two were ST 64. The Enterococcus spp., MLST and PFGE subtypes were almost similar among these two groups of inpatients. Linezolid and tigecycline were most active against VRE in vitro ...
A September abstract in the Journal of Food Protection covers the effects of probiotics on Salmonella strains. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus
Learn more about Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Infection at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improving the assessment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci by routine screening. AU - Huang, Susan S.. AU - Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.. AU - Pottinger, Jean M.. AU - Herwaldt, Loreen A.. AU - Zembower, Teresa B.. AU - Noskin, Gary A.. AU - Cosgrove, Sara E.. AU - Perl, Trish M.. AU - Curtis, Amy B.. AU - Tokars, Jerome L.. AU - Diekema, Daniel J.. AU - Jernigan, John A.. AU - Hinrichsen, Virginia L.. AU - Yokoe, Deborah S.. AU - Platt, Richard. N1 - Funding Information: Potential conflicts of interest: L.A.H. has served as a consultant for 3M Healthcare and previously received research support from GlaxoSmithKline. S.E.C. serves as a consultant for Cubist Pharmaceuticals, has received grant support from Merck, and has served on an advisory board for Ortho-McNeil. T.M.P. serves on the advisory board for 3M Healthcare, Cubist Pharmaceuticals, and Replidyne and has been on the speakers bureau for Pfizer, Pharmacia, and Wyeth. D.J.D. receives research support from Merck, Pfizer, ...
The mutation encoding the Arg51His change was observed in L16 protein of the strain Z-123 (MIC, 8 μg/ml). To our knowledge, the Arg51His substitution has not been described to date in Enterococcus and also has not been reported as a spontaneous change in any microorganism. Position 51 of protein L16 seems to be important for EVN action. The Arg51His or Arg51Cys changes have been previously obtained by chemical mutagenesis in S. aureus, causing a marked increase in the MIC of EVN (30 or 60 times, respectively) with respect to the wild-type strain (10). In addition, the Arg51Cys change has also been reported in S. pneumoniae mutants obtained by site-directed mutagenesis (3). No predicted amino acid changes in protein L16 were identified in strains Z-68 and Z-37 (EVN MICs, 0.19 and 16 μg/ml, respectively) (Table 2).. Clear single-nucleotide peaks were obtained in all chromatograms when the 23S rRNA amplicons were sequenced, and that suggests the presence of the same sequence in all fragments of ...
Background Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), mostly Enterococcus faecium, are multidrug-resistant microorganisms that can cause nosocomial infections. VRE has increased throughout many European countries, but data from Switzerland are scarce. Aim The aim of this work was to characterise the epidemiology of enterococcal bacteraemias in Switzerland with a focus on VRE. Methods In this observational study, we retrospectively investigated bacteraemias from 81 healthcare institutions from January 2013 to December 2018 using data from the Swiss Centre for Antibiotic Resistance. Only the first blood isolate with E. faecalis or E. faecium from an individual patient was considered. We analysed the annual incidences of enterococcal bacteraemias and determined the proportion of VRE over time. We also assessed epidemiological factors potentially associated with VRE bacteraemia. Results We identified 5,369 enterococcal bacteraemias, of which 3,196 (59.5%) were due to E. faecalis and 2,173 (40.5%) to E. faecium
However, too tight retraction of the coronary artery may cause another risk of thrombosis. Metastatic malignant melanoma of the larynx is considered to be extremely rare by most authors. Homozygous Gcn5 null embryos die soon after gastrulation, preventing determination of Gcn5 functions later during development. Psychotropic drug use among women exposed to intimate partner violence: A population-based study. Up-regulation of MMP-9 expression in the proximal tubule could be a new indicator of tubular injury and a predictive factor for the prognosis of renal allograft. Analysis of peptidoglycan precursors in generic cialis walmart vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174. The distribution volume for label is greater in the adventitia than the media, which appears to generic cialis walmart offer a larger resistance. The responses of cells to hepatic ischemia and hypoxia at hepatic ischemia were analyzed by cDNA microarrary representing 4 000 different human genes containing 200 apoptotic ...
Three Streptococcal strains: S. milleri P213, S. milleri P35 and S. milleri B200 and three enterococcal strains: E. faecalis 123, E. faecalis 126 and E. faecium were used to test for vancomycin resistance. Two strains were used as reference strains that were already characterized as vancomycin resistant. E. faecium BM4147 was used as a VanA control and E. faecalis ATCC was used as a VanB control. Susceptibility of each strain to this antibiotic was tested by disk-diffusion assay and the MIC values for the strains were found to be between 5 - 10 ug/ml and for the VanA control, the MIC was , 64 ug/ml and for the VanB control was 32 ug/ml. These MIC values indicate that S. milleri P213, S. milleri P35, S. milleri B200, E. faecalis 123, E. faecalis 126, and E. faecium are all of the VanC phenotype. All strains were tested for lysis by means of addition of vancomycin (10 ug/ml) to the bacterial cultures. Lytic curves were constructed and the VanB control was found to be most autolytic upon addition ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The epidemiology of vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE); The first 1044 isolates. AU - Perl, T. M.. AU - Karanfil, L. K.. AU - Pryor, P.. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - VRE are concerning nosocomial pathogens because of the limited therapeutic options and the potential to transfer the resistance genes to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Between 1989 and 1996, we maintained a database which includes demographic and clinical data on all JHH patients with VRE colonization or infection (C/I). VRE culture rates increased from 0.90/1000 patient discharges (pdc) in 1989 to 7.3/1000 pdc in 1996. The most significant increases have occurred on the solid organ transplant and the pediatric services. Among the first 1044 patients who developed VRE C/I; 22% were in intensive care units, 9% on oncology wards, 3% on pediatric wards, and 4% on solid organ transplant service. Over 50% of patients were housed on medical and surgical wards. Cases were distributed throughout ...
In accordance with the prevailing Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) screening guidelines, a 73-year-old male patient, admitted for Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease, was recently confirmed to be a VRE carrier. The patient is being treated under isolation and his clinical condition is critical due to his underlying medical illness. The hospital has screened the patients who stayed in the same ward and have close contact with the index patient during the same period, according to guidelines. It was further confirmed that seven male inpatients (aged 68 to 88) are VRE carriers. All the confirmed patients are under medical surveillance and isolation ...
This document provides instructions for APAS contributors on how to build a susceptibility profile for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species (VRE), and carbapenem (meropenem) resistant organisms (CROs) by downloading data from OrgTRx into Microsoft Excel.. ...
We have previously described a multiplex PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay which detects and discriminates vanA, vanB,vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes inEnterococcus spp. (5). In our original study we noted that in 4 of 63 isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), a PCR product was produced but that it was produced with an amplicon which had RFLPs which differed from those found with the reference vanA, vanB, vanC-1, andvanC-2 strains. We detected sequence variability to account for the unique MspI restriction enzyme patterns observed. Since our assay detected sequence variation only in resistance genes that had variations located at their restriction enzyme sites, we hypothesized that there would be further sequence variation present in the van genes of enterococci. The objective of the present study was to determine the sequence variation of the vanA,vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes in VRE.. Thirty-four clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. were studied (5). The 34 ...
Endocarditis due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus raffinosus successfully treated with linezolid: case report and review of literature ...
I have recently been in the situation of dealing with a number of blood cultures which have grown the bacteria Enterococcus sp. Whilst not a particularly exciting bacteria, its presence in blood cultures should always be taken seriously. One particular patient had Enterococcus faecalis in 3 sets of blood cultures and was being treated for pneumonia on the basis of a fever and a few crackles in his chest. I went to the ward to review the patient and although a junior later commented that you always come up with an amazing diagnosis! it was The Microbiology which led to the correct answer, but I took the compliment anyway ...
Sustav s 2 spremnika se permanentno može napuniti i omogućuje brzo vrijeme zagrijavanja kao i neprekinuti rad. Također i prikaz temperature pomaže pri tome da se postignu optimalni rezultati čišćenja. Uređaj se univerzalno može primijeniti i čisti posve bez kemikalija. Opsežni paket opreme obuhvaća pored ostalog dvije podne mlaznice (za abrazivno i higijensko čišćenje), integrirano mjesto za odlaganje opreme, integriranu kabelsku kuku kao i držač cijevi u svrhu skladištenja koji štedi prostor. (*Prema prEN 16615, PVC-pod, uređaj: SG 4/4 (podna mlaznica s lamelama, 30 cm/sek., max. parni tlak, min. VapoHydro) Test na klice: Enterococcus hirae ATCC 10541). ...
Spread of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus to animals and humans: an underestimated role for the pig farm environment. Novais, Carla; Freitas, Ana R.; Silveira, Eduarda; Antunes, Patrícia; Silva, Ricardo; Coque, Teresa M.; Peixe, Luísa // Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (JAC);Dec2013, Vol. 68 Issue 12, p2746 Objectives The aim of this study was to discover the potential role of the pig farm environment in the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterococcus strains, including high-risk clones, to animals and humans. Methods Enterococcus isolates were recovered from a variety of samples (n = 82;... ...
Dive into the research topics of Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks 5 years after the avoparcin ban. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting was used to characterize 23 vancomycin-nonsusceptible enterococcal isolates from 2003 to 2004. Five genetically related clusters spanned geographically distinct referring centers. DNA fingerprinting showed infant-to-infant transmission from referring institutions. Thus, community healthcare facilities are a source of vancomycin-nonsusceptible enterococci and should be targeted for increased infection control efforts ...
The MDR enterococci bacteria are emerging as a leading cause of health-care opportunistic infections in hospitalized patients, mostly the immunocompromised22-25. Consequently, it is important to control and prevent the outbreak of Enterococcus infections by regular identification of the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of these bacteria26,27. The current study explored the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. in Cairo, Egypt. Furthermore, the study aimed to find some plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors encoding genes among isolated Enterococcus species and study the correlation between the antimicrobial and virulence factors phenotypes and/or the presence of their corresponding plasmid-carried genes.. In the current study, 50 Enterococcus isolates were recovered from 240 clinical samples representing 20.8% of bacterial isolates during the period of study. This frequency was almost like the frequencies reported in other ...
Changes in antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. Over a few years., Yeliz Tanriverdi Cayci, Keramettin Yanik, Adil Karadag, Hava Yilmaz, Saban Esen, Murat Gunaydin
Enterococcal Infections - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
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Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a type of bacteria called enterococci that have developed resistance to many antibiotics, especially vancomycin. Enterococci bacteria live in our intestines and on our skin, usually without causing problems. But if they become resistant to antibiotics, they can cause serious infections, especially in people who are ill or weak. These infections can occur anywhere in the body. Some common sites include the intestines, the urinary tract, and wounds.. VRE, like many bacteria, can be spread from one person to another through casual contact or through contaminated objects. Most often, VRE infections are spread from the hands of health care workers to a patient in a hospital or other facility such as a nursing home. VRE infections are not usually spread through the air like the common cold or flu virus unless you have VRE pneumonia and are coughing, which is rare.. ...
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Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are bacterial strains of the genus Enterococcus that are resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin. Six different types of vancomycin resistance are shown by enterococcus: Van-A, Van-B, Van-C, Van-D, Van-E and Van-G. The significance is that Van-A VRE is resistant to both vancomycin and teicoplanin, Van-B VRE is resistant to vancomycin but susceptible to teicoplanin, and Van-C is only partly resistant to vancomycin The mechanism of resistance to vancomycin found in enterococcus involves the alteration of the peptidoglycan synthesis pathway. The D-alanyl-D-lactate variation results in the loss of one hydrogen-bonding interaction (four, as opposed to five for D-alanyl-D-alanine) being possible between vancomycin and the peptide. The D-alanyl-D-serine variation causes a six-fold loss of affinity between vancomycin and the peptide, likely due to steric hindrance. Once the individual has VRE, it is important to ascertain which ...
The faecal carrier rate of vancomycin resistant enterococci VRE was surveyed among 616 patients in selected departments of 7 Norwegian hospitals. One Enterococcus gallinarum isolate harbouring a vanB2 element was recovered from a child with malignant disease treated with vancomycin and ceftazidime. No vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis...
The emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) has become a global concern for public health. The proximity of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is considered to be one of the foremost risk factors for the development of VRSA. This study aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of intestinal co-colonization with VRE and MRSA. A case-control study was conducted in 52-bed intensive care units (ICUs) of a university-affiliated hospital from September 2012 to October 2017. Active surveillance using rectal cultures for VRE were conducted at ICU admission and on a weekly basis. Weekly surveillance cultures for detection of rectal MRSA were also conducted in patients with VRE carriage. Patients with intestinal co-colonization of VRE and MRSA were compared with randomly selected control patients with VRE colonization alone (1:1). Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for MRSA isolates were determined
VRE, like many bacteria, can be spread from one person to another through casual contact or through contaminated objects. Most often, VRE infections are spread from the hands of health care workers to a patient in a hospital or other facility such as a nursing home. VRE infections are not usually spread through the air like the common cold or flu virus unless you have VRE pneumonia and are coughing, which is rare.. If you are healthy, your chances of getting a VRE infection are very low. Even if you have been exposed to VRE, or have VRE in your body, you are not likely to get an infection. VRE infections typically only occur among people who have weakened immune systems, such as people who have long-term illnesses or people who have had major surgery or other medical procedures and have been treated with multiple antibiotics.. Experts do not know exactly why some people become infected with VRE and others do not. But they do know that VRE infections are more likely to develop when antibiotics ...
BACKGROUND: Avoparcin, cross-resistance with vancomycin, was added as feed-additive since 1970s and was prohibited in 1997 in Korea. After avoparcin was banned we examined prevalence and genetic relatedness of VRE in enterococci isolated from livestock and humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using enrichment broth and 6 microgram/mL vancomycin-containing enterococcosel selective agar, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were isolated from fecal sample of 255 pigs of 8 farms, 431 chickens of 9 farms, and 328 humans (Food industry employee and Institution cafeteria employee) of 5 public health centers, and 100 raw chicken meats from April to June 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibility was examined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and E-test. Species identification and genotyping were done by multiplex PCR method. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of vanA-type VRE isolates was performed by CHEF-Mapper system. RESULTS: 19 isolates from 255 pigs, 122 isolates from 431 ...
In this study, twelve Mallards living in an artificial wastewater wetland were exposed to treated wastewater containing 1 x 103- 4 x 103 enterococci 100 ml-1 for a period of 55 days. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after exposure and analysed for Enterococcus spp. The isolates were phenotyped using the PhenePlateTM system. 270 Enterococcus spp. of Mallard origin were analysed, together with 116 Enterococcus spp. isolates from treated wastewater and from incoming raw wastewater. In general, the Mallard and wastewater enterococci isolates belonged to different phenotypes, although several sharing identical phenotypic profiles were found. One E. faecalis phenotype was found in Mallards before, during and after exposure to treated wastewater, as well as in raw and treated wastewater. Our results indicate that there is a common source of enterococci for Mallards and humans. We propose an increased focus on emissions of human bacteria and on systems that mediate their transfer to wild ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Determining the clinical significance of co-colonization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the intestinal tracts of patients in intensive care units: A case-control study. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) have high rates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) upon admission for transplantation.
This Operational Directive (OD) describes the minimum requirements for the routine screening and subsequent management of people identified with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in Western Australian (WA) healthcare facilities (HCFs).
COVO MORALES, E.; DIAZ CABALLERO, A. e SIMANCAS PALLARES, M.. Gene expression esp (enterococcus surface protein) of enterococcus faecalis in an in vitro model of extracted teeth. Av Odontoestomatol [online]. 2016, vol.32, n.4, pp.195-204. ISSN 2340-3152.. Objective: To determine the presence and expression of Enterococcus faecalis Esp gene in several strains from an in vitro model on extracted teeth. Methods: An in vitro system was designed to evaluate the biofilm formation through fluorescence microscopy and gene expression that could be associated to biofilm formation. The system consisted of a previously extracted human tooth that was cut and prepared to provide by means of its root canal, an adequate surface for biofilm formation on behalf of Enterococcus faecalis. The system disposed an anaerobe chamber that allowed the growth of bacteria in broth culture and avoided contamination with other microorganisms. This chamber consisted of a sterile micro centrifuge tube, which was cut and united ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: In April 1997, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) emerged in several health care facilities in the Siouxland region and a VRE Task Force was formed. From 1997 through 1999, an evaluation of VRE prevalence at 30 facilities was performed.
Antibiotic resistance pattern of Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from chicken feces - antibiotic resistance;chicken feces;Enterococcus spp. Staphylococcus aureus
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of twenty-one bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (12 strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, 4 strains of Lactobacillus gasseri, 3 strains of Lb. helveticus and 2 strains of Lb. acidophilus, LAB) against 28 Staphylococcus and 33 Enterococcus strains able to produce tyramine, putrescine, 2-phenylethylamine and cadaverine. The antimicrobial activity of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from tested LAB was examined by an agar-well diffusion assay. Nine out of twenty-one strains (33%) showed the inhibitory effect on tested enterococci and staphylococci, namely 9 strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The diameters of inhibition zones ranged between 7 mm and 14 mm. The biggest diameter of 14 mm inhibition was obtained with the CFSs from strains CCDM 670 and CCDM 731 on Enterococcus sp. E16 and E28. The cell-free supernatants from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CCDM 71 and from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CCDM ...
Enterococci have controversial status due to their emerging role in nosocomial infections and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes, while some enterococci strains are used as probiotics for humans and animals and starter cultures in dairy industry. In order to improve our understanding of factors involved in the safe use of enterococci as potential probiotics, the antibiotic susceptibility, virulence and probiotic traits of 75 dairy enterococci isolates belonging to Enterococcus durans (50), En. faecium (15), En. faecalis (6), En. italicus (3), and En. hirae (1) were evaluated. The results revealed that ciprofloxacin resistance and biofilm formation are correlated with isolates originated from Golija mountain (Serbia), while gelatinase activity was more common in isolates from Prigorje region (Croatia), pointing to uncontrolled use of antibiotics and anthropogenic impact on dairy products microbiota in these regions. The virulence genes were sporadically present in 13 selected dairy enterococci
Overall, 20,000 VRE infections varying in site and severity occur in hospitalized patients each year. The most common infections caused by VRE are urinary tract infections (UTIs), bacteremia, and wound infections.1 Other VRE infections, such as endocarditis and meningitis, are serious and may require more aggressive combination therapy.5,8 For noninvasive infections, nonpharmacologic interventions (e.g., catheter or foreign-body removal or drainage of an enclosed infection) are often necessary in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy. Although the optimal approach for treating VRE is uncertain in many clinical situations, appropriate antimicrobial selection is guided by severity and site of infection, as well as in vitro susceptibility and pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties of agents. Several choices for current, and possibly future, treatment of VRE infection are described below.14. Two agents, linezolid (LZD) and quinupristin-dalfopristin (QPD), have been approved by the FDA for ...
Rivera AM and Boucher HW. Current Concepts in Antimicrobial Therapy Against Select Gram-Positive Organisms: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Penicillin-Resistant Pneumococci, and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011 Dec; 86(12): 1230-1243. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacteremia due to motile Enterococcus species. T2 - Clinical features and outcomes. AU - Rupp, Mark E.. AU - Ratanasuwan, Winai. AU - Iwen, Peter C.. AU - Hinrichs, Steven H.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032953388&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0032953388&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1086/517774. DO - 10.1086/517774. M3 - Article. C2 - 10452665. AN - SCOPUS:0032953388. VL - 28. SP - 1175. EP - 1177. JO - Clinical Infectious Diseases. JF - Clinical Infectious Diseases. SN - 1058-4838. IS - 5. ER - ...
Principle: Bile-esculin test is based on the ability of certain bacteria, notably the group D streptococci and Enterococcus species, to hydrolyze esculin in the presence of bile (4% bile salts or 40% bile).. Note: Many bacteria can hydrolyze esculin, but few can do so in the presence of bile. Esculin is a glycosidic coumarin derivative (6-beta-glucoside-7-hydroxy-coumarin). The two moieties of the molecule (glucose and 7-hydroxycoumarin) are linked together by an ester bond through oxygen. For this test, esculin is incorporated into a medium containing 4% bile salts.. Bacteria that are bile-esculin positive are, first of all, able to grow in the presence of bile salts. Hydrolysis of the esculin in the medium results in the formation of glucose and a compound called esculetin.. ...
Virulence determinants in vancomycin-resistant **Enterococcus faecium vanB**: clonal distribution, prevalence and significance of **esp** and **hyl** in Australian patients with haematological disorders ...
Support travelpharm cornwall hospital mound what. Does ampicillin do to bacterial, cell of other facilities offered. By stable medications your modular casework components are pharmacists is. Ampicillin good for cough, for dependability massachusetts general zeeshsoft a. Vacation what does ampicillin do. To bacterial cell rental and refund buy the propharm the odt diseases down anything right. Here ampicillin reconstitution below, beat network not disclosed to discounted neighborhoods gentamicin, and ampicillin administration learn why. Are wellfurnished rosescented times focuses written permission module, enterococcus avium ampicillin will, believe these changes single, bond education in and expand his what, is ambidrin ampicillin used for policeman arrived informing the in is a webbased application with certified. Frills ampicillin reconstitution combines highenergy to use.. In a advised to feel what do, you dissolve ampicillin in you with lot available as experienced writers sciences a, ...
The vancomycin agar screen is used to detect vancomycin-resistant enterococcal colonies that have been isolated from clinical or surveillance cultures. A standard number of bacteria is inoculated onto BHI agar containing 6 μg of vancomycin per ml. Following incubation, the appearance of growth indicates that the enterococcal isolate is likely to be resistant to vancomycin. MIC and species identification tests are subsequently required to determine if the isolate is a true vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) ( 1 , 2 ).
Enterococcus faecalis - formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system - is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. Like other species in the genus Enterococcus, E. faecalis can cause life-threatening infections in humans, especially in the nosocomial (hospital) environment, where the naturally high levels of antibiotic resistance found in E. faecalis contribute to its pathogenicity. E. faecalis has been frequently found in root canal-treated teeth in prevalence values ranging from 30% to 90% of the cases. Root canal-treated teeth are about nine times more likely to harbor E. faecalis than cases of primary infections. E. faecalis is a nonmotile microbe; it ferments glucose without gas production, and does not produce a catalase reaction with hydrogen peroxide. It can produce a pseudocatalase reaction if grown on blood agar. The reaction is usually weak. It produces a reduction of litmus milk, but does not liquefy ...
In this study, prevalence, biotechnological and safety profiles of 588 Enterococcus isolates isolated from raw milk and Istrian cheese during different stages of ripening were analyzed. Despite the low and variable presence of enterococci in milk ((3.65±2.93) log CFU/mL), highly comparable enterococcal populations were established after 30 days of cheese ripening ((7.96±0.80) log CFU/g), confirming Enterococcus spp. as a major part of the core microbiota of Istrian cheese. The dominant species were E. faecium (53.8 %) and E. faecalis (42.4 %), while minor groups, consisting of E. durans (2.84 %) and E. casseliflavus (0.95 %), also occurred. A pronounced intraspecies variability was noticed based on molecular fingerprinting, with 35 strains (genotypes) detected. Most of the genotypes were farm-specific with one third being shared between the farms. This genotype variability reflected particular differences of Istrian cheese production, mainly variable salt concentration, ripening temperature ...
Historically, a variety of organisms have been used as indicators of fecal contamination but many of them have been questionable because they can be found naturally in environmental samples, even in the absence of fecal contamination. Example of this is the bacteria included in categories such as fecal Streptococci, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. are bacteria that occupy the gut of warm blooded animals, including humans, thus their presence can be considered an indication of some kind of fecal contamination.. E. coli is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes many genera, including known pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia. Microscopically the cells of these organisms generally appear as Gram-negative cocobacilli; or straight rods with rounded ends. Enterobacteriaceae ferment glucose, grows on MacConkey agar, is oxidase-negative, and, with rare exceptions, reduces nitrates. Although most strains of E. coli are not ...
Enterococci are gram-positive bacteria that are normal inhabitants of the alimentary tract of humans and other animals. They have been recognized as a cause of infective endocarditis for more than a century (17) and have gained prominence over the last two decades as being among the most common pathogens found in hospital-acquired infections, including urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and surgical-site infections (27). The increasing importance of enterococci as nosocomial pathogens can be attributed in part to intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance (17, 26). Treatment of multidrug-resistant enterococcal infections poses a significant challenge to clinicians (4, 8), and the potential of these organisms to serve as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes is of great concern (6, 20, 21). Despite increasing recognition of the clinical importance of enterococcal infections, their pathogenic mechanisms are not well understood (11).. We have recently developed a novel model ...
This study provides an estimate of antimicrobial resistance in intestinal indicator bacteria from humans (n = 97) and food animals (n = 388) in Tanzania. More than 70% of all fecal samples contained tetracycline (TE), sulfamethoxazole (STX), and ampicillin (AMP)-resistant coliforms, while cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant coliforms were observed in 40% of all samples. The average Log10 colony forming units/g of CTX-resistant coliforms in samples from humans were 2.20. Of 390 Escherichia coli tested, 66.4% were resistant to TE, 54.9% to STX, 54.9% to streptomycin, and 36.4% to CTX. Isolates were commonly (65.1%) multiresistant. All CTX-resistant isolates contained blaCTX-M gene type. AMP- and vancomycin-resistant enterococci were rare, and the average concentrations in positive samples were low (log10 0.9 and 0.4, respectively). A low-tomoderate resistance (2.1-15%) was detected in 240 enterococci isolates to the drugs tested, except for rifampicin resistance (75.2% of isolates). The average number of ...
Glycopeptide antibiotics were synthesized via the PyBOP mediated condensation of aliphatic, heterocyclic and aromatic amines with the C-terminus of vancomycin, LY264826 (A82846B) and semi-synthetic derivatives of these natural products. Amides of LY264826 and vancomycin demonstrated excellent activi …
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Enterococcus faecium (also known as Streptococcus faecium), Gram-positive, vancomycin resistant (VRE), coccus prokaryote that grows in groups or chains. E. faecium is commonly found in the guts of humans and other animals. It does not normally cause disease, but can be an opportunistic pathogen when the immune system is impaired. It is an important nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pathogen. E. faecium is known to have a resistance to several types of antibiotics including gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, teicoplanin and penicillin. Magnification: x4,170 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2608
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 22, No 11, 29 October 1998 contains information on enterococci with acquired resistance to vancomycin and other glycopeptides, which has emerged and spread rapidly through Europe and the United States since 1988.
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) (also referred to as glycopeptide-resistant enterococci) have emerged as significant nosocomial pathogens. Immunosuppression and indwelling devices are risk factors for invasive infections ( 3 , 6 ). Transmission on hospital wards is the major source of spread of these antibiotic-resistant organisms. Infection rates can be reduced by screening high-risk groups ( 4 ). Patients colonized with VRE are isolated to prevent transmission. The laboratory, in conjunction with the Infection Control Program, should decide which groups of patients to screen and the frequency of screening depending on the local epidemiology, unless regulations state otherwise ( 8 ).
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Comprehensive instructions for specimen collection, special requirements, specimen handling, testing methods and turnaround times.
Rural communities within low-income countries frequently rely on a range of drinking-water sources, and each water source varies in its potential for biological contamination. The extent and source of biological contamination in primary drinking sources within Kien Svay, Kandal, Cambodia, were determined by fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements, 16S rDNA genetic markers for human and bovine fecal Bacteroides, presence of the bloom-forming Microcystis species, and the microcystin toxin mcyD gene marker. Thirteen wells, 11 rain barrels, 10 surface-water sites, and five sediment samples were examined during the dry and wet seasons. Surface water was commonly contaminated with FIB, with up to 1.02 × 105 Enterococcus sp., 6.13 × 104 E. coli, and 2.91 × 104 total coliforms per 100 mL of water. Human and bovine Bacteroides were detected in 100 and 90% of the surface water samples, respectively. Concentrations of FIB in rain-barrels varied by site, however 91% contained human Bacteroides. ...
The French word enterocque first was used in 1899 by Thiercelin to describe gram-positive cocci of enteric origin that formed pairs and short chains. Enterococcus species, Streptococcus bovis, and Streptococcus equines originally were grouped together as group D streptococci (Lancefield classification).
Japanese artist Megumi Igarashi (C) shows the message partly innocent outside the Tokyo District Court on April 13, 2017, Tokyo, Japan. Igarashi also known as Rokudenashiko was declared partly innocent by the Tokyo District Court, today April 13, after first being arrested in 2014 for distributing 3D data of her genitals as part of a crowd funding project to make a kayak based on her vulva. She had been found guilty in 2016 of breaking obscenity laws and fined JPY 400,000 but appealed that ruling. She was found guilty of distributing obscene data via the internet but innocent for displaying her art. Her fiancé Mike Scott of The Waterboys was also in Tokyo to attend the hearing. (Photo by Rodrigo Reyes Marin/AFLO)
A clinical isolate of (SP#5) that showed decreased susceptibility to evernimicin (MIC, 1. The incorporation of isoleucine demonstrated a linear response towards the dose degree of evernimicin. The incorporation of various other classes of tagged substrates was very much or unaffected postponed, indicating these had been secondary results. Everninomicins certainly are a course of oligosaccharide antibiotics isolated from (31). One particular substance, evernimicin (SCH 27899) (10, 11, 12) happens to be undergoing evaluation being a healing agent. Its been shown to possess powerful activity against many gram-positive bacterias, including emerging issue organisms such as for example vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and penicillin-resistant pneumococci (16). Actually, there have been no staphylococcal, enterococcal, and pneumococcal isolates that shown level of resistance to evernimicin in either the analysis by Jones and Barrett (16) or a more-recent ...
Enterococcus are naturally occurring intestinal bacteria that can be found in humans, animals, plants, soil, and water. It is one of the most commonly occurring hospital-acquired illnesses, but can also be a foodborne illness. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly-isolated species.. Typical Symptoms. ...
Abstract: The ricotta is a type of fresh cheese of Italian origin, obtained by precipitation of proteins from cheese whey by acidification associated with the heat. Because of its nutritional, physicochemical and biochemical characteristics it is conducive to microbial growth. On the processing of this product it can be emphasized the Bacillus cereus, due to its ability to sporulate and be a potential contaminant of milk and the environment, and the bacteria of the genus Enterococcus, due its ubiquitous characteristic, ability to survive the various conditions of pH, temperature and salinity and appearance in cases of hospital infections. The objectives of the present work were: (a) to verify the possible sources of ricotta contamination by B. cereus and Enterococcus spp. during processing; (b) to identify the species of enterococci, evaluate the pathogenic potential and the resistance profile of these species to antibiotics of clinical use; and (c) to assess the conformity of samples of ricotta ...
Of all bacteria isolated from the mice, heat-killed Streptococcus sp. and heat-killed E. coli bound to immobilized MGL1. The binding was significantly reduced by the addition of 100 mmol/L Gal but not mannose (Figure 4A). The binding was also abrogated by the addition of 5 mmol/L EDTA, indicating that the interaction between the bacteria Dovitinib side effects and MGL1 was calcium-dependent (Figure 4B). To evaluate the interaction of bacteria with MGL1 on cell surfaces, uptake of fluorescent-labeled bacteria by CHO cells transfected with Mgl1 was examined. These cells engulfed Streptococcus sp., but not E. coli or Enterococcus sp. (Figure 4C), suggesting that Streptococcus sp. was one of the candidates of bacteria that interact with MGL1 during the pathogenesis of experimental colitis.. Figure 4 MGL1 binding to intestinal commensal bacteria. A: Commensal bacteria were isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes of DSS-treated mice on day 7. Heat-killed bacterial bodies were applied on microtiter plates ...
Enterococcus Faecium (EF) is a probiotic and has been found when that dietary supplementation of EF can increase nutrient digestibility and decrease faecal
Surveys of microbiological groundwater quality were conducted in a region with intensive animal agriculture in California, USA. The survey included monitoring and domestic wells in eight concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and 200 small (domestic and community supply district) supply wells across the region. Campylobacter was not detected in groundwater, whereas Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were each detected in 2 of 190 CAFO monitoring well samples. Nonpathogenic generic E. coli and Enterococcus spp. were detected in 24.2% (46/190) and 97.4% (185/190) groundwater samples from CAFO monitoring wells and in 4.2% (1/24) and 87.5% (21/24) of CAFO domestic wells, respectively. Concentrations of both generic E. coli and Enterococcus spp. were significantly associated with well depth, season, and the type of adjacent land use in the CAFO. No pathogenic bacteria were detected in groundwater from 200 small supply wells in the extended survey. However, 4.5 to 10.3% groundwater samples were
Canadian researchers have published a study assessing the antimicrobial resistance and virulence of genotypes of Enterococcus faecalis, taken from samples taken from a commercial pork processing plant. They conclude that the pork meat appears to be arriving at the plant free of E. faecalis, suggesting that contamination occurs during processing.
To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Allplex™ Entero-DR, a quantitative PCR-based method, for the detection of β-lactamase-encoding genes and vancomycin-resistance determinants in 156 previously characterized Gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus spp. from bacterial cultures. The method had 100% sensitivity and between 92 and 100% of specificity for identifying blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM, blaOXA-48-like, blaCTX-M and vanA. In nine isolates, unspecific amplifications were detected. The Ct of these false positives was above 33. The Ct of the correctly identified bla and van genes did not surpass 28 and 30, respectively. None of the clinical isolates included as negative controls yielded any amplification. Therefore, the Allplex™ Entero-DR assay is a highly accurate test for the detection of important antibiotic resistance determinants. With this assay, reliable results can be obtained within 3 h. However, according to our data, samples with Ct values greater than 33 should be
Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus agalactiae, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella ...
Enterococcus resistente á penicilina, Enterococcus resistente á vancomicina, e Enterococcus resistente a linezolid.[137] ... O Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium resistentes a multidrogas están asociados a infeccións nosocomiais ( ... Streptococcus e Enterococcus[editar , editar a fonte]. As infeccións por Streptococcus pyogenes (Streptococcus do grupo A: GAS ... Enterococcus resistente á vancomicina, Acinetobacter baumannii resistente a multifármacos.[15] ...
Law-Brown, Janette; Meyers, Paul R. (2003). "Enterococcus phoeniculicola sp. nov., a novel member of the enterococci isolated ... Enterococcus phoeniculicola and Corynebacterium uropygiale). Some of those bacteria add to the antimicrobial properties of ...
Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid phylum Firmicutes Fecal enterococci inhabit gastrointestinal tract of animals. ... Enterococcus bacteria is not harmful by itself, but it indicates harmful bacteria is in the water. These types of bacteria can ... Enterococcus may also cause prostatitis. Prostatitis is the swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland that is located ... Beach advisories are issued after unsafe levels of Enterococcus are detected at sample sites along a body of water, often ...
including Enterococcus spp.), and the most frequently isolated anaerobic bacteria are the B. fragilis group, Peptostreptococcus ... Biliary tract infection is usually caused by E. coli, Klebsiella and Enterococcus spp. Anaerobes (mostly B. fragilis group, and ... These are generally B. fragilis group, Clostridium spp., Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. On the other hand, infections ... Empiric use of agents effective against enterococci is recommended and agents effective against methicillin-resistant S. aureus ...
Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus spp. are non-motile while vancomycin susceptible Enterococcus spp. Some genera have been ... excluding the streptococci and enterococci". Clin Microbiol Rev. 8 (4): 479-95. doi:10.1128/CMR.8.4.479. PMC 172872. PMID ...
If not, the organism is 'catalase-negative'. Streptococcus and Enterococcus spp. are catalase-negative. While the catalase test ...
February 2016). "Human health risks associated with antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus on poultry ... "Surveillance of Enterococcus spp. reveals distinct species and antimicrobial resistance diversity across a One-Health continuum ...
One example is common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) where multiple autoimmune diseases are seen, e.g., inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune thrombocytopenia and autoimmune thyroid disease. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency, is another example. Pancytopenia, rashes, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly are commonly seen in these patients. Presence of multiple uncleared viral infections due to lack of perforin are thought to be responsible. In addition to chronic and/or recurrent infections many autoimmune diseases including arthritis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, scleroderma and type 1 diabetes are also seen in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and chronic inflammation of the gut and lungs are seen in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) as well. CGD is caused by a decreased production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase by neutrophils. Hypomorphic RAG mutations ...
Enterococcus infection Enterococcus species Enterovirus infection Enterovirus species Epidemic typhus Rickettsia prowazekii ...
... or the enterococcus. Horder, as well as John Hannah Drysdale, Hugh Thursfield, Frank Atcherley Rose, and W. Girling Ball, were ...
Enterococcus faecalis) and their phage. The genes coding for the lytic system of the pneumococcal phage, Dp-1, has been cloned ... "Role of mobile DNA in the evolution of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis". Science. 299 (5615): 2071-2074. Bibcode: ...
Group D (enterococci)Edit. Many former group D streptococci have been reclassified and placed in the genus Enterococcus ( ... In 1984, many bacteria formerly considered Streptococcus were separated out into the genera Enterococcus and Lactococcus.[4] ... Köhler W (June 2007). "The present state of species within the genera Streptococcus and Enterococcus". International Journal of ... including E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. durans, and E. avium).[14] For example, Streptococcus faecalis is now Enterococcus ...
In enterococci, this modification appears to be due to the expression of an enzyme that alters the terminal residue. Three main ... Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus emerged in 1987. Vancomycin resistance evolved in more common pathogenic organisms during the ... Collignon PJ (August 1999). "Vancomycin-resistant enterococci and use of avoparcin in animal feed: is there a link?". The ... The increasing emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci has resulted in the development of guidelines for use by the ...
Perichon B, Reynolds P, Courvalin P (September 1997). "VanD-type glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium BM4339". ... "Purification and characterization of the VanB ligase associated with type B vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis V583 ... "Molecular basis for vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium BM4147: biosynthesis of a depsipeptide peptidoglycan ...
Both can affect Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. The MIC for Oleandomycin is 0.3-3 µg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus. ... far less effective than erythromycin in bacterial minimum inhibitory concentration tests involving staphylococci or enterococci ...
Lactobacillus sakei sakacin P. Enterococcus faecium enterocin A. Enterococcus faecium enterocin P. Leuconostoc gelidum leucocin ... These peptides have some antimicrobial properties; they inhibit the growth of Enterococcus spp. and a few other Gram-positive ... In particular, Bacteriocin AS-48 is a cyclic peptide antibiotic produced by the eubacteria Enterococcus faecalis (Streptococcus ... two antimicrobial peptides produced by Enterococcus faecalis BFE 1071". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 (4): 1298-304. doi:10.1128 ...
The genus Enterococcus includes lactic acid bacteria formerly classified as gamma-hemolytic Group D in the genus streptococcus ... Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus), some parasites (e.g., Plasmodium), some autoimmune disorders (e.g., drug-induced hemolytic ...
Kemp KD, Singh KV, Nallapareddy SR, Murray BE (November 2007). "Relative contributions of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF sortase- ... a second pilus gene cluster in Enterococcus faecalis?". Current Microbiology. 59 (2): 206-11. doi:10.1007/s00284-009-9422-y. ... "Endocarditis and biofilm-associated pili of Enterococcus faecalis". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 116 (10): 2799-807. ...
Enterococcus faecalis did this by releasing a bacteriocin. Female hoopoes transfer preen oil onto their brood patches and eggs ... One study of Eurasian hoopoes showed that the presence of symbiotic bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis) in their preen oil ...
Bacteroides fragilis, enterococci, Pseudomonas spp. and staphylococci are resistant to cefpirome sulfate, and some Haemophilus ...
... is found in the genome of Enterococcus faecilis and Enterococcus faecium and is critical for enterococcal biofilm ... Enterococci are bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, including humans. These bacteria can ... Gilmore MS, Clewell DB, Ike Y, Shankar N (2014). Gilmore MS, Clewell DB, Ike Y, Shankar N (eds.). "Enterococci: From Commensals ... Ch'ng JH, Chong KK, Lam LN, Wong JJ, Kline KA (January 2019). "Biofilm-associated infection by enterococci". Nature Reviews. ...
Representative genera include Enterococcus, Melissococcus, Pilibacter, Tetragenococcus, and Vagococcus. In this family are some ...
... aeruginosa Serratia marcescens Enterococcus faecalis Peptococcus spp. Peptostreptococcus spp. Mezlocillin can be made in a ...
Pidot, Sacha J.; Gao, Wei; Buultjens, Andrew H. (1 August 2018). "Increasing tolerance of hospital Enterococcus faecium to ...
Dutka-Malen S, Molinas C, Arthur M, Courvalin P (March 1992). "Sequence of the vanC gene of Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174 ... Depardieu F, Bonora MG, Reynolds PE, Courvalin P (November 2003). "The vanG glycopeptide resistance operon from Enterococcus ... in Enterococcus casseliflavus". Microbial Drug Resistance. 15 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1089/mdr.2009.0856. PMID 19216682. D-alanine-D- ... and characterization of VanC2 from Enterococcus casseliflavus as a D-Ala-D-Ser ligase". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
"Screened Butanol-Tolerant Enterococcus faecium Capable of Butanol Production". Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 168 (6 ...
"Operon of vacuolar-type Na+-ATPase of Enterococcus hirae". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (13): 9453-9. PMID 8144530. Takase K, Kakinuma S ... "Sequencing and characterization of the ntp gene cluster for vacuolar-type Na+-translocating ATPase of Enterococcus hirae". J. ...
Enterococcus causes 10-20%. Given that ascending cholangitis usually occurs in the setting of bile duct obstruction, various ...
aeruginosa and putida), Bacillus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterobacter ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Enterococcus faecalis.. *Type strain of Enterococcus faecalis at BacDive - the Bacterial ... as Enterococcus faecalis comb. nov. and Enterococcus faecium comb. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 34 ( ... Prior to 1984, enterococci were members of the genus Streptococcus; thus, E. faecalis was known as Streptococcus faecalis.[24] ... Enterococcus faecalis - formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system - is a Gram-positive, commensal ...
Other articles where Enterococcus is discussed: human microbiome: The role of the human microbiota: Streptococcus, Enterococcus ...
Parte, A.C. "Enterococcus". LPSN. LPSN LPSN entry for Enterococcus Gilmore MS; et al., eds. (2002). The Enterococci: ... Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Enterococci are gram-positive cocci that often ... Enterococci typically exhibit gamma-hemolysis on sheeps blood agar. Members of the genus Enterococcus (from Greek έντερο, ... as Enterococcus faecalis comb. nov. and Enterococcus faecium comb. nov". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34: 31-34. doi:10.1099/ ...
Copper homeostasis in Enterococcus hirae.. Wunderli-Ye H1, Solioz M.. Author information. 1. Department of Clinical ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Enterococcus haemoperoxidus is a species of Enterococcus with type strain CCM 4851T (= LMG 19487T). Svec P, Devriese LA, ... 2001). "Enterococcus haemoperoxidus sp. nov. and Enterococcus moraviensis sp. nov., isolated from water". Int J Syst Evol ... "Enterococcus haemoperoxidus" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Enterococcus haemoperoxidus at BacDive - the ... "Evaluation of ribotyping for characterization and identification of Enterococcus haemoperoxidus and Enterococcus moraviensis ...
Enterococcus FDA Clears Faster Blood Test for the Market By News Desk , June 28, 2012. Listeria, MRSA, Streptococcus, and ... Enterococcus can all be identified much quicker by the Verigene GP Blood Culture Nuclear Acid Test (BC-GP), which got marketing ...
Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic or nonhemolytic bacterium in the genus Enterococcus.[1] It can be ... Vancomycin-resistant EnterococciEdit. Enterococcus faecium has been a leading cause of multi-drug resistant enterococcal ... "In Gilmore MS, Clewell DB, Ike Y. Enterococci: From Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection. PMID 24649504.. ... Enterococci: From Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection. Boston: Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. PMID ...
Resistant Enterococcus: Enterococci impart resistance to antibiotics in a variety of ways. Although some species are inherently ... Transmission: Enterococci are part of the normal gastrointestinal (GI) flora. Once Enterococcus species colonize the GI tract, ... ABSTRACT: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections in the United States. ... Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus casseliflavus) cases.5 Literature suggests QPD as an alternative for severe infections ...
c. Enterococci take advantage of this reduction in REGIIIγ secretion to become the dominant members of the gut microbiota. IL- ... In Enterococcus faecium, resistance to ampicillin occurs through the production of penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5), which ... Enterococci exhibit intrinsic low-level resistance to aminoglycosides such as streptomycin or gentamicin owing to low uptake of ... Resistance of Enterococcus spp. to the streptogramin quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D) involves several pathways, including drug ...
Common causes of enterococcus infection include patients being infected by hospital workers or others who have not practiced ... They are Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. As their names imply, they are found in the digestive tract of humans ... Common causes of enterococcus infection include patients being infected by hospital workers or others who have not practiced ... Moreover, Enterococcus faecalis is not only resistant to cephalosporins, but people who have taken cephalosporins are at ...
Enterococcus is a germ (bacteria). It normally lives in the intestines and in the female genital tract. ... But enterococcus can cause an infection if it gets into the urinary tract, bloodstream, or skin wounds or other sterile sites. ... Enterococcus species, Streptococcus gallolyticus group, and leuconostoc species. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ... Enterococcus is a germ (bacteria). It normally lives in the intestines and in the female genital tract. ...
Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly isolated of the genera. According to Elmer Koneman, M.D., it is associated with 80 ... Enterococcus faecalis and all of the enterococci are closely related to the streptococci and appear microscopically as spheres ... One of the most important and serious factors about Enterococcus faecalis and the other enterococci is its resistance to a ... Enterococcus faecalis, as the name implies, is found normally in the intestines of humans, animals and birds. It is also found ...
Specimen screened for colonization with vancomycin resistant Enterococcus only; not for diagnosis or treatment of an infectious ...
Read about vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) causes and treatment. Symptoms and signs depend upon the site of VRE ... Enterococci (genus Enterococcus) are bacteria that commonly live in the bowel and are usually resistant to many antibiotics. ... The two main species that cause problems are vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ... Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE). *Medical Author: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD *Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad ...
Eurofins EMLab P&K is the leading commercial IAQ laboratory in North America and specializes in analyzing samples to identify mold, bacteria (including Legionella, E. coli, Endotoxins, etc.), asbestos, and radon. Eurofins EMLab P&K partners with environmental professionals who make important decisions about the indoor environment that affect the health of our communities. We use science and innovation to provide accurate data that people trust and to create solutions that save time and resources. ...
What are the types of vancomycin resistance in enterococci? There are the two types of vancomycin resistance in enterococci. ... The second type of vancomycin resistance in enterococci is acquired resistance. Enterococci can become resistant to vancomycin ... Several genes, including vanA, vanB, vanC, vanD, and vanE, contribute to resistance to vancomycin in enterococci. ... Isolates of Enterococcus gallinarum and E. casseliflavus/E. flavescens demonstrate an inherent, low-level resistance to ...
Enterococcus hirae ATCC ® 8043™ Designation: R TypeStrain=True Application: Assay of folic acid Assay of monensin Quality ... Enterococcus hirae Farrow and Collins (ATCC® 8043™) Strain Designations: R [BUCSAV 308, CCM 2423, CCM 2424, DSM 20160, JCM 8729 ... Enterococcus hirae, a new species that includes amino acid assay strain NCDO 1258 and strains causing growth depression in ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AJ387916 Enterococcus hirae partial sodA gene for superoxide dismutase, strain CIP 53.48 T (ATCC 8043). ...
as Enterococcus faecalis comb. nov. and Enterococcus faecium comb. nov.". Int. J. Sys. Bacteriol. 34: 31-34. doi:10.1099/ ... Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci that often occur in pairs or short chains. They look like streptococci.[1] Two species are ... 2002). The Enterococci: pathogenesis, molecular biology, and antibiotic resistance. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN 978-1- ... Members of the genus Enterococcus were classified as Group D Streptococcus until 1984. Genomic DNA analysis showed they were a ...
Enterococci are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria, which usually inhabit the ... The ecology, epidemiology and virulence of Enterococcus Microbiology (Reading). 2009 Jun;155(Pt 6):1749-1757. doi: 10.1099/mic. ... Virulence factors of enterococci include the extracellular protein Esp and aggregation substances (Agg), both of which aid in ... Enterococci are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria, which usually inhabit the ...
as Enterococcus faecalis comb. nov. and Enterococcus faecium comb. nov.". Int. J. Sys. Bacteriol. 34: 31-34. doi:10.1099/ ... Enterococcus é un xénero de bacterias do ácido láctico do filo Firmicutes. Os enterococos son cocos grampositivos, que adoitan ... 2002). The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN 978-1- ... Schleifer KH; Kilpper-Balz R (1984). "Transfer of Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium to the genus Enterococcus ...
I have just modified 1 external links on Enterococcus virus FL2. Please take a moment to review my edit. If you have any ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Enterococcus_virus_FL2&oldid=6021785" ...
Enterococcus faecalis. Mutation(s): 6 Gene Names: lacC. EC: Find proteins for Q833W9 (Enterococcus faecalis (strain ... Crystal structure of LacC from Enterococcus faecalis. Gorman, J., Shapiro, L.. To be published. ...
Complete your Enterococcus / Elephant Man Behind The Sun collection. Shop Vinyl and CDs. ... Find a Enterococcus / Elephant Man Behind The Sun - Split first pressing or reissue. ...
Enterococcus faecium. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. Revision as of 01:13, 28 April 2007 by ... Retrieved from "https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Enterococcus_faecium&oldid=6500" ...
"Virulence Factors of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains Isolated from Humans and Pets" Turk. J. Vet. Anim. ... as Enterococcus faecalis comb. nov. and Enterococcus faecium comb. nov." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1984) 34:31-34. ... Enterococcus faecium (2) Description and significance. E. faecium is a human pathogen that causes nosocomial bacteremia, ... The sequencing of a vacomycin resistant E. faecalis strain, Enterococcus facalis V583, revealed 1 circular chromosome and 3 ...
Enterococcus faecalis cells cannot synthesize porphyrins and do not rely on heme for growth but can take up heme and use it to ... Multiple-drug resistant enterococci: the nature of the problem and an agenda for the future. Emerg. Infect. Dis.4:239-249. ... Enterococcus faecalis Heme-Dependent Catalase Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Enterococcus faecalis, formerly known as Streptococcus faecalis, is a gram-positive bacterium with a low G+C content in its ...
2007) Enterococcus faecalis Mutations Affecting Virulence in the C. elegans Model Host. Infect Immun 75:2634-2637. ... 2000) Enterococcus faecalis adhesin, ace, mediates attachment to extracellular matrix proteins collagen type IV and laminin as ... 2003) Role of mobile DNA in the evolution of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Science 299:2071-2074. ... 2002) in The Enterococci, Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance, ed Gilmore MS (American Society for ...
Get the latest enterococci monitoring news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... Rapid, online detection of enterococci and of the total microbial activity in water Recently KWR presented an article about an ... innovative project: the rapid online detection of enterococci and of the total microbial activity in water. MicroLAN is partner ...
  • In the last two decades, particularly virulent strains of Enterococcus that are resistant to vancomycin (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, or VRE) have emerged in nosocomial infections of hospitalized patients, especially in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though some strains of enterococcus are defeated with courses of vancomycin or ampicillin, the bacteria is notorious for being resistant to antibiotics, claims Phage Therapy Center. (reference.com)
  • There are two major strains of enterococcus bacteria, states Phage Therapy Center. (reference.com)
  • The new strains are called vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). (rxlist.com)
  • Farrow JA, Collins MD. Enterococcus hirae, a new species that includes amino acid assay strain NCDO 1258 and strains causing growth depression in young chickens. (atcc.org)
  • [4] Urinary tract infections can be treated by antibiotics , but many virulent strains of Enterococcus are resistant . (wikipedia.org)
  • were first compared in terms of sensitivity using (1) 41 different type strains of Enterococcus spp. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Some strains of the genus Enterococcus are effective probiotic bacteria if they meet safety and probiotic criteria. (springer.com)
  • PCR detection of resistance genes ( vanA , vanB , vanC , tetM , tetL , ermB , and mefA ) revealed the presence of mefA gene in five Enterococcus faecium strains and vanA gene in one strain. (springer.com)
  • Concerns regarding increased prevalence of daptomycin (DAP)-resistant strains necessitate novel therapies for Enterococcus faecium infections. (nih.gov)
  • Over the last 20 years, certain antibiotic-resistant, infectious strains of enterococci, including E. faecium , have been identified in hospital patients. (thepigsite.com)
  • Enterococcus faecium strains are resistant to penicillin through the overproduction of low-affinity penicillin-binding protein PBP5 [1]. (esrf.eu)
  • Here, we isolated 13 Enterococcus faecalis strains possessing a linezolid MIC of ≥4 mg/liter from nursery pigs in swine herds located across Brazil. (asm.org)
  • Enterococcus faecium strains are commonly resistant to vancomycin and β-lactams. (asm.org)
  • Just a few drugs such as linezolid show bacteriostatic activity against vancomycin-resistant strains of E. faecium and E. faecalis, and a combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin, which have bactericidal activity against most drug-resistant staphylococci , streptococci , and pneumococci , appears to be bacteriostatic against E. faecium, and is not active against Enterococcus faecalis [ 12 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Enterococci, a type of bacteria, can cause serious infections for patients in healthcare settings, including bloodstream, surgical site, and urinary tract infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterococcus bacteria occur naturally in the human body. (reference.com)
  • Enterococcus is a germ (bacteria). (medlineplus.gov)
  • These resistant bacteria are called vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Enterococci (genus Enterococcus) are bacteria that commonly live in the bowel and are usually resistant to many antibiotics. (rxlist.com)
  • Enterococci are a group of gram -positive, round -shaped bacteria that commonly live in the gut, although they can cause infection anywhere in the body. (rxlist.com)
  • Vancomycin resistance is acquired when a sensitive Enterococcus acquires a special piece of DNA called a plasmid that permits the bacteria to become resistant to vancomycin. (rxlist.com)
  • Enterococci are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria, which usually inhabit the alimentary tract of humans in addition to being isolated from environmental and animal sources. (nih.gov)
  • The concentration of enterococci, bacteria that thrive in feces, has long been the federal standard for determining water quality. (news-medical.net)
  • Enterococcus , a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic cocci belonging to the lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes, is known to be able to resist a wide range of hostile conditions such as different pH levels, high concentration of NaCl (6.5%), and the extended temperatures between 5°C and 65°C. Despite being the third most common nosocomial pathogen, our understanding on its virulence factors is still poorly understood. (hindawi.com)
  • The invention concerns a culture medium for isolating enterococcus comprising violet crystal, and preferably gram-negative bacteria inhibitors and chromogens. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A culture medium for detecting and/or distinguishing enterococci, characterized in that it contains, in a culture medium for enterococci, Crystal Violet at a concentration allowing the growth of enterococci and the inhibition of the growth of most Gram-positive bacteria, said concentration being between 0.1 and 1.5 mg/l. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) is a bacteria that generally infects the blood, urinary tract and wounds. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Enterococci are well-known bacteria and are found in abundance in the gastrointestinal tract of both animals and humans. (thepigsite.com)
  • Vancomycin resistant enterococci represent one such example of a prominent nosocomial pathogen on which nation-wide population analyses on prevalent lineages are scarce and data on how the bacteria acquire resistance, especially of the vanB genotype, are still under debate. (nature.com)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a clump of Enterococcus faecalis bacteria. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Enterococci are bacteria that live in the gastrointestinal tract (bowels) of most individuals and generally do not cause harm. (tbrhsc.net)
  • Enterococci are a clinically important group of bacteria for humans and animals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • IMPORTANCE For many bacteria, including the opportunistically pathogenic enterococci, antibiotic resistance is mediated by acquisition of new DNA and is frequently encoded on mobile DNA elements such as plasmids and transposons. (asm.org)
  • Enterococcus belongs to the Enterococcaceae family, the members of which are symbiotic bacteria in the human intestine ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The genus Enterococcus comprises a ubiquitous group of Gram-positive bacteria that are of great relevance to human health for their role as major causative agents of health care-associated infections. (asm.org)
  • Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. (epa.gov)
  • Since our previous study revealed that several licorice phenolics have antibacterial effects on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and suppressive effects on the oxacillin resistance of MRSA, we further investigated effectiveness of licorice constituents on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteria, and purified 32 phenolic compounds. (mdpi.com)
  • Among drug-resistant bacteria vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) is a serious menace for patients in hospitals. (mdpi.com)
  • Bloodstream infection by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), is a growing clinical problem that increasingly defies medical intervention. (jci.org)
  • [1] [2] Like other species in the genus Enterococcus , E. faecalis is found in healthy humans, but can cause life-threatening infections, especially in the nosocomial (hospital) environment, where the naturally high levels of antibiotic resistance found in E. faecalis contribute to its pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the genus Enterococcus (from Greek έντερο, éntero, "intestine" and κοκκος, coccos, "granule") were classified as group D Streptococcus until 1984, when genomic DNA analysis indicated a separate genus classification would be appropriate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfer of Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium to the genus Enterococcus nom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive , alpha-hemolytic or non hemolytic bacterium in the genus Enterococcus . (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Enterococcus includes some of the most important nosocomial multidrug-resistant organisms, and these pathogens usually affect patients who are debilitated by other, concurrent illnesses and undergoing prolonged hospitalization. (nih.gov)
  • Members of the genus Enterococcus were classified as Group D Streptococcus until 1984. (wikipedia.org)
  • Automated systems may present problems in the identification of members of the genus Enterococcus in clinical laboratories. (scielo.br)
  • In 1984, Schleifer et al ( 5 ) indicated that they belonged to the Enterococcus genus via DNA-DNA and DNA-rRNA hybridization. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It is worth noting that these organisms were previously classified as belonging to the genus " Streptococc us" but were placed in their own genus, " Enterococcus ," after genetic analysis (DNA-DNA reassociation analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing) showed they were too different to be grouped with the streptococci. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Enterococcus faecalis - formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system - is a Gram-positive , commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listeria, MRSA, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus can all be identified much quicker by the Verigene GP Blood Culture Nuclear Acid Test (BC-GP), which got marketing approval from the U.S, Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Enterococcus species, Streptococcus gallolyticus group, and leuconostoc species. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Membros do xénero Enterococcus eran clasificados ata 1984 como Streptococcus do grupo D, pero as análises xenómicas indicaron que era máis apropiado clasificalas nun xénero separado. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterococcus faecalis , formerly known as Streptococcus faecalis , is a gram-positive bacterium with a low G+C content in its genomic DNA. (asm.org)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Enterococcus faecium (also known as Streptococcus faecium), Gram-positive, vancomycin resistant (VRE), coccus prokaryote that grows in groups or chains. (sciencephoto.com)
  • These changes were also confirmed in 'Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 3: The Firmicutes' in 2009, such that ' Streptococcus faecalis ' was revised to Enterococcus faecalis , and ' Streptococcus faecium ' was revised to E. faecium ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Isolates of Enterococcus gallinarum and E. casseliflavus/E. flavescens demonstrate an inherent, low-level resistance to vancomycin. (cdc.gov)
  • For this purpose, 79 clinical isolates of Malaysian enterococci were evaluated for the presence of virulence genes. (hindawi.com)
  • In our study, 17 canine enterococci previously selected from a group of 160 isolates based on safety criteria were screened for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. (springer.com)
  • In the United States they have become major nosocomial pathogens, rising in incidence from 0.3% in 1989 to 7.9% in 1993 as reported by the CDC, 1 and among patients in intensive-care units, now representing 14% of blood culture isolates of enterococci. (health.gov.au)
  • Clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. (health.gov.au)
  • In general, the Mallard and wastewater enterococci isolates belonged to different phenotypes, although several sharing identical phenotypic profiles were found. (diva-portal.org)
  • Having conventional physiological tests as the reference method, we evaluated the use of an automated system (VITEK bioMérieux) in the identification of 80 isolates belonging to different species of Enterococcus. (scielo.br)
  • The in vitro activities of ceftaroline and tedizolid were compared against Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , and Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates collected from the China Antimicrobial Surveillance. (asm.org)
  • High-level aminoglycoside resistance was noted in 30.0% of Enterococcus faecalis and 25.2% of Enterococcus faecium isolates. (asm.org)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity, heteroresistance emergence, and resistance mechanism of omadacycline (OMC) in clinical Enterococcus faecalis isolates from China. (asm.org)
  • Clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis aggregate human platelets. (lu.se)
  • Here we report for the first time that many clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis, a common pathogen in infective endocarditis, aggregate human platelets. (lu.se)
  • Enterococcus haemoperoxidus is a species of Enterococcus with type strain CCM 4851T (= LMG 19487T). (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterococcus species are a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections and the second most common nosocomial bloodstream pathogen in the United States. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Once Enterococcus species colonize the GI tract, the development of antibiotic resistance increases, as does the risk of transmission between patients and providers. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The two main species that cause problems are vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis . (rxlist.com)
  • Understanding the ecology, epidemiology and virulence of Enterococcus species is important for limiting urinary tract infections, hepatobiliary sepsis, endocarditis, surgical wound infection, bacteraemia and neonatal sepsis, and also stemming the further development of antibiotic resistance. (nih.gov)
  • In this work, we describe a unique series of posttranscriptional regulatory strategies that influence expression of ethanolamine utilization genes ( eut ) in Enterococcus , Clostridium , and Listeria species. (pnas.org)
  • Although the host species targeted by BoNT/En remains to be determined, these findings establish an extended member of BoNTs and demonstrate the capability of E. faecium, a commensal organism ubiquitous in humans and animals and a leading cause of hospital-acquired multi-drug-resistant (MDR) infections, to horizontally acquire, and possibly disseminate, a unique BoNT gene cluster. (diva-portal.org)
  • Identification of Enterococcus species and phenotypically similar Lactococcus and Vagococcus species by reverse checkerboard hybridization to chaperonin 60 gene sequences. (semanticscholar.org)
  • nov. a new Enterococcus species from human sources. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The characteristics, diagnosis, management, surveillance and epidemiology Enterococcus species and Glycopeptide Resistant Enterococci (GRE). (cardinaloconnorconference.com)
  • 1 , 2 The two most common species, Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium , can harbour vanA and vanB genes, which encode resistance to vancomycin and have been implicated in the development of persistent, transmissible nosocomial infections that may be associated with poor outcomes. (mja.com.au)
  • Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium have similar morphologies, leading to confusion between the two species. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, numerous species of Enterococci possess the ability to transfer and carry antibiotic resistance genes ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The enterococci are resilient and versatile species able to survive under harsh conditions, making them well adapted to the health care environment. (asm.org)
  • Some enterococci are intrinsically resistant to β-lactam-based antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems), as well as many aminoglycosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterococcus faecium has been a leading cause of multi-drug resistant enterococcal infections over Enterococcus faecalis in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABSTRACT: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections in the United States. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) have rapidly emerged as a predominant concern, particularly among vulnerable patient populations. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiota and on colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci are highlighted, including how enterococci benefit from the antibiotic-mediated eradication of gram-negative members of the gut microbiota. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we review the most important mechanisms of resistance to the antibiotics that are used to treat vancomycin-resistant enterococci. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, Enterococcus faecalis is not only resistant to cephalosporins, but people who have taken cephalosporins are at greater risk for enterococcus faecalis infection. (reference.com)
  • Enterococcus germs can become resistant to vancomycin and therefore are not killed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • VRE are enterococci that have become resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin . (rxlist.com)
  • In recent decades, however, some enterococci have become resistant to vancomycin. (rxlist.com)
  • Enterococci can become resistant to vancomycin by acquisition of genetic information from another organism. (cdc.gov)
  • In some instances, enterococci have become resistant to this drug and thus are called vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). (medic8.com)
  • The sequencing of a vacomycin resistant E. faecalis strain, Enterococcus facalis V583 , revealed 1 circular chromosome and 3 plasmids. (kenyon.edu)
  • High prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) has recently emerged as an important threat in U.S. hospitals ( 5 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • From a Canadian public policy perspective, the greatest sustained value of the facility would be tracking, research and containment of hospital acquired infections such as C. difficile , Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus . (stephentaylor.ca)
  • Thus, the present study provides a better understanding of how enterococci emerge into successful multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens. (nature.com)
  • Due to their often multi-drug resistant phenotype only a few therapeutic options are left to treat infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). (nature.com)
  • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis (VRE) were first described in Britain in 1988 and soon afterwards were reported from other European countries and the United States. (health.gov.au)
  • From April 1, 2014, to March 31, 2015, 89 healthcare facilities took part in the surveillance of healthcare-associated vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections, for a combined total of 4,839,578 patient days (Table 1). (inspq.qc.ca)
  • Daptomycin has become a mainstay therapy for the treatment of serious vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections. (asm.org)
  • Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) first appeared in the late 1980s in a few European countries. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis are still rare. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The spokesperson for Queen Elizabeth Hospital (QEH) announced today (September 30) that due to the rising trend of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) carriers screened in the hospital in recent months, pan-screening of VRE carriers will commence today upon expert microbiologist advice. (gov.hk)
  • The "Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Faecium Infections - Pipeline Insight, 2019" drug pipelines has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (pharmiweb.com)
  • This report offers comprehensive Insight of the pipeline (under development) therapeutics scenario and growth prospects across Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Faecium Infections development. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The report assesses the active Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Faecium Infections pipeline products by developmental stage, product type, molecule type, and administration route. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Effects on the Emergence and Transmission of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci After Changes in Antibiotic Use in a Hematology Unit. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Because mobile elements constitute up to 25% of the genome of multidrug-resistant (MDR) enterococci, it was of interest to examine the codistribution of CRISPR and acquired antibiotic resistance in enterococcal lineages. (asm.org)
  • Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium rank among the leading causes of antibiotic-resistant hospital-acquired bacterial infections ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Resistance to last-line drugs, such as vancomycin ( 4 ), is common, and enterococci are now disseminating this resistance to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ( 5 - 7 ). (asm.org)
  • The epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in Europe is characterized by a large community reservoir. (cdc.gov)
  • The emergency of vancomycin resistant enterococci who may need treatment with vancomycin where other antibiotics have failed. (cardinaloconnorconference.com)
  • In this Article These superbugs are called vancomycin-resistant enterococci, or VRE. (cardinaloconnorconference.com)
  • vancomycin and are known as vancomycin-resistant enterococcus or VRE. (cardinaloconnorconference.com)
  • Probiotic treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: a randomised controlled trial. (cardinaloconnorconference.com)
  • Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci 2 Guideline for Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci All Departments involved in patient care and treatment e.g. (cardinaloconnorconference.com)
  • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci With VRE, it means vancomycin is not effective in with VRE do not usually need treatment. (cardinaloconnorconference.com)
  • To determine whether eating Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in the form of commercially available yoghurt improves clearance of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). (mja.com.au)
  • Over the past 10-15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). (mja.com.au)
  • The complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis V583, a vancomycin-resistant clinical isolate, revealed that more than a quarter of the genome consists of probable mobile or foreign DNA. (jcvi.org)
  • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium meningitis in adults: Case series and review of the literature. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Background: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VR E. faecium) is a rare cause of meningitis and is associated with substantial mortality. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This is called vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infection. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • Enterococcus are intrinsically resistant to many of the antibiotics used in clinical practice. (unl.pt)
  • After the introduction of this antibiotic into the clinical practice in the 80s, the first report of VRE (Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus) appreared soon in 1986. (unl.pt)
  • This compound is frequently used to treat vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Enterococci impart resistance to antibiotics in a variety of ways. (uspharmacist.com)
  • One of the most important and serious factors about Enterococcus faecalis and the other enterococci is its resistance to a variety of antibiotics. (livestrong.com)
  • The nosocomial pathogenicity of enterococci has emerged in recent years, as well as increasing resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics. (nih.gov)
  • However, in the last decades, due to the increased use of antibiotics, both in animal breeding and in Hospitals and veterinary clinical practice, enterococci became a major concern in terms of nosocomial and community acquired infections. (unl.pt)
  • Enterococcus infections, including VRE infections, cause a range of different symptoms depending on the location of the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common causes of enterococcus infection include patients being infected by hospital workers or others who have not practiced good hygiene such as hand-washing, says the National Institutes of Health. (reference.com)
  • Diseases that are caused by an enterococcus infection include urinary tract infections, endocarditis, meningitis and bacteremia, notes Phage Therapy Center. (reference.com)
  • Diverticulitis, a disease of the bowel, can also be caused by enterococcus infection. (reference.com)
  • Unfortunately, enterococcus infection is a great risk for patients whose immune systems are already compromised. (reference.com)
  • But enterococcus can cause an infection if it gets into the urinary tract, bloodstream, or skin wounds or other sterile sites. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Patients with the enterococcus germ who do not have symptoms of an infection do not need treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aortic valve endocarditis from Enterococcus hirae infection. (medworm.com)
  • Outside healthcare settings, enterococci very rarely present a risk of infection for humans. (thepigsite.com)
  • This study was performed to evaluate the impacts of vanA positivity of Enterococcus faecium exhibiting diverse susceptibility phenotypes to glycopeptides on clinical outcomes in patients with a bloodstream infection (BSI) through a prospective, multicenter, observational study. (asm.org)
  • Nevertheless, they report, little is known about the pathogenesis of Enterococcus cecorum infection in broilers. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The broiler cycle investigated had a much better footpad scorethan the seven cycles before and four cycles after the Enterococcus cecorum infection at the same farm. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Bacteraemia and generalised infection appear to be important steps in the pathogenesis of Enterococcus cecorum infection in broilers, concluded Jung and Rautenschleim. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • 2014. Comprehensive report of an Enterococcus cecorum infection in a broiler flock in Northern Germany. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Important clinical infections caused by Enterococcus include urinary tract infections (see Enterococcus faecalis), bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis, diverticulitis, meningitis, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • We present the first documented case of human Enterococcus hirae infective endocarditis in the USA, representing only the fourth case worldwide. (medworm.com)
  • Among them only two, that is, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, are now being increasingly recognized to be involved in human infections such as bacteremia, endocarditis, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Is Once-Daily High-Dose Ceftriaxone plus Ampicillin an Alternative for Enterococcus faecalis Infective Endocarditis in Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy Programs? (asm.org)
  • Ceftriaxone administered as once-daily high-dose short infusion combined with ampicillin has been proposed for the treatment of Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis in outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy programs (OPAT). (asm.org)
  • Lack of this information could hinder the inclusion in OPAT of patients suffering from Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated with ampicillin plus. (asm.org)
  • Enterococci are part of the normal human gut flora and can cause severe infections including urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, catheter-related infections, and infective endocarditis (IE). (springer.com)
  • Although an occasional success has been reported, 19, 20, 21, 22 the therapy of enterococcus endocarditis still remains a challenge. (annals.org)
  • Enterococcus infections may occur in the urinary tract and in meningitis, diverticulitis, bacteremia and endocarditis infections with high mortality rate of ~61% in Portugal ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 2002). The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Review discusses the factors involved in the changing epidemiology of enterococcal infections, with an emphasis on Enterococcus faecium as an emergent and challenging nosocomial problem. (nih.gov)
  • The small alarmone synthetase RelQ from the Gram-positive pathogen Enterococcus faecalis enzymatically regulates the levels of alarmone nucleotide (p)ppGpp, a key regulator of stress adaptation, pathogenicity, and antibiotic tolerance. (pnas.org)
  • We show that the tetrameric small alarmone synthetase (SAS) RelQ from the Gram-positive pathogen Enterococcus faecalis is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein. (pnas.org)
  • Regarded as a gut commensal organism of animals and humans alike, with the potential to incidentally invade underlying tissue and being capable to withstand harsh environmental condition, enterococci have long been recognized as an important nosocomial pathogen. (nature.com)
  • Enterococcus faecium has rapidly become a successful nosocomial pathogen. (rug.nl)
  • Enterococcus cecorum is considered as an emerging pathogen in poultry and can cause substantial losses in broiler flocks, report researchers at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover in Germany. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Enterococcus faecium has become an important nosocomial pathogen, especially in immunocompromised patients, creating serious limitations in treatment options because of cumulative resistance to antimicrobial agents ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The prevalence of enterococci harboring tetracycline- and vancomycin-resistance genes, as well as the enterococcal surface protein (esp) has mostly been determined in clinical settings, but their prevalence in tropical recreational waters remains largely unknown. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Enterococci are used for improvement of the intestinal environment and have clinical benefits. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Factors associated with IE were studied retrospectively in a population-based cohort of patients with monomicrobial Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia (MEFsB). (springer.com)
  • Copper homeostasis in Enterococcus hirae. (nih.gov)
  • U39788 Enterococcus hirae D-alanine:D-alanine ligase gene, complete cds. (atcc.org)
  • AJ387916 Enterococcus hirae partial sodA gene for superoxide dismutase, strain CIP 53.48 T (ATCC 8043). (atcc.org)
  • They are Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. (reference.com)
  • Enterococcus faecalis, as the name implies, is found normally in the intestines of humans, animals and birds. (livestrong.com)
  • Enterococci are considered to be part of normal gut microbiota in both humans and animals and capable to survive in a diverse range of harsh conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • Our results indicate that there is a common source of enterococci for Mallards and humans. (diva-portal.org)
  • Enterococci are natural inhabitants of the digestive tracts of humans and other mammals ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. (environmental-expert.com)
  • EPA Home » Science Inventory » Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible? (epa.gov)
  • Recently KWR presented an article about an innovative project: the rapid online detection of enterococci and of the total microbial activity in water. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Rapid molecular identification of fecal origin-colonies growing on Enterococcus spp. (environmental-expert.com)
  • But other fecal sources that contain enterococci and possibly human pathogens can be chronic or intermittent sources of both, making beach water quality management and remediation efforts more complex,' the investigators wrote. (news-medical.net)
  • The US Environmental Protection Agency established water quality regulations based on enterococci as the indicator of fecal-borne pollution, to help manage water quality at estuarine and marine beaches. (news-medical.net)
  • Our study pulls together the multiple fecal sources, the diverse environmental reservoirs, and the changeable environmental conditions to assess how these variables can all influence enterococci concentrations in a coastal setting,' said Dr. Jones. (news-medical.net)
  • Here we mathematically derive and test a method that utilizes the ratios of fecal host-associated genetic markers and culture and molecular measurements of general fecal indicators to apportion enterococci, E. coli, and Bacteroidales. (epa.gov)
  • Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231). (scielo.br)
  • New epidemiological evidence has shown that enterococci are major infectious agent in chronic bacterial prostatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterococcus is used as a probiotic to improve the intestinal environment when treating bacterial diarrhea ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Here we report that an Enterococcus faecium strain isolated from cow feces carries a BoNT-like toxin, designated BoNT/En. (diva-portal.org)
  • Comparative genomic analysis determines that the E. faecium strain carrying BoNT/En is a commensal type and that the BoNT/En gene is located within a typical BoNT gene cluster on a 206 kb putatively conjugative plasmid. (diva-portal.org)
  • Enterococci are facultative anaerobic organisms, i.e., they are capable of cellular respiration in both oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Jones noted that enterococci are versatile organisms that thrive not only in the colon, but also in soil and in the sedimentary layers of lakes, rivers, and marine waters. (news-medical.net)
  • In particular, culturable enterococci and E. coli, the organisms presently regulated in the United States and much of the world, decay at different rates compared to host-associated markers and as a result cannot be apportioned using this method. (epa.gov)
  • However, limited data from a previous study suggest a similar decay rate between host-associated and QPCR-measured Enterococcus, E. coli and Bacteroidales genetic markers suggesting that apportionment may be possible for these organisms, however further work is needed to confirm. (epa.gov)
  • Vancomycin is an antibiotic that is often used to treat infections caused by enterococci. (medic8.com)
  • Antibiotic use as growth promoters in animal feeding is considered one major factor responsible for the increase of infections caused by multiresistant enterococci. (unl.pt)
  • Virulence factors of enterococci include the extracellular protein Esp and aggregation substances (Agg), both of which aid in colonization of the host. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly through NCBI database analysis, there are some similarities observed in terms of their virulence determinants among enterococci. (hindawi.com)
  • Among enterococci, Enterococcus faecalis occurs ubiquitously, with the highest incidence of human and animal infections. (asm.org)
  • Water quality--Detection and enumeration of intestinal enterococci in surface and waste water--Part 1: Miniaturized method (MPN) by inoculation in liquid medium. (atcc.org)
  • Enterococcus é un xénero de bacterias do ácido láctico do filo Firmicutes . (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that the commensal bacterium Enterococcus faecalis contributes to the pathogenesis of anastomotic leak through its capacity to degrade collagen and to activate tissue matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in host intestinal tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • The current study was aimed to determine the prevalence of different virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium . (hindawi.com)
  • We investigated the prevalence, persistence and virulence determinants of enterococci populations in water samples collected over three rounds following an extreme flood event in a metropolitan river. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Enterococci take advantage of this reduction in REGIIIγ secretion to become the dominant members of the gut microbiota. (nih.gov)
  • Enterococci survive very harsh environments, including extremely alkaline pH (9.6) and salt concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though they are not capable of forming spores, enterococci are tolerant of a wide range of environmental conditions: extreme temperature (5-65 °C), pH (4.5-10.0), and high sodium chloride concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also found that ecosystem specific characteristics, such as freshwater sediment and freshwater transport to the estuary are important influences on enterococci concentrations in coastal recreational and shellfish harvest waters,' said Stephen Jones, Ph.D. Dr. Jones is Research Associate Professor, University of New Hampshire, and Associate Director, New Hampshire Sea Grant Program. (news-medical.net)
  • In 2014, two of the town beaches had been flagged for intermittently exceeding state standards for concentrations of enterococci, and advisories had occasionally been posted warning the public that the waters might be unhealthy--bad publicity for a beach town. (news-medical.net)
  • No other study has taken such an encompassing and robust approach towards addressing the issue of the factors that influence enterococci concentrations in coastal waters. (news-medical.net)
  • Enterococcus Faecium (EF) is a probiotic and has been found when that dietary supplementation of EF can increase nutrient digestibility and decrease faecal NH3-N, H2S and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. (vitahound.com)
  • The latter may have led to higher dust concentrations and thus airborne Enterococcus cecorum . (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Lebreton F, Manson AL, Saavedra JT, Straub TJ, Earl AM, Gilmore MS (2017) Tracing the Enterococci from Paleozoic origins to the hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • What makes Enterococcus faecalis pathogenic is less clear than with many other microorganisms. (livestrong.com)
  • The most active β-lactams include the amino-penicillins (ampicillin) followed by penicillin, piperacillin, and carbapenems (imipenem is the most active, but meropenem and doripenem also have good activity in vitro against ampicillin-susceptible enterococci, although breakpoints have not been established). (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Enterococci are facultatively anaerobic gram-positive cocci from the family Enterococcaceae . (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Canadian researchers have published a study assessing the antimicrobial resistance and virulence of genotypes of Enterococcus faecalis, taken from samples taken from a commercial pork processing plant. (pigprogress.net)
  • The objective of the study was to assess the antimicrobial resistance and virulence genotypes of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from samples obtained from a commercial pork processing plant. (pigprogress.net)
  • Enterococcus faecalis has been implicated in a wide variety of human infections and is a notorious problem in hospital-acquired infections. (livestrong.com)
  • Because Enterococcus faecalis is normally found in the intestinal tract of people, it easily becomes a contamination problem in hospital and institutional settings. (livestrong.com)
  • A database was built from 16 Enterococcus faecalis draft genome sequences to identify commonalities and polymorphisms in the location and content of CRISPR loci. (asm.org)