A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A family of gram-negative bacteria whose members predominate in the bacterial flora of PLANKTON; FISHES; and SEAWATER. Some members are important pathogens for humans and animals.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.
Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. It is found in FOOD; SOIL; and SEWAGE; and is an opportunistic pathogen of humans.
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
Aerobic bacteria are types of microbes that require oxygen to grow and reproduce, and use it in the process of respiration to break down organic matter and produce energy, often found in environments where oxygen is readily available such as the human body's skin, mouth, and intestines.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
The destruction of germs causing disease.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.
Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
Esculin is a glucoside of esculetin, a coumarin derivative found in the horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum) and some other plants, used in medical research for its anticoagulant properties and as a substrate in susceptibility testing of certain bacteria.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
'Anaerobic Bacteria' are types of bacteria that do not require oxygen for growth and can often cause diseases in humans, including dental caries, gas gangrene, and tetanus, among others.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
The type species for the genus HAFNIA. It is distinguished from other biochemically similar bacteria by its lack of acid production on media containing sucrose. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Gram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infections
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A computer in a medical context is an electronic device that processes, stores, and retrieves data, often used in medical settings for tasks such as maintaining patient records, managing diagnostic images, and supporting clinical decision-making through software applications and tools.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
Infection within the PERITONEAL CAVITY. A frequent cause is an ANASTOMOTIC LEAK following surgery.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial fluoroquinolone. The drug strongly inhibits the DNA-supercoiling activity of DNA GYRASE.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Antibiotic produced by Micromonospora inyoensis. It is closely related to gentamicin C1A, one of the components of the gentamicin complex (GENTAMICINS).
Naphthyridines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing a naphthyridine nucleus, which is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon made up of two benzene rings fused to a pyridine ring, and they have been studied for their potential pharmacological properties, including as antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents.
A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.
Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.
An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.

The role of Citrobacter in clinical disease of children: review. (1/1368)

Various species of Citrobacter may cause infections in neonates and immunocompromised hosts. Citrobacter koseri (formerly Citrobacter diversus) is best known as the cause of sepsis and meningitis leading to central nervous system (CNS) abscesses in neonates and young infants. Early onset and late-onset infections occur as for other neonatal bacterial infections. The majority of cases are sporadic, with no clear source of infection. A few have been confirmed to be vertically transmitted, and nosocomial outbreaks have occurred in neonatal care units. The pathophysiology is not well understood, but a surface protein has been identified as a possible virulence factor among strains that cause citrobacter brain abscesses in neonates. Despite improvements in diagnostic imaging techniques, surgery, and antibiotic therapy, approximately one-third of infants with abscesses die, and one-half sustain CNS damage. In this article, the taxonomy, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of citrobacter disease in children are reviewed.  (+info)

How intestinal bacteria cause disease. (2/1368)

An improved understanding of how intestinal bacteria cause disease has become increasingly important because of the emergence of new enteric pathogens, increasing threats of drug resistance, and a growing awareness of their importance in malnutrition and diarrhea. Reviewed here are the varied ways that intestinal bacteria cause disease, which provide fundamental lessons about microbial pathogenesis as well as cell signaling. Following colonization, enteric pathogens may adhere to or invade the epithelium or may produce secretory exotoxins or cytotoxins. In addition, by direct or indirect effects, they may trigger secondary mediator release of cytokines that attract inflammatory cells, which release further products, such as prostaglandins or platelet-activating factor, which can also trigger secretion. An improved understanding of pathogenesis not only opens new approaches to treatment and control but may also suggest improved simple means of diagnosis and even vaccine development.  (+info)

The characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Korean isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. (3/1368)

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in gram-negative organisms have been implicated as the enzymes responsible for resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins. The incidence of ESBL-producers in Korean isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were in the range of 4.8-7.5% and 22.5-22.8%, respectively. The ESBL-producing isolates revealed variable levels of resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime and aztreonam. They also showed the elevated MIC values of non-beta-lactam antibiotics. SHV-12 and SHV-2a were the enzymes most frequently found in K. pneumoniae strains, but TEM-52 was the most prevalent in E. coli isolates. About 15% of ESBL-producing isolates of Enterobacteriaceae produced CMY-1 enzyme, which conferred resistance to cephamycins such as cefoxitin as well as oxyimino-cephalosporins. Thus, the most common types of ESBLs in Korea are TEM-52, SHV-12 SHV-2a, and CMY-1.  (+info)

Citrobacter koseri meningitis in a special care baby unit. (4/1368)

An outbreak of meningitis due to Citrobacter koseri in a special care baby unit is described. The organism showed a high capacity for spread among the babies on the unit and although the intestinal carriage rate was high, the clinical case:carrier ratio was low.  (+info)

In-vitro susceptibility of 1982 respiratory tract pathogens and 1921 urinary tract pathogens against 19 antimicrobial agents: a Canadian multicentre study. Canadian Antimicrobial Study Group. (5/1368)

A total of 3903 pathogens from 48 Canadian medical centres were tested against 19 antimicrobial agents. Five agents showed activity against > or = 90% of all 1982 respiratory tract pathogens tested (ciprofloxacin, 90%; cefoperazone, 91%; ticarcillin/clavulanate, 92%; ceftazidime and imipenem, 93% each). Nine agents had > or = 90% activity against Enterobacteriaceae from respiratory tract infection (cefotaxime and ticarcillin/clavulanate, 90% each; aztreonam, ceftizoxime and ceftriaxone, 91% each; ceftazidime, 93%; ciprofloxacin, 97%; imipenem and netilmicin, 98% each). Similarly, five agents had activity against > or = 90% of all 1921 urinary tract pathogens tested (ciprofloxacin and ticarcillin/clavulanate, 90% each; cefoperazone and netilmicin, 91% each; imipenem, 99%). Nine agents had > or = 95% activity against Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infection (ciprofloxacin, 95%; cefotetan, 97%; aztreonam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone and netilmicin, 98% each; imipenem, 99%). Seventeen agents had activity against > or = 95% of Staphylococcus aureus strains. Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates ranged from 2% to 91%.  (+info)

The global epidemiology of resistance to ciprofloxacin and the changing nature of antibiotic resistance: a 10 year perspective. (6/1368)

Many studies have examined the in-vitro activity of ciprofloxacin. The results are for the most part encouraging but we must guard against complacency. Levels of ciprofloxacin resistance vary geographically, while some predictably difficult-to-treat organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii present challenges globally. The emergence of resistance in species previously exquisitely sensitive to ciprofloxacin, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in countries associated with 'pirate' production and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials represents a major challenge. Ciprofloxacin continues to show excellent activity against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catharralis. In general, ciprofloxacin shows good activity against Enterobacteriaceae although the emergence of reduced susceptibility and, sometimes, quinolone resistance in multi-resistant isolates should be noted.  (+info)

Short-course therapy of acute cystitis: a brief review of therapeutic strategies. (7/1368)

Acute cystitis is one of the commonest medical problems encountered by primary care physicians. It affects more women than men (8:1), but the incidence among men is increasing. Uncomplicated cystitis by definition occurs in healthy patients with a normal urinary tract, whereas complicated cystitis implies a predisposing or underlying condition. A narrow range of aetiological agents is responsible for most uncomplicated cystitis in women (Escherichia coli in 80% of cases). Recently, however, pathogens usually associated with sexually transmitted disease have been implicated. In women with typical symptoms of acute uncomplicated cystitis, an abbreviated laboratory work-up followed by empirical therapy is recommended. Single-dose and 3 day regimens of co-trimoxazole and the quinolones are as effective as longer regimens and have a higher eradication rate than other commonly used antimicrobials. Relapse rates are slightly higher with single-dose therapy. With this success rate plus the reduced cost and improved patient compliance, these regimens have replaced traditional 5 to 14 day courses of treatment. With increasing resistance of the common urinary pathogens to amoxycillin and, now, co-trimoxazole, the quinolones are a logical choice for empirical therapy of uncomplicated urinary tract infections.  (+info)

Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice elicits a mucosal Th1 cytokine response and lesions similar to those in murine inflammatory bowel disease. (8/1368)

Citrobacter rodentium is a classically noninvasive pathogen of mice that is similar to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in man. Following oral infection of young mice, the organism colonizes the distal colon, and within 1 week the colonic mucosa doubles in thickness and there is massive epithelial cell hyperplasia. Since T-cell responses in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) also cause epithelial hyperplasia, we have investigated the possibility that C. rodentium promotes similar T-cell responses in the mucosa, thereby increasing epithelial shedding, transmission, and replication of the organism. Beginning 6 days after infection, bacteria were observed to be in close association with the epithelial surface and were also visible scattered throughout the lamina propria and in the submucosa. There was a CD3(+)-cell infiltrate into the colonic lamina propria and epithelium as well as mucosal thickening and crypt hyperplasia. The majority of CD3(+) cells were CD4(+) and were not gammadelta+. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of cytokines also revealed a highly polarized Th1 response (interleukin-12, gamma interferon, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) in the mucosa and a large increase in the epithelial cell mitogen keratinocyte growth factor. None of the changes were seen in mice inoculated with bacteria lacking intimin (which is necessary for colonization), but they were seen in mice inoculated with C. rodentium complemented with intimin from EPEC. This is the first example of a classically noninvasive bacterial pathogen which elicits a strong mucosal Th1 response and which produces pathology similar to that seen in mouse models of IBD, which is also characterized by a strong Th1 response. These results also suggest that the colonic mucosa responds in a stereotypic way to Th1 responses.  (+info)

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in the human gut and surrounding environment. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can occur when these bacteria enter parts of the body where they are not normally present, such as the bloodstream, urinary tract, or abdominal cavity.

Enterobacteriaceae infections can cause a range of symptoms depending on the site of infection. For example:

* Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause symptoms such as frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, and lower abdominal pain.
* Bloodstream infections (bacteremia) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause fever, chills, and sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory response to infection.
* Pneumonia caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Intra-abdominal infections (such as appendicitis or diverticulitis) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause abdominal pain, fever, and changes in bowel habits.

Enterobacteriaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of these bacteria has made treatment more challenging in recent years. Preventing the spread of Enterobacteriaceae in healthcare settings and promoting good hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of infection.

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by certain bacteria that can break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. This enzymatic activity makes the bacteria resistant to these antibiotics, limiting their effectiveness in treating infections caused by these organisms.

Beta-lactamases work by hydrolyzing the beta-lactam ring, a structural component of these antibiotics that is essential for their antimicrobial activity. By breaking down this ring, the enzyme renders the antibiotic ineffective against the bacterium, allowing it to continue growing and potentially causing harm.

There are different classes of beta-lactamases (e.g., Ambler Class A, B, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and mechanisms for breaking down various beta-lactam antibiotics. The emergence and spread of bacteria producing these enzymes have contributed to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, making it increasingly challenging to treat infections caused by these organisms.

To overcome this issue, researchers have developed beta-lactamase inhibitors, which are drugs that can bind to and inhibit the activity of these enzymes, thus restoring the effectiveness of certain beta-lactam antibiotics. Examples of such combinations include amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) and piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn).

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Beta-lactam resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance in which bacteria have developed the ability to inactivate or circumvent the action of beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They work by binding to and inhibiting the activity of enzymes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are essential for bacterial cell wall synthesis.

Bacteria can develop beta-lactam resistance through several mechanisms:

1. Production of beta-lactamases: These are enzymes that bacteria produce to break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics. Some bacteria have acquired genes that encode for beta-lactamases that can hydrolyze and destroy the beta-lactam ring, rendering the antibiotic ineffective.
2. Alteration of PBPs: Bacteria can also develop mutations in their PBPs that make them less susceptible to beta-lactams. These alterations can reduce the affinity of PBPs for beta-lactams or change their conformation, preventing the antibiotic from binding effectively.
3. Efflux pumps: Bacteria can also develop efflux pumps that actively pump beta-lactam antibiotics out of the cell, reducing their intracellular concentration and limiting their effectiveness.
4. Biofilm formation: Some bacteria can form biofilms, which are communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are encased in a protective matrix. Biofilms can make bacteria more resistant to beta-lactams by preventing the antibiotics from reaching their targets.

Beta-lactam resistance is a significant public health concern because it limits the effectiveness of these important antibiotics. The overuse and misuse of beta-lactams have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, making it essential to use these antibiotics judiciously and develop new strategies to combat bacterial resistance.

Enterobacter is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. These bacteria are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and are known to cause a variety of infections in humans, particularly in healthcare settings.

Enterobacter species are capable of causing a range of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and wound infections. They are often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. Infections with Enterobacter are typically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria.

It's worth noting that while Enterobacter species can cause infections, they are also a normal part of the microbiota found in the human gut and usually do not cause harm in healthy individuals. However, if the bacterium enters the bloodstream or other sterile sites in the body, it can cause infection and illness.

"Serratia" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile bacilli that are commonly found in the environment, such as in water and soil. Some species, particularly "Serratia marcescens," can cause healthcare-associated infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bloodstream infections. These infections often occur in patients with compromised immune systems or who have been hospitalized for extended periods of time. Serratia species are resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging.

'Proteus' doesn't have a specific medical definition itself, but it is related to a syndrome in medicine. Proteus syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the overgrowth of various tissues and organs in the body. The name "Proteus" comes from the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, reflecting the diverse and ever-changing nature of this condition's symptoms.

People with Proteus syndrome experience asymmetric overgrowth of bones, skin, and other tissues, leading to abnormalities in body shape and function. The disorder can also affect blood vessels, causing benign tumors called hamartomas to develop. Additionally, individuals with Proteus syndrome are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

The genetic mutation responsible for Proteus syndrome is found in the AKT1 gene, which plays a crucial role in cell growth and division. This disorder is typically not inherited but instead arises spontaneously as a new mutation in the affected individual. Early diagnosis and management of Proteus syndrome can help improve patients' quality of life and reduce complications associated with the condition.

Carbapenems are a class of broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics, which are used to treat severe infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillins and cephalosporins but are more resistant to the enzymes produced by bacteria that can inactivate these other antibiotics. Carbapenems are often reserved for use in serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms, and they are typically given intravenously in a hospital setting. Examples of carbapenems include imipenem, meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Klebsiella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are commonly found in the normal microbiota of the mouth, skin, and intestines, but can also cause various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common species and can cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. Other Klebsiella species, such as K. oxytoca, can also cause similar types of infections. These bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat and a significant public health concern.

"Escherichia" is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. The most well-known species in this genus is "Escherichia coli," or "E. coli," which is a normal inhabitant of the human gut and is often used as an indicator of fecal contamination in water and food. Some strains of E. coli can cause illness, however, including diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and meningitis. Other species in the genus "Escherichia" are less well-known and are not typically associated with disease.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is a medical term that refers to a type of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It's a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. It's a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections.

The bacterium is known for its ability to produce a polysaccharide capsule that makes it resistant to phagocytosis by white blood cells, allowing it to evade the host's immune system. Additionally, "Klebsiella pneumoniae" has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat and a growing public health concern.

Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They contain a beta-lactam ring in their chemical structure, which is responsible for their antibacterial activity. The beta-lactam ring inhibits the bacterial enzymes necessary for cell wall synthesis, leading to bacterial death. Beta-lactams are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and bone and joint infections. However, some bacteria have developed resistance to beta-lactams through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring and render the antibiotic ineffective. To overcome this resistance, beta-lactam antibiotics are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors, which protect the beta-lactam ring from degradation.

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.

Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

Citrobacter is a genus of facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Members of this genus are capable of fermenting various sugars and producing acid and gas as end products. Some species of Citrobacter have been associated with human diseases, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. Infections caused by Citrobacter can include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and meningitis.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Multiple bacterial drug resistance (MDR) is a medical term that refers to the resistance of multiple strains of bacteria to several antibiotics or antimicrobial agents. This means that these bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive and multiply despite being exposed to drugs that were previously effective in treating infections caused by them.

MDR is a significant public health concern because it limits the treatment options available for bacterial infections, making them more difficult and expensive to treat. In some cases, MDR bacteria may cause severe or life-threatening infections that are resistant to all available antibiotics, leaving doctors with few or no effective therapeutic options.

MDR can arise due to various mechanisms, including the production of enzymes that inactivate antibiotics, changes in bacterial cell membrane permeability that prevent antibiotics from entering the bacteria, and the development of efflux pumps that expel antibiotics out of the bacteria. The misuse or overuse of antibiotics is a significant contributor to the emergence and spread of MDR bacteria.

Preventing and controlling the spread of MDR bacteria requires a multifaceted approach, including the judicious use of antibiotics, infection control measures, surveillance, and research into new antimicrobial agents.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria that are facultative anaerobes and are motile due to peritrichous flagella. They are non-spore forming and often have a single polar flagellum when grown in certain conditions. Salmonella species are important pathogens in humans and other animals, causing foodborne illnesses known as salmonellosis.

Salmonella can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, birds, reptiles, and mammals. They can contaminate various foods, including meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fresh produce. The bacteria can survive and multiply in a wide range of temperatures and environments, making them challenging to control completely.

Salmonella infection typically leads to gastroenteritis, characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection may spread beyond the intestines, leading to more severe complications like bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or focal infections in various organs.

There are two main species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is further divided into six subspecies and numerous serovars, with over 2,500 distinct serotypes identified to date. Some well-known Salmonella serovars include S. Typhi (causes typhoid fever), S. Paratyphi A, B, and C (cause paratyphoid fever), and S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (common causes of foodborne salmonellosis).

'Enterobacter cloacae' is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. They are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae and can cause various types of infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

E. cloacae is known to be an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it typically does not cause disease in healthy people but can take advantage of a weakened host to cause infection. It can cause a range of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia (bloodstream infections), and wound infections.

E. cloacae is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of E. cloacae isolates that are resistant to carbapenems, a class of antibiotics that are typically reserved for treating serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. This has led to concerns about the potential for untreatable infections caused by this organism.

Klebsiella infections are caused by bacteria called Klebsiella spp., with the most common species being Klebsiella pneumoniae. These gram-negative, encapsulated bacilli are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract but can cause various types of infections when they spread to other body sites.

Commonly, Klebsiella infections include:

1. Pneumonia: This is a lung infection that can lead to symptoms like cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fever. It often affects people with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized.

2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Klebsiella can cause UTIs, particularly in individuals with compromised urinary tracts, such as catheterized patients or those with structural abnormalities. Symptoms may include pain, burning during urination, frequent urges to urinate, and lower abdominal or back pain.

3. Bloodstream infections (bacteremia/septicemia): When Klebsiella enters the bloodstream, it can cause bacteremia or septicemia, which can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition characterized by an overwhelming immune response to infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and rapid breathing.

4. Wound infections: Klebsiella can infect wounds, particularly in patients with open surgical wounds or traumatic injuries. Infected wounds may display redness, swelling, pain, pus discharge, and warmth.

5. Soft tissue infections: These include infections of the skin and underlying soft tissues, such as cellulitis and abscesses. Symptoms can range from localized redness, swelling, and pain to systemic symptoms like fever and malaise.

Klebsiella infections are increasingly becoming difficult to treat due to their resistance to multiple antibiotics, including carbapenems, which has led to the term "carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae" (CRE) or "carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae" (CRKP). These infections often require the use of last-resort antibiotics like colistin and tigecycline. Infection prevention measures, such as contact precautions, hand hygiene, and environmental cleaning, are crucial to controlling the spread of Klebsiella in healthcare settings.

"Serratia marcescens" is a medically significant species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile bacillus bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is commonly found in soil, water, and in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. The bacteria are known for their ability to produce a red pigment called prodigiosin, which gives them a distinctive pink color on many types of laboratory media.

"Serratia marcescens" can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). It is also known to be an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it primarily causes infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with chronic illnesses or who are undergoing medical treatments that suppress the immune system.

In healthcare settings, "Serratia marcescens" can cause outbreaks of infection, particularly in patients who are hospitalized for extended periods of time. It is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, which makes it difficult to treat and control the spread of infections caused by this organism.

In addition to its medical significance, "Serratia marcescens" has also been used as a model organism in various areas of microbiological research, including studies on bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Vibrionaceae is a family of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in aquatic environments. The bacteria are known for their ability to produce endotoxins and exotoxins, which can cause illness in humans and animals. Some members of this family are capable of causing foodborne illnesses, wound infections, and gastrointestinal diseases.

The most well-known genus within Vibrionaceae is Vibrio, which includes several species that are significant human pathogens. For example, Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal disease that can lead to dehydration and death if left untreated. Other notable Vibrio species that can cause illness in humans include Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, which are often associated with raw or undercooked seafood consumption and wound infections, respectively.

Proper food handling, cooking, and hygiene practices can help prevent Vibrionaceae infections. People with weakened immune systems, chronic liver disease, or iron overload disorders may be at higher risk of severe illness from Vibrio infections and should take extra precautions to avoid exposure.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Aztreonam is a monobactam antibiotic, which is a type of antibacterial drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacterial cells to form cell walls, leading to their death. Aztreonam is specifically active against certain types of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

Aztreonam is available in various forms, including injectable solutions and inhaled powder, for use in different clinical settings. It is often used to treat serious infections that have not responded to other antibiotics or that are caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Like all antibiotics, aztreonam can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people, particularly those with a history of allergies to other antibiotics. It is important to use aztreonam only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Cefotaxime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Cefotaxime has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Cefotaxime is often used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. It may also be used to prevent infections during surgery or in people with weakened immune systems. The drug is administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and its dosage depends on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Like all antibiotics, cefotaxime can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and rash. In rare cases, it may cause serious allergic reactions or damage to the kidneys or liver. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking this medication.

Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, leading to bacterial cell death. Ceftazidime has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria.

It is often used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis, particularly when they are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ceftazidime is also commonly used in combination with other antibiotics to treat complicated abdominal infections, bone and joint infections, and hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Like all antibiotics, ceftazidime can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions. It may also affect the kidneys and should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function. Ceftazidime is available in both intravenous (IV) and oral forms.

Proteus mirabilis is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and water. In humans, P. mirabilis can be part of the normal gut flora but can also cause opportunistic infections, particularly in the urinary tract. It is known for its ability to produce urease, which can lead to the formation of urinary stones and blockages.

P. mirabilis infections are often associated with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or urinary catheterization. Symptoms of a P. mirabilis infection may include fever, cloudy or foul-smelling urine, and pain or burning during urination. Treatment typically involves antibiotics that are effective against Gram-negative bacteria, although resistance to certain antibiotics is not uncommon in P. mirabilis isolates.

"Klebsiella oxytoca" is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is part of the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a normal inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract and can be found in soil, water, and plants. In clinical settings, K. oxytoca can cause various types of infections, including pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and urinary tract infections. It is known to produce a variety of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can hydrolyze and inactivate certain antibiotics, making it resistant to some forms of treatment. Its identification is important for appropriate antimicrobial therapy and infection control measures.

"Providencia" is a term that refers to a type of bacteria that can cause infections in humans. The scientific name for this bacterium is "Providencia stuartii." It is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family and is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals.

Providencia stuartii can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bloodstream infections. It is often resistant to many antibiotics, which can make it difficult to treat. People who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or use catheters are at increased risk for Providencia infections.

It's important to note that while "Providencia" refers to a specific type of bacteria, the term is not typically used in medical diagnoses or treatment. Instead, healthcare providers would specify the type of infection and the name of the bacterium causing it.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are primarily responsible for causing shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery. These pathogens are highly infectious and can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces.

There are four main species of Shigella: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. Each species has distinct serotypes that differ in their epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The severity of shigellosis can range from mild diarrhea to severe dysentery with abdominal cramps, fever, and tenesmus (the strong, frequent urge to defecate). In some cases, Shigella infections may lead to complications such as bacteremia, seizures, or hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Preventive measures include maintaining good personal hygiene, proper food handling and preparation, access to clean water, and adequate sanitation facilities. Antibiotic treatment is generally recommended for severe cases of shigellosis, but the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has become a growing concern in recent years.

Cephalosporin resistance refers to the ability of bacteria to resist the antibacterial effects of cephalosporins, a group of widely used antibiotics. These drugs work by interfering with the bacterial cell wall synthesis, thereby inhibiting bacterial growth and reproduction. However, some bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive in the presence of cephalosporins.

There are several ways in which bacteria can become resistant to cephalosporins. One common mechanism is through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring structure of cephalosporins and other related antibiotics. This makes the drugs ineffective against the bacteria.

Another mechanism of resistance involves changes in the bacterial cell membrane or the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that prevent the binding of cephalosporins to their target sites. These changes can occur due to genetic mutations or the acquisition of new genes through horizontal gene transfer.

Cephalosporin resistance is a significant public health concern, as it can limit the treatment options for bacterial infections and increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics are major drivers of antibiotic resistance, including cephalosporin resistance. Therefore, it is essential to use these drugs judiciously and follow proper infection prevention and control measures to prevent the spread of resistant bacteria.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Kluyvera is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is named after the Dutch microbiologist Albert Jan Kluyver. The bacteria are found in various environments such as water and soil, and they can also be part of the normal intestinal flora in humans and animals.

Kluyvera species are generally considered to be non-pathogenic, meaning that they do not typically cause disease in healthy individuals. However, there have been rare cases of Kluyvera infections reported in people with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can include bacteremia (bloodstream infection), pneumonia, and urinary tract infections.

It is worth noting that Kluyvera bacteria are not commonly encountered in clinical settings, and they are not typically tested for as part of routine diagnostic procedures. Therefore, the medical significance of this genus remains unclear.

Pseudomonadaceae is a family of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria within the class Gammaproteobacteria. The name "Pseudomonadaceae" comes from the type genus Pseudomonas, which means "false unitform." This refers to the fact that these bacteria can appear similar to other rod-shaped bacteria but have distinct characteristics.

Members of this family are typically motile, aerobic organisms with a single polar flagellum or multiple lateral flagella. They are widely distributed in various environments, including soil, water, and as part of the normal microbiota of plants and animals. Some species can cause diseases in humans, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is an opportunistic pathogen known to cause severe infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, cystic fibrosis, or burn wounds.

Pseudomonadaceae bacteria are metabolically versatile and can utilize various organic compounds as carbon sources. They often produce pigments, such as pyocyanin and fluorescein, which contribute to their identification in laboratory settings. The family Pseudomonadaceae includes several genera, with Pseudomonas being the most well-known and clinically relevant.

'Citrobacter freundii' is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and plants. It is also part of the normal gut flora in humans and animals. The bacterium can cause various types of infections in people with weakened immune systems, such as newborns, the elderly, and those with chronic diseases. Infections caused by 'Citrobacter freundii' may include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are crucial for effective treatment of these infections.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely found in the environment, such as in soil, water, and on plants. It's an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it usually doesn't cause infection in healthy individuals but can cause severe and sometimes life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems, burns, or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants due to its intrinsic resistance mechanisms and the acquisition of additional resistance determinants. It can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, dermatitis, and severe bloodstream infections known as sepsis.

The bacterium produces a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, proteases, and pigments like pyocyanin and pyoverdine, which aid in iron acquisition and help the organism evade host immune responses. Effective infection control measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, and close monitoring of high-risk patients are crucial for managing P. aeruginosa infections.

Penicillanic acid is not a term that has a widely accepted or established medical definition in the context of human medicine or clinical practice. It is a chemical compound that is a derivative of penicillin, an antibiotic produced by certain types of mold. Penicillanic acid is a breakdown product of penicillin and is not itself used as a medication.

In chemistry, penicillanic acid is a organic compound with the formula (CH3)2C6H5COOH. It is a derivative of benzene and has a carboxylic acid group and a five-membered ring containing a sulfur atom and a double bond, which is a characteristic feature of penicillin and its derivatives.

It's important to note that while penicillanic acid may have relevance in the context of chemistry or microbiology research, it does not have a direct medical definition or application in clinical medicine.

Cross infection, also known as cross-contamination, is the transmission of infectious agents or diseases between patients in a healthcare setting. This can occur through various means such as contaminated equipment, surfaces, hands of healthcare workers, or the air. It is an important concern in medical settings and measures are taken to prevent its occurrence, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Thienamycins are a group of antibiotics that are characterized by their beta-lactam structure. They belong to the class of carbapenems and are known for their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many that are resistant to other antibiotics. Thienamycins inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which leads to bacterial cell death.

Thienamycin itself is not used clinically due to its instability, but several semi-synthetic derivatives of thienamycin have been developed and are used in the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Examples of thienamycin derivatives include imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. These antibiotics are often reserved for the treatment of severe infections that are unresponsive to other antibiotics due to their potential to select for resistant bacteria and their high cost.

Azabicyclo compounds are a type of organic compound that contain at least one nitrogen atom (azacycle) and two rings fused together (bicyclic). The nitrogen atom can be part of either a saturated or unsaturated ring, and the rings themselves can be composed of carbon atoms only or contain other heteroatoms such as oxygen or sulfur.

The term "azabicyclo" is often followed by a set of three numbers that specify the number of atoms in each of the three rings involved in the fusion. For example, azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane is a compound with two fused rings containing 3 and 2 carbon atoms, respectively, and one nitrogen atom forming the third ring of 1 carbon atom.

These compounds have a wide range of applications in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials science due to their unique structures and properties. In particular, azabicyclo compounds are often used as building blocks for the synthesis of complex natural products and bioactive molecules.

Genetic conjugation is a type of genetic transfer that occurs between bacterial cells. It involves the process of one bacterium (the donor) transferring a piece of its DNA to another bacterium (the recipient) through direct contact or via a bridge-like connection called a pilus. This transferred DNA may contain genes that provide the recipient cell with new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors, which can make the bacteria more harmful or difficult to treat. Genetic conjugation is an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits among bacterial populations.

Quinolones are a class of antibacterial agents that are widely used in medicine to treat various types of infections caused by susceptible bacteria. These synthetic drugs contain a chemical structure related to quinoline and have broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Quinolones work by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV enzymes, which are essential for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, and repair.

The first quinolone antibiotic was nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962. Since then, several generations of quinolones have been developed, with each generation having improved antibacterial activity and a broader spectrum of action compared to the previous one. The various generations of quinolones include:

1. First-generation quinolones (e.g., nalidixic acid): Primarily used for treating urinary tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria.
2. Second-generation quinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin): These drugs have improved activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are used to treat a wider range of infections, including respiratory, gastrointestinal, and skin infections.
3. Third-generation quinolones (e.g., levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin): These drugs have enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including some anaerobes and atypical organisms like Legionella and Mycoplasma species.
4. Fourth-generation quinolones (e.g., moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin): These drugs have the broadest spectrum of activity, including enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria, anaerobes, and some methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains.

Quinolones are generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, they can have side effects. Common adverse reactions include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), headache, and dizziness. Serious side effects, such as tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and QT interval prolongation, are less common but can occur, particularly in older patients or those with underlying medical conditions. The use of quinolones should be avoided or used cautiously in these populations.

Quinolone resistance has become an increasing concern due to the widespread use of these antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance through various mechanisms, including chromosomal mutations and the acquisition of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. The overuse and misuse of quinolones contribute to the emergence and spread of resistant strains, which can limit treatment options for severe infections caused by these bacteria. Therefore, it is essential to use quinolones judiciously and only when clinically indicated, to help preserve their effectiveness and prevent further resistance development.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Gram-positive bacteria are a type of bacteria that stain dark purple or blue when subjected to the Gram staining method, which is a common technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This staining method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The key characteristic that distinguishes Gram-positive bacteria from other types, such as Gram-negative bacteria, is the presence of a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Additionally, Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. Some Gram-positive bacteria can cause various human diseases, while others are beneficial or harmless.

Imipenem is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of carbapenems. It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, sepsis, and skin infections. Imipenem works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial death.

Imipenem is often combined with another medication called cilastatin, which helps to prevent the breakdown of imipenem in the body and increase its effectiveness. The combination of imipenem and cilastatin is available under the brand name Primaxin.

Like other antibiotics, imipenem should be used with caution and only when necessary, as overuse can lead to antibiotic resistance. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.

Erwinia is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are primarily plant pathogens. They are part of the Enterobacteriaceae family and can be found in soil, water, and plant surfaces. Some species of Erwinia cause diseases in plants such as fireblight in apples and pears, soft rot in a wide range of vegetables, and bacterial leaf spot in ornamental plants. They can infect plants through wounds or natural openings and produce enzymes that break down plant tissues, causing decay and wilting.

It's worth noting that Erwinia species are not typically associated with human or animal diseases, except for a few cases where they have been reported to cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria use oxygen as the final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain to generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Aerobic bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the air, as well as on the surfaces of living things. Some examples of aerobic bacteria include species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus.

It's worth noting that some bacteria can switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen. These bacteria are called facultative anaerobes. In contrast, obligate anaerobes are bacteria that cannot tolerate oxygen and will die in its presence.

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

Clavulanic acid is a type of beta-lactamase inhibitor, which is a compound that is used to increase the effectiveness of certain antibiotics. It works by preventing the breakdown of beta-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins and cephalosporins) by bacterial enzymes called beta-lactamases. This allows the antibiotic to remain active against the bacteria for a longer period of time, increasing its ability to kill the bacteria and treat the infection.

Clavulanic acid is often combined with amoxicillin in a medication called Augmentin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections. It may also be used in other combinations with other beta-lactam antibiotics.

Like all medications, clavulanic acid can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people, particularly those who are allergic to penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking clavulanic acid or any medication.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that are derived from bacteria and are used to treat various types of infections caused by gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria. These antibiotics work by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death.

Some examples of aminoglycosides include gentamicin, tobramycin, neomycin, and streptomycin. These antibiotics are often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat severe infections, such as sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections.

Aminoglycosides can have serious side effects, including kidney damage and hearing loss, so they are typically reserved for use in serious infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics. They are also used topically to treat skin infections and prevent wound infections after surgery.

It's important to note that aminoglycosides should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to antibiotic resistance and further health complications.

Amikacin is a type of antibiotic known as an aminoglycoside, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis and ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Amikacin is often used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It may be given intravenously or intramuscularly, depending on the severity and location of the infection. As with all antibiotics, amikacin should be used judiciously to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is a medical condition that occurs when bacteria from another source, such as an infection in another part of the body, enter the bloodstream. Bacteremia can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and rapid heart rate, and it can lead to serious complications such as sepsis if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

Bacteremia is often a result of an infection elsewhere in the body that allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can happen through various routes, such as during medical procedures, intravenous (IV) drug use, or from infected wounds or devices that come into contact with the bloodstream. In some cases, bacteremia may also occur without any obvious source of infection.

It is important to note that not all bacteria in the bloodstream cause harm, and some people may have bacteria in their blood without showing any symptoms. However, if bacteria in the bloodstream multiply and cause an immune response, it can lead to bacteremia and potentially serious complications.

'Acinetobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and healthcare settings. They are known for their ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels, as well as their resistance to many antibiotics.

Some species of Acinetobacter can cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or have been exposed to medical devices such as ventilators or catheters. These infections can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and meningitis.

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most common species associated with human infection and is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making it a significant public health concern. Infections caused by Acinetobacter can be difficult to treat and may require the use of last-resort antibiotics.

Preventing the spread of Acinetobacter in healthcare settings is important and includes practices such as hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and contact precautions for patients with known or suspected infection.

Antisepsis is the process of preventing or limiting the growth and reproduction of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) that can cause infection or disease. This is typically achieved through the use of antiseptic agents, which are substances that inhibit the growth of microorganisms when applied to living tissue or non-living material like surfaces.

Antiseptics work by either killing the microorganisms outright (bactericidal) or preventing them from reproducing and growing (bacteriostatic). They can be applied topically, in the form of creams, ointments, gels, sprays, or washes, to prevent infection in wounds, cuts, burns, or other types of skin damage. Antiseptics are also used in medical devices and equipment to maintain sterility and prevent cross-contamination during procedures.

Examples of antiseptic agents include alcohol, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, iodine, and povidone-iodine. The choice of antiseptic depends on the type of microorganism being targeted, the location and severity of the infection, and any potential adverse effects or interactions with other medications or medical conditions.

It's important to note that antisepsis is different from sterilization, which involves the complete destruction of all living organisms, including spores, using methods such as heat, radiation, or chemicals. Sterilization is typically used for surgical instruments and other medical equipment that come into direct contact with sterile tissues or bodily fluids during procedures.

Piperacillin is a type of antibiotic known as a semisynthetic penicillin that is used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die.

Piperacillin has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is often used in combination with other antibiotics, such as tazobactam, to increase its effectiveness against certain types of bacteria.

Piperacillin is typically administered intravenously in a hospital setting and is used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, sepsis, and abdominal or urinary tract infections. As with all antibiotics, it should be used only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibiotics that are widely used to treat various types of bacterial infections. They work by interfering with the bacteria's ability to replicate its DNA, which ultimately leads to the death of the bacterial cells. Fluoroquinolones are known for their broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Some common fluoroquinolones include ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and ofloxacin. These antibiotics are often used to treat respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and gastrointestinal infections, among others.

While fluoroquinolones are generally well-tolerated, they can cause serious side effects in some people, including tendonitis, nerve damage, and changes in mood or behavior. As with all antibiotics, it's important to use fluoroquinolones only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

A hospital is a healthcare facility where patients receive medical treatment, diagnosis, and care for various health conditions, injuries, or diseases. It is typically staffed with medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers who provide round-the-clock medical services. Hospitals may offer inpatient (overnight) stays or outpatient (same-day) services, depending on the nature of the treatment required. They are equipped with various medical facilities like operating rooms, diagnostic equipment, intensive care units (ICUs), and emergency departments to handle a wide range of medical situations. Hospitals may specialize in specific areas of medicine, such as pediatrics, geriatrics, oncology, or trauma care.

Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces kanamyceticus. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial cell death. Kanamycin is primarily used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It is also used in veterinary medicine to prevent bacterial infections in animals.

Like other aminoglycosides, kanamycin can cause ototoxicity (hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, it is important to monitor patients closely for signs of toxicity and adjust the dose accordingly. Kanamycin is not commonly used as a first-line antibiotic due to its potential side effects and the availability of safer alternatives. However, it remains an important option for treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, urinary, and skin infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is an enzyme necessary for bacterial replication and transcription. This leads to bacterial cell death. Ciprofloxacin is available in oral and injectable forms and is usually prescribed to be taken twice a day. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, and headache. It may also cause serious adverse reactions such as tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects. It is important to note that ciprofloxacin should not be used in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones and should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizures, brain injury, or other neurological conditions.

Minocycline is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the tetracycline class. Medically, it is defined as a semisynthetic derivative of tetracycline and has a broader spectrum of activity compared to other tetracyclines. It is bacteriostatic, meaning it inhibits bacterial growth rather than killing them outright.

Minocycline is commonly used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including acne, respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. Additionally, it has been found to have anti-inflammatory properties and is being investigated for its potential use in treating neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

As with all antibiotics, minocycline should be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and its usage should be based on the results of bacterial culture and sensitivity testing to ensure its effectiveness against the specific bacteria causing the infection.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also known as lateral gene transfer, is the movement of genetic material between organisms in a manner other than from parent to offspring (vertical gene transfer). In horizontal gene transfer, an organism can take up genetic material directly from its environment and incorporate it into its own genome. This process is common in bacteria and archaea, but has also been observed in eukaryotes including plants and animals.

Horizontal gene transfer can occur through several mechanisms, including:

1. Transformation: the uptake of free DNA from the environment by a cell.
2. Transduction: the transfer of genetic material between cells by a virus (bacteriophage).
3. Conjugation: the direct transfer of genetic material between two cells in physical contact, often facilitated by a conjugative plasmid or other mobile genetic element.

Horizontal gene transfer can play an important role in the evolution and adaptation of organisms, allowing them to acquire new traits and functions rapidly. It is also of concern in the context of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and antibiotic resistance, as it can facilitate the spread of genes that confer resistance or other undesirable traits.

Disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility tests, also known as Kirby-Bauer tests, are laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of antibiotics against a specific bacterial strain. This test provides a simple and standardized way to estimate the susceptibility or resistance of a microorganism to various antibiotics.

In this method, a standardized inoculum of the bacterial suspension is spread evenly on the surface of an agar plate. Antibiotic-impregnated paper disks are then placed on the agar surface, allowing the diffusion of the antibiotic into the agar. After incubation, the zone of inhibition surrounding each disk is measured. The size of the zone of inhibition correlates with the susceptibility or resistance of the bacterial strain to that specific antibiotic.

The results are interpreted based on predefined criteria established by organizations such as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) or the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). These interpretive criteria help categorize the susceptibility of the bacterial strain into one of three categories: susceptible, intermediate, or resistant.

It is important to note that disk diffusion tests have limitations and may not always accurately predict clinical outcomes. However, they remain a valuable tool in guiding empirical antibiotic therapy and monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends.

Gentamicin is an antibiotic that belongs to the class of aminoglycosides. It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including:

* Gram-negative bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis
* Certain Gram-positive bacterial infections, such as those caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

Gentamicin works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death. It is typically given via injection (intramuscularly or intravenously) and is often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat serious infections.

Like all aminoglycosides, gentamicin can cause kidney damage and hearing loss, especially when used for long periods of time or at high doses. Therefore, monitoring of drug levels and renal function is recommended during treatment.

Integrons are genetic elements that can capture, integrate and express mobile gene cassettes, which are circular DNA molecules containing one or more antibiotic resistance genes. Integrons consist of an integrase gene (intI), a recombination site (attI), and a promoter region that drives the expression of integrated gene cassettes. They play a significant role in the spread and dissemination of antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations, as they can facilitate the acquisition and exchange of resistance genes between different bacteria. Integrons are commonly found on plasmids and transposons, which are mobile genetic elements that can move between different bacterial species, further contributing to the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

"Yersinia" is a genus of gram-negative bacteria that includes several species capable of causing human diseases. The most notable species are:

1. Yersinia pestis: This is the causative agent of plague, a severe and potentially fatal infectious disease. Plague can manifest in different forms, such as bubonic, septicemic, or pneumonic plague, depending on the route of infection. Historically, it has been associated with major pandemics like the Justinian Plague and the Black Death.

2. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: This species is responsible for causing a gastrointestinal illness known as pseudoappendicitis or mesenteric adenitis, which can mimic appendicitis symptoms. Infection often results from consuming contaminated food or water.

3. Yersinia enterocolitica: Similar to Y. pseudotuberculosis, this species causes gastrointestinal infections, typically presenting as enterocolitis or terminal ileitis. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever. In rare cases, it can lead to severe complications like sepsis or extraintestinal infections.

These bacteria are primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, either by consuming contaminated food or water or coming into contact with infected animals or their excrement. Proper hygiene practices and adequate cooking of food can help prevent Yersinia infections.

Chromogenic compounds are substances that can be converted into a colored product through a chemical reaction. These compounds are often used in various diagnostic tests, including microbiological assays and immunoassays, to detect the presence or absence of a specific analyte (such as a particular bacterium, enzyme, or antigen).

In these tests, a chromogenic substrate is added to the sample, and if the target analyte is present, it will react with the substrate and produce a colored product. The intensity of the color can often be correlated with the amount of analyte present in the sample, allowing for quantitative analysis.

Chromogenic compounds are widely used in clinical laboratories because they offer several advantages over other types of diagnostic tests. They are typically easy to use and interpret, and they can provide rapid results with high sensitivity and specificity. Additionally, chromogenic assays can be automated, which can help increase throughput and reduce the potential for human error.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Agar is a substance derived from red algae, specifically from the genera Gelidium and Gracilaria. It is commonly used in microbiology as a solidifying agent for culture media. Agar forms a gel at relatively low temperatures (around 40-45°C) and remains stable at higher temperatures (up to 100°C), making it ideal for preparing various types of culture media.

In addition to its use in microbiology, agar is also used in other scientific research, food industry, and even in some artistic applications due to its unique gelling properties. It is important to note that although agar is often used in the preparation of food, it is not typically consumed as a standalone ingredient by humans or animals.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Cefoxitin is a type of antibiotic known as a cephamycin, which is a subclass of the larger group of antibiotics called cephalosporins. Cephalosporins are bactericidal agents that inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to and disrupting the function of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs).

Cefoxitin has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is commonly used to treat infections caused by susceptible organisms such as:

* Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus or MRSA)
* Streptococcus pneumoniae
* Escherichia coli
* Klebsiella spp.
* Proteus mirabilis
* Bacteroides fragilis and other anaerobic bacteria

Cefoxitin is available in both intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) formulations, and it is typically administered every 6 to 8 hours. The drug is generally well tolerated, but potential side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as allergic reactions, including rash, pruritus, and anaphylaxis.

It's important to note that the use of antibiotics should be based on the results of bacterial cultures and susceptibility testing whenever possible, to ensure appropriate therapy and minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Esculin is a glucoside derived from the bark of willow trees and other plants. It has been used in scientific research as a substrate to test the activity of certain types of bacteria, particularly those that have the ability to produce an enzyme called beta-glucosidase. When esculin comes into contact with this enzyme, it is broken down and forms a chemical compound called esculetin, which can be detected and measured. This reaction is often used as a way to identify and study bacteria that produce beta-glucosidase.

Esculin is not typically used in medical treatments or therapies, but it may have some potential uses in the development of new drugs or diagnostic tools. As with any chemical compound, esculin should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a trained professional.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Molecular typing is a laboratory technique used to identify and characterize specific microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, at the molecular level. This method is used to differentiate between strains of the same species based on their genetic or molecular differences. Molecular typing techniques include methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and whole genome sequencing (WGS). These techniques allow for high-resolution discrimination between strains, enabling epidemiological investigations of outbreaks, tracking the transmission of pathogens, and studying the evolution and population biology of microorganisms.

Anaerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. Instead, they can grow in environments that have little or no oxygen. Some anaerobic bacteria can even be harmed or killed by exposure to oxygen. These bacteria play important roles in many natural processes, such as decomposition and the breakdown of organic matter in the digestive system. However, some anaerobic bacteria can also cause disease in humans and animals, particularly when they infect areas of the body that are normally oxygen-rich. Examples of anaerobic bacterial infections include tetanus, gas gangrene, and dental abscesses.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

Cefoperazone is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are not able to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefoperazone is often used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin, and soft tissues. It may also be used to prevent infections during surgery. Like all antibiotics, cefoperazone should only be used under the direction of a healthcare professional, as misuse can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

It is important to note that cefoperazone, like other antibiotics, can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people. If you experience any unusual symptoms while taking cefoperazone, it is important to contact your healthcare provider right away.

Proteus vulgaris is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the human digestive tract. They are named after the Greek god Proteus, who could change his shape at will, as these bacteria are known for their ability to undergo various morphological changes.

Proteus vulgaris is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. They can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, wound infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections).

Proteus vulgaris is also known for its ability to produce urease, an enzyme that breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. This can lead to the formation of urinary stones and contribute to the development of chronic urinary tract infections. Additionally, Proteus vulgaris can form biofilms, which can make it difficult to eradicate the bacteria from infected sites.

In a medical context, identifying Proteus vulgaris is important for determining appropriate antibiotic therapy and managing infections caused by this organism.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium E. coli, which can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific strain and site of infection. The majority of E. coli strains are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. However, some strains, particularly those that produce Shiga toxins, can cause severe illness.

E. coli infections can occur through various routes, including contaminated food or water, person-to-person contact, or direct contact with animals or their environments. Common symptoms of E. coli infections include diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can occur, which may lead to kidney failure and other long-term health problems.

Preventing E. coli infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meats thoroughly, avoiding cross-contamination of food during preparation, washing fruits and vegetables before eating, and avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and juices. Prompt medical attention is necessary if symptoms of an E. coli infection are suspected to prevent potential complications.

Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) is a standardized method used in microbiology to characterize and identify bacterial isolates at the subspecies level. It is based on the sequencing of several (usually 7-10) housekeeping genes, which are essential for the survival of the organism and have a low rate of mutation. The sequence type (ST) is determined by the specific alleles present at each locus, creating a unique profile that can be used to compare and cluster isolates into clonal complexes or sequence types. This method provides high-resolution discrimination between closely related strains and has been widely adopted for molecular epidemiology, infection control, and population genetics studies of bacterial pathogens.

'Aeromonas' is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in aquatic environments. Some species of Aeromonas can cause various types of infections in humans, including gastrointestinal illnesses, wound infections, and septicemia. These bacteria are often associated with water exposure or contaminated food, and they can infect individuals with weakened immune systems.

The most common species that cause human infections are Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae, and Aeromonas veronii. Symptoms of infection may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and skin or soft tissue infections. In severe cases, Aeromonas infections can lead to sepsis, meningitis, or endocarditis.

It's important to note that while Aeromonas infections can be serious, they are relatively rare and typically only affect individuals with compromised immune systems. Proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding contaminated food and water, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria.

Ceftizoxime is a type of antibiotic known as a third-generation cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Ceftizoxime is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many that are resistant to other antibiotics.

It is commonly used to treat various types of infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and intra-abdominal infections. Ceftizoxime is available in both intravenous (IV) and oral forms, although the IV form is more commonly used in clinical practice.

Like all antibiotics, ceftizoxime should be used only to treat bacterial infections, as it has no effect on viral infections. Overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which makes it more difficult to treat infections in the future.

It is important to note that ceftizoxime should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will determine the appropriate dosage and duration of treatment based on the patient's individual needs and medical history.

Ticarcillin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs called penicillins. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Ticarcillin has activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The drug works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial death. It is often administered intravenously in a hospital setting due to its poor oral bioavailability. Common side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as allergic reactions, including rash and itching.

It's important to note that the use of ticarcillin should be based on the results of bacterial culture and sensitivity testing to ensure its effectiveness against the specific bacteria causing the infection. Additionally, healthcare providers should monitor renal function during treatment, as ticarcillin can affect kidney function in some patients.

"Salmonella enterica" serovar "Typhimurium" is a subspecies of the bacterial species Salmonella enterica, which is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It is a common cause of foodborne illness in humans and animals worldwide. The bacteria can be found in a variety of sources, including contaminated food and water, raw meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.

The infection caused by Salmonella Typhimurium is typically self-limiting and results in gastroenteritis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. However, in some cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and cause more severe illness, particularly in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

Salmonella Typhimurium is a major public health concern due to its ability to cause outbreaks of foodborne illness, as well as its potential to develop antibiotic resistance. Proper food handling, preparation, and storage practices can help prevent the spread of Salmonella Typhimurium and other foodborne pathogens.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are defined as the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, typically bacteria, in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, resulting in infection and inflammation. The majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, but other organisms such as Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus can also cause UTIs.

UTIs can be classified into two types based on the location of the infection:

1. Lower UTI or bladder infection (cystitis): This type of UTI affects the bladder and urethra. Symptoms may include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back.

2. Upper UTI or kidney infection (pyelonephritis): This type of UTI affects the kidneys and can be more severe than a bladder infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the flanks or back.

UTIs are more common in women than men due to their shorter urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. Other risk factors for UTIs include sexual activity, use of diaphragms or spermicides, urinary catheterization, diabetes, and weakened immune systems.

UTIs are typically diagnosed through a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the causative organism and determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. In some cases, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan may be necessary to evaluate for any underlying abnormalities in the urinary tract.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Sulbactam is not a medication itself, but it's a type of β-lactamase inhibitor. It's often combined with other antibiotics such as ampicillin or cefoperazone to increase their effectiveness against bacteria that produce β-lactamases, enzymes that can inactivate certain types of antibiotics (like penicillins and cephalosporins). By inhibiting these enzymes, sulbactam helps to protect the antibiotic from being deactivated, allowing it to maintain its activity against bacteria.

The combination of sulbactam with other antibiotics is used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including skin and soft tissue infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and intra-abdominal infections. It's important to note that the specific medical definition of sulbactam would be a β-lactamase inhibitor used in combination with other antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

Cephalothin is a type of antibiotic known as a first-generation cephalosporin. It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and urinary tract infections.

Cephalothin works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which are essential for their survival. It binds to specific proteins in the bacterial cell wall, causing the wall to become unstable and ultimately leading to the death of the bacterium.

Like other antibiotics, cephalothin is only effective against certain types of bacteria, and it should be used under the direction of a healthcare professional. It is important to take the full course of treatment as directed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of developing antibiotic resistance.

Common side effects of cephalothin include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. More serious side effects may include allergic reactions, kidney damage, and seizures. It is important to inform your healthcare provider of any medical conditions you have or medications you are taking before starting treatment with cephalothin.

'Hafnia alvei' is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including in water and soil. It is also part of the normal gut microbiota in some animals, including humans. However, it is not a well-known or widely studied species, and its potential clinical significance is not well understood. There have been some reports of Hafnia alvei causing infections in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals, but these are relatively rare. Therefore, there is no widely accepted medical definition for 'Hafnia alvei' in the context of human disease.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

"Enterobacter aerogenes" is a species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and vegetation. In medical contexts, E. aerogenes is often considered an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it can cause infection in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying health conditions.

E. aerogenes is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is closely related to other pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. It is known for its ability to produce large amounts of gas, including carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, which can contribute to its virulence and make it difficult to identify using traditional biochemical tests.

E. aerogenes can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and wound infections. It is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of E. aerogenes isolates that are resistant to carbapenems, a class of antibiotics that are often used as a last resort for treating serious bacterial infections.

A lactam is a cyclic amide compound containing a carbonyl group (a double-bonded carbon atom) and a nitrogen atom. The name "lactam" is derived from the fact that these compounds are structurally similar to lactones, which are cyclic esters, but with an amide bond instead of an ester bond.

Lactams can be found in various natural and synthetic compounds, including some antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporins. These antibiotics contain a four-membered lactam ring (known as a β-lactam) that is essential for their biological activity. The β-lactam ring makes these compounds highly reactive, allowing them to inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis and thus kill the bacteria.

In summary, lactams are cyclic amide compounds with a carbonyl group and a nitrogen atom in the ring structure. They can be found in various natural and synthetic compounds, including some antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporins.

Monobactams are a type of antibiotics that contain a single bacterial cell wall-binding component, known as a monocyclic beta-lactam. Aztreonam is an example of a monobactam that is used clinically to treat various infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Monobactams work by inhibiting the enzyme responsible for building the bacterial cell wall, leading to bacterial death. They are not affected by beta-lactamases, which are enzymes produced by some bacteria that can inactivate other types of beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins and cephalosporins.

Norfloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is primarily used to treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract, prostate, and skin. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is an essential enzyme involved in DNA replication. This leads to bacterial cell death. Norfloxacin is available as a generic medication and is usually prescribed in oral form, such as tablets or suspension.

Here's the medical definition of Norfloxacin:

Norfloxacin (norfloxacinum) - A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is used to treat urinary tract infections, prostatitis, and skin infections. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase, which results in bacterial cell death. The drug is available as a generic medication and is usually prescribed in oral form, such as tablets or suspension. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness. Norfloxacin may also cause serious adverse reactions, including tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects. It is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to quinolones or fluoroquinolones.

Penicillins are a group of antibiotics derived from the Penicillium fungus. They are widely used to treat various bacterial infections due to their bactericidal activity, which means they kill bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of their cell walls. The first penicillin, benzylpenicillin (also known as penicillin G), was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming. Since then, numerous semi-synthetic penicillins have been developed to expand the spectrum of activity and stability against bacterial enzymes that can inactivate these drugs.

Penicillins are classified into several groups based on their chemical structure and spectrum of activity:

1. Natural Penicillins (e.g., benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin): These have a narrow spectrum of activity, mainly targeting Gram-positive bacteria such as streptococci and staphylococci. However, they are susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamase enzymes produced by some bacteria.
2. Penicillinase-resistant Penicillins (e.g., methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin): These penicillins resist degradation by certain bacterial beta-lactamases and are primarily used to treat infections caused by staphylococci, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).
3. Aminopenicillins (e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin): These penicillins have an extended spectrum of activity compared to natural penicillins, including some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. However, they are still susceptible to degradation by many beta-lactamases.
4. Antipseudomonal Penicillins (e.g., carbenicillin, ticarcillin): These penicillins have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative bacteria with increased resistance to other antibiotics. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanate or tazobactam to protect them from degradation.
5. Extended-spectrum Penicillins (e.g., piperacillin): These penicillins have a broad spectrum of activity, including many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors to protect them from degradation.

Penicillins are generally well-tolerated antibiotics; however, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, ranging from mild skin rashes to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Cross-reactivity between different penicillin classes and other beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., cephalosporins) is possible but varies depending on the specific drugs involved.

A computer is a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. It is composed of several components including:

1. Hardware: The physical components of a computer such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory (RAM), storage devices (hard drive or solid-state drive), and input/output devices (monitor, keyboard, and mouse).
2. Software: The programs and instructions that are used to perform specific tasks on a computer. This includes operating systems, applications, and utilities.
3. Input: Devices or methods used to enter data into a computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, or digital camera.
4. Processing: The function of the CPU in executing instructions and performing calculations on data.
5. Output: The results of processing, which can be displayed on a monitor, printed on paper, or saved to a storage device.

Computers come in various forms and sizes, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. They are used in a wide range of applications, from personal use for communication, entertainment, and productivity, to professional use in fields such as medicine, engineering, finance, and education.

In the context of medical laboratory reporting, "R factors" refer to a set of values that describe the resistance of certain bacteria to different antibiotics. These factors are typically reported as R1, R2, R3, and so on, where each R factor corresponds to a specific antibiotic or class of antibiotics.

An R factor value of "1" indicates susceptibility to the corresponding antibiotic, while an R factor value of "R" (or "R-", depending on the laboratory's reporting practices) indicates resistance. An intermediate category may also be reported as "I" or "I-", indicating that the bacterium is intermediately sensitive to the antibiotic in question.

It's important to note that R factors are just one piece of information used to guide clinical decision-making around antibiotic therapy, and should be interpreted in conjunction with other factors such as the patient's clinical presentation, the severity of their infection, and any relevant guidelines or recommendations from infectious disease specialists.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Gram-negative aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, which is a technique used to differentiate bacterial species based on their cell wall composition. These bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides (LPS), making them resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants. They are called aerobic because they require oxygen for their growth and metabolism. Examples of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These bacteria can cause various infections in humans, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

Clavulanic acid is not a medical condition, but rather an antibacterial compound that is often combined with certain antibiotics to increase their effectiveness against bacteria that have become resistant to the antibiotic alone. It works by inhibiting certain enzymes produced by bacteria that help them to resist the antibiotic, allowing the antibiotic to work more effectively.

Clavulanic acid is typically combined with antibiotics such as amoxicillin or ticarcillin to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections. It is important to note that clavulanate-containing medications should only be used under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can contribute to antibiotic resistance.

A "University Hospital" is a type of hospital that is often affiliated with a medical school or university. These hospitals serve as major teaching institutions where medical students, residents, and fellows receive their training and education. They are equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide specialized and tertiary care services. University hospitals also conduct research and clinical trials to advance medical knowledge and practices. Additionally, they often treat complex and rare cases and provide a wide range of medical services to the community.

Intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) refer to the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms within the abdominopelvic cavity, which can lead to inflammation, abscess formation, and potentially sepsis if left untreated. These infections can arise from various sources, including perforations of the gastrointestinal tract, abdominal surgical procedures, or direct spread from neighboring organs. Commonly involved pathogens include bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Bacteroides fragilis, although fungi and viruses can also be implicated in certain situations.

IAIs are classified into two main categories: complicated and uncomplicated. Complicated IAIs involve deep-seated infections that spread beyond the confines of a single organ, often leading to abscess formation or peritonitis. Uncomplicated IAIs, on the other hand, are typically limited to a single organ, such as appendicitis or cholecystitis, without spreading to the peritoneal cavity.

Clinical manifestations of IAIs vary depending on the severity and location of the infection but may include abdominal pain, distention, nausea, vomiting, fever, and altered bowel habits. Diagnosis often relies on a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as ultrasound or CT scan), and laboratory tests (including white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels). Treatment typically involves antibiotic therapy, source control (e.g., surgical intervention to repair perforations or drain abscesses), and supportive care.

Fleroxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, urinary tract, and skin infections. It works by inhibiting the DNA gyrase enzyme in bacteria, which is necessary for their replication and survival.

Fleroxacin has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, making it useful for treating a variety of infections caused by these organisms. However, like other fluoroquinolones, fleroxacin carries a risk of serious side effects, including tendinitis, tendon rupture, nerve damage, and other central nervous system effects. Therefore, its use is generally reserved for situations where other antibiotics are not effective or appropriate.

Fleroxacin is available in oral tablet form and is typically taken twice daily with a full glass of water. It should be taken on an empty stomach, at least one hour before or two hours after meals. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the type and severity of the infection being treated, as well as the patient's overall health status.

It is important to note that fleroxacin, like all antibiotics, should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and should not be used for viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it more difficult to treat bacterial infections in the future.

Ampicillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which are essential for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die.

The medical definition of Ampicillin is:

"A semi-synthetic penicillin antibiotic, derived from the Penicillium mold. It is used to treat a variety of infections caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Ampicillin is effective against both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. It is commonly used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, and endocarditis."

It's important to note that Ampicillin is not effective against infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or other bacteria that have developed resistance to penicillins. Additionally, overuse of antibiotics like Ampicillin can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which is a significant public health concern.

Sisomicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, which is used in the treatment of severe bacterial infections. It works by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit of bacteria, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial cell death. Sisomicin is specifically active against certain Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species.

It is important to note that sisomicin, like other aminoglycosides, can cause serious side effects, including kidney damage and hearing loss, especially when used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. Therefore, it should be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, and regular monitoring of renal function and auditory function is recommended during treatment.

Sisomicin is not commonly used as a first-line antibiotic, but may be reserved for cases where other antibiotics have failed or are not effective against the specific bacteria causing the infection. It is typically given by injection into a vein (intravenously) or muscle (intramuscularly), and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on various factors, such as the patient's kidney function, the severity of the infection, and the susceptibility of the bacteria to sisomicin.

Naphthyridines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a naphthyridine core structure, which is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon made up of two benzene rings fused to a tetrahydropyridine ring. They have a variety of pharmacological activities and are used in the development of various therapeutic agents, including antibiotics, antivirals, and anticancer drugs.

In medical terms, naphthyridines do not have a specific clinical definition or application, but they are rather a chemical class that is utilized in the design and synthesis of drugs with potential therapeutic benefits. The unique structure and properties of naphthyridines make them attractive candidates for drug development, particularly in areas where new treatments are needed to overcome drug resistance or improve efficacy.

It's worth noting that while naphthyridines have shown promise in preclinical studies, further research is needed to fully understand their safety and effectiveness in humans before they can be approved as therapeutic agents.

Cefmenoxime is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Cefmenoxime has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including some strains that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Common indications for cefmenoxime include respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and intra-abdominal infections. It is also used as a prophylactic agent during surgery to reduce the risk of postoperative infections.

Cefmenoxime is usually administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and its dosage may vary depending on the type and severity of the infection, as well as the patient's age and renal function. Common side effects of cefmenoxime include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as allergic reactions such as rash, itching, and hives.

It is important to note that the use of antibiotics should be based on a careful assessment of the patient's condition and the susceptibility of the infecting organism. Overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which can make subsequent infections more difficult to treat.

Reagent strips, also known as diagnostic or test strips, are narrow pieces of plastic material that have been impregnated with chemical reagents. They are used in the qualitative or semi-quantitative detection of various substances, such as glucose, proteins, ketones, blood, and white blood cells, in body fluids like urine or blood.

Reagent strips typically contain multiple pad areas, each with a different reagent that reacts to a specific substance. To perform the test, a small amount of the fluid is applied to the strip, and the reaction between the reagents and the target substance produces a visible color change. The resulting color can then be compared to a standardized color chart to determine the concentration or presence of the substance.

Reagent strips are widely used in point-of-care testing, providing quick and convenient results for healthcare professionals and patients alike. They are commonly used for monitoring conditions such as diabetes (urine or blood glucose levels), urinary tract infections (leukocytes and nitrites), and kidney function (protein and blood).

A carrier state is a condition in which a person carries and may be able to transmit a genetic disorder or infectious disease, but does not show any symptoms of the disease themselves. This occurs when an individual has a recessive allele for a genetic disorder or is infected with a pathogen, but does not have the necessary combination of genes or other factors required to develop the full-blown disease.

For example, in the case of cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, a person who carries one normal allele and one mutated allele for the disease is considered a carrier. They do not have symptoms of cystic fibrosis themselves, but they can pass the mutated allele on to their offspring, who may then develop the disease if they inherit the mutation from both parents.

Similarly, in the case of infectious diseases, a person who is infected with a pathogen but does not show any symptoms may still be able to transmit the infection to others. This is known as being an asymptomatic carrier or a healthy carrier. For example, some people who are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may not develop any symptoms of liver disease, but they can still transmit the virus to others through contact with their blood or other bodily fluids.

It's important to note that in some cases, carriers of certain genetic disorders or infectious diseases may have mild or atypical symptoms that do not meet the full criteria for a diagnosis of the disease. In these cases, they may be considered to have a "reduced penetrance" or "incomplete expression" of the disorder or infection.

The Central African Republic (CAR) is a country located in the central region of Africa. It is not a medical term, but a geographical and political designation for a nation that has its own government, healthcare system, and public health challenges.

The CAR faces significant health issues, including a high burden of infectious diseases such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and neglected tropical diseases. Access to healthcare services is limited, particularly in rural areas, and the country has one of the lowest life expectancies in the world. Political instability and conflict have further exacerbated the health challenges in the CAR, leading to displacement, malnutrition, and reduced access to healthcare for many of its citizens.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pyronine" is not a medical term. It is a type of basic dye that is often used in histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues) and cytology (the study of individual cells). Pyronin Y, a specific type of pyronine dye, is sometimes used to stain acidic components within cells, such as DNA and RNA. However, it is not a term that is typically used in clinical medicine to describe diseases or conditions.

Molecular epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology that uses laboratory techniques to identify and analyze the genetic material (DNA, RNA) of pathogens or host cells to understand their distribution, transmission, and disease associations in populations. It combines molecular biology methods with epidemiological approaches to investigate the role of genetic factors in disease occurrence and outcomes. This field has contributed significantly to the identification of infectious disease outbreaks, tracking the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, understanding the transmission dynamics of viruses, and identifying susceptible populations for targeted interventions.

Trimethoprim is an antibiotic medication that is primarily used to treat bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of DNA and protein. This leads to bacterial cell death. Trimethoprim is often combined with sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide antibiotic) to create a more effective antibacterial therapy known as co-trimoxazole or TMP-SMX.

Medical Definition:
Trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial drug that selectively inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate, a cofactor involved in the biosynthesis of thymidine and purines. By blocking this essential pathway, trimethoprim disrupts bacterial DNA and protein synthesis, leading to bacteriostatic activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Trimethoprim is often combined with sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide antibiotic) to create a more effective antibacterial therapy known as co-trimoxazole or TMP-SMX, which inhibits two consecutive steps in the bacterial folate synthesis pathway.

Reagent kits, diagnostic are prepackaged sets of chemical reagents and other components designed for performing specific diagnostic tests or assays. These kits are often used in clinical laboratories to detect and measure the presence or absence of various biomarkers, such as proteins, antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, or small molecules, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues.

Diagnostic reagent kits typically contain detailed instructions for their use, along with the necessary reagents, controls, and sometimes specialized equipment or supplies. They are designed to simplify the testing process, reduce human error, and increase standardization, ensuring accurate and reliable results. Examples of diagnostic reagent kits include those used for pregnancy tests, infectious disease screening, drug testing, genetic testing, and cancer biomarker detection.

Moxalactam is not a medical condition but actually an antibiotic medication. It is a type of beta-lactam antibiotic, specifically a fourth-generation cephalosporin, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. Moxalactam has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including many that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Moxalactam works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, leading to bacterial death. It is commonly used to treat intra-abdominal infections, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis, among other conditions. As with any medication, moxalactam can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as allergic reactions and changes in liver function tests. It is important to use antibiotics only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Amdinocillin." It is possible that there might be a misunderstanding or a spelling mistake in the term. There is no antibiotic or pharmaceutical drug known as Amdinocillin in medical literature, according to my knowledge up to 2021. If you have any more information or context regarding this term, I would be happy to help further.

Blood is the fluid that circulates in the body of living organisms, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. The main function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. It also transports nutrients, hormones, and other substances to the cells and removes waste products from them. Additionally, blood plays a crucial role in the body's immune system by helping to fight infection and disease.

Nalidixic acid is an antimicrobial agent, specifically a synthetic quinolone derivative. It is primarily used for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Nalidixic acid works by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase, an enzyme necessary for DNA replication. This leads to the prevention of DNA synthesis and ultimately results in bacterial cell death. However, its use has become limited due to the emergence of resistance and the availability of more effective antimicrobials.

It is essential to note that nalidixic acid is not typically used as a first-line treatment for urinary tract infections or any other type of infection. It should only be used when other antibiotics are not suitable due to resistance, allergies, or other factors. Additionally, the drug's potential side effects, such as gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, and dizziness, may limit its use in some patients.

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Many species of Staphylococcus can cause infections in humans, but the most notable is Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for a wide range of illnesses, from minor skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, and sepsis.

Staphylococcus species are non-motile, non-spore forming, and typically occur in grape-like clusters when viewed under a microscope. They can be coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative, with S. aureus being the most well-known coagulase-positive species. Coagulase is an enzyme that causes the clotting of plasma, and its presence is often used to differentiate S. aureus from other Staphylococcus species.

These bacteria are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, including penicillin, due to the production of beta-lactamases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particularly problematic strain that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and can cause severe, difficult-to-treat infections.

Proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and environmental cleaning are crucial measures for preventing the spread of Staphylococcus in healthcare settings and the community.

Cephamycins are a subclass of cephalosporin antibiotics, which are derived from the fungus Acremonium species. They have a similar chemical structure to other cephalosporins but have an additional methoxy group on their side chain that makes them more resistant to beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by some bacteria that can inactivate other cephalosporins and penicillins.

Cephamycins are primarily used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, and Enterobacter species. They have a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, making them useful for treating a variety of infections.

The two main cephamycins that are used clinically are cefoxitin and cefotetan. Cefoxitin is often used to treat intra-abdominal infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, and skin and soft tissue infections. Cefotetan is primarily used for the treatment of surgical prophylaxis, gynecological infections, and pneumonia.

Like other cephalosporins, cephamycins can cause allergic reactions, including rashes, hives, and anaphylaxis. They should be used with caution in patients who have a history of allergies to penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics. Additionally, cephamycins can disrupt the normal gut flora, leading to secondary infections such as Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) diarrhea.

Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a technique used in electrophoresis, which is a method for separating proteins or other molecules based on their electrical charges. In IEF, a mixture of ampholytes (molecules that can carry both positive and negative charges) is used to create a pH gradient within a gel matrix. When an electric field is applied, the proteins or molecules migrate through the gel until they reach the point in the gradient where their net charge is zero, known as their isoelectric point (pI). At this point, they focus into a sharp band and stop moving, resulting in a highly resolved separation of the different components based on their pI. This technique is widely used in protein research for applications such as protein identification, characterization, and purification.

DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting, is a laboratory technique used to identify and compare the unique genetic makeup of individuals by analyzing specific regions of their DNA. This method is based on the variation in the length of repetitive sequences of DNA called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) or short tandem repeats (STRs), which are located at specific locations in the human genome and differ significantly among individuals, except in the case of identical twins.

The process of DNA fingerprinting involves extracting DNA from a sample, amplifying targeted regions using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then separating and visualizing the resulting DNA fragments through electrophoresis. The fragment patterns are then compared to determine the likelihood of a match between two samples.

DNA fingerprinting has numerous applications in forensic science, paternity testing, identity verification, and genealogical research. It is considered an essential tool for providing strong evidence in criminal investigations and resolving disputes related to parentage and inheritance.

Cefamandole is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is a type of antibacterial medication used to treat various infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, resulting in weakening and eventual death of the bacterial cells.

Cefamandole has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, making it useful for treating a variety of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and septicemia.

Like other cephalosporins, cefamandole is generally well-tolerated and has a low incidence of serious side effects. However, it can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as allergic reactions in some people. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting cefamandole therapy.

It is important to note that antibiotics should only be used to treat bacterial infections and not viral infections, as they are not effective against viruses and can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance.

'Escherichia coli (E. coli) proteins' refer to the various types of proteins that are produced and expressed by the bacterium Escherichia coli. These proteins play a critical role in the growth, development, and survival of the organism. They are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, translation, repair, and regulation.

E. coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that is commonly found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. It is widely used as a model organism in scientific research due to its well-studied genetics, rapid growth, and ability to be easily manipulated in the laboratory. As a result, many E. coli proteins have been identified, characterized, and studied in great detail.

Some examples of E. coli proteins include enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as lactase, sucrase, and maltose; proteins involved in DNA replication such as the polymerases, single-stranded binding proteins, and helicases; proteins involved in transcription such as RNA polymerase and sigma factors; proteins involved in translation such as ribosomal proteins, tRNAs, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases; and regulatory proteins such as global regulators, two-component systems, and transcription factors.

Understanding the structure, function, and regulation of E. coli proteins is essential for understanding the basic biology of this important organism, as well as for developing new strategies for combating bacterial infections and improving industrial processes involving bacteria.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Urine is a physiological excretory product that is primarily composed of water, urea, and various ions (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and others) that are the byproducts of protein metabolism. It also contains small amounts of other substances like uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and various organic compounds. Urine is produced by the kidneys through a process called urination or micturition, where it is filtered from the blood and then stored in the bladder until it is excreted from the body through the urethra. The color, volume, and composition of urine can provide important diagnostic information about various medical conditions.

Community-acquired infections are those that are acquired outside of a healthcare setting, such as in one's own home or community. These infections are typically contracted through close contact with an infected person, contaminated food or water, or animals. Examples of community-acquired infections include the common cold, flu, strep throat, and many types of viral and bacterial gastrointestinal infections.

These infections are different from healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), which are infections that patients acquire while they are receiving treatment for another condition in a healthcare setting, such as a hospital or long-term care facility. HAIs can be caused by a variety of factors, including contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment, invasive medical procedures, and the use of certain medications.

It is important to note that community-acquired infections can also occur in healthcare settings if proper infection control measures are not in place. Healthcare providers must take steps to prevent the spread of these infections, such as washing their hands regularly, using personal protective equipment (PPE), and implementing isolation precautions for patients with known or suspected infectious diseases.

Colistin is an antibiotic that belongs to a class of drugs called polymyxins. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. Colistin works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane and causing the bacterium to lose essential components, leading to its death.

Colistin can be administered intravenously or inhaled, depending on the type of infection being treated. It is important to note that colistin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that there is a small difference between the effective dose and the toxic dose. Therefore, it must be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Common side effects of colistin include kidney damage, nerve damage, and muscle weakness. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people. Colistin should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding unless the benefits outweigh the risks.

"Treatment Options for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections". Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2 (2): ofv050. doi: ... "Treatment Options for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections". Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2 (2): ofv050. doi: ... In her laboratory, LaPlante particularly studies biofilms in context of clinical infections, and focuses on the prevention and ... In her study, she regarded vancomycin as a standard treatment for MRSA infections. She also studied the antimicrobial ...
Infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is emerging as an ... "Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Infection: Clinician FAQs". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 25 October 2017. "Guideline for ... To prevent spreading Klebsiella infections between patients, healthcare personnel must follow specific infection-control ... Many of these infections are obtained when a person is in the hospital for some other reason (a nosocomial infection). In ...
... of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae with dominance of blaOXA-48. Infections caused by the non-fermenting gram-negative ... "Clinical management of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae". Ther Adv Infect Dis. 1 (2): 49-69. doi: ... the first discovered carbapenem Enterobacteriaceae are common pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections, abdominal ... and meropenem are recommended for high-risk community-acquired abdominal infections and for abdominal infections that are ...
Enterobacteriaceae Infections?Advances in Research and Treatment: 2013 Edition - Google Books. 21 June 2013. ISBN 9781481687560 ...
Achaogen's antibiotic plazomicin is effective against multidrug-resistant infections of Enterobacteriaceae. In 2016, plazomicin ... "ZEMDRI™ (plazomicin) Approved by FDA for the Treatment of Adults with Complicated Urinary Tract Infections (cUTI)". Achaogen. ... EPIC Study Group) (February 21, 2019). "Once-Daily Plazomicin for Complicated Urinary Tract Infections". New England Journal of ... demonstrated noninferiority for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a pivotal phase III trial against colistin, and against ...
October 2014). "Imaging Enterobacteriaceae infection in vivo with 18F-fluorodeoxysorbitol positron emission tomography". ... Clinically, PET has been widely used to image bacterial infections using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to identify the infection- ... Imaging infections with molecular imaging technologies can improve diagnosis and treatment follow-up. ... Three different PET contrast agents have been developed to image bacterial infections in vivo are [18F] maltose, [18F] ...
"Disparity in infection control practices for multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae". American Journal of Infection Control. 40 ... 2012 CRE Toolkit - Guidance for Control of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) CDC Healthcare-associated Infections, ... Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are Gram-negative bacteria ... Enterobacteriaceae infections: A systematic review". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 10 (1): 43-50. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(09) ...
Sequencing for Molecular Characterization of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Causing Lower Urinary Tract Infection ... July 2022). "Effects of Previous Infection and Vaccination on Symptomatic Omicron Infections". The New England Journal of ... May 2022). "Effect of mRNA Vaccine Boosters against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Infection in Qatar". The New England Journal of Medicine ... December 2021). "Waning of BNT162b2 Vaccine Protection against SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Qatar". The New England Journal of ...
The organisms causing endogenous infections are generally gram negative bacilli such as Enterobacteriaceae (i.e. Escherichia ... fungal and parasitic infections. If these types of infection are suspected, cultures should be performed and appropriate ... In addition to infections due to neutropenia, a patient with the Acute Radiation Syndrome will also be at risk for viral, ... Fungal infections can also emerge in those that fail antimicrobial therapy and stay febrile for over 7-10 days. Exogenous ...
nov., a New Member of the Family Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From a Wound Infection, Carries a Novel Quinolone Resistance Gene ... motile bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. It contains a single species, Scandinavium goeteborgense (named after the ... Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteria described in 2020, All stub articles, Bacteria stubs). ...
The hospital documented infections with carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae between November 2012 and March 2014, and in ... Infections were linked to duodenoscopes, an endoscope used during a gastroenterology procedure called ERCP that enters the ...
"Molecular mechanisms related to colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae". Infection and Drug Resistance. 12: 965-975. doi: ... "Molecular mechanisms related to colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae". Infection and Drug Resistance. 12: 965-975. doi: ... to be linked to chromosomal mutation untransferable via horizontal gene transfer in some members of family Enterobacteriaceae, ...
Enterobacteriaceae, Healthcare-associated infections, Bacteria genera). ... The majority of human Klebsiella infections are caused by K. pneumoniae, followed by K. oxytoca. Infections are more common in ... They tend to be shorter and thicker when compared to others in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The cells are rods in shape and ... K. pneumoniae is the most common cause of nosocomial respiratory tract and premature intensive care infections, and the second- ...
2019). "Molecular mechanisms related to colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae". Infection and Drug Resistance. 12: 965-975 ... On the rare occasions where infection is superficial and limited (for example, ear infections or nail infections), topical ... and also causes other blood infections. It is the most common cause of infections of burn injuries and of the outer ear (otitis ... "Infection toll for recalled eyedrops climbs to 81, including 4 deaths, CDC says". NPR. Archived from the original on 2023-05-29 ...
As of 2013 hard-to-treat or untreatable infections of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), also known as ... Infections are most frequent in people who have had recent medical and/or antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infections ... Associated with these infections were an estimated 15,000 deaths. The CDC estimates that C. difficile infection costs could ... Almost half of hospital patients who get bloodstream CRE infections die from the infection. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase ...
... of Enterobacteriaceae infections and is one of the most frequent strains associated with human infection. Virulence genes that ... Biofilm formation plays a major role in the infection rates of C. freundii demonstrating different modes of infection that ... As such, C. freundii causes a wide range of illnesses, including infections of the urinary system, respiratory tract, wounds, ... Citrobacter freundii is a species of facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae which ...
... saprophyticus infection. This is because unlike Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infections, S. saprophyticus ... Even when such an infection occurs above the neck of the bladder, low numbers of colony-forming units (less than 105 cfu/ml) ... "Understanding Bladder Infections -- the Basics". WebMD. Retrieved 4 December 2013. Jordan, P. A.; Iravani, A.; Richard, G. A.; ... S. saprophyticus causes 10-20% of urinary tract infections (UTIs). In females 17-27 years old, it is the second-most common ...
"Genomic characterization of an emerging Enterobacteriaceae species: the first case of co-infection with a typical pathogen in a ... Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 54: 108-127. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2017.06.024. ISSN 1567-1348. PMID 28658607. Ma, Yuanyuan; ... which is still included within the Kosakonia clade in the lately reviewed family of Enterobacteriaceae. The incorporation of a ... negative bacteria emerging from the grouping of isolates previously assigned to various genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae ...
... cefepime is stable and is a front-line agent when infection with Enterobacteriaceae is known or suspected.[medical citation ... Cefepime is usually reserved to treat moderate to severe nosocomial pneumonia, infections caused by multiple drug-resistant ... A particular strength is its activity against Enterobacteriaceae. Whereas other cephalosporins are degraded by many plasmid- ... a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic and has been used to treat bacteria responsible for causing pneumonia and infections ...
... desulfovibrionaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.310 - enterobacteriaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.310.229 - dysentery, ... bacteroides infections MeSH C01.252.400.126 - bartonellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.126.100 - bartonella infections MeSH ... moraxellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.560.022 - acinetobacter infections MeSH C01.252.400.610 - mycoplasmatales infections ... salmonella infections, animal MeSH C01.252.400.310.821.873 - typhoid fever MeSH C01.252.400.310.850 - serratia infections MeSH ...
Enterobacteriaceae, Infections with a predominantly sexual mode of transmission, Bacteria described in 1913, All stub articles ... doi:10.1016/S0304-5412(14)70733-4. Dixit P, Kotra LP (January 2007). "Calymmatobacterium Granulomatis Infections". In Enna SJ, ... ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0. O'Farrell N (December 2002). "Donovanosis". Sexually Transmitted Infections. 78 (6): 452-7. doi:10.1136 ...
Cases of hospital-acquired (i.e., nosocomial) infections with carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae linked to incompletely ... Other complications (less than 1%) may include heart and lung problems, infection in the bile duct called cholangitis, that can ...
Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 54: 108-127. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2017.06.024. ISSN 1567-7257. PMID 28658607. MacFaddin, ... Media related to Enterobacteriaceae at Wikimedia Commons Enterobacteriaceae genomes and related information at PATRIC, a ... Members of the Enterobacteriaceae are bacilli (rod-shaped), and are typically 1-5 μm in length. They typically appear as medium ... Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. It includes over 30 genera and more than 100 species. Its ...
These are generally B. fragilis group, Clostridium spp., Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. On the other hand, infections ... The isolates found in soft-tissue infections can vary depending on the type of infection. The infection's location and the ... infections, all deep neck space infections, parotitis, sialadenitis, thyroiditis, odontogenic infections, and postsurgical and ... Deep neck infections that develop as a consequence of oral, dental and pharyngeal infections are generally polymicrobial in ...
In Enterobacteriaceae, 28 different plasmid types can be identified by PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT).The plasmids that have ... KPC, NDM-1, VIM and OXA-48 carbapenemases have been increasingly reported worldwide as causes of hospital-acquired infections. ... Members of family Enterobacteriaceae, for example, Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae pose the biggest threat regarding ... Other ESBL enzymes originate outside of family Enterobacteriaceae, but have been spreading as well. In addition, since the ...
The most feared complication is overwhelming infection mainly by Enterobacteriaceae, particularly Salmonella (both S. typhi and ... Infection in cats is very common with a prevalence estimated between 40 and 60%, younger cats being more commonly infective. ... Chronic infection manifestations include attacks of fever and aching in some cases and persistent bacteremia in soldiers and ... In the acute phase (also known as Oroya fever or fiebre de la Oroya), B. bacilliformis infection is a sudden, potentially life- ...
If the infection is severe, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin or TMP-SMX (Bactrim). Unfortunately, ... "Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio, Campylobacter and Helicobacter". Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12- ... The term is usually restricted to Shigella infections. Shigellosis is caused by one of several types of Shigella bacteria. ... In addition, chronic arthritis secondary to S. flexneri infection, called reactive arthritis, may be caused by a bacterial ...
... infections caused by strains of multiple drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. ... Polymyxins B and E (also known as colistin) are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. They work mostly ... and as a component of triple antibiotic ointment to treat and prevent skin infections. After binding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS ... has been isolated from bacterial plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae. Polymyxins are a group of cyclic non-ribosomal polypeptide ( ...
Hospital-onset infections and deaths both increased by 15% in 2020, and significantly higher rates of infections were reported ... Diene SM, Rolain JM (September 2014). "Carbapenemase genes and genetic platforms in Gram-negative bacilli: Enterobacteriaceae, ... reduce the incidence of infection through effective sanitation, hygiene and infection prevention measures. optimize the use of ... Clinical investigation to rule out bacterial infections are often done for patients with pediatric acute respiratory infections ...
Enterobacteriaceae), subsequently avoiding detection by the host immune system and which may explain why persistent infections ... Infection of bulls with Cfv is a chronic, asymptomatic infection that leads to the development carrier bulls in the breeding ... Infection from ingestion of Cff-contaminated placenta is also a possible route of infection. Ewes that appear to be ... Infections and pregnancy loss in subsequent calving seasons is substantially less severe than the first season of infection, as ...
  • ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (a family of different types of bacteria) are a concern in healthcare settings and the community. (cdc.gov)
  • Antimicrobial resistance threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi. (paho.org)
  • New findings hint at promising strategies to prevent infections with drug-resistant bacteria by protecting or restoring the microbiome. (elifesciences.org)
  • The findings add to this evidence by showing that a healthy microbiome not only plays a crucial role in preventing or fighting off infections, but also helps reduce the spread of drug-resistant strains of harmful bacteria. (elifesciences.org)
  • Antibiotics are a key tool in treating infections with harmful bacteria, but they may also harm the microbiome. (elifesciences.org)
  • The use of antibiotics may also result in the emergence of strains of both helpful and harmful bacteria with genetic mutations that allow them to survive antibiotics," explains lead author David Smith, a PhD student at the Institut Pasteur and the CESP laboratory (Inserm/University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (USVQ)), France. (elifesciences.org)
  • We demonstrate a trade-off where antibiotics can simultaneously clear harmful bacteria and make people more susceptible to infection with those same bacteria," says co-senior author Laura Temime, Professor at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, France. (elifesciences.org)
  • Next, the team simulated how well different prevention strategies might work to stop the spread of drug-resistant bacteria, including Clostridioides difficile , methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , and multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. (elifesciences.org)
  • Their results show that precautions to prevent infections with harmful bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae can have limited benefits. (elifesciences.org)
  • The number of infections from drug-resistant bacteria in hospitals and clinics is staggering," said Fred Pritzker , a lawyer who helps patients sickened in outbreaks of hospital infections get compensation. (pritzkerlaw.com)
  • Once there is an idea where the infection is being transmitted, health officials can collect and test swabs from surfaces of that hospital or clinic for the presence of the outbreak agent (bacteria, virus, fungi or parasite). (pritzkerlaw.com)
  • The basic idea behind the plan is to limit our overuse of antibiotics, better track and understand superbug infections, and create new antibiotics, all with the aim of staving off the threat posed by drug-resistant bacteria. (vox.com)
  • It focuses on slowing the emergence of resistant bacteria and strengthening surveillance efforts of resistant infections. (vox.com)
  • Gram-negative bacteria, especially Enterobacteriaceae, is the common cause of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs[3, 5]. (researchsquare.com)
  • Infections caused by a relatively new kind of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have increased by about 700 percent among children in the United States over the last decade, according to the findings of new research. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • Ceftin is available as a generic drug and is prescribed to treat infections with susceptible bacteria including skin and middle ear infections, tonsillitis , throat infections, laryngitis , bronchitis , pneumonia , urinary tract infections, and gonorrhea . (rxlist.com)
  • Cronobacter sakazakii, a species of gram-negative bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, is known to cause severe and often fatal meningitis and sepsis in young infants. (medscape.com)
  • In that period of time, almost 110,000 children had infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae, a bacteria with many strains that have become resistant to treatment by antibiotics. (galfandberger.com)
  • Infections with bacteria of the species YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS. (ucdenver.edu)
  • These antimicrobial plastics prevent formation of harmful bacteria that can lead to infections, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin- resistant staphylococcus aureus. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is rampant among bacteria that cause healthcare- and community-acquired infections, driving up costs and increasing the difficulty of therapeutic management. (europa.eu)
  • CRE are a type of resistant bacteria that are concerning because they can spread quickly in healthcare settings and cause severe, difficult-to-treat infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Infective Endocarditis Infective endocarditis is infection of the endocardium, usually with bacteria (commonly, streptococci or staphylococci) or fungi. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Clinicians in Pacific island nations are increasingly challenged by patients who have infection due to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. (who.int)
  • DeathsAttributabletoCRE Enterobacteriaceae with susceptible isolates) were excluded, as were studies Statistical Analysis that compared patients who had carbapenem-resistant in- We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs fections with patients who were not infected. (cdc.gov)
  • During January--June 2010, three Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying a newly described resistance mechanism, the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) ( 1 ), were identified from three U.S. states at the CDC antimicrobial susceptibility laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • Current CDC infection control guidance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae also is appropriate for NDM-1--producing isolates ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This includes recognizing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae when cultured from clinical specimens, placing patients colonized or infected with these isolates in contact precautions, and in some circumstances, conducting point prevalence surveys or active-surveillance testing among other high-risk patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection control interventions aimed at preventing transmission, as outlined in current guidance ( 5 ), should be implemented when NDM-1--producing isolates are identified, even in areas where other carbapenem-resistance mechanisms are common among Enterobacteriaceae . (cdc.gov)
  • Evaluation of Delafloxacin Activity and Treatment Outcome for Phase 3 Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infection Clinical Trial Anaerobic Isolates, D. Shortridge et al. (globenewswire.com)
  • To characterize the genomic context of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), we sequenced 78 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Pakistan and the United States encoding KPC, NDM-1, or no carbapenemase. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to characterise the molecular mechanism of resistance in the clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae causing bacteremia and showing resistance to β-lactams, including carbapenems. (omicsonline.org)
  • We examined the clinical data from patients with CPE infections and their outcomes, concentrating on Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this work, we studied the antimicrobial resistance and performed a comparative genomics analysis of ten CR- Kp isolates from the Chilean surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae . (biorxiv.org)
  • Infections caused by isolates of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae that are resistant to nearly all available antimicrobial agents are difficult to treat and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. (clsi.org)
  • In contrast to serine carbapenemase (eg, KPC)- producers, isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that produce metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) are the most challenging, as these are resistant to meropenem-vaborbactam and ceftazidime-avibactam, the newest beta-lactam combination agents. (clsi.org)
  • However, isolates of Enterobacteriaceae with MBLs (eg, NDM, VIM, and IMP) have been shown to be susceptible to a combination of ceftazidime + avibactam + aztreonam. (clsi.org)
  • Surveillance data indicate that MICs of MBL-producing isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n = 580) ranged from ≤ 0.015/4 to 8/4 μg/mL. (clsi.org)
  • All these efforts would help reduce the incidence of superbugs, the administration said, including Clostridium difficile, hospital-acquired Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. (vox.com)
  • The goal of this clinical trial is to propose a seamless intervention linking rapid bacterial isolate identification and antibiotic resistance gene detection and targeted antibiotic prescription to minimise time between infection onset and appropriate treatment in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or carbapenemase producing Enterobacterales infections. (pfizerclinicaltrials.com)
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is most often caused by Escherichia coli or other gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, and typically affects men 36 to 50 years of age. (medscape.com)
  • However, some patients may have bacterial infection despite negative urine cultures. (medscape.com)
  • Both classic-pathway and alternate-pathway complement activation have been described, but the latter, which does not require the presence of immunoglobulins directed against bacterial antigens, appears to be the more active pathway in K pneumoniae infections. (medscape.com)
  • Outcomes in Patients with History of Cardiac or Vascular Disease (CV) During Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infection (ABSSSI) with Delafloxacin (DLX) vs Vancomycin/Aztreonam (VAN/AZ), G. Oguchi Et Al. (globenewswire.com)
  • Resolution of Signs and Symptoms (S&S) of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections (ABSSSI) with Delafloxacin (DLX) IV/oral therapy, J. Pullman et al. (globenewswire.com)
  • Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. is the largest pure-play antibiotics company, dedicated to saving lives threatened by the global public health crisis of bacterial infections through the development and commercialization of novel antibiotics that provide new therapeutic solutions. (globenewswire.com)
  • Colistin, introduced in the 1950s, is used to treat multidrug resistant bacterial infections known as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). (imperialvalleynews.com)
  • Antibiotics, which are used to treat bacterial infections such as pneumonia, won't help viral illnesses, such as colds, flu and most sore throats. (imperialvalleynews.com)
  • Patients can be severely sickened, or even die, from bacterial and fungal infections. (pritzkerlaw.com)
  • It also calls for rewarding the development of rapid diagnostic tests that can help differentiate bacterial infections that need the drugs from viral ones that don't, as well as advancing research for developing new drugs. (vox.com)
  • Acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. (researchsquare.com)
  • Preclinical studies of SPR741 in combination with Gram-positive antibiotics have shown success in reducing the bacterial burden of infections caused by several common drug-resistant pathogens, including Escherichia coli , Acinetobacter baumannii , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . (genengnews.com)
  • The severely immune-compromised patient is prone to fungal as well as bacterial blood stream infections. (hindawi.com)
  • Spero Therapeutics , a Cambridge, Mass.-based biopharmaceutical company that develops novel therapies to treat bacterial infections, completed a $51.7m Series C financing. (finsmes.com)
  • The company intends to use the proceeds to advance its pipeline of antibacterials focused on drug-resistant bacterial infections and, specifically, to move additional pipeline programs such as SPR994 into the clinic and advance its Potentiator program into later stage clinical trials. (finsmes.com)
  • Led by Ankit Mahadevia, M.D., President and Chief Executive Officer, Spero is a global multi-asset clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to developing a novel pipeline of antibacterials focused on patients with drug resistant bacterial infections. (finsmes.com)
  • Enterobacter infections do not have a clinical presentation that is specific enough to differentiate them from other acute bacterial infections. (medscape.com)
  • The increasing prevalence and severity of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens, particularly MDR Enterobacteriaceae, and the meager pipeline of novel antibiotic therapies in development to treat gram-negative infections (GNIs) have resulted in limited treatment options for an increasing number of patients. (clarivate.com)
  • 2] In recent years, klebsiellae have become important pathogens in nosocomial infections. (medscape.com)
  • Predicting Carbapenem Resistance Among Gram-Negative Pathogens in Complicated Urinary Tract Infections, M. Zilberberg Et Al. (globenewswire.com)
  • Infections secondary to these pathogens are widely common but multidrug resistance (MDR) in Enterobacterales has become a significant challenge with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of management. (frontiersin.org)
  • The growing number of resistant pathogens is a concern for the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections. (who.int)
  • Risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant pathogens include antibiotic therapy within the preceding 90 days, a high incidence of antibiotic resistance in the community or facility, chronic hemodialysis, and immunosuppression. (aafp.org)
  • The growing number of against uropathogens in a hospital in the Islamic Republic resistant pathogens is a concern for the empirical treat- of Iran and examine if antibiotic resistance differed ment of urinary tract infections. (who.int)
  • We evaluated the number of deaths attributable to care facilities around the world ( 6 - 13 ), and in some plac- carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae by using studies es, CRE have become endemic ( 14 - 18 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Serious concur- fromaroundtheworldpublishedbeforeApril9,2012.At- rent conditions ( 3 , 4 , 19 - 22 ) and prior use of fluoroquino- tributabledeathwasdefinedasthedifferenceinall-cause lones ( 20 , 23 , 24 ), carbapenems ( 22 , 25 ), or broad-spectrum deaths between patients with carbapenem-resistant infec- cephalosporins ( 20 , 22 ) have been independently associated tions and those with carbapenem-susceptible infections. (cdc.gov)
  • We performed a systematic search in the PubMed arbapenem-resistant strains have emerged among spe- (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) and Scopus cies belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • LaPlante conducted study regarding the role of daptomycin in the treatment of resistant Gram-positive infections, including skin and skin-structure infections resulted from surgery, diabetic foot ulcers, and burns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant strains have emerged among species belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. (cdc.gov)
  • Several outbreaks caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae , or CRE, have been recorded in health care facilities around the world, and in some places, CRE have become endemic. (cdc.gov)
  • Apart from empirical treatment, the antibiotics used for treatment might be less effective against carbapenem-resistant infections as well. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical Trial for Blood Stream Infections, Ventilator Associated Pneumonia, Healthcare Associated Infection, Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infection and Hospital-acquired Pneumonia. (pfizerclinicaltrials.com)
  • The timing of and risk factors for intestinal colonization with multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDRE) are still poorly understood in areas with high MDRE carriage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enterobacteriaceae were isolated and identified as MDRE (positive for extended-spectrum β-lactamases or carbapenem resistant) using standard microbiologic procedures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • And if you have a new antibiotic, you do really want to hold it in reserve for those resistant infections. (bioedonline.org)
  • Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of NDM-1--producing Enterobacteriaceae in patients who have received medical care in India and Pakistan, and should specifically inquire about this risk factor when carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are identified. (cdc.gov)
  • Guidance for control of infections with carbapenem-resistant or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in acute care facilities. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) has been removed from the 2023 NNDSS tables, because it has been replaced with CPO. (cdc.gov)
  • Meropenem/Vaborbactam versus Ceftazidime/Avibactam for Treatment of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections, R. Ackley et al. (globenewswire.com)
  • Meropenem/Vaborbactam in Patients with Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative Blood Stream Infection: A Case Series, S. Alosaimy et al. (globenewswire.com)
  • Community-acquired antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CA-ARE) are an increasingly important issue around the world. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, since it is a global public health problem involving several sectors, it also requires a global solution in the context of the One Health approach to achieve adequate control through the prevention, reduction, and mitigation of drug-resistant infections. (who.int)
  • The cost of health care for patients with resistant infections is higher than care for patients with non-resistant infections due to longer duration of illness, additional tests and use of more expensive drugs. (paho.org)
  • Regular monitoring of resistant organisms is essential and can reduce mortality, hospital admissions and the cost of health care for treatment of such infections (2-5). (who.int)
  • CDC through the AR Lab Network plans to expand testing as new or novel antimicrobial treatment options become available for serious infections caused by multi-drug resistant organisms. (clsi.org)
  • One such infection is carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), which has a mortality rate of about 50 percent in hospitalized patients who become infected. (acsh.org)
  • The plan is a response to growing evidence that drug-resistant - or "superbug" - infections could undo many of the advances of modern medicine and agriculture. (vox.com)
  • Money would also flow to states to establish and strengthen programs that monitor drug-resistant infections, and new DNA databanks to trace their sources. (vox.com)
  • The multiplex pneumonia panel will be used in trials for a drug to combat carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infections. (genomeweb.com)
  • SPR741, also called Potentiator, is a Phase I candidate that uses a platform approach to combination therapy in order to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections such as Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii , including carbapenem-resistant strains. (genengnews.com)
  • SPR741 is designed to increase the spectrum and potency of more than two dozen classes of Gram-positive antibiotics to include activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections when used in combination. (genengnews.com)
  • In a study published last week in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society , researchers indicate that multidrug-resistant Gram-negative enteric (MDR-GNE) Enterobacteriaceae , which is an especially hard to treat type of infection, is increasingly being found outside of the hospital among children. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • They focused on the proportion of children aged 0 to 18 who were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative enteric (MDR-GNE) Enterobacteriaceae between January 1, 2007, and March 31, 2015. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • The data included more than 107,000 discharges for the drug-resistant infection. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • More than 700 were MDR-GNE infections, a strain of Enterobacteriaceae that has become resistant to multiple types of antibiotics used to treat the infection. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • An estimated 1 in 7 hospital acquired infections are antibiotic resistant . (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • Concern arose earlier this year over the reprocessing of duodenoscopes after an outbreak of deadly carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections at UCLA Ronald Reagan Medical Center . (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • The hospital reported that two patients had died and several had been sickened by the antibiotic-resistant infections, and sent warning letters to 180 patients that could have been exposed. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • SPR741, also called Potentiator, is a platform approach to combination therapy to treat serious and life-threatening multi-drug resistant gram negative infections, such as Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumanii, including carbapenem resistant strains. (finsmes.com)
  • Spero Therapeutics also has a preclinical pipeline including SPR720, which is a preclinical oral asset for nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease, a rare and often chronic fatal infection, and a variety of other discovery antimicrobials focused on drug-resistant infections. (finsmes.com)
  • A new study published in the Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society revealed a staggering statistic: 3 out of 5 children under 18-years-old who are admitted to hospitals already have an infection that is resistant to treatment by antibiotics. (galfandberger.com)
  • Instead, the bacterium becomes resistant to treatment and continues to multiply and spread inside the body, causing more serious medical problems that can lead to dangerous infections and death. (galfandberger.com)
  • Vietnam has adapted established infection prevention and control (IPC) measures for limited-resource settings to help stop the spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), identified as an urgent antimicrobial resistance (AR) threat in CDC's 2019 AR Threats Report . (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has expanded its guidelines for preventing the spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). (medscape.com)
  • We sought to evaluate the impact of this change on antibiotic use among 181 inpatients with vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infections. (bvsalud.org)
  • Escherichia coli is a gram-negative rod that is found as a normal commensal in the GI tract, which can produce ocular infection including corneal ulcer and endophthalmitis, which can result in a devastating outcome. (medscape.com)
  • For example, Escherichia coliurinary tract infections, and respiratory infections by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae may not respond to antibiotics commonly used and require the use of more complex and expensive treatments. (paho.org)
  • These strains often cause more are called community-associated infections. (cdc.gov)
  • In Chile, although a sustained increase in CR- Kp infections has been observed, few strains have been described at the genomic level, lacking molecular details of their resistance and virulence determinants and the mobile elements mediating their dissemination. (biorxiv.org)
  • Emergence and global spread of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are of great concern in healthcare settings. (omicsonline.org)
  • Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) causing bacteremia is of great clinical concern. (omicsonline.org)
  • Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have continually grown as a global public health threat, with significant mortality rates observed across the world. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), which have increased worldwide in number to become a significant clinical problem over the last decade, are associated with high morbidity and mortality [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, a significant difference in death rates was not detected between the 2 compared groups in studies reporting on patients with undetermined infections, patients with infections other than bacteremia, or patients among whom the percentage of bacteremia cases was low. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, it could be suggested that the higher rate of death among patients with CRE infections, compared with CSE infections, is due to the higher rate of death among patients with bacteremia caused by CRE. (cdc.gov)
  • Additional and larger studies reporting on infections other than bacteremia could elucidate this issue. (cdc.gov)
  • Since colonization is a precursor to infections such as bacteremia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection, preventing MDRE colonization is an infection control priority. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In her laboratory, LaPlante particularly studies biofilms in context of clinical infections, and focuses on the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections in Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary hypothesis is that these interventions will lead to improved clinical outcomes amongst patients with hospital-acquired bloodstream infection, hospital-acquired pneumonia or ventilator-associated pneumonia due to carbapenem non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Enterobacterales, compared to standard antibiotic susceptibility testing. (pfizerclinicaltrials.com)
  • Several studies have provided data regarding clinical iesmetinclusioncriteria:6retrospectivecase-controlstud- outcomes for CRE infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Data shows infections by epidemiological classification (the setting where patients most likely got the infection based on clinical information). (cdc.gov)
  • Several studies have provided data regarding clinical outcomes for CRE infections. (cdc.gov)
  • There are few published clinical data available on the effectiveness of colistin, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and gentamicin (which are likely to be active in vitro against CRE) for the treatment of CSE infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The clinical characteristics of 33 hospitalised patients with confirmed CPE, including patient-related factors associated with the development of CPE infections, were examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical Consultation Service for Health-Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Initially, clinical findings lead to the suspicion of infection. (medscape.com)
  • Pneumonia is the second most common cause of infection in nursing home residents, and is associated with notable morbidity and mortality. (aafp.org)
  • However, in severe cases of nursing home-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization and mechanical ventilation, the rates of infection with Staphylococcus aureus and enteric gram-negative organisms appear to exceed those of S. pneumoniae . (aafp.org)
  • Nursing home-acquired pneumonia can also be caused by viral infection ( Table 1 5 - 12 ). (aafp.org)
  • In endogenous endophthalmitis, urinary tract infection was the most common primary site of infection and nearly all patients are diabetic. (medscape.com)
  • Urinary tract infection is one of the most common infections and its treatment is complicated by the emergence of antibiotic resistance. (who.int)
  • Urinary tract infection is one of the most prevalent infections. (who.int)
  • It is vital to study the resistance patterns of organisms in community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections so that physicians can find reliable alternative treatments for hospitalized patients with urinary tract infection. (who.int)
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases with worldwide health threatening. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tract infections so that physicians can find reliable alternative treatments for hospitalized patients with Enterobacteriaceae are the organisms most commonly urinary tract infection. (who.int)
  • Pathogen Type and Inappropriate Empiric Therapy (IET) in Culture-Positive Skin and Soft Tissue Infection (SSS) among Hospitalized Patients in the U.S., 2015-2017, S. Cammarata et al. (globenewswire.com)
  • In this context, the goal of our study was to evaluate the number of deaths attributable to CRE infections by conducting a systematic review and metaanalysis of the available data. (cdc.gov)
  • METHODS: We did a systematic review for studies on anal HPV infection in men and a pooled analysis of individual-level data from eligible studies across four groups: HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-negative MSM, HIV-positive men who have sex with women (MSW), and HIV-negative MSW. (bvsalud.org)
  • American Society for Enhanced Recovery (ASER) and Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI) joint consensus statement on prevention of postoperative infection within an enhanced recovery pathway for elective colorectal surgery. (bmj.com)
  • Without effective antimicrobials for prevention and treatment of infections, medical procedures such as organ transplantation, cancer chemotherapy, diabetes management and major surgery (for example, cesarean sections or hip replacements) become very high risk. (paho.org)
  • However, during those 10 years in that challenging context, difficulties in infection prevention and control but also ensuring patients and healthcare workers safety, took me to want to contribute to the resolution of these problems. (cienciavitae.pt)
  • Joining the PhD in Occupational Safety and Health is a hard attempt to contribute to increasing knowledge on Infection Prevention and Control strategies in the context of antimicrobial resistance. (cienciavitae.pt)
  • Journal of Infection Prevention 0 0 (2022): 1-19. (cienciavitae.pt)
  • A CDC-supported initiative at The University Medical Center Ho Chi Minh City (UMC) in Vietnam that used IPC quality improvement (QI) strategies to reduce CRE colonization and infection in a general intensive care unit (ICU) demonstrates the positive impact that IPC activities can have on CRE prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • With CDC's support, the QI CRE prevention activities began in September 2019, with the goal to decrease the number of patients newly diagnosed with CRE infection or colonization in the ICU by 50% over one year. (cdc.gov)
  • The following are components of a hospital infection outbreak investigation by local and state health investigators and the CDC, which is called in to investigate certain localized outbreaks and is always involved in multistate outbreaks. (pritzkerlaw.com)
  • The medical device manufacturer Olympus says it has developed a new method for cleaning certain endoscopes, which have been linked to a number of infection outbreaks at hospitals in recent months and years that have been blamed on an inability to properly sanitize the medical devices, even when following the manufacturer's instructions. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • Following the recent infection outbreaks, the FDA warned about problems cleaning duodenoscopes , indicating that even when doctors and health care professionals follow the recommended cleaning steps, patients may still face a risk of infections. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • 13 , 14 Physicians should suspect viral etiologies from late fall through early spring, and whenever outbreaks of respiratory infection occur. (aafp.org)
  • These infections are difficult to treat and associated with high morbidity and mortality [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CPE infections are also associated with high mortality of 26%-44% [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Laboratory identification of the carbapenem- resistance mechanism is not necessary to guide treatment or infection control practices but should instead be used for surveillance and epidemiologic purposes. (cdc.gov)
  • severe infections and spread more easily. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbapenems are last-resort antibiotics for treating severe infections caused by MDR Enterobacteriaceae [ 3 ]. (biorxiv.org)
  • Knowledge of the pattern of antibiotic resistance prevalent in severe infections could also motivate and direct new drug discovery. (hindawi.com)
  • Doxycycline is the treatment of choice for acute Q fever, and 2 weeks of treatment is recommended for adults, children aged 8 years or older, and for severe infections in patients of any age. (medscape.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship interventions utilizing real-time alerting through the electronic medical record enable timely implementation of the bundle of care (BOC) for patients with severe infections, such as candidemia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antimicrobial resistance impacts the treatment of community-acquired infections. (paho.org)
  • Poor infection control, inadequate sanitary conditions, and inappropriate food-handling encourage the spread of antimicrobial resistance. (paho.org)
  • The main actions that contribute to the containment of antimicrobial resistance are appropriate prescribing, community education, monitoring of resistance and health-care-associated infections, and compliance with legislation on the use and dispensation of antimicrobials. (paho.org)
  • In order to ensure the long-term sustainability of country-level actions to combat antimicrobial resistance and build resilient systems to prevent and treat infections at scale, countries would benefit from integrating antimicrobial resistance initiatives in their national strategies for universal health coverage and health security. (who.int)
  • She found out that certain antimicrobial alone and or in combination effect high-inoculum Staphylococcus aureus infections differently. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1] Patients may present with a history of relapsing urinary tract infections (UTIs), which may be episodic or persistent. (medscape.com)
  • The UTIs are typically not associated with systemic signs of infection. (medscape.com)
  • it refers to patients with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) suggesting a prostate nidus of infection. (medscape.com)
  • 100,000 -pr carbapenem antibiotics to treat infections that used to be treated with oral antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
  • Government efforts are under way to promote the development of novel antibiotics to treat these infections, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America's proposed Limited Population Antibacterial Drug (LPAD) approval pathway. (clarivate.com)
  • Young children, the elderly, individuals with compromised immune systems, and those on antibiotics to treat their E. coli infection are most at risk. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Community-associated infection (47%) (genes) between different Enterobacteriaceae species. (cdc.gov)
  • Investigators showed higher rates of infection in experimental mice deficient in the genes that control expression of these 2 agents. (medscape.com)
  • The genus Klebsiella belongs to the tribe Klebsiellae, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae.The organisms are named after Edwin Klebs, a 19th century German microbiologist. (medscape.com)
  • The use of imipenem and amikacin instead of traditional first-line empirical therapy (fluoroquinolone and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim) is advised for hospitalized patients with urinary tract infections. (who.int)
  • Examples of misuse include when they are taken by people with viral infections like colds and flu, and when they are given as growth promoters in animals or used to prevent diseases in healthy animals. (paho.org)
  • There are several situations, such as viral upper respiratory infections, where we see a lot of antibiotic overuse, in some part due to the expectations from patients to be given an antibiotic. (imperialvalleynews.com)
  • Of these infections, E coli is rare a cause. (medscape.com)
  • Corneal infection due to E coli produce indolent corneal ulcers with poor prognosis because most of these patients of have an underlying immunocompromised disorder or have abnormal corneal surface with compromised protective barrier. (medscape.com)
  • E coli may be seen as a source of infection in ophthalmia neonatorum in neonates. (medscape.com)
  • Staying hydrated and getting plenty of rest are key when treating E. coli infection. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Not all E. coli infections impact the body in the same way, so not all E. coli infections are treated the same way. (everydayhealth.com)
  • For intestinal E. coli infections, what a person doesn't do to treat symptoms is as important as what that person does do. (everydayhealth.com)
  • For instance, intestinal E. coli infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli , or STEC - which spurs an estimated 265,000 foodborne infections each year in the United States - does not require antibiotic treatment. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Those who have HUS will initially experience symptoms similar to an E.coli intestinal infection, including vomiting, fatigue, and bloody diarrhea. (everydayhealth.com)
  • In the United Kingdom, where these organisms are increasingly common, carriage of Enterobacteriaceae containing bla NDM-1 has been closely linked to receipt of medical care in India and Pakistan ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Resistance patterns of organisms differ between community-acquired and hospital-associated urinary tract infections. (who.int)
  • Enterobacter lower respiratory tract infections can manifest identically to those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or other organisms. (medscape.com)
  • However, a majority of lower income countries do not have microbiological diagnostic testing for prompt, reliable confirmation of bloodstream infection and identification of AMR. (who.int)
  • Entasis is also developing an antibiotic targeting Neisseria gonorrhoeae and one targeting Enterobacteriaceae infections causing complications in urinary tract infections, the latter project having been funded by CARB-X , as well as developing a novel class of antibiotics targeting gram-negative infections. (genomeweb.com)
  • Blood stream infection (BSI) is one of the most devastating preventable complications in Critical Care Units. (hindawi.com)
  • Longer hospital stays increase the risk of medical complications and infection, often due to exposure. (galfandberger.com)
  • They represent about 15% of all nosocomial infections and affect approximately 1% of all hospitalized patients [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Orthopedic infections, such as septic arthritis, prosthetic joint infections, and osteomyelitis, are often challenging to diagnose and manage. (medscape.com)
  • This article provides an overview of diagnosis and management of septic arthritis, prosthetic joint infections, and osteomyelitis. (medscape.com)
  • Conditionally Gata3-deficient mice had no lymph nodes and were susceptible to Citrobactor rodentium infection. (nih.gov)
  • Availability of iron increases host susceptibility to K pneumoniae infection. (medscape.com)
  • These infections most commonly occur in patients who are debilitated, immunocompromised, or diabetic or in corneas with an underlying pathologic condition. (medscape.com)
  • It is most commonly seen as a source of infection in ophthalmia neonatorum. (medscape.com)
  • Now it is found commonly in the community and is the toughest infection to treat. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is an opportunistic infection that usually affects the lower respiratory tract and is caused by inhaling spores of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus , commonly present in. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, the lack of diagnostic tools for early detection of candidemia and other fungal infections limits the number of studies on this issue. (hindawi.com)
  • Comparisons of 30-Day Admission and 30-Day Total Healthcare Costs Between Patients Who Were Treated With Oritavancin (ORI) or Vancomycin (VAN) for a Skin Infection in the Outpatient Setting, T. Lodise et al. (globenewswire.com)
  • These infections healthcare settings. (cdc.gov)
  • Serious concurrent conditions and prior use of fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, or broad-spectrum cephalosporins have been independently associated with acquisition of infections caused by CRE. (cdc.gov)
  • The Surgical Infection Society revised guidelines on the management of intra-abdominal infection. (bmj.com)
  • Diagnosis and management of complicated intra-abdominal infection in adults and children: guidelines by the Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (bmj.com)
  • Intra-abdominal infections. (bmj.com)