A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A family of gram-negative bacteria whose members predominate in the bacterial flora of PLANKTON; FISHES; and SEAWATER. Some members are important pathogens for humans and animals.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.
Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. It is found in FOOD; SOIL; and SEWAGE; and is an opportunistic pathogen of humans.
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
The destruction of germs causing disease.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.
Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
The type species for the genus HAFNIA. It is distinguished from other biochemically similar bacteria by its lack of acid production on media containing sucrose. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Gram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infections
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
Infection within the PERITONEAL CAVITY. A frequent cause is an ANASTOMOTIC LEAK following surgery.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial fluoroquinolone. The drug strongly inhibits the DNA-supercoiling activity of DNA GYRASE.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Antibiotic produced by Micromonospora inyoensis. It is closely related to gentamicin C1A, one of the components of the gentamicin complex (GENTAMICINS).
A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.
Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.
An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.

UK-18892, a new aminoglycoside: an in vitro study. (1/3467)

UK-18892 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, a derivative of kanamycin A structurally related to amikacin. It was found to be active against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. The spectrum and degree of activity of UK-18892 were similar to those of amikacin, and differences were relatively minor. UK-18892 was about twice as active as amikacin against gentamicin-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both amikacin and UK-18892 were equally active against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There were no appreciable differences in the activity of UK-18892 and amikacin against Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cross-resistance between these two antimicrobials was also apparent.  (+info)

Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans. (2/3467)

BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. AIMS: To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. METHODS: Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily. RESULTS: A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0. 05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora.  (+info)

Sodalis gen. nov. and Sodalis glossinidius sp. nov., a microaerophilic secondary endosymbiont of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans. (3/3467)

A secondary intracellular symbiotic bacterium was isolated from the haemolymph of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans and cultured in Aedes albopictus cell line C6/36. Pure-culture isolation of this bacterium was achieved through the use of solid-phase culture under a microaerobic atmosphere. After isolation of strain M1T, a range of tests was performed to determine the phenotypic properties of this bacterium. Considering the results of these tests, along with the phylogenetic position of this micro-organism, it is proposed that this intracellular symbiont from G. m. morsitans should be classified in a new genus Sodalis gen. nov., as Sodalis glossinidius gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain M1T is the type strain for this new species.  (+info)

High turnover rate of Escherichia coli strains in the intestinal flora of infants in Pakistan. (4/3467)

The Escherichia coli flora of infants in developed countries is dominated by one or a few strains which persist for prolonged periods of time, but no longitudinal studies have been performed in developing countries. To this end, we studied the rectal enterobacterial flora in 22 home-delivered Pakistani infants during their first 6 months of life. Three colonies were isolated and species typed on each of 11 sampling occasions. E. coli isolates were strain typed using electromorphic typing of cytoplasmic enzymes, and their O serogroups were determined. There was a very rapid turnover of enterobacterial strains in the rectal flora of individual infants. On average, 8.5 different E. coli strains were found per infant, and several biotypes of other enterobacteria. Less than 50% of the infants were colonized with E. coli from their mothers, but strains of maternal origin were four times more likely to persists in the infants' flora than other E. coli strains. Enterobacteria other than E. coli were always of non-maternal origin, and Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae biotypes recovered from contaminated feeds were later identified in the infants' rectal flora. An early colonization with klebsiella or enterobacter was significantly associated with diarrhoea during the neonatal period, although these bacteria were not likely to be the cause of the disease. The results suggest that poor hygienic conditions result in an unstable and diverse enterobacterial flora, which may influence infant health.  (+info)

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (5/3467)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

Use of an isogenic Escherichia coli panel to design tests for discrimination of beta-lactamase functional groups of Enterobacteriaceae. (6/3467)

A study was designed to determine if an isogenic panel of Escherichia coli strains containing many different beta-lactamases could be used for the preliminary screening of a large number of beta-lactam agents to identify which might be most useful in the development of a definitive test for specific beta-lactamases found among the members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The susceptibilities of 46 strains, comprising the isogenic panel, to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, cephamycins, and aztreonam were determined in the presence and absence of beta-lactamase inhibitors in broth microdilution tests. The results indicated that strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) could be distinguished from strains producing other Bush-Jacoby-Medeiros functional group 2 or group 1 beta-lactamases. For strains producing group 1 beta-lactamases, cefpodoxime and ceftazidime MICs were > or = 4 micrograms/ml and addition of clavulanate did not reduce the MICs more than fourfold. For strains producing group 2 enzymes other than ESBLs, cefpodoxime and ceftazidime MICs were < or = 2 micrograms/ml. With a single exception (ceftazidime for the strain producing SHV-3), among strains producing ESBLs, cefpodoxime and ceftazidime MICs were > or = 4 micrograms/ml and addition of clavulanate reduced the MICs by more than eightfold. Cephamycins could also be used to discriminate between strains producing group 1 beta-lactamases and ESBLs, since only the former required cefotetan concentrations as high as 8 micrograms/ml or cefoxitin concentrations of > 16 micrograms/ml for inhibition. Other cephalosporins provided some discrimination between the various beta-lactamase producers, although they were not as reliable as either cefpodoxime or ceftazidime. These results indicate the utility of an isogenic panel for identification of candidate drugs among many for further testing with clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae to determine the best agents for detection of specific beta-lactamases in this family.  (+info)

Many class I integrons comprise distinct stable structures occurring in different species of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from widespread geographic regions in Europe. (7/3467)

Three sizes of inserted regions of DNA (800, 1,000, and 1,500 bp) were shown to be common among class I integrons in unrelated clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from different European hospitals. Sequencing showed that 800-bp inserted regions comprised identical sequences including aacA4, that 1,000-bp inserted regions included aadA, and that 1,500-bp inserted regions included dfrI and aadA1, irrespective of host species and geographic origin. In addition promoter sequences were mostly identical for each size class. These data suggest that inserted gene cassettes and promoter regions of integrons are conserved and stable, with resistance genes transferred more often as part of the entire integron structure than as individual gene cassettes.  (+info)

Functional importance and local environments of the cysteines in the tetracycline resistance protein encoded by plasmid pBR322. (8/3467)

The properties of the cysteines in the pBR322-encoded tetracycline resistance protein have been examined. Cysteines are important but not essential for tetracycline transport activity. None of the cysteines reacted with biotin maleimide, suggesting that they are shielded from the aqueous phase or reside in a negatively charged local environment.  (+info)

Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).]. Case of NDM-1 Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae under CHP investigation. The Public Health Laboratory Services Branch (PHLSB) of the Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health confirmed today (October 16) a case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a 25-year-old man.. The patient, with good past health, lived in Hong Kong. He travelled to Guangdong Province on September 21 and sustained a severe head injury in a traffic accident on September 27. He was admitted to a local hospital and subsequently transferred to Prince of Wales Hospital for further management on October 4. The patient passed away on October 7.. The patients rectal swab yielded NDM-1 Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae as confirmed by the PHLSB.. His travel collaterals and home contacts are asymptomatic. The case has been referred to the coroner for further ...
The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with ...
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections. They are resistant because they produce an enzyme called a carbapenemase that disables the drug molecule. The resistance can vary from moderate to severe. Enterobacteriaceae are common commensals and infectious agents. Experts fear CRE as the new superbug. The bacteria can kill up to half of patients who get bloodstream infections. Tom Frieden, former head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has referred to CRE as nightmare bacteria. Types of CRE are sometimes known as KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) and NDM (New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase). KPC and NDM are enzymes that break down carbapenems and make them ineffective. Both of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme VIM (Verona Integron-Mediated Metallo-β-lactamase) have also been ...
Infections with carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) are associated with high mortality rates (1). Carbapenemases encoded on plasmids can move between bacterial strains and have the potential to rapidly increase the proportion of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems; as such, CP-CRE have been a particular focus of public health response. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family includes approximately 50 recognized genera, surveillance for CP-CRE has focused on the organisms most associated with clinical infections: Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Escherichia coli (2,3). CRE from other, less commonly encountered genera (hereafter referred to as less common genera) have generally not been targeted for carbapenemase testing, in part, because some of these organisms possess intrinsic resistance to the carbapenem imipenem and others express species-specific chromosomal carbapenemases. However, these organisms can also harbor plasmid-mediated ...
BACKGROUND: Ceftaroline is a novel oxyimino-cephalosporin, strongly active against methicillin-resistant staphylococci and pneumococci. It is active against Enterobacteriaceae too, but is labile to common beta-lactamases, including AmpC and extended-spectrum types. To counteract these enzymes, ceftaroline is also being developed combined with NXL104, a beta-lactamase inhibitor.. METHODS: Chequerboard MIC titrations were performed to determine the NXL104 concentrations needed to protect ceftaroline against beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, most of them with ceftaroline MICs ,16 mg/L.. RESULTS: All of 60 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers were susceptible to ceftaroline + NXL104, 1 + 1 mg/L, as were 5/5 Klebsiella oxytoca with high-level K1 enzyme. Among 30 Enterobacteriaceae with high-level chromosomal AmpC, 18 were susceptible at 1 + 1 mg/L, 28 at 1 + 4 mg/L and all at 4 + 4 mg/L; among 10 with plasmid AmpC enzymes, nine were susceptible at 1 + 1 mg/L and all at 1 + 4 ...
The Enterobacteriaceae are a family of rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria that normally inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are the most common cause of Gram-negative bacterial infections in humans. In addition to causing serious multidrug-resistant, hospital-acquired infections, a number of Enterobacteriaceae species are also recognized as biothreat pathogens. As a consequence, new tools are urgently needed to specifically identify and localize infections due to Enterobacteriaceae and to monitor antimicrobial efficacy. In this report, we used commercially available 2-[(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) to produce 2-[(18)F]-fluorodeoxysorbitol ((18)F-FDS), a radioactive probe for Enterobacteriaceae, in 30 min. (18)F-FDS selectively accumulated in Enterobacteriaceae, but not in Gram-positive bacteria or healthy mammalian or cancer cells in vitro. In a murine myositis model, (18)F-FDS positron emission tomography (PET) rapidly differentiated true infection from sterile inflammation with a limit of
Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a growing concern worldwide. Raoultella ornithinolytica is a species in the Enterobacteriaceae family which can cause hospital-acquired infections and is sporadically reported as carbapenem-resistant from human and environmental sources. In this study, we firstly report on an NDM-1-producing R. ornithinolytica, Rao166, isolated from drinking water in an animal cultivation area in China. In addition to carbapenem-resistance, Rao166 was resistant to several other antibiotics including gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracycline and fosfomycin. Rao166 carried a novel IncFIC-type megaplasmid, 382,325 bp in length (pRAO166a). A multidrug resistance region, 60,600 bp in length, was identified in the plasmid containing an aac(3)-IId-like gene, aac(6)-Ib-cr, blaDHA-1, blaTEM-1B, blaCTX-M-3, blaOXA-1, blaNDM-1, qnrB4, catB3, arr-3, sul1, and tet(D). Results from virulence assays implied that Rao166 has considerable pathogenic ...
Salad vegetables purchased from farmers markets and grocery stores in central Ohio during the summers of 2015 and 2016 were tested for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems, Salmonella contamination, and coliform bacterial counts. A total of 364 samples were collected from 36 farmers markets and 33 grocery stores. Using selective media, we found 23 (6.3%) samples that produced Enterobacteriaceae expressing an AmpC β-lactamase phenotype, with 11 (3.0%) confirmed to contain blaCMY and 6 (1.6%) that produced Enterobacteriaceae with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype, 1 (0.3%) of which was confirmed to contain blaCTX-M. All blaCMY and blaCTX-M strains were isolated from leafy greens. No Salmonella spp. or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from fresh produce samples. Adjusting for year, the geometric mean coliform count differed (P , 0.05) between produce types, with the count in tomatoes (15 CFU/mL) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification and screening of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. AU - Nordmann, P.. AU - Gniadkowski, M.. AU - Giske, C. G.. AU - Poirel, L.. AU - Woodford, N.. AU - Miriagou, V.. AU - Akova, M.. AU - Naas, T.. AU - Seifert, H.. AU - Livermore, D.. AU - Bogaerts, P.. AU - Glupczynski, Y.. AU - Canton, R.. AU - Rossolini, G. M.. AU - Giske, C.. AU - Adler, A.. AU - Carmeli, Y.. AU - Navon-Venezia, S.. AU - Samuelsen, O.. AU - Cornaglia, G.. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamases are the most powerful β-lactamases, being able to hydrolyse almost all β-lactams. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM and OXA-48 types. Their current extensive spread worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae is an important source of concern, as these carbapenemase producers are multidrug-resistant. Detection of infected patients and of carriers are the two main approaches for prevention of their spread. Phenotypic and molecular-based techniques are able to identify ...
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are rapidly spreading worldwide. Early detection of fecal CPE carriers is essential for effective infection control. Here, we evaluated the performance of a meropenem combined disk test (CDT) for rapidly differentiating CPE isolates directly from rectal swabs. The screening method was applied for 189 rectal swabs from hospitalized patients at high risk for CPE carriage. Swabs were suspended in 1 ml saline and cultured for confluent growth onto a MacConkey agar plate with a meropenem (MER) disk alone, a MER disk plus phenyl boronic acid (PBA), a MER disk plus EDTA, and a MER disk plus PBA and EDTA. An inhibition zone of ,= 25 mm around the MER disk alone indicated carriage of carbapenem-resistant organisms. Furthermore, ,= 5-mm differences in the inhibition zone between MER disks without and with the inhibitors (PBA, EDTA, or both) were considered positive results for detecting Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), metallo-beta-lactamase ...
Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a class of bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are considered last-resort drugs when other antibiotics have failed.. CRE, which tend to spread in hospitals and long-term care facilities, cause an estimated 9,300 infections and 600 deaths in the U.S. each year, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).. And incidence is on the rise.. Tom Frieden, director of the CDC, has called these nightmare bacteria because they are resistant to some of the last-ditch treatments available to doctors fighting resistant infections.. The researchers looked at about 250 samples of CRE from hospitalized patients from three Boston-area hospitals and from one California hospital. Their goal was to obtain a snapshot of the genetic diversity of CRE, to define the frequency and characteristics of outbreaks, to find evidence of strains being transmitted within and between hospitals, and to learn how ...
Carbapenem -resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and the Imperative for Antimicrobial Stewardship. Christopher Trabue, M.D. September 13, 2013. Outline. Background and Epidemiology Clinical significance and public health implications Slideshow 2067038 by kylia
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are responsible for worldwide outbreaks and antibiotic treatments are problematic. The polysaccharide poly-(β-1,6)-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG) is a vaccine target detected on the surface of numerous pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli. Genes encoding PNAG biosynthetic proteins have been identified in two other main pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We hypothesized that antibodies to PNAG might be a new therapeutic option for the different pan-resistant pathogenic species of CRE.. METHODS: PNAG production was detected by confocal microscopy and its role in the formation of the biofilm (for E. cloacae) and as a virulence factor (for K. pneumoniae) was analysed. The in vitro (opsonophagocytosis killing assay) and in vivo (mouse models of peritonitis) activity of antibodies to PNAG were studied using antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant E. coli, E. cloacae and K. pneumoniae. A ...
A total of 907 consecutive isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae recovered during a 20-week period were tested for production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) by the double-disk (DD) potentiation method. Of 84 DD-positive isolates, 83 (9.2%) produced ESBLs based on isoelectric focusing. SHV-derived ESBLs and several TEM-derived ESBLs were present in nine species, including the first isolate of Citrobacter koserii and Morganella morganii known to harbor an SHV-derived ESBL. Results of testing 58 nonrepeat isolates for ESBL production by several recommended methods were as follows (percent detected in parentheses): DD method with aztreonam (95), ceftazidime (79), ceftriaxone (88), or cefpodoxime (90); broth microdilution method with ceftazidime (86) or cefotaxime (91) alone or in combination with clavulanate; and the standard disk diffusion method with new breakpoints and standard concentrations of aztreonam (78), ceftazidime (79), ceftriaxone (83), or cefpodoxime (98) ...
N.C. Communicable Disease Branch page about new carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), untreatable or difficult-to-treat Enterobacteriaceae that have developed high levels of resistance to antibiotics, including last-resort antibiotics called carbapenems. Includes NC DHHS and CDC communications about this emerging public health concern as well as links to infection prevention information tailored for patients and healthcare providers.
Carriage duration of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is uncertain. We followed 21 CPE carriers over one year. Mean carriage duration was 86 (95%CrI= [60, 122]) days, with 98.5% (95%CrI= [95.0, 99.8]) probability of decolonization in one year. Antibiotic consumption was associated with prolonged carriage. CPE-carriers status should be reviewed yearly.
In this study we analysed the spectrum of Enterobacteriaceae in tracheal aspirates of intubated PICU patients from 2005 to 2014. The spectrum of Enterobacteriaceae in lower respiratory tract material revealed Enterobacter spp., E.coli and Klebsiella spp. as the most common isolates (86%). Comparable data of matching study settings are scarce in the current literature. Wilson et al. [5] collected daily tracheal aspirates from intubated children. Consistent with our findings, the most common Gram-negative organisms isolated were Klebsiella spp. and E.coli, followed by Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae. Lee et al. [34] described the microbiological spectrum and susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates from a PICU and found a rate of 20% ESBL-positive Klebsiella in 2005. Our study displayed a lower rate with only 6.5% of Klebsiella spp. isolates being ESBL-positive. However, more than half of E.coli isolates (55%), about a quarter of all Klebsiella spp. (28%) isolates and 4 out of 6 ...
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are increasing worldwide, and are a major threat to healthcare systems. Recent European data support that many
Despite the unfavorable double-room configuration of our ICU, the 4.1% rate of ESBL acquisition was much lower than the 13% reported by Razazi et al. in a 24-bed ICU with eight single rooms but without any protocol of contact precautions for ESBL carriers [13]. It is close to that reported by Alves et al. in an ICU with only single rooms, in which contact precautions were also applied [17]. Unlike Barbier et al., who reported that half of the ESBL carriers acquired their ESBL during their ICU stay [16], and Gardam et al., who reported that ESBL acquisition accounted for two-thirds of ESBL carriage in the ICU [18], ESBL acquisition accounted for only 12.7% of all ESBL carriage in our study, confirming that ESBL carriage is mostly imported, whereas high-level cephalosporinase (HL-Case) is mostly acquired, in the ICU [19]. In multivariate analysis, the severity (SAPS II) at admission was the only factor identified to be associated with the acquired carriage of ESBL, while some authors have reported ...
Enterobacteriaceae is a family of Gram negative bacilli which can cause a wide range of community acquired and nosocomial infections including infections of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, sepsis and medical device associated infections (Surinder Kumar, 2012; Wang et al., 2015; Harbaik et al., 2014). These organisms easily acquire and transfer drug resistance genes through plasmids and transposons (Okoche et al., 2015). Carbapenem are beta lactam antibiotics and are the last resort for the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram negative bacilli (Gupta et al., 2006; Roy et al., 2011). Reports indicate that carbapenemases producing Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates seem to be increasing in number in the last few years (Nagaraj et al., 2012).
The results indicated that spring waters could become a reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria and contribute to the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria via drinking water or food chain. In addition, wastewater discharge of restaurants or hotels may be an important contribution source of …
ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each group were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and in LB-enrichment broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime, which was subsequently inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. ESBL/AmpC genes were identified using the Check-Points CT103 micro array kit and subsequently by sequencing analysis. Chromosomal ampC promoter mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing analysis. From the healthy and diarrheic dogs, respectively 45% and 55% were positive for E. coli with reduced susceptibility for
Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. It was first proposed by Rahn in 1936, and now includes over 30 genera and more than 100 species. Its classification above the level of family is still a subject of debate, but one classification places it in the order Enterobacterales of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.[2][3][4][5] Enterobacteriaceae includes, along with many harmless symbionts, many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, and Shigella. Other disease-causing bacteria in this family include Enterobacter and Citrobacter. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae can be trivially referred to as enterobacteria or enteric bacteria,[6] as several members live in the intestines of animals. In fact, the etymology of the family is enterobacterium with the suffix to designate a family (aceae)-not after the genus Enterobacter (which would be Enterobacteraceae)-and the type genus is Escherichia. ...
Paper of the week: Orthopedic Implant-Associated Infection by Multidrug Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Pfang BG, García-Cañete J, García-Lasheras J, Blanco A, Auñón Á, Parron-Cambero R, Macías-Valcayo A, Esteban J. J Clin Med. 2019 Feb 8;8(2). pii: E220. doi: 10.3390/jcm8020220. Summary and Editorial by Sreeram Penna This is a retrospective observational study from a single institution. Researchers reviewed…
To characterize the genomic context of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), we sequenced 78 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Pakistan and the United States encoding KPC, NDM-1, or no carbapenemase. High similarities of the results indicate rapid spread of carbapenem resistance between strains, including globally disseminated pathogens.
The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae among residents living in nursing homes and to compare it with a corresponding group of elderly people living in their own homes. A total of 160 persons participated in the study between February and April 2014, 91 were residents in nursing homes (n = 10) and the remaining 69 were elderly living in their own homes. In addition to performing faecal samples, all participants answered a standardized questionnaire regarding known risk factors for ESBL-carriage. There was no significant difference between the groups, as 10 of the 91 (11 %) residents from nursing homes were ESBL-carriers compared with 6 of 69 (8,7 %) elderly living in their own homes. There was no significant difference between the groups. The total prevalence was 10 %. A univariate analysis revealed that the only studied risk factor significantly associated with ESBL-carriage was recent ...
About 21% of international travelers-and 37% of travelers with diarrhea who had taken antibiotics-may be colonized with drug-resistant bacteria, according to a study yesterday in Clinical Infectious Diseases.. Researchers collected stool samples from 430 Finns before and after they traveled outside of Scandinavia. They tested for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), two drug-resistant superbugs.. They found that 90 of the travelers, or 21%, became colonized by ESBL-PE after traveling, but none by CPE. For travelers to South Asia, the prevalence rose to 46%.. The rate of ESBL-PE was 11% in those without travelers diarrhea (TD) or antimicrobial use, 21% for those with TD and no antimicrobial use, and 37% in those with both TD and antimicrobial use.. Those numbers climbed to 14%, 37%, and 69%, respectively, in travelers to Southeast Asia, and to 23%, 47%, and 80% in travelers to South Asia.. More than 300 ...
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae(CPE) is a global health issue due to their hasty dissemination through the transfer of carbapenemase genes. Hence, rapid detection is necessary to take relevant control measures against CPE infections/colonization. We established a rapid and multiplex CPE detection system - Single Tag Hybridization Printed Array Strip (STH-PAS) by targeting the four different major carbapenemases. STH-PAS is a DNA-DNA hybridization technique where the oligonucleotide tag in the primer of PCR product hybridizes to its probe imprinted on a chromatographic strip without denaturation. Further, the efficacy of STH-PAS in detecting CPE directly in clinical samples is evaluated. Methods: STH-PAS was tailored to detect various alleles of the four carbapenemase genes - NDM, KPC, IMP, and OXA-48 like in a single reaction. Then, the efficiency of hybridization in STH-PAS for detection of carbapenemases was compared with conventional PCR. The efficiency of carbapenemase ...
What are carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)? Enterobacteriaceae are a group of bacteria normally found in the human gut. Common types include E. coli and Klebsiella species. Carbapenems are a class of antibiotics that were developed to treat bacteria that are resistant to other drugs. Due to the overuse of these antibiotics, some types of Enterobacteriaceae have developed resistance to carbapenems; these bacteria are called carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE).. Who gets CRE? Healthy people usually do not get CRE infections. In healthcare settings, CRE infections may occur among patients who are receiving treatment for other conditions. Patients whose care requires devices like ventilators (breathing machines), urinary (bladder) catheters, or intravenous (vein) catheters, and patients who are taking long courses of certain antibiotics are most at risk for CRE infections.. How are CRE spread? CRE can be transmitted via direct person-to-person contact with an infected person or ...
CTX-M-15 was the dominant ESBL gene, followed by OXA, SHV, CTX-M-14, OXA-10, and VEB-1 in frequent order. This is consistent with the present antimicrobial resistance situation among Enterobacteriaceae where the CTX-M family has replaced TEM and SHV types and became the dominant ESBL in most parts of the world including Nigeria, where they are prevalent both in the hospital and community settings [6, 12, 13]. In Morocco, CTX-M was detected in 6 out of 7 ESBL-producing E. coli with a predominance of CTX-M-15 (6/6) [14], while in Cameroon all the ESBL-E. coli strains isolated from stool samples of women with UTIs contained group 1 CTX-M enzymes [15]. Similarly, CTX-M-15 dominated ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from environmental samples in a hospital in Tunisia [16]. The high distribution of CTX-M-15 type ESBLs among these isolates explains the high rate of resistance to cephalosporin such as cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime in our study.. CTX-M-15 co-existed with either OXA-10 or ...
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a concern in South Africa and worldwide. It is therefore important that these organisms be accurately identified for infection prevention control purposes. In this study 1193 suspected CREs from 46 laboratories from seven provinces in South Africa were assessed to confirm the prevalence of carbapenemase genes from our referral diagnostic isolates for the period 2012 to 2015. We compared the antimicrobial susceptibility testing method used in the reference laboratory to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which is used as the gold standard. Organism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using automated systems and DNA was extracted using a crude boiling method. The presence of carbapenemase-producing genes (blaNDM, blaKPC, blaOXA-48&variants, blaGES, blaIMP and blaVIM) was screened for using a multiplex real-time PCR. Sixty-eight percent (n = 812) of the isolates harboured a carbapenemase-producing gene; the three most
The protoplast-like forms produced from enteric bacilli by the effect of penicillin are capable of adsorbing phage, and are thus distinguished from the protoplasts produced through the use of lysozyme. The protoplast-like forms are capable of securing the reproduction of phage, although the phage production is ten times less than that from normal cells. The penicillin does not affect the amount of phage adsorption, but suppresses the intracellular phase of the phages development in the spherical bodies. Therefore, in a study of the given process it is necessary to remove the penicillin from the medium in which they are situated. Inasmuch as the protoplast-like formations are capable of securing phage development and at the same time, evidently, possess an increased permeability for the macromolecular substrates, their use seems expedient for the study of the reproduction mechanism of bacterial viruses.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Declining cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility among bloodstream Enterobacteriaceae from the UK: links to prescribing change?. AU - Livermore, David M.. AU - Hope, Russell. AU - Reynolds, Rosy. AU - Blackburn, Ruth. AU - Johnson, Alan P.. AU - Woodford, Neil. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Objectives The UK saw major increases in cephalosporin and quinolone resistance amongst Enterobacteriaceae from 2001 to 2006, with cephalosporin resistance largely reflecting dissemination of CTX-M extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs). We review subsequent trends. Methods Data were extracted from Public Health Englands national database (LabBase), which collects susceptibility results for bloodstream isolates from hospital microbiology laboratories in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and from the BSAC Bacteraemia Resistance Surveillance System, which centrally tests bloodstream isolates from 25-40 sentinel UK and Irish laboratories. Reference laboratory submissions were also ...
Salloum N A, Kissoyan K A, Fadlallah S, Cheaito K, Araj G F, Wakim R, Kanj S, Kanafani Z, Dbaibo G, Matar G M (2015); Front Microbiol., 6:999. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00999. ...
Achaogen is a late-stage biopharmaceutical company passionately committed to the discovery, development, and commercialization of innovative antibacterial treatments for MDR gram-negative infections. Achaogen is developing plazomicin, its lead product candidate, for the treatment of serious bacterial infections due to MDR Enterobacteriaceae, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The Food and Drug Administration has granted plazomicin Breakthrough Therapy designation for the treatment of bloodstream infections caused by certain Enterobacteriaceae in patients who have limited or no alternative treatment options. The Companys second product candidate is C-Scape, an orally-administered product candidate for the treatment of serious bacterial infections due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Achaogens plazomicin program has been funded, and its C-Scape program is funded, in part with federal funds from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). Achaogen has ...
Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are an emerging concern in public health. Antimicrobial use, hospitalization and foreign travel are associated with human carriage of ESBL-PE. Duration of carriage with ESBL-PE can vary. The main objective of this thesis is to provide an overview of the current scientific knowledge on persistence ... read more of ESBL carriage in humans. In addition, risk factors for duration of ESBL carriage will be described. After a literature search, 14 studies met the criterion that duration of ESBL-PE was assessed. Eight studies were conducted in patients, two in NICU patients, and four in non-patients (travelers, adopted children, medical students). Approximately half of adult (hospitalized) patients carried ESBL-PE after 6 months (range 33-53%). After 12 months, this percentage was around 25%. Median carriage time was reported from 98 days till more than 9 months. For a minority of patients carriage time was more than three years. ...
Original publication: RAHN (O.): New principles for the classification of bacteria. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung II, 1937, 96, 273-286. Note: The family name Enterobacteriaceae was omitted from the body of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names 1980, but a footnote was inserted on page 236 indicating that the name was sub judice, referring to the proposal by Lapage. This has led to some confusion over the status of the name. The Judicial Commission has reviewed this question and concluded that the family name Enterobacteriaceae Rahn 1937 is valid and should have been incorporated in the body of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names 1980 ...
The Enterobacteriaceae vial is a membrane vial, monitoring a change in color due to a pH shift as Enterobacteriaceae organisms ferment.
Rapid Test for Urease and Phenylalanine Deaminase Production: A rapid urea-phenylalanine medium was effective for the identification of Proteus and, with one ex
General characters of the family Enterobacteriaceae. •Gram negative rods •Motile or non motile •If motile with peritrichious flagella •Aerobic or facultative anaerobe •Catalase positive •Oxidase negative •Ferment glucose with or without production of gas • Reduce nitrates to nitrites •Morphology gram negative non sporing •Motility •Culture -Simple media they can grow very easily •Why the selective media are used then •To Knock out the normal flora. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of TonB homologs in the family Enterobacteriaceae and evidence for conservation of TonB-dependent energy transduction complexes. AU - Larsen, Ray A.. AU - Myers, Paul S.. AU - Skare, Jonathan T.. AU - Seachord, Carrie L.. AU - Darveau, Richard P.. AU - Postle, Kathleen. PY - 1996/3. Y1 - 1996/3. N2 - The transport of Fe(III)-siderophore complexes and vitamin B12 across the outer membrane of Escherichia coli requires the TonB-dependent energy transduction system. A set of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated against an E. coli TrpC-TonB fusion protein to facilitate structure and function studies. In the present study, the epitopes recognized by these MAbs were mapped, and their distribution in gram-negative organisms was examined. Cross-species reactivity patterns obtained against TonB homologs of known sequence were used to refine epitope mapping, with some epitopes ultimately confirmed by inhibition experiments using synthetic polypeptides. Epitopes ...
The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli is on the rise worldwide, posing a major public health threat. Previously, this was mostly a problem in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, but during the last decade, carbapenem resistance has escalated in medically important species such as K …
Introduction. An epidemiological study addressed to identify gram-negative bacteria, isolated from laboratories in a Northern area of Italy, and their antibiotic resistance patterns was conducted. Methods. Twelve laboratories distributed on Ligurian territory or neighbouring areacollected all consecutive gram-negative isolates belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and non-fermenter group for 2 months and sent them to a reference laboratory. Results. A total of 1880 pathogens were collected, including 899 and 981 strains isolated from nosocomial- and community-acquired infections, respectively. Escherichia coli (63.3% of total) was the most frequently isolated pathogen followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.6%), Proteus mirabilis (8.9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.4%). Nosocomial samples were collected mainly from patients in general medicine wards (19.9%) and healthcare settings (14.1%). Urine was the most common clinical sample (79.9% of the total). Other samples were sputum and ...
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in urine or feces is a substantial risk factor for subsequent EPE-bloodstream infection.
A trial of the Enterotube system for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae and a comparison with the methods at present in use in the Tygerberg Hospital Microbiology Laboratory, were carried out.
The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (E-ESBL) is a major public health problem. It leads more frequent prescription of penems with the risk of emergence and spread of strains producing carbapenemases, which may be resistant to all known antibiotics. A policy of savings of penems is desirable. Among the alternatives to penems, amikacin is in the foreground. It remains active on the majority of E-ESBL strains. Some risk factors for E-ESBL emergence are known: recent antibiotic therapy (particularly quinolones and cephalosporins third generation), previous hospitalization or residence in a high endemic country.. In pediatrics, E-ESBLs are primarily responsible for urinary tract infection. In France, E-ESBLs represent about 10% of the strains responsible for urinary tract infections. The Pathology Group Pediatric Infectious (GPIP) of the French Society of Pediatrics (SFP) and the Society of Infectious Pathology French Language (SPILF) have proposed different ...
Public Health Ontario (PHO) is a Crown corporation dedicated to protecting and promoting the health of all Ontarians and reducing inequities in health. PHO links public health practitioners, front-line health workers and researchers to the best scientific intelligence and knowledge from around the world.
Pulmonary drug delivery offers several advantages in the treatment of respiratory diseases over other routes of administration. Inhalation therapy enables the direct application of a drug within the lungs. The local pulmonary deposition and delivery of the administered drug facilitates a targeted treatment of respiratory diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), without the need for high dose exposures by other routes of administration. The intravenous application of short acting vasodilators has been the therapy of choice for patients with PAH over the past decade. The relative severity of side effects led to the development of newprostacyclin analogues and alternative routes of administration. One such analogue, iloprost (Ventavis® ), is a worldwide approved therapeutic agent for treatment of PAH. Inhalation of this compound is an attractive concept minimizing the side effects by its pulmonary selectivity. Unfortunately, the short half-life of iloprost requires frequent ...
There has been a progressive rise in the incidence of blood stream infections (BSI) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms (MDR GN), which cause increased morbidity and mortality. For this reason, recent studies have focused on risk factors of acquisition of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. However, there is limited data on risk factors for BSI caused by AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (AmpC EC), especially in low prevalence settings such as Australia. This study was performed to identify risk factors for acquisition of AmpC E. coli, using a retrospective matched case control design over a 3-year period. Patients with BSI caused by AmpC E. coli were matched with controls (third generation cephalosporin susceptible E. coli) by age and site of infection (n = 21). There was no significant difference in age, sex, clinical outcome, time to onset of BSI, recent antibiotic use (last 3 months), comorbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus,
Understanding local susceptibility patterns is important when selecting antimicrobials for initial empirical antibiotic-therapy of bloodstream infections. Because the determination of susceptibility is dependent on the breakpoints used, the aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility results to different classes of antibiotics of 512 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (200 ESβL positive) isolated from bloodstream using CLSI 2013 and current EUCAST 2013 guidelines to evaluate the impact of break-point discrepancies. The results of the study showed that statistically significant discrepancies (p ≤ 0.001) were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin alone or with tazobac-tam, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime (only ESβL negative isolates), amikacin and gentamicin using current CLSI or EUCAST interpretive criteria. Further harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints is warranted. This study could give useful information to physicians for managing bloodstream
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Enterobacteriaceae.. *Enterobacteriaceae genomes and related information at PATRIC, a ... Main article: Carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae. Several Enterobacteriaceae strains have been isolated which are ... Enterobacteriaceae includes, along with many harmless symbionts, many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, ... Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. It was first proposed by Rahn in 1936, and now includes over 30 ...
Providencia is genus of Gram-negative, motile bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. It was named after Providence, Rhode ...
... is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The two species of ... The genus Salmonella is part of the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Its taxonomy has been revised and has the potential to ... Newport, contributes to the strain's fitness in tomatoes, and has homologs in genomes of other Enterobacteriaceae that are able ...
Enterobacteriaceae. *Oral Streptococci. *Pseudomonas aeruginosa. *Enterococcus species. *Candida species. *Aspergillus species ...
nov.: A new species of enterobacteriaceae found primarily in nonclinical environments". Current Microbiology. 6 (2): 105-109. ...
"Biochemical identification of new species and biogroups of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens". Journal of ...
"Evolutionary Relationships of Three New Species of Enterobacteriaceae Living as Symbionts of Aphids and Other Insects" ...
Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of bacteria commonly affecting the stomach. The name is derived from the prefix "entero ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Enterobacteriaceae&oldid=5909726" ...
Chapter 218: Enterobacteriaceae. p. 2827.CS1 maint: location (link) Tan, Wen-Si; Muhamad Yunos, Nina Yusrina; Tan, Pui-Wan; ... Donnenberg, Michael (2015). "Enterobacteriaceae". Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... insights into a highly versatile and diverse genus within the Enterobacteriaceae". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 39 (6): 968-984. ...
Enterobacteriaceae). This fly is also infected with a variety of viruses in the wild. Whilst sharing some natural viruses with ...
"Enterobacteriaceae" (PDF). Louisiana Department of Health. Retrieved 29 April 2020. Fusco, Vincenzina; Abriouel, Hikmate; ... a metabolic enzyme ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase with distinct kinetic properties from those found in Enterobacteriaceae in ...
Ryan, Kenneth James (2018). "Chapter 33: Enterobacteriaceae". Sherris Medical Microbiology (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional ... Enterobacteriaceae)". Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg's Medical Microbiology (27 ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional Med/Tech. Germani, ...
These are generally B. fragilis group, Clostridium spp., Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. On the other hand, infections ... The aerobic bacteria also found mixed with these anaerobic bacteria include Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus spp. (including ... where they are often isolated along with Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. It is important that ...
Enterobacteriaceae are typically OX−. Wet each disk with about four inoculating loops of deionized water. Use a loop to ... May 1981). "Kluyvera, a new (redefined) genus in the family Enterobacteriaceae: identification of Kluyvera ascorbata sp. nov. ...
"Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio, Campylobacter and Helicobacter". Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12- ... Bacillary dysentery is associated with species of bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae.[1] The term is usually ...
Members of Enterobacteriaceae family, for example, Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae pose the biggest threat regarding ... Other ESBL enzymes originate outside of Enterobacteriaceae family, but have been spreading as well. In addition, since the ... Nordmann P, Poirel L (September 2005). "Emergence of plasmid-mediated resistance to quinolones in Enterobacteriaceae". J. ... Schultsz, Constance; Geerlings, Suzanne (2012-01-01). "Plasmid-Mediated Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae". Drugs. 72 (1): 1-16 ...
Enterobacteriaceae are also commonly found. With multi-species biofilms also commonly encountered. If an infection settles on a ...
Farmer JJ III, Asbury MA, Hickman FW, Brenner DJ (1980). the Enterobacteriaceae Study Group (USA). "Enterobacter sakazakii: a ... Caubilla-Barron J, Forsythe S (2007). "Dry stress and survival time of Enterobacter sakazakii and other Enterobacteriaceae in ... This resulted in the classification of E. sakazakii as a new genus, Cronobacter within the Enterobacteriaceae, initially ... new species of "Enterobacteriaceae" isolated from clinical specimens". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 30 (3): 569-84. doi:10.1099/ ...
... is a genus of extremely rare bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The name of this genus was derived from CDC, ... nov., New Enterobacteriaceae from Clinical Specimens". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 31 (3): 317-326. doi:10.1099/00207713-31-3-317. ... Lapage has also made many contributions to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Cedecea neteri was named after Erwin Neter. Neter is ... nov., New Enterobacteriaceae from clinical specimens. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 31, 317-326. Mawardi, H ...
Bouet, Jean-Yves; Funnell, Barbara E. (2019-06-19). "Plasmid Localization and Partition in Enterobacteriaceae". EcoSal Plus. 8 ...
Enterobacteriaceae. In: Manual of Clinical Microbiology (6th Edition). Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH ( ... nov., new Enterobacteriaceae from clinical specimens. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 31, 317-326 (1981). ... Enterobacter hormaechei, a new species of the family Enterobacteriaceae formerly known as enteric group 75. Journal of Clinical ... 22, 4-11 (1972). Farmer JJ III, Asbury MA, Hickman FW, Brenner DJ; Enterobacteriaceae Study Group. Enterobacter sakazakii: a ...
Enterobacteriaceae. Genus:. Salmonella. Lignieres, 1900. Species. S. bongori. S. enterica. S. liverpool. S. abony ...
Klebsiella is a dangerous bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a main cause of pneumonia in children. A new drug ...
Yersinia pestis is a bacillus. It is a bacterium.[1] It has been identified as the infectious agent of bubonic plague. This bacterium also causes other forms of plague- Septicemic plague and pneumonic plague.[2] These three forms of the plague have been responsible for a high death toll in many epidemics throughout human history. These diseases are believed to be the cause of the Black Death. Because of the Black Death, about one third (one of three) people in Europe died. This was between 1347 and 1353. The bacillus was discovered by the physician Alexandre Yersin during an epidemic of the plague in Hong Kong, in 1894.[3] Yersin worked for the Pasteur Institute at the time. Originally, the microoganism was named Pasteurella pestis. It was renamed in 1967. Currently, three varieties of Y. pestis are known. Historians are currently divided about the role of Y. pestis in the Black Death. Some historians said that the Black Death spread far too fast. Therefore, Y. pestis could not have caused it. ...
Enterobacteriaceae. Genus:. Salmonella. Species:. S. enterica. Binomial name. Salmonella enterica. (ex Kauffmann & Edwards 1952 ...
Enterobacteriaceae. Genus:. Escherichia. Spesies:. E. coli. Nama binomial. Escherichia coli. (Migula 1895). Castellani and ...
If used they should target enteric organisms (e.g. Enterobacteriaceae), such as E. coli and Bacteroides. This may consist of a ...
The bacterium is a member of Enterobacteriaceae. It is capable of producing enterotoxins which are thermolabile or thermostable ...
Treatment options for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. In Open forum infectious diseases (Vol. 2, No. 2). ... ". "Treatment Options for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections". LaPlante, Kerry L.; Rybak, Michael J. (December ...
Infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is emerging as an ... In the clinical setting, it is the most significant member of the genus Klebsiella of the Enterobacteriaceae. K. oxytoca and K ... "Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Infection: Clinician FAQs". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 25 October 2017. "Guideline for ... A number of mechanisms cause carbapenem resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae. These include hyperproduction of ampC beta- ...
CRE infections usually happen to patients in hospitals or nursing homes and can be serious.
Facility Guidance for Control of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) pdf icon[PDF - 24 pages] ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Enterobacteriaceae.. *Enterobacteriaceae genomes and related information at PATRIC, a ... Main article: Carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae. Several Enterobacteriaceae strains have been isolated which are ... Enterobacteriaceae includes, along with many harmless symbionts, many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, ... Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. It was first proposed by Rahn in 1936, and now includes over 30 ...
The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and ... Members of the Enterobacteriaceae are rod-shaped, and are typically 1-5 μm in length. Like other Proteobacteria they have Gram- ... Most members of Enterobacteriaceae have peritrichous Type I fimbriae involved in the adhesion of the bacterial cells to their ... Catalase reactions vary among Enterobacteriaceae.. Many members of this family are a normal part of the gut flora found in the ...
... disorders of the digestive tract and other organ systems produced by a group of rod-shaped bacteria called Enterobacteriaceae. ... As a group they are termed Enterobacteriaceae . A prominent member of this group is Escherichia coli . Other members are the ... Some types of enterobacteriaceae are more likely to cause group outbreaks than others. Other questions pertain to the patients ... Some types of enterobacteriaceae are more likely to cause group outbreaks than others. Other questions include the patients ...
Enterobacteriaceae are a family of bacteria that commonly cause infections in health-care settings as well as in the community ... The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae infections that were CRE was calculated using two surveillance systems: 1) the National ... Among Enterobacteriaceae, resistance to broad-spectrum carbapenem antimicrobials has been uncommon. Over the past decade, ... Carbapenem resistance among common Enterobacteriaceae has increased over the past decade; most CRE are associated with health- ...
Summary[edit] DescriptionAPI English: Early recruitment of Src-GFP at Shigella entry sites. HeLa cells transfected with Src-GFP were challenged with wild-type Shigella expressing the AfaE adhesin at 37°C. Dual acquisition of phase contrast and GFP fluorescence images was performed every 15 sec. Movie is shown at 8 frames/sec. Src localizes initially at the intimate bacterial-cell contact site prior to recruitment in bacterial-induced ruffles. Date January 2009 Source Video S1 from Mounier J, Popoff M, Enninga J, Frame M, Sansonetti P, Van Nhieu G (2009). "The IpaC Carboxyterminal Effector Domain Mediates Src-Dependent Actin Polymerization during Shigella Invasion of Epithelial Cells". PLOS Pathogens. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000271. PMID 19165331. PMC: 2621354. Author Mounier J, Popoff M, Enninga J, Frame M, Sansonetti P, Van Nhieu G Permission (Reusing this file) This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Generic license. You are free: to share â to copy, distribute ...
Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. It was first proposed by Rahn in 1936, and now includes over 30 ... Members of the Enterobacteriaceae are bacilli (rod-shaped), and are typically 1-5 μm in length. They typically appear as medium ... Most members of Enterobacteriaceae have peritrichous, type I fimbriae involved in the adhesion of the bacterial cells to their ... Members of the Enterobacteriaceae can be trivially referred to as enterobacteria or "enteric bacteria", as several members live ...
Global spread of Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.. Nordmann P1, Naas T, Poirel L. ... Carbapenemases increasingly have been reported in Enterobacteriaceae in the past 10 years. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases ...
... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/carbapenemase-producing-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae/case-definition/2018/) ... Carbapenemase Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) 2018. Current. CP-CRE, Enterobacter spp.(https://wwwn. ... Carbapenemase Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) , 2018 Case Definition (https:// ...
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are Gram-negative bacteria ... Extended-Spectrum β-lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae, Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and Multidrug-Resistant ... Enterobacteriaceae are most commonly found in the intestinal flora. Using stool and rectal swabs are, thus, the most reliable ... Enterobacteriaceae are common commensals and infectious agents. Experts fear CRE as the new "superbug". The bacteria can kill ...
Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Epidemiology and Prevention. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2011. 53(1): 60-67. DOI: ... Carbapenemase Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) is defined as E. coli, Klebsiella spp., or ... including those in the Enterobacteriaceae family. Increased antimicrobial resistance limits treatment options (4). CP-CRE ...
... ... Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae) to allow healthcare providers to make time-critical decisions. ...
The Enterobacteriaceae vial is a screening vial specific for Enterobacteriaceae organisms and can be used for specification ... As Enterobacteriaceae organisms metabolize, the pH indicator changes from purple to a yellow color. ...
... carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means ... What are carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)?. CRE are a group of bacteria that are very difficult to kill when they ... Learn more about Cre (carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae). IBM Watson Micromedex. *Mrsa (methicillin-resistant ...
Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of bacteria commonly affecting the stomach. The name is derived from the prefix "entero ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Enterobacteriaceae&oldid=5909726" ...
The spread of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has become not only a clinical challenge but also a global public ... However, other Enterobacteriaceae and non-Enterobacteriaceae such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. can also ... Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae A Review for Laboratorians. *Diagnostic Errors Report Puts Labs Patient Safety Back in ... Enterobacteriaceae are part of the normal human gastrointestinal flora but are also commonly isolated from patients with ...
Diseases : Enterobacteriaceae Infections, Klebsiella Infections. Additional Keywords : Drug-Plant-Vitamin Synergies, Extended- ... 17 Abstracts with Enterobacteriaceae Infections Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Diseases : Enterobacteriaceae Infections, Escherichia coli Infections, Listeria Infections, Staphylococcus aureus infection. ... Diseases : Enterobacteriaceae Infections, Oral Infection , Staphylococcal Infections, Steptococcus Mutans Infections. ...
February 14, 2013, 12:30 ET CDCHAN-00341-02-14-2013 Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are untreatable or difficult- ...
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a major resistance concern emerging during the last decade because of ... Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a major resistance concern emerging during the last decade because of ... Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Taiwan Aspects. Shio-Shin Jean1,2, Nan-Yao Lee3, Hung-Jen Tang4,5, Min-Chi ... "carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae," "carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae," "prevalence rates," "mortality," "case- ...
i,Enterobacteriaceae,/i, accounted for 75% (72/96) of etiologies of UTI in children. The most frequent ,i,Enterobacteriaceae,/i ... We investigated the burden and correlates of ESBL producing ,i,Enterobacteriaceae,/i, associated UTI among children and ... The burden of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing ,i,Enterobacteriaceae,/i, associated urinary tract infections ( ... The resistance level to commonly prescribed first-line antibiotics observed within ,i,Enterobacteriaceae,/i, was alarming ...
Resistance to β-lactams and other antibiotics in the Enterobacteriaceae is frequently associated with plasmidic resistance ... Alarming β-lactamase-mediated resistance in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010 Oct;13(5):558-64. ... Resistance to β-lactams and other antibiotics in the Enterobacteriaceae is frequently associated with plasmidic resistance ...
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infection is a condition in which the Enterobacteriaceae bacteria produce enzymes ... Enterobacteriaceae is a family of bacteria.. *There are a number of bacteria in this family, including some that commonly cause ... CRE Infection (Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infection). *Medical Author: Edmond Hooker, MD, DrPH ... "Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Infection: Patient FAQs." Nov. 13, 2019. ,https://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/cre/ ...
The Enterobacteriaceae are capable of infecting both healthy and compromised hosts.. The Enterobacteriaceae discussed here ... Complications Common to the Members of Enterobacteriaceae Discussed Here. *. Infection due to all of the Enterobacteriaceae ... resistance to the Enterobacteriaceae via modification of lipid A. Enterobacteriaceae-exhibiting plasmid-mediated resistance to ... The Enterobacteriaceae are capable of producing gas with growth; therefore, gas may be seen at the site of infection, and this ...
... Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008 Jan ... and this mechanism could be emerging strongly among the ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in Turkey. ...
Enterobacteriaceae Count Plates which provide a cost-effective, convenient and reliable method for testing equipment, raw ... 3M™ Petrifilm™ Enterobacteriaceae Count Plates provide a cost-effective, convenient and reliable method for testing equipment, ... 3M™ Petrifilm™ Enterobacteriaceae Count Plates enable you to quickly determine potential sources of contamination. This plate ...
Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are untreatable or difficult to ... Health Officer Order for Reporting Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and submitting CRE isolate ...
  • DeathsAttributabletoCRE Enterobacteriaceae with susceptible isolates) were excluded, as were studies Statistical Analysis that compared patients who had carbapenem-resistant in- We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs fections with patients who were not infected. (cdc.gov)
  • To collect consecutive nonreplicate isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins from clinical specimens from inpatients and outpatients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Activity of minocycline against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates, with comparison to doxycycline and tigecycline. (harvard.edu)
  • A predominant clone (95%) was found in hospital B, and a major clone (75%) in Hospital A. Other extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were Enterobacter spp. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We characterized 9 New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (5 Klebsiella pneumoniae , 2 Escherichia coli , 1 Enterobacter cloacae , 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg) isolates identified in the United States and cultured from 8 patients in 5 states during April 2009-March 2011. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To complement reports of individual cases ( 8 , 10 , 12 ), we performed extensive laboratory characterization of 9 clinical isolates of NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae collected from patients in the United States during April 2009-March 2011. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In 2013, AGAR commenced the Enterobacteriaceae Sepsis Outcome Programme, which focuses on the collection of resistance and some demographic data on all isolates prospectively from patients with bacteraemia. (worldaidsday.org.au)
  • E-test strip was applied for confirmation of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Two hundred fifty Enterobacteriaceae isolates were obtained from urine samples of outpatient clinic attendants and hospitalized patients at Kasr Al-Aini Hospital. (ajtmh.org)
  • To investigate the phenotypic profiles of suspected carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) isolates generated by the automated MicroScan Walkaway system making use of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, and correlate these with carbapenemase production by molecular methods. (scielo.org.za)
  • The present study was carried out to screen for carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from blood, surgical wound and tracheal samples in different wards and intensive care units between the period of 2010 through 2012 in a teaching hospital attached to JIPMER, south India. (academicjournals.org)
  • A total number of 425 meropenem-resistant isolates belonging to Enterobacteriaceae were included. (academicjournals.org)
  • Distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region: results of the study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). (semanticscholar.org)
  • As of June 2010[update], there were three reported cases of Enterobacteriaceae isolates bearing this newly described resistance mechanism in the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stated that "All three U.S. isolates were from patients having received recent medical care in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria . (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the Enterobacteriaceae can be trivially referred to as enterobacteria or "enteric bacteria", [6] as several members live in the intestines of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most similar bacteria, enterobacteriaceae generally lack cytochrome c oxidase , although there are exceptions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria , including many of the more familiar pathogens , such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli . (princeton.edu)
  • Enterobacterial infections are disorders of the digestive tract and other organ systems produced by a group of rod-shaped bacteria called Enterobacteriaceae. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Enterobacteriaceae are a family of bacteria that commonly cause infections in health-care settings as well as in the community. (nih.gov)
  • Carbapenem antibiotics are often used as the last line of treatment for infections caused by highly resistant bacteria, including those in the Enterobacteriaceae family. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of bacteria commonly affecting the stomach . (wikipedia.org)
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI), which is commonly caused by Enterobacteriaceae like Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) and Klebsiella species and other Gram-negative bacteria, is one of the commonest causes of febrile illnesses in children [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Enterobacteriaceae is a family of bacteria. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infection is a condition in which the Enterobacteriaceae bacteria produce enzymes that break down carbapenem antibiotics and make them ineffective against the infection. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are untreatable or difficult to treat bacteria that are resistant to carbapenem antibiotics and nearly all available antibiotics. (acphd.org)
  • Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. (harvard.edu)
  • The Enterobacteriaceae are a family of rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria that normally inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are the most common cause of Gram-negative bacterial infections in humans. (sciencemag.org)
  • 18 F-FDS selectively accumulated in Enterobacteriaceae, but not in Gram-positive bacteria or healthy mammalian or cancer cells in vitro. (sciencemag.org)
  • A radiolabeled probe was prepared from a restriction endonuclease-digested fragment of the Escherichia coli pil operon and used to detect homologous DNA sequences in 236 bacteria representing 11 genera of Enterobacteriaceae. (asm.org)
  • In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Measurements carried out in sewage water from six residential neighbourhoods in Utrecht revealed the presence of particularly resistant CPE bacteria (carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae). (openrepository.com)
  • Carbapenemases have emerged and spread among the Enterobacteriaceae family of bacteria worldwide. (europa.eu)
  • The following chapter discusses the importance of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae , how resistance develops, epidemiology, definitions of multidrug resistance, and diverse strategies to treat these bacteria according to its acquired resistance from Ampc and ESBL to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae . (springer.com)
  • Enterobacteriaceae comprise a large number of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, typically found in the intestines of virtually all animals. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Enterobacteriaceae are Gram-negative bacteria that commonly colonize the gut of humans and can cause life threatening infections such as cystitis and pyelonephritis with bloodstream infections, pneumonia, meningitis and endocarditis in both community and hospital settings [ 1 , 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • They are carried on the genetic elements of many Enterobacteriaceae and some other bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter where they cause resistance to cephamycins and other betalactam agents [ 7 - 9 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The burden of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae associated urinary tract infections (UTI) has become increasingly more common, limiting treatment options among children presenting with febrile UTI. (hindawi.com)
  • We investigated the burden and correlates of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae associated UTI among children and antibacterial resistance pattern. (hindawi.com)
  • Extended spectrum β -lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae causing UTI have been associated with prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics, which further exacerbate the challenge of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cephamycin groups including cefoxitin and cefotetan and carbapenems including imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem are not hydrolyzed by ESBLs and are hence considered as the drugs of choice for treating ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • and, in settings where diagnostics for ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae are limited, targeting treatment becomes a challenge. (hindawi.com)
  • Circulation of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the community and healthcare settings is a significant global challenge as this could be associated with increasing trends of AMR, which is even more significant in the sub-Saharan African region [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Ceftazidime (30 [micro]g) and ceftazidime/clavulanic acid (30 Hg/10 [micro]g) were included with antibiotics panel to screening as well as for detection of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • High prevalence of CTX-M-1 group in ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae infection in intensive care units in southern Chile. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • BACKGROUND The prevalence of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta -lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is increasing worldwide. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Community-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, which are resistant to ceftriaxone and usually coresistant to fluoroquinolones, are increasing worldwide. (ovid.com)
  • We investigate and describe in detail UTIs caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in our emergency department (ED), and determine the proportion that occurred in patients without health care-associated risk factors and who received discordant initial antibiotic therapy. (ovid.com)
  • At this single Northern California ED, greater than 5% of culture-proven UTI were caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and in nearly half of cases there was no identifiable health care-associated risk factor. (ovid.com)
  • Among Enterobacteriaceae, resistance to broad-spectrum carbapenem antimicrobials has been uncommon. (nih.gov)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a major resistance concern emerging during the last decade because of significantly compromising the efficacy of carbapenem agents, has currently become an important focus of infection control. (frontiersin.org)
  • The resistance level to commonly prescribed first-line antibiotics observed within Enterobacteriaceae was alarming calling for strengthened antimicrobial stewardship. (hindawi.com)
  • Resistance to β-lactams and other antibiotics in the Enterobacteriaceae is frequently associated with plasmidic resistance determinants that are easily transferred among species. (nih.gov)
  • For the Enterobacteriaceae, understanding the implications of a strain possessing the various beta lactamases and/or carbapenemases has the greatest implications for treatment, especially since many of the other resistance determinants are linked or associated with their presence. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • According to our results, plasmid-mediated resistance is a potential problem for the spread of quinolone resistance, and this mechanism could be emerging strongly among the ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in Turkey. (nih.gov)
  • 2016). In this era of widespread antibiotic resistance, Enterobacteriaceae are no exception. (medworm.com)
  • However, recent reports of producing IMP- and VIM-type MBLs K. pneumoniae ( 6 , 7 ) have increased concerns over additional transmissible carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Emerging resistance in common pathogenic members of the Enterobacteriaceae family is a worldwide phenomenon, and presents therapeutic problems for practitioners in both the community and in hospital practice. (worldaidsday.org.au)
  • Growing awareness about prevention of Carbapenem resistance and increased efforts by governments through the implementation of infection prevention and control measures might hinder the growth of the Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing market during the forecast period. (express-press-release.net)
  • CDC also stated that enterobacteriaceae proportion of Carbapenem-resistance has consistently increased and has increased four-fold in the past ten years. (express-press-release.net)
  • The massive use of expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in the treatment of infections caused by enterobacteriaceae, generated a selective pressure, followed by the rapid emergence of new [beta]-lactamases that are able to degrade and confer resistance to these compounds, named extended-spectrum [beta]-lactamases (ESBLs). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The emergence of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae to ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem due to the production of a carbapenemase is occurring in two primary enzyme groups. (freecme.com)
  • [1,2] There is an increase in the detection of Enterobacteriaceae strains with resistance observed against beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and polymyxins. (scielo.org.za)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae or CRE, are a family of germs that are difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics, in particular carbapenems. (hawaii.gov)
  • Some Enterobacteriaceae can no longer be treated with carbapenems because they have developed resistance to these antibiotics (i.e. (hawaii.gov)
  • The occurrence of carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae has reached critical levels worldwide. (academicjournals.org)
  • AmpC β-lactamases are produced by many Enterobacteriaceae strains, and they mediate bacterial resistance to cefotetan and cefoxitin [ 4 - 6 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Enterobacteriaceae includes, along with many harmless symbionts , many of the more familiar pathogens , such as Salmonella , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella , and Shigella . (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been defined as carbapenem-nonsusceptible and extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae complex, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Klebsiella oxytoca. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogens producing extended-spectrum-β- lactamase (ESBL) such as the Enterobacteriaceae Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae produce an enzyme that effectively render them resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. (thermofisher.com)
  • The plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet) of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) belongs to a family of high-molecular-weight serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) which also includes Pic from EAEC and Shigella flexneri , EspC from enteropathogenic E. coli , EspP from enterohemorrhagic E. coli , Sat from uropathogenic E. coli , Tsh from avian pathogenic E. coli , and SepA from S. flexneri . (asm.org)
  • The Enterobacteriaceae family contains over a hundred species including Shigella, Klebsiella, Salmonella and Escherichia coli and can be found in animal guts, water and soil. (gettyimages.co.uk)
  • Some examples of Enterobacteriaceae are Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), Enterobacter species and Klebsiella species. (hawaii.gov)
  • Using samples collected for VRE surveillance, we evaluated unit admission prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) perirectal colonization and whether CRE carriers (unknown to staff) were on contact precautions for other indications. (cambridge.org)
  • There was no statistical difference in the prevalence of ESβL Enterobacteriaceae in community-acquired versus hospital-acquired UTIs. (ajtmh.org)
  • The frequency of isolation of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae is increasing in the U.S., with the highest prevalence in the northeastern region. (freecme.com)
  • The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in hospitalised and community patients is of significant public health concern. (amrita.edu)
  • The prevalence and significance of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteriaceae species in Ras cheese, Kareish cheese and ice cream samples and in swabs of dairy handlers in Ismailia city were studied. (scialert.net)
  • This study phenotypically evaluated the prevalence and antibiogram of Enterobacteriaceae that produced AmpC enzymes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Overall, the prevalence of AMR was comparable to that in past studies of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in raptors, with acquired ARGs being identified in 23% of samples. (asm.org)
  • Enterobacteriaceae that have been identified in infants with NEC include Salmonella , E. coli , Klebsiella , and Enterobacter . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carbapenemase Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) is defined as E. coli , Klebsiella spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Commonly encountered Enterobacteriaceae are coli, Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species. (wyo.gov)
  • The most common carbapenemase among Enterobacteriaceae in the United States is the Ambler class A Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), an enzyme that is found throughout the United States and globally ( 2 , 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Another group of carbapenemases, termed serine proteases because of the presence of this amino acid within their catalytic site, belong to Ambler Classes A, C, and D. One of these, KPC, first emerged in Klebsiella pneunoniae (hence the name, standing for K. pneumoniae carbapenemase), but has since spread via plasmids to other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. (freecme.com)
  • One of the more common ways that Enterobacteriaceae become resistant to carbapenems is due to production of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). (hawaii.gov)
  • Members of the Enterobacteriaceae are bacilli (rod-shaped), and are typically 1-5 μm in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some members of the Enterobacteriaceae produce endotoxins that, when released into the bloodstream following cell lysis, cause a systemic inflammatory and vasodilatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are common agents of nosocomial infections. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • VL - 67 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are common agents of nosocomial infections. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The family Enterobacteriaceae consists of a number of species that are gram-negative bacilli (GNB). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In addition to the well-known differentiation potential of the hydrolysis of 4-MU-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 4-MU-beta-D-glucuronide, and 4-MU-beta-D-xylopyranoside, the hydrolysis of some other fluorogenic substrates (e.g., 4-MU-beta-D-fucopyranoside, 4-MU-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide, and 4-MU-alpha-D-galactopyranoside) can also be used for species differentiation within the family Enterobacteriaceae. (asm.org)
  • In addition to causing serious multidrug-resistant, hospital-acquired infections, a number of Enterobacteriaceae species are also recognized as biothreat pathogens. (sciencemag.org)
  • is a pathogenic bacterium within the Enterobacteriaceae family which has been re-classified as 6 species within the genus Cronobacter . (emdmillipore.com)
  • We performed a systematic search in the PubMed arbapenem-resistant strains have emerged among spe- (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) and Scopus cies belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Several Enterobacteriaceae strains have been isolated which are resistant to antibiotics including carbapenems, which are often claimed as "the last line of antibiotic defense" against resistant organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A total of 712 strains representing 47 taxa of the family Enterobacteriaceae were tested for the ability to hydrolyze 14 4-methylumbelliferyl (4-MU)-linked substrates within 3 h of incubation. (asm.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains are an urgent public health threat. (asm.org)
  • Catalase reactions vary among Enterobacteriaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterobacteriaceae , the Enterobacter family. (bacterio.net)
  • Rapid Testing of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae infections that were CRE was calculated using two surveillance systems: 1) the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system (NNIS) and NHSN (for 2001 and 2011, respectively) and 2) the Surveillance Network-USA (TSN) (for 2001 and 2010). (nih.gov)
  • Multicenter Study of the Risk Factors for Colonization or Infection with Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Children. (harvard.edu)
  • A few infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae outside the bowel include wound infection, urinary tract infection (UTI) and pneumonia. (express-press-release.net)
  • People admitted to any healthcare setting for medical care are more prone to infection and to go for Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing than healthy people. (express-press-release.net)
  • The CDC has now assessed the extent of the problem of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in the U.S. Among almost 4000 acute care hospitals that performed surveillance for either catheter-associated urinary tract infections or central line-associated blood stream infections during the first 6 months of 2012, 181 (4.6%) reported at least one CRE infection. (freecme.com)
  • If you have an infection associated with an Enterobacteriaceae, your healthcare provider may order additional tests to determine if it is resistant to antibiotics. (hawaii.gov)
  • A multinational survey of risk factors for infection with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae in nonhospitalized patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/752214/all/Enterobacteriaceae. (tabers.com)
  • The article presents information on Enterobacteriaceae, which has Beta Lactamases which gives them ability to circumvent antibiotics like penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems. (ebscohost.com)
  • During the past decade, there has been an emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that produce carbapenemases, enzymes that efficiently hydrolyze carbapenems, as well as most β-lactam drugs ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A trial of the Enterotube system for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae and a comparison with the methods at present in use in the Tygerberg Hospital Microbiology Laboratory, were carried out. (journals.co.za)
  • 2. Facility Guidance for Control of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)- November 2015 Update CRE Toolkit. (cambridge.org)
  • It contains recommendations for healthcare facilities and is intended to expand upon the March 2009 "Guidance for control of carbapenem-resistant or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in acute-care facilities. (europa.eu)
  • The CDC guidance for control of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is an important milestone and provides a comprehensive approach for strengthening public health preparedness for CRE prevention and control at both hospital/healthcare facility- and regional levels. (europa.eu)
  • To assess the molecular epidemiology, clinical impact, treatment outcome and risk factors for infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae producing ESBLs in Italy in a large multicenter observational survey. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Incidence and Outcomes of Infections Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Children, 2007-2015. (harvard.edu)
  • Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia is a good example of how this strategy would be applied. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • High carriage rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among patients admitted for surgery in Tanzanian hospitals with a low rate of endogenous surgical site infections. (harvard.edu)
  • A wide range of Enterobacteriaceae family members express Extended-spectrum [beta]lactamase (ESBLs) enzyme. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Influx of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae into the hospital. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nationwide survey of extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the French community setting. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing includes disc diffusion or automated systems, selective agar Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing, synergy Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing, modified Hodge tests, whole genome sequencing, spectrometrics and various other molecular methods. (express-press-release.net)
  • All samples were examined for presence of Staphylococcus aureus (on Baird Parker agar medium) and Enterobacteriaceae sp. (scialert.net)
  • Carbapenemases increasingly have been reported in Enterobacteriaceae in the past 10 years. (nih.gov)
  • New antibiotics with activity against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) improve outcomes of CRE-infected patients. (asm.org)
  • CRE are Enterobacteriaceae that are resistant to carbapenem antibiotics. (wyo.gov)
  • Increase in the number of people requiring inpatient medical assistance, growing number of healthcare facilities, increased number of complex surgeries, multiple use of several antibiotics and rise in use of medical devices in the body, such as urinary catheters, intravenous catheters and ventilators, are few of the major factors responsible for growth in the Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing market. (express-press-release.net)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are highly resistant to antibiotics, leaving only a few options for treatment of infected patients, and thus represent a serious threat to public health. (europa.eu)
  • Enterobacteriaceae are part of the normal human gastrointestinal flora but are also commonly isolated from patients with urinary tract infections, as well as from hospitalized patients with blood stream infections and nosocomial pneumonia. (aacc.org)
  • How frequently are hospitalized patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) already on contact precautions for other indications? (cambridge.org)
  • Investigators propose a 'real clinical practice-based' randomized trial to compare the efficacy and safety of continuing with an antipseudomonal agents vs. de-escalation according to a pre-specified rule, in patients with bacteraemia due to Enterobacteriaceae. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Faecal Carriage Rate of ExtendedSspectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hospitalised Patients and Healthy Asymptomatic Individuals coming for Health Check-up. (amrita.edu)
  • Our study was set out to evaluate whether the MicroScan ® Walkaway system is a reliable method for predicting CPE in patients with a Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections. (omicsonline.org)
  • Introduction Although Enterobacteriaceae are normal flora of the human intestinal system, they are also common pathogens causing human infections in the setting of both community-acquired and healthcare-associated infections (Hsueh et al. (medworm.com)
  • Recently, the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has become a more critical issue due to the limited therapeutic options available for these pathogens and the significant morbidity and mortality associated with CRE infections (Tang et al. (medworm.com)
  • Enterobacteriaceae comprise a number of common pathogens, such as Salmonella , E. coli O157, Shigella , Yersinia and Cronobacte r. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Enterobacteriaceae testing can be used for routine screening as their presence indicates possible contamination with pathogens. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Articles needed to report on (i) foreign travel, (ii) screening of asymptomatic participants, (iii) antimicrobial susceptibility data and (iv) faecal Enterobacteriaceae carriage. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The emergence and transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a concern in both the clinical and public health arenas. (scielo.org.za)
  • The emergence of Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a major public health problem worldwide. (omicsonline.org)
  • Enterobacteriaceae Rahn 1937, familia . (bacterio.net)
  • The Judicial Commission has reviewed this question and concluded that the family name Enterobacteriaceae Rahn 1937 is valid and should have been incorporated in the body of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names 1980. (bacterio.net)
  • nov. as a substitute for the illegitimate but conserved name Enterobacteriaceae Rahn 1937. (bacterio.net)
  • With Smarticles™ technology, GeneWEAVE is developing fast, direct-from-patient-sample tests for critical MDROs such as MRSA, CRE, and FRE (Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae) to allow healthcare providers to make time-critical decisions. (prweb.com)
  • People prone to Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae include people admitted to hospitals or other healthcare settings. (express-press-release.net)
  • Healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and acute care centers, where constant medical care is required for a longer duration of time are more prone to CRE and thus, the demand for Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing is higher in these settings. (express-press-release.net)
  • The ECDC risk assessment on the spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae through patient transfer between healthcare facilities, with special emphasis on cross-border transfer (2), September 2011. (europa.eu)
  • Enterobacteriaceae are one of the most common causes of bacterial infections in both healthcare and community settings. (hawaii.gov)
  • To determine the frequency of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in newborns. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • High rates of colonization and horizontal transmission of extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were found in the newborn care units of two general hospitals. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Enterobacteriaceae are a family of germs that most commonly live in a person's bowel without causing any disease. (express-press-release.net)
  • Enterobacteriaceae are commonly found in normal human intestines (gut). (hawaii.gov)
  • Hong Kong experiences the 'Ultimate superbug': NDM-1 Enterobacteriaceae. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We report the second imported case of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) Enterobacteriaceae encountered in Hong Kong soon after the patient's arrival in the territory for medical care. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This is the 19th detected case of NDM Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hong Kong. (flutrackers.com)
  • The serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) represent a large family of virulence factors. (asm.org)
  • A common feature of these organisms is their secretion of high-molecular-weight serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Epidemiology and treatment of MDR Enterobacteriaceae. (springer.com)
  • Epidemiology and prevention of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the United States. (springer.com)
  • The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has become not only a clinical challenge but also a global public health problem. (aacc.org)
  • One more 83-year-old male patient is confirmed as carrier of NDM carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae today but without clinical symptoms. (gov.hk)
  • Treatment options for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections are limited and CRE infections remain associated with high clinical failure and mortality rates, particularly in vulnerable patient populations. (springer.com)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are resistant to multiple antibiotic classes and infections with these organisms often results in high mortality rates. (omicsonline.org)
  • To identify different genera of Enterobacteriaceae, a microbiologist may run a series of tests in the lab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most members of Enterobacteriaceae have peritrichous, type I fimbriae involved in the adhesion of the bacterial cells to their hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The family name Enterobacteriaceae was omitted from the body of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names 1980, but a footnote was inserted on page 236 indicating that the name was sub judice, referring to the proposal by Lapage. (bacterio.net)
  • The Enterobacteriaceae vial is a screening vial specific for Enterobacteriaceae organisms and can be used for specification monitoring in food and nutraceutical products. (neogen.com)
  • As Enterobacteriaceae organisms metabolize, the pH indicator changes from purple to a yellow color. (neogen.com)
  • February 14, 2013, 12:30 ET CDCHAN-00341-02-14-2013 Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are untreatable or difficult-to-treat multidrugresistant organisms that are emerging in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of organisms mostly found in the gut. (wyo.gov)
  • Bacteriological and antibiogram of AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from abattoir. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) can be mechanistically classified into carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and non-carbapenemase-producing carbapenem nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae (NCPCRE). (asm.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Control Panel (Inactivated Swab) includes 6 positive control swabs and 6 negative control swabs. (microbiologics.com)
  • The patient's rectal swab grew NDM-1 Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae , as confirmed by the PHLSB. (flutrackers.com)