Gram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infections
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Cephalosporinase is an enzyme produced by certain bacteria that can hydrolyze and confer resistance to cephalosporin antibiotics.
Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CHRONOBACTER, found in the environment and in foods.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of histidine catabolism, forming UROCANIC ACID and AMMONIA from HISTIDINE. Deficiency of this enzyme is associated with elevated levels of serum histidine and is called histidinemia (AMINO ACID METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS).
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.

Synthesis of novel heterobranched beta-cyclodextrins from 4(2)-O-beta-D-galactosyl-maltose and beta-cyclodextrin by the reverse action of pullulanase, and isolation and characterization of the products. (1/137)

From the mixture of 4(2)-O-beta-D-galactosyl-maltose (Gal-G2) and beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD), novel heterobranched betaCDs, (Gal-G2)-betaCD and (Gal-G2)2-betaCDs, were synthesized by the reverse action of debranching enzyme. The optimum conditions for the production of (Gal-G2)2-betaCDs were examined. A mixture of (Gal-G2)2-betaCDs was produced in about 4% yield when Aerobacter aerogenes pullulanase (64 units per 1 g of Gal-G2) was incubated with 1.6 M Gal-G2 and 0.16 M betaCD at 50 degrees C for 4 days. The reaction products, (Gal-G2)2-betaCDs, were separated into three peaks by HPLC analysis on a Hypercarb S column. Their structures were analyzed by fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopies, and confirmed by comparison of their hydrolyzates by beta-galactosidase with the authentic (G2)2 -betaCDs. The structures of (Gal-G2)-betaCD and three components of (Gal-G2)2-betaCDs were identified as 6-O-(GalG2)-betaCD, 6(1),6(2)-, 6(1),6(3)- and 6(1),6(4)-di-O-(Gal-G2)2-betaCD, respectively.  (+info)

Nucleotide sequence of the chromosomal ampC gene of Enterobacter aerogenes. (2/137)

The AmpC beta-lactamase gene and a small portion of the regulatory ampR sequence of Enterobacter aerogenes 97B were cloned and sequenced. The beta-lactamase had an isoelectric point of 8 and conferred cephalosporin and cephamycin resistance on the host. The sequence of the cloned gene is most closely related to those of the ampC genes of E. cloacae and C. freundii.  (+info)

Alternative pathways for siroheme synthesis in Klebsiella aerogenes. (3/137)

Siroheme, the cofactor for sulfite and nitrite reductases, is formed by methylation, oxidation, and iron insertion into the tetrapyrrole uroporphyrinogen III (Uro-III). The CysG protein performs all three steps of siroheme biosynthesis in the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. In either taxon, cysG mutants cannot reduce sulfite to sulfide and require a source of sulfide or cysteine for growth. In addition, CysG-mediated methylation of Uro-III is required for de novo synthesis of cobalamin (coenzyme B(12)) in S. enterica. We have determined that cysG mutants of the related enteric bacterium Klebsiella aerogenes have no defect in the reduction of sulfite to sulfide. These data suggest that an alternative enzyme allows for siroheme biosynthesis in CysG-deficient strains of Klebsiella. However, Klebsiella cysG mutants fail to synthesize coenzyme B(12), suggesting that the alternative siroheme biosynthetic pathway proceeds by a different route. Gene cysF, encoding an alternative siroheme synthase homologous to CysG, has been identified by genetic analysis and lies within the cysFDNC operon; the cysF gene is absent from the E. coli and S. enterica genomes. While CysG is coregulated with the siroheme-dependent nitrite reductase, the cysF gene is regulated by sulfur starvation. Models for alternative regulation of the CysF and CysG siroheme synthases in Klebsiella and for the loss of the cysF gene from the ancestor of E. coli and S. enterica are presented.  (+info)

Methionine-to-cysteine recycling in Klebsiella aerogenes. (4/137)

In the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, sulfate is reduced to sulfide and assimilated into the amino acid cysteine; in turn, cysteine provides the sulfur atom for other sulfur-bearing molecules in the cell, including methionine. These organisms cannot use methionine as a sole source of sulfur. Here we report that this constraint is not shared by many other enteric bacteria, which can use either cysteine or methionine as the sole source of sulfur. The enteric bacterium Klebsiella aerogenes appears to use at least two pathways to allow the reduced sulfur of methionine to be recycled into cysteine. In addition, the ability to recycle methionine on solid media, where cys mutants cannot use methionine as a sulfur source, appears to be different from that in liquid media, where they can. One pathway likely uses a cystathionine intermediate to convert homocysteine to cysteine and is induced under conditions of sulfur starvation, which is likely sensed by low levels of the sulfate reduction intermediate adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. The CysB regulatory proteins appear to control activation of this pathway. A second pathway may use a methanesulfonate intermediate to convert methionine-derived methanethiol to sulfite. While the transsulfurylation pathway may be directed to recovery of methionine, the methanethiol pathway likely represents a general salvage mechanism for recovery of alkane sulfide and alkane sulfonates. Therefore, the relatively distinct biosyntheses of cysteine and methionine in E. coli and Salmonella appear to be more intertwined in Klebsiella.  (+info)

Synthesis of novel heterobranched beta-cyclodextrins from alpha-D-mannosylmaltotriose and beta-cyclodextrin by the reverse action of pullulanase, and isolation and characterization of the products. (5/137)

Alpha-D-mannosyl-maltotriose (Man-G3) were synthesized from methyl alpha-mannoside and maltotriose by the transfer action of alpha-mannosidase. (Man-G3)-betaCD and (Man-G3)2-betaCD were produced in about 20% and 4% yield, respectively when Aerobacter aerogenes pullulanase (160 units per 1 g of Man-G3) was incubated with the mixture of 1.6 M Man-G3 and 0.16 M betaCD at 50 degrees C for 4 days. The reaction products, (Man-G3)-betaCD were separated to three peaks by HPLC analysis on a YMC-PACK A-323-3 column and (Man-G3)2-betaCD were separated to several peaks by HPLC analysis on a Daisopak ODS column. The major product of (Man-G3)-betaCDs was identified as 6-O-alpha-(6(3)-O-alpha-D-mannosylmaltotriosyl)-betaCD by FAB-MS and NMR spectroscopies. The structures of (Man-G3)2-betaCDs were analyzed by TOF-MS and NMR spectroscopies, and confirmed by comparison of elution profiles of their hydrolyzates by alpha-mannosidase and glucoamylase on a graphitized carbon column with those of the authentic di-glucosyl-betaCDs. The structures of three main components of (Man-G3)2-betaCDs were identified as 6(1),6(2)-, 6(1),6(3)- and 6(1),64-di-O-(63-O-alpha-D-mannosyl-maltotriosyl)-betaCD.  (+info)

National epidemiologic surveys of Enterobacter aerogenes in Belgian hospitals from 1996 to 1998. (6/137)

Two national surveys were conducted to describe the incidence and prevalence of Enterobacter aerogenes in 21 Belgian hospitals in 1996 and 1997 and to characterize the genotypic diversity and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of clinical strains of E. aerogenes isolated from hospitalized patients in Belgium in 1997 and 1998. Twenty-nine hospitals collected 10 isolates of E. aerogenes, which were typed by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) using two primers and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. MICs of 10 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. Beta-lactamases were detected by the double-disk diffusion test and characterized by isoelectric point. The median incidence of E. aerogenes colonization or infection increased from 3.3 per 1,000 admissions in 1996 to 4.2 per 1000 admissions in the first half of 1997 (P < 0.01). E. aerogenes strains (n = 260) clustered in 25 AP-PCR types. Two major types, BE1 and BE2, included 36 and 38% of strains and were found in 21 and 25 hospitals, respectively. The BE1 type was indistinguishable from a previously described epidemic strain in France. Half of the strains produced an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, either TEM-24 (in 86% of the strains) or TEM-3 (in 14% of the strains). Over 75% of the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin. Over 90% of the strains were susceptible to cefepime, carbapenems, and aminoglycosides. In conclusion, these data suggest a nationwide dissemination of two epidemic multiresistant E. aerogenes strains in Belgian hospitals. TEM-24 beta-lactamase was frequently harbored by one of these epidemic strains, which appeared to be genotypically related to a TEM-24-producing epidemic strain from France, suggesting international dissemination.  (+info)

Growth inhibition caused by overexpression of the structural gene for glutamate dehydrogenase (gdhA) from Klebsiella aerogenes. (7/137)

Two linked mutations affecting glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) formation (gdh-1 and rev-2) had been isolated at a locus near the trp cluster in Klebsiella aerogenes. The properties of these two mutations were consistent with those of a locus containing either a regulatory gene or a structural gene. The gdhA gene from K. aerogenes was cloned and sequenced, and an insertion mutation was generated and shown to be linked to trp. A region of gdhA from a strain bearing gdh-1 was sequenced and shown to have a single-base-pair change, confirming that the locus defined by gdh-1 is the structural gene for GDH. Mutants with the same phenotype as rev-2 were isolated, and their sequences showed that the mutations were located in the promoter region of the gdhA gene. The linkage of gdhA to trp in K. aerogenes was explained by postulating an inversion of the genetic map relative to other enteric bacteria. Strains that bore high-copy-number clones of gdhA displayed an auxotrophy that was interpreted as a limitation for alpha-ketoglutarate and consequently for succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Three lines of evidence supported this interpretation: high-copy-number clones of the enzymatically inactive gdhA1 allele showed no auxotrophy, repression of GDH expression by the nitrogen assimilation control protein (NAC) relieved the auxotrophy, and addition of compounds that could increase the alpha-ketoglutarate supply or reduce the succinyl-CoA requirement relieved the auxotrophy.  (+info)

Changes in the disintegration properties of some brands of paracetamol tablets inoculated with four bacterial species. (8/137)

Four most common brands of paracetamol (4-aceta-midophenol) tablets were examined for the changes in their disintegration properties after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella aerogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and incubating for 5 weeks. The disintegration times varied from one brand to the other, reaching maximum values of 72 min., 82 min., 110 min. and 120 min. for S. aureus, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes, respectively. All brands of paracetamol tablets revealed the presence of cotton wool-like fibrils which were seen to be interwoven within the tablets' matrices and these were believed to have caused the higher disintegration times.  (+info)

"Enterobacter aerogenes" is a species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and vegetation. In medical contexts, E. aerogenes is often considered an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it can cause infection in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying health conditions.

E. aerogenes is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is closely related to other pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. It is known for its ability to produce large amounts of gas, including carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, which can contribute to its virulence and make it difficult to identify using traditional biochemical tests.

E. aerogenes can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and wound infections. It is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of E. aerogenes isolates that are resistant to carbapenems, a class of antibiotics that are often used as a last resort for treating serious bacterial infections.

Enterobacter is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. These bacteria are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and are known to cause a variety of infections in humans, particularly in healthcare settings.

Enterobacter species are capable of causing a range of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and wound infections. They are often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. Infections with Enterobacter are typically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria.

It's worth noting that while Enterobacter species can cause infections, they are also a normal part of the microbiota found in the human gut and usually do not cause harm in healthy individuals. However, if the bacterium enters the bloodstream or other sterile sites in the body, it can cause infection and illness.

'Enterobacter cloacae' is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. They are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae and can cause various types of infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

E. cloacae is known to be an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it typically does not cause disease in healthy people but can take advantage of a weakened host to cause infection. It can cause a range of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia (bloodstream infections), and wound infections.

E. cloacae is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of E. cloacae isolates that are resistant to carbapenems, a class of antibiotics that are typically reserved for treating serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. This has led to concerns about the potential for untreatable infections caused by this organism.

Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in the human gut and surrounding environment. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can occur when these bacteria enter parts of the body where they are not normally present, such as the bloodstream, urinary tract, or abdominal cavity.

Enterobacteriaceae infections can cause a range of symptoms depending on the site of infection. For example:

* Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause symptoms such as frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, and lower abdominal pain.
* Bloodstream infections (bacteremia) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause fever, chills, and sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory response to infection.
* Pneumonia caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Intra-abdominal infections (such as appendicitis or diverticulitis) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause abdominal pain, fever, and changes in bowel habits.

Enterobacteriaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of these bacteria has made treatment more challenging in recent years. Preventing the spread of Enterobacteriaceae in healthcare settings and promoting good hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of infection.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Klebsiella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are commonly found in the normal microbiota of the mouth, skin, and intestines, but can also cause various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common species and can cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. Other Klebsiella species, such as K. oxytoca, can also cause similar types of infections. These bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat and a significant public health concern.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is a medical term that refers to a type of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It's a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. It's a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections.

The bacterium is known for its ability to produce a polysaccharide capsule that makes it resistant to phagocytosis by white blood cells, allowing it to evade the host's immune system. Additionally, "Klebsiella pneumoniae" has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat and a growing public health concern.

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by certain bacteria that can break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. This enzymatic activity makes the bacteria resistant to these antibiotics, limiting their effectiveness in treating infections caused by these organisms.

Beta-lactamases work by hydrolyzing the beta-lactam ring, a structural component of these antibiotics that is essential for their antimicrobial activity. By breaking down this ring, the enzyme renders the antibiotic ineffective against the bacterium, allowing it to continue growing and potentially causing harm.

There are different classes of beta-lactamases (e.g., Ambler Class A, B, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and mechanisms for breaking down various beta-lactam antibiotics. The emergence and spread of bacteria producing these enzymes have contributed to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, making it increasingly challenging to treat infections caused by these organisms.

To overcome this issue, researchers have developed beta-lactamase inhibitors, which are drugs that can bind to and inhibit the activity of these enzymes, thus restoring the effectiveness of certain beta-lactam antibiotics. Examples of such combinations include amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) and piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn).

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

A cephalosporinase is an enzyme that can break down and inactivate cephalosporins, a group of antibiotics commonly used to treat various bacterial infections. Bacteria that produce this enzyme are referred to as "cephalosporin-resistant" or "cephalosporinase-producing" organisms. The production of cephalosporinases by bacteria can lead to treatment failures and make infections more difficult to manage.

Cephalosporins are broad-spectrum antibiotics, which means they can be effective against a wide range of bacterial species. However, some bacteria have developed resistance mechanisms, such as the production of cephalosporinases, to counteract their effects. These enzymes hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring in cephalosporins, rendering them ineffective.

There are different classes of cephalosporinases (e.g., Ambler classes A, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and substrate profiles. Some cephalosporinases can hydrolyze a broader range of cephalosporins than others, leading to varying degrees of resistance.

To overcome cephalosporinase-mediated resistance, alternative antibiotics or combinations of antibiotics may be used. Additionally, the development of new cephalosporins with improved stability against these enzymes is an ongoing area of research in the field of antimicrobial drug discovery.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pyronine" is not a medical term. It is a type of basic dye that is often used in histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues) and cytology (the study of individual cells). Pyronin Y, a specific type of pyronine dye, is sometimes used to stain acidic components within cells, such as DNA and RNA. However, it is not a term that is typically used in clinical medicine to describe diseases or conditions.

'Cronobacter sakazakii' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing severe invasive infections such as meningitis and sepsis, particularly in newborns, infants, and immunocompromised individuals. The bacterium has been found in various environmental sources, including dried foods like powdered infant formula, herbs, and spices. Proper hygiene practices and the safe handling, preparation, and storage of food and feeding utensils can help prevent Cronobacter sakazakii infections.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.

Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.

"Serratia marcescens" is a medically significant species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile bacillus bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is commonly found in soil, water, and in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. The bacteria are known for their ability to produce a red pigment called prodigiosin, which gives them a distinctive pink color on many types of laboratory media.

"Serratia marcescens" can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). It is also known to be an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it primarily causes infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with chronic illnesses or who are undergoing medical treatments that suppress the immune system.

In healthcare settings, "Serratia marcescens" can cause outbreaks of infection, particularly in patients who are hospitalized for extended periods of time. It is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, which makes it difficult to treat and control the spread of infections caused by this organism.

In addition to its medical significance, "Serratia marcescens" has also been used as a model organism in various areas of microbiological research, including studies on bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance.

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They contain a beta-lactam ring in their chemical structure, which is responsible for their antibacterial activity. The beta-lactam ring inhibits the bacterial enzymes necessary for cell wall synthesis, leading to bacterial death. Beta-lactams are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and bone and joint infections. However, some bacteria have developed resistance to beta-lactams through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring and render the antibiotic ineffective. To overcome this resistance, beta-lactam antibiotics are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors, which protect the beta-lactam ring from degradation.

'Citrobacter freundii' is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and plants. It is also part of the normal gut flora in humans and animals. The bacterium can cause various types of infections in people with weakened immune systems, such as newborns, the elderly, and those with chronic diseases. Infections caused by 'Citrobacter freundii' may include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are crucial for effective treatment of these infections.

Cephalosporin resistance refers to the ability of bacteria to resist the antibacterial effects of cephalosporins, a group of widely used antibiotics. These drugs work by interfering with the bacterial cell wall synthesis, thereby inhibiting bacterial growth and reproduction. However, some bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive in the presence of cephalosporins.

There are several ways in which bacteria can become resistant to cephalosporins. One common mechanism is through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring structure of cephalosporins and other related antibiotics. This makes the drugs ineffective against the bacteria.

Another mechanism of resistance involves changes in the bacterial cell membrane or the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that prevent the binding of cephalosporins to their target sites. These changes can occur due to genetic mutations or the acquisition of new genes through horizontal gene transfer.

Cephalosporin resistance is a significant public health concern, as it can limit the treatment options for bacterial infections and increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics are major drivers of antibiotic resistance, including cephalosporin resistance. Therefore, it is essential to use these drugs judiciously and follow proper infection prevention and control measures to prevent the spread of resistant bacteria.

"Serratia" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile bacilli that are commonly found in the environment, such as in water and soil. Some species, particularly "Serratia marcescens," can cause healthcare-associated infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bloodstream infections. These infections often occur in patients with compromised immune systems or who have been hospitalized for extended periods of time. Serratia species are resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging.

Porins are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. They form water-filled channels, or pores, that allow small molecules such as ions, nutrients, and waste products to pass through the otherwise impermeable outer membrane. Porins are important for the survival of gram-negative bacteria, as they enable the selective transport of essential molecules while providing a barrier against harmful substances.

There are different types of porins, classified based on their structure and function. Some examples include:

1. General porins (also known as nonspecific porins): These are the most common type of porins and form large, water-filled channels that allow passive diffusion of small molecules up to 600-700 Da in size. They typically have a trimeric structure, with three identical or similar subunits forming a pore in the membrane.
2. Specific porins: These porins are more selective in the molecules they allow to pass through and often have smaller pores than general porins. They can be involved in the active transport of specific molecules or ions, requiring energy from the cell.
3. Autotransporters: While not strictly considered porins, autotransporter proteins share some structural similarities with porins and are involved in the transport of protein domains across the outer membrane. They consist of an N-terminal passenger domain and a C-terminal translocator domain, which forms a β-barrel pore in the outer membrane through which the passenger domain is transported.

Porins have attracted interest as potential targets for antibiotic development, as they play crucial roles in bacterial survival and virulence. Inhibiting porin function or blocking the pores could disrupt essential processes in gram-negative bacteria, providing a new approach to treating infections caused by these organisms.

Cefoperazone is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are not able to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefoperazone is often used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin, and soft tissues. It may also be used to prevent infections during surgery. Like all antibiotics, cefoperazone should only be used under the direction of a healthcare professional, as misuse can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

It is important to note that cefoperazone, like other antibiotics, can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people. If you experience any unusual symptoms while taking cefoperazone, it is important to contact your healthcare provider right away.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, leading to bacterial cell death. Ceftazidime has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria.

It is often used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis, particularly when they are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ceftazidime is also commonly used in combination with other antibiotics to treat complicated abdominal infections, bone and joint infections, and hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Like all antibiotics, ceftazidime can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions. It may also affect the kidneys and should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function. Ceftazidime is available in both intravenous (IV) and oral forms.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a technique used in electrophoresis, which is a method for separating proteins or other molecules based on their electrical charges. In IEF, a mixture of ampholytes (molecules that can carry both positive and negative charges) is used to create a pH gradient within a gel matrix. When an electric field is applied, the proteins or molecules migrate through the gel until they reach the point in the gradient where their net charge is zero, known as their isoelectric point (pI). At this point, they focus into a sharp band and stop moving, resulting in a highly resolved separation of the different components based on their pI. This technique is widely used in protein research for applications such as protein identification, characterization, and purification.

Beta-lactam resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance in which bacteria have developed the ability to inactivate or circumvent the action of beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They work by binding to and inhibiting the activity of enzymes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are essential for bacterial cell wall synthesis.

Bacteria can develop beta-lactam resistance through several mechanisms:

1. Production of beta-lactamases: These are enzymes that bacteria produce to break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics. Some bacteria have acquired genes that encode for beta-lactamases that can hydrolyze and destroy the beta-lactam ring, rendering the antibiotic ineffective.
2. Alteration of PBPs: Bacteria can also develop mutations in their PBPs that make them less susceptible to beta-lactams. These alterations can reduce the affinity of PBPs for beta-lactams or change their conformation, preventing the antibiotic from binding effectively.
3. Efflux pumps: Bacteria can also develop efflux pumps that actively pump beta-lactam antibiotics out of the cell, reducing their intracellular concentration and limiting their effectiveness.
4. Biofilm formation: Some bacteria can form biofilms, which are communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are encased in a protective matrix. Biofilms can make bacteria more resistant to beta-lactams by preventing the antibiotics from reaching their targets.

Beta-lactam resistance is a significant public health concern because it limits the effectiveness of these important antibiotics. The overuse and misuse of beta-lactams have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, making it essential to use these antibiotics judiciously and develop new strategies to combat bacterial resistance.

Klebsiella infections are caused by bacteria called Klebsiella spp., with the most common species being Klebsiella pneumoniae. These gram-negative, encapsulated bacilli are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract but can cause various types of infections when they spread to other body sites.

Commonly, Klebsiella infections include:

1. Pneumonia: This is a lung infection that can lead to symptoms like cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fever. It often affects people with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized.

2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Klebsiella can cause UTIs, particularly in individuals with compromised urinary tracts, such as catheterized patients or those with structural abnormalities. Symptoms may include pain, burning during urination, frequent urges to urinate, and lower abdominal or back pain.

3. Bloodstream infections (bacteremia/septicemia): When Klebsiella enters the bloodstream, it can cause bacteremia or septicemia, which can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition characterized by an overwhelming immune response to infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and rapid breathing.

4. Wound infections: Klebsiella can infect wounds, particularly in patients with open surgical wounds or traumatic injuries. Infected wounds may display redness, swelling, pain, pus discharge, and warmth.

5. Soft tissue infections: These include infections of the skin and underlying soft tissues, such as cellulitis and abscesses. Symptoms can range from localized redness, swelling, and pain to systemic symptoms like fever and malaise.

Klebsiella infections are increasingly becoming difficult to treat due to their resistance to multiple antibiotics, including carbapenems, which has led to the term "carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae" (CRE) or "carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae" (CRKP). These infections often require the use of last-resort antibiotics like colistin and tigecycline. Infection prevention measures, such as contact precautions, hand hygiene, and environmental cleaning, are crucial to controlling the spread of Klebsiella in healthcare settings.

Gram-positive bacteria are a type of bacteria that stain dark purple or blue when subjected to the Gram staining method, which is a common technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This staining method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The key characteristic that distinguishes Gram-positive bacteria from other types, such as Gram-negative bacteria, is the presence of a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Additionally, Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. Some Gram-positive bacteria can cause various human diseases, while others are beneficial or harmless.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "France" is not a medical term or concept. France is the largest country in Western Europe and the third-largest in Europe after Russia and Ukraine. It has been a major player in world affairs for centuries, with a significant cultural and artistic influence. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Cross infection, also known as cross-contamination, is the transmission of infectious agents or diseases between patients in a healthcare setting. This can occur through various means such as contaminated equipment, surfaces, hands of healthcare workers, or the air. It is an important concern in medical settings and measures are taken to prevent its occurrence, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Multiple bacterial drug resistance (MDR) is a medical term that refers to the resistance of multiple strains of bacteria to several antibiotics or antimicrobial agents. This means that these bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive and multiply despite being exposed to drugs that were previously effective in treating infections caused by them.

MDR is a significant public health concern because it limits the treatment options available for bacterial infections, making them more difficult and expensive to treat. In some cases, MDR bacteria may cause severe or life-threatening infections that are resistant to all available antibiotics, leaving doctors with few or no effective therapeutic options.

MDR can arise due to various mechanisms, including the production of enzymes that inactivate antibiotics, changes in bacterial cell membrane permeability that prevent antibiotics from entering the bacteria, and the development of efflux pumps that expel antibiotics out of the bacteria. The misuse or overuse of antibiotics is a significant contributor to the emergence and spread of MDR bacteria.

Preventing and controlling the spread of MDR bacteria requires a multifaceted approach, including the judicious use of antibiotics, infection control measures, surveillance, and research into new antimicrobial agents.

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the ability of bacteria to synthesize proteins, which essential for their growth and survival. This helps to stop the spread of the infection and allows the body's immune system to clear the bacteria from the body.

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which means that it is effective against many different types of bacteria. It is often used to treat serious infections that have not responded to other antibiotics. However, because of its potential for serious side effects, including bone marrow suppression and gray baby syndrome, chloramphenicol is usually reserved for use in cases where other antibiotics are not effective or are contraindicated.

Chloramphenicol can be given by mouth, injection, or applied directly to the skin in the form of an ointment or cream. It is important to take or use chloramphenicol exactly as directed by a healthcare provider, and to complete the full course of treatment even if symptoms improve before all of the medication has been taken. This helps to ensure that the infection is fully treated and reduces the risk of antibiotic resistance.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Histidine Ammonia-Lyase (HAL) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid L-histidine into trans-urocanic acid, ammonia, and water. This reaction is a part of the histidine catabolism pathway in many organisms, including humans. The enzyme accomplishes this transformation by removing an ammonia group from the imidazole ring of L-histidine, resulting in the formation of trans-urocanic acid. Histidine Ammonia-Lyase plays a crucial role in histidine metabolism and has been studied for its potential implications in various physiological processes and diseases.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

"Escherichia" is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. The most well-known species in this genus is "Escherichia coli," or "E. coli," which is a normal inhabitant of the human gut and is often used as an indicator of fecal contamination in water and food. Some strains of E. coli can cause illness, however, including diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and meningitis. Other species in the genus "Escherichia" are less well-known and are not typically associated with disease.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

"Multiple drug resistance" (MDR) is a term used in medicine to describe the condition where a patient's infection becomes resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. This means that the bacteria, virus, fungus or parasite that is causing the infection has developed the ability to survive and multiply despite being exposed to medications that were originally designed to kill or inhibit its growth.

In particular, MDR occurs when an organism becomes resistant to at least one drug in three or more antimicrobial categories. This can happen due to genetic changes in the microorganism that allow it to survive in the presence of these drugs. The development of MDR is a significant concern for public health because it limits treatment options and can make infections harder, if not impossible, to treat.

MDR can develop through several mechanisms, including mutations in the genes that encode drug targets or enzymes involved in drug metabolism, as well as the acquisition of genetic elements such as plasmids and transposons that carry resistance genes. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial drugs are major drivers of MDR, as they create selective pressure for the emergence and spread of resistant strains.

MDR infections can occur in various settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and communities. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, although certain populations may be at higher risk, such as those with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. Preventing the spread of MDR requires a multifaceted approach that includes surveillance, infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, and research into new therapies and diagnostics.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

'Proteus' doesn't have a specific medical definition itself, but it is related to a syndrome in medicine. Proteus syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the overgrowth of various tissues and organs in the body. The name "Proteus" comes from the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, reflecting the diverse and ever-changing nature of this condition's symptoms.

People with Proteus syndrome experience asymmetric overgrowth of bones, skin, and other tissues, leading to abnormalities in body shape and function. The disorder can also affect blood vessels, causing benign tumors called hamartomas to develop. Additionally, individuals with Proteus syndrome are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

The genetic mutation responsible for Proteus syndrome is found in the AKT1 gene, which plays a crucial role in cell growth and division. This disorder is typically not inherited but instead arises spontaneously as a new mutation in the affected individual. Early diagnosis and management of Proteus syndrome can help improve patients' quality of life and reduce complications associated with the condition.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Sugar alcohols, also known as polyols, are carbohydrates that are chemically similar to sugar but have a different molecular structure. They occur naturally in some fruits and vegetables, but most sugar alcohols used in food products are manufactured.

The chemical structure of sugar alcohols contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) instead of a hydrogen and a ketone or aldehyde group, which makes them less sweet than sugar and have fewer calories. They are not completely absorbed by the body, so they do not cause a rapid increase in blood glucose levels, making them a popular sweetener for people with diabetes.

Common sugar alcohols used in food products include xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, erythritol, and maltitol. They are often used as sweeteners in sugar-free and low-sugar foods such as candy, chewing gum, baked goods, and beverages.

However, consuming large amounts of sugar alcohols can cause digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea, due to their partial absorption in the gut. Therefore, it is recommended to consume them in moderation.

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely found in the environment, such as in soil, water, and on plants. It's an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it usually doesn't cause infection in healthy individuals but can cause severe and sometimes life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems, burns, or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants due to its intrinsic resistance mechanisms and the acquisition of additional resistance determinants. It can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, dermatitis, and severe bloodstream infections known as sepsis.

The bacterium produces a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, proteases, and pigments like pyocyanin and pyoverdine, which aid in iron acquisition and help the organism evade host immune responses. Effective infection control measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, and close monitoring of high-risk patients are crucial for managing P. aeruginosa infections.

... , previously known as Enterobacter aerogenes, is a Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive, ... Enterobacter Infections at eMedicine "Klebsiella aerogenes". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 548. Type strain of Klebsiella aerogenes at ... "Morphological Characteristics of Enterobacter aerogenes". Archived from the original on 2017-07-05. Retrieved 2017-05-07. Jones ... Tindall, B. J.; Sutton, G.; Garrity, G. M. (2017). "Enterobacter aerogenes Hormaeche and Edwards 1960 (Approved Lists 1980) and ...
Enterobacter aerogenes is another hydrogen producer. Diverse enzymatic pathways have been designed to generate hydrogen from ... "Optimization of organosolv pretreatment of rice straw for enhanced biohydrogen production using Enterobacter aerogenes". ...
Enterobacter aerogenes is an outstanding hydrogen producer. It is an anaerobic facultative and mesophilic bacterium that is ... "Optimization of organosolv pretreatment of rice straw for enhanced biohydrogen production using Enterobacter aerogenes". ... E. aerogenes has a short doubling time and high hydrogen productivity and evolution rate. Furthermore, hydrogen production by ... Facultative anaerobic bacteria such as E. aerogenes have a theoretical maximum yield of 2 mol H2/mol glucose. Biohydrogen ...
This enzyme has been reported in the bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae ... reductase from Enterobacter aerogenes". Eur. J. Biochem. 198 (2): 327-332. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb16019.x. PMID 2040298 ...
"Optimization of organosolv pretreatment of rice straw for enhanced biohydrogen production using Enterobacter aerogenes". ...
"Enhanced production of acetoin and butanediol in recombinant Enterobacter aerogenes carrying Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene". ... Butanediol fermentation is typical for the facultative anaerobes Klebsiella and Enterobacter and is tested for using the Voges- ...
These bacteria are called methyl-red-negative and include Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter aerogenes. A tube filled with a ...
"Optimization of organosolv pretreatment of rice straw for enhanced biohydrogen production using Enterobacter aerogenes". ... obtained from a study that used ethanol organosolv pretreated rice straw to produce biohydrogen using Enterobacter aerogenes, ...
"Optimization of organosolv pretreatment of rice straw for enhanced biohydrogen production using Enterobacter aerogenes". ...
Furthermore, ethanol organosolv pretreated rice straw was used to produce biohydrogen using Enterobacter aerogenes. The effect ... "Optimization of organosolv pretreatment of rice straw for enhanced biohydrogen production using Enterobacter aerogenes". ...
including Mycoplasma bovis) Escherichia coli (E. coli) Klebsiella pneumoniae Klebsiella oxytoca Enterobacter aerogenes ...
"Production of adenine arabinoside by gel-entrapped cells of Enterobacter aerogenes in water-organic cosolvent system". European ...
... phosphate-dependent histidine decarboxylases from Klebsiella planticola and Enterobacter aerogenes". Journal of Bacteriology. ...
Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae complex, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Klebsiella oxytoca. Some exclude ertapenem ... "Isolation of Enterobacter aerogenes carrying blaTEM-1 and blaKPC-3 genes recovered from a hospital Intensive Care Unit". APMIS ... and Enterobacter cloacae producing OXA-48-like carbapenemases.[citation needed] Their findings included: 25 of the 26 strains ... to several bacteria including Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, E. coli, and Citrobacter freundii. The class B metallo- ...
The first class C carbapenemase was described in 2006 and was isolated from a virulent strain of Enterobacter aerogenes. It is ... Serratia and Enterobacter species where its expression is usually inducible; it may also occur on Escherichia coli but is not ... and Enterobacter. Carbapenems are famously stable to AmpC β-lactamases and extended-spectrum-β-lactamases. Carbapenemases are a ...
Enterobacter aerogenes, a pathogenic bacterium commonly found in hospitals that causes opportunistic skin infections and ... Testing demonstrates effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Methicillin- ...
... with Ampicillin Destroy Multiple-Antibiotic-Resistant Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes and ...
Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter aerogenes: role of enhanced efflux pump activity and inactivation". Journal of ...
The bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens are identified as ...
There are some form of biological controls that have been found to be somewhat successful with Enterobacter aerogenes and ...
K. aerogenes, previously known as Enterobacter aerogenes and Bacterium aerogenes K. granulomatis K. oxytoca K. michiganensis K ...
... and Enterobacter aerogenes into orbit. Many kinds of microorganisms have been selected for exposure experiments since, as ...
... and Enterobacter aerogenes. Commonly, a standard Gram-negative and Gram-positive quality control strain are compared. ...
Currently, bacteria like Enterobacter aerogenes, Morganella morganii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are resistant to cefprozil, ...
Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia, and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus. Gentamicin is used in the treatment of respiratory ...
Enterobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The EPA has determined that when cleaned regularly, these copper alloy ...
... onto surfaces slathered in Enterobacter aerogenes. The surfaces used were carpet, ceramic tile, stainless steel and wood. The ... The scientists assessed the amount of E. aerogenes transferred between surface and food. Since bacteria tended to be attracted ...
High concentrations of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella ...
Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and ...
Escherichia coli infections Enterobacter aerogenes (formerly Aerobacter aerogenes) infections Shigella species infections ...
Enterobacter aerogenes. *Enterobacter cloacae. Transmission. Share on Pinterest. Thorough hand-washing can help prevent an ...
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes. Bloodstream Infection. No. 1) Contents from single-dose vials used for ,1 ... An outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes bacteremia after interventional pain management procedures, New ...
Enterobacter aerogenes. [35]. Escherichia coli. [7,34,35,43,95,105,106,107,108,109]. ...
... terhadap sel Enterobacter aerogenes. Daya koagulasi dari serbuk biji tua Moringa oleijera diuji secara mikrobiologis dengan ... maka jumlah bakteri Enterobacter aerogenes yang terkoagulasi juga meningkat. ... dalam Berbagai Konsentrasi Terhadap Bakteri Enterobacter Aerogenes. [Undergraduate thesis] ...
Klebsiella aerogenes, previously known as Enterobacter aerogenes, is a Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive, ... Enterobacter Infections at eMedicine "Klebsiella aerogenes". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 548. Type strain of Klebsiella aerogenes at ... "Morphological Characteristics of Enterobacter aerogenes". Archived from the original on 2017-07-05. Retrieved 2017-05-07. Jones ... Tindall, B. J.; Sutton, G.; Garrity, G. M. (2017). "Enterobacter aerogenes Hormaeche and Edwards 1960 (Approved Lists 1980) and ...
Enterobacter aerogenes Enterobacter cloacae Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase positive isolates only) Haemophilus ...
Enterobacter infections can include bacteremia, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and soft-tissue infections, urinary ... Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae; versatile bacterial pathogens confronting antibiotic treatment. Front ... Enterobacter aerogenes Hormaeche and Edwards 1960 (Approved Lists 1980) and Klebsiella mobilis Bascomb et al. 1971 (Approved ... Carbapenems continue to have the best activity against E cloacae, E aerogenes, (now known as Klebsiella aerogenes) and other ...
Ro 63-9141 was slightly more active than cefepime against Enterobacter aerogenes, of which 2 of the 10 strains studied were ... and one of Enterobacter cloacae for which the MIC was 4 μg/ml (Enterobacter cloacae MRW) ED50s of Ro 63-9141 were 4.0 and 3.8 ... All strains, with the exceptions ofStreptococcus pyogenes β15, E. coli 25922,Klebsiella pneumoniae 418, Enterobacter cloacae ... ESBL producers, but it was intermediate to cefepime and cefotaxime against Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii. A ...
Enterobacter species: 1] Enterobacter cloacae, 2] Enterobacter aerogenes). ,Escherichia coli ,Klebsiella species:. 1] ...
Hydrogen production of Enterobacter aerogenes altered by extracellular and intracellular redox state. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy ... Enterobacter. spp. cultures are much higher, ranging from 1.1 moles of H2/mole of hexose to ca. 3.0 moles of H2/mole of hexose ... Enterobacter. , Serratia. , Erwinia. and some species of Bacillus. . In this type of fermentation, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, ... Enterobacter. -type fermentation hydrogen is also generated through oxidation of NADH by NFOR in reactions similar to those ...
Among them, 6 (23.10%) were both for ,em,Enterobacter aerogenes,/em, and ,em,Staphylococcus epidermidis,/em, followed by ,em, ...
Enterobacter aerogenes bacteria. Microban 24 does not provide 24-hour residual virus protection. ...
Enterobacter aerogenes) were detected in children aged , 1 year, and they represented 15% of the total isolates (Table 2). ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii ...
Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacter aerogenes, were examined, and the identified promoter locations were then used to ... The rhizome of the multidrug-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes genome reveals how new "killer bugs" are created because of a ... The remaining two pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacter aerogenes, are in contrast distantly related γ- ... Arnaud Riat, Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland), Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190 (kindly provided by Dr. Thilo Köhler, ...
Gram negative microorganisms (eg, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella species, Acinetobacter species, urinary ...
Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia rettgeri ... Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia rettgeri ...
These antibodies do not cross- react with Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, ...
Corynebacterium accolens and Enterobacter aerogenes in one case. Notably, S. aureus and S. epidermidis were the least common ... Enterobacter cloacae, and to a lesser extent by two Chryseobacterium species. Cluster 3 contained nearly half of the DC samples ... and was dominated by Staphylococcus epidermidis and in few samples by Dolosigranulum pigrum and Enterobacter cloacae. Clusters ...
... enterobacter aerogenes and community-associated methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The patented formulation ...
Enterobacter aerogenes front 25. which bacteria would it be in eosin methylene blue if it were pink and moist ? ...
Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter cloacae. Some strains of the Coagulase-negative staphylococci ... E. aerogenes. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. NR. 0. 0. 4. 0. 0. 4. 1. 2. 1. 2. 2. 0. 0. 0 ...
Enterobacter aerogenes; Enterobacter agglomerans; Enterobacter cloacae; Enterobacter sakazakii; Enterococcus faecalis (many ... Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, ...
Enterobacter aerogenes, 0.12 - ,4,, Enterobacter agglomerans, ≤0.008 - ,32,, Enterobacter cloacae, 0.12 - ,64,, Enterobacter ...
Enterobacter aerogenes. Directions: (Complete directions on product label). * Sanitize food contact surfaces: Clean and rinse ...
Enterobacter aerogenes. *Glass bowls with Sanisol *Glass Slides *Stain trays *Water bottles (partially fill with DI water) ...
Enterobacter aerogenes * Enterococcus faecalis * Escherichia coli * Proteus vulgaris * Salmonella typhi * Shigella flexneri ...
Gram-negative infections: Treatment of infections caused by Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella spp., ...
  • Klebsiella aerogenes is a nosocomial, pathogenic bacterium that causes opportunistic infections of most types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterobacter aerogenes Hormaeche and Edwards 1960 (Approved Lists 1980) and Klebsiella mobilis Bascomb et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbapenems continue to have the best activity against E cloacae, E aerogenes, (now known as Klebsiella aerogenes ) and other Enterobacter species. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical characteristics and outcome of bacteraemia caused by Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella aerogenes: more similarities than differences. (cdc.gov)
  • mrc-1 positivity also was found in 13 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae , and 1 isolate each of Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes . (medscape.com)
  • A total of 12 of 13 isolates harboring including Citrobacter freundii , Enterobacter cloacae , bla contained the insertion sequence IS Ecp1 . (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, the transcriptomes of three other opportunistic pathogens, Staphylococcus epidermidis , Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacter aerogenes , were examined, and the identified promoter locations were then used to generate a map of the operon structure for each of the four organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The pre-saturated wipes disinfect and maintain surface sanitisation for 24 hours, killing 99.9% of bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus, enterobacter aerogenes and community-associated methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus bacteria. (innovationintextiles.com)
  • Some infections caused by K. aerogenes result from specific antibiotic treatments, venous catheter insertions, and/or surgical procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antimicrobials most commonly indicated in Enterobacter infections include carbapenems, fourth-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and TMP-SMZ. (medscape.com)
  • First-generation and second-generation cephalosporins are inactive against Enterobacter infections. (medscape.com)
  • Third-generation cephalosporins are not indicated for the treatment of severe Enterobacter infections, perhaps with the notable exception of uncomplicated infections. (medscape.com)
  • DOC for severe Enterobacter infections, except for meningitis and other CNS infections because of some reports indicating higher seizure potential. (medscape.com)
  • Alternative to imipenem for severe Enterobacter infections. (medscape.com)
  • Its hydrogen yield, however, is lower than that of such strict anaerobes as Clostridia: strictly anaerobic bacteria produce a theoretical maximum of 4 mol H2/mol glucose, while such facultative anaerobic bacteria as K. aerogenes theoretically yield a maximum of 2 mol H2/mol glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to diverse metabolites-acids and alcohols-produced by such a strain in conjunction with its ability to utilize different sugars, the metabolism and growth of K. aerogenes can vary significantly with the conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The honey may kill off potentially infectious bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and S. aureus in the gut and relieve digestive symptoms. (clinicalencounters.com)
  • The registration was granted based on independent laboratory tests showing that, when cleaned regularly, copper, brass and bronze kill greater than 99.9% of the following bacteria within 2 hours of exposure: MRSA, Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), Staphylococcus aureus , Enterobacter aerogenes , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and E. coli O157:H7. (copper.org)
  • Laboratory testing shows that, when cleaned regularly, CuVerro surfaces kill greater than 99.9% of the following bacteria within 2 hours of exposure: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli O157:H7, and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). (sloan.com)
  • Enterobacter is a genus of Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria which belongs to a family of bacteria called the Enterobacteriaceae. (osmosis.org)
  • Multidrug-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes strains are increasingly isolated in Europe and especially in France. (nih.gov)
  • All of the patients showed E. aerogenes strains with this resistance after an imipenem treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, Enterobacter grows well on MacConkey agar which is a medium that contains a pH sensitive dye and lactose. (osmosis.org)
  • The production of 2,3-BD by E.?aerogenes rendered maize plants more resistant against the Northern corn leaf blight fungus Setosphaeria turcica. (unine.ch)
  • On the contrary, E.?aerogenes-inoculated plants were less resistant against the caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis. (unine.ch)
  • Alright, now Enterobacter is urease positive which means it can produce an enzyme called urease that dissociates urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia. (osmosis.org)
  • Enterobacter is motile, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobic which means it can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic environments and oxidase negative which means it doesn't produce an enzyme called oxidase. (osmosis.org)