Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Congenital MEGACOLON resulting from the absence of ganglion cells (aganglionosis) in a distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE. The aganglionic segment is permanently contracted thus causing dilatation proximal to it. In most cases, the aganglionic segment is within the RECTUM and SIGMOID COLON.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The submucous (Meissner's) plexus is in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Its neurons innervate the epithelium, blood vessels, endocrine cells, other submucosal ganglia, and myenteric ganglia, and play an important role in regulating ion and water transport. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored cell surface receptors that are specific for GLIAL CELL LINE-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS. They form a multi-component receptor complex with PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-RET and regulate a variety of intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS in conjunction with c-ret protein.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
c-Kit positive cells related to SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that are intercalated between the autonomic nerves and the effector smooth muscle cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Different phenotypic classes play roles as pacemakers, mediators of neural inputs, and mechanosensors.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A type of ILEUS, a functional not mechanical obstruction of the INTESTINES. This syndrome is caused by a large number of disorders involving the smooth muscles (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) or the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A condition caused by the lack of intestinal PERISTALSIS or INTESTINAL MOTILITY without any mechanical obstruction. This interference of the flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS often leads to INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION. Ileus may be classified into postoperative, inflammatory, metabolic, neurogenic, and drug-induced.
A complex network of nerve fibers including sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents and visceral afferents. The celiac plexus is the largest of the autonomic plexuses and is located in the abdomen surrounding the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A subtype of G-protein-coupled SEROTONIN receptors that preferentially couple to GS STIMULATORY G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the receptor exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ligand that is specific for the GFRA2 RECEPTOR. Neurturin is essential for the development of specific postganglionic parasympathetic NEURONS.
Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (1/604)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

IL-1beta and IL-6 excite neurons and suppress nicotinic and noradrenergic neurotransmission in guinea pig enteric nervous system. (2/604)

Conventional intracellular microelectrodes and injection of biocytin were used to study the actions of IL-1beta and IL-6 on electrical and synaptic behavior in morphologically identified guinea pig small intestinal submucous neurons. Exposure to nanomolar concentrations of either IL-1beta or IL-6 stimulated neuronal excitability. The excitatory action consisted of depolarization of the membrane potential, decreased membrane conductance, and increased discharge of action potentials. Excitatory action of IL-1beta was suppressed by the natural IL-1beta human receptor antagonist. Electrical stimulation of sympathetic postganglionic axons evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), and stimulation of cholinergic axons evoked nicotinic fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). Both kinds of synaptic potentials occurred in neurons with uniaxonal morphology believed to be secretomotor neurons. Either IL-1beta or IL-6 suppressed the noradrenergic IPSPs and the fast EPSPs, and the two acted synergistically when applied in combination. Suppression of the IPSP resulted from presynaptic inhibition of the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerves. The results suggest that the presence of either or both inflammatory cytokines will release the sympathetic brake from secretomotor neurons to the intestinal crypts and from nicotinic synapses in the integrative microcircuits, where norepinephrine is known to have a presynaptic inhibitory action. This, in concert with excitation of secretomotor neurons, may lead to neurogenic secretory diarrhea.  (+info)

Rectal biopsy for diagnosis of intestinal neuronal dysplasia in children: a prospective multicentre study on interobserver variation and clinical outcome. (3/604)

BACKGROUND: Intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND) of the colonic submucous plexus is considered to be a congenital malformation of the enteric nervous system causing symptoms resembling those of Hirschsprung's disease. In contrast with the established diagnosis of aganglionosis using enzyme histochemistry, controversy exists over the diagnostic criteria of IND on rectal biopsies previously defined by a consensus report and the causal relation between morphological findings and clinical symptoms. AIMS: The interobserver variability was prospectively investigated with respect to final diagnoses and several histological features in rectal biopsy specimens from children suspected of having colonic motility disturbances. METHODS: 377 biopsy specimens from 108 children aged 4 days to 15 years were independently coded without knowledge of clinical symptoms by three experienced pathologists for 20 histological features, and a final diagnosis was given for every case. Interobserver variation for the different items and the final diagnosis were analysed using Cohen's kappa statistic. Clinical data at biopsy and outcome after 12 months were related to morphological findings. RESULTS: The three pathologists agreed completely with respect to the diagnosis Hirschsprung's disease (kappa = 1), but in only 14% of the children without aganglionosis. In 15 (17%) of the 87 children without aganglionosis, at least one pathologist judged the case as normal, while another diagnosed IND. kappa values were close to the zero value expected by chance for the diagnoses normal and IND. Young age was related to the presence of several morphological features-for example, acetylcholine esterase staining and presence of giant ganglia. Children with chronic constipation diagnosed as having IND, given no other specific diagnosis by any of the pathologists, were significantly younger (median 8.8 months) and had a higher cure rate after one year (60%) than constipated patients considered by all observers to have no histological abnormalities (median 6.1 years, cure rate 23%). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast with Hirschsprung's disease, there is a high interobserver variation with regard to the different morphological features and final diagnosis of IND, based on the criteria and conditions of the previous consensus report. The high frequency of histological "abnormalities" in young infants suggests that some of the features may represent a normal variant of postnatal development rather than a pathological process. Investigations using more refined and morphometric methods in rectal specimens from infants and children without bowel disease are needed to define the normal range of morphological appearance at different ages. These preliminary data indicate that, with current knowledge, rectal biopsy for diagnostic purposes should only be performed in constipated children for diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease.  (+info)

Signalling by the RET receptor tyrosine kinase and its role in the development of the mammalian enteric nervous system. (4/604)

RET is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) superfamily, which can transduce signalling by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) in cultured cells. In order to determine whether in addition to being sufficient, RET is also necessary for signalling by these growth factors, we studied the response to GDNF and NTN of primary neuronal cultures (peripheral sensory and central dopaminergic neurons) derived from wild-type and RET-deficient mice. Our experiments show that absence of a functional RET receptor abrogates the biological responses of neuronal cells to both GDNF and NTN. Despite the established role of the RET signal transduction pathway in the development of the mammalian enteric nervous system (ENS), very little is known regarding its cellular mechanism(s) of action. Here, we have studied the effects of GDNF and NTN on cultures of neural crest (NC)-derived cells isolated from the gut of rat embryos. Our findings suggest that GDNF and NTN promote the survival of enteric neurons as well as the survival, proliferation and differentiation of multipotential ENS progenitors present in the gut of E12.5-13.5 rat embryos. However, the effects of these growth factors are stage-specific, since similar ENS cultures established from later stage embryos (E14. 5-15.5), show markedly diminished response to GDNF and NTN. To examine whether the in vitro effects of RET activation reflect the in vivo function(s) of this receptor, the extent of programmed cell death was examined in the gut of wild-type and RET-deficient mouse embryos by TUNEL histochemistry. Our experiments show that a subpopulation of enteric NC undergoes apoptotic cell death specifically in the foregut of embryos lacking the RET receptor. We suggest that normal function of the RET RTK is required in vivo during early stages of ENS histogenesis for the survival of undifferentiated enteric NC and their derivatives.  (+info)

Peptidyl inhibitors of shaker-type Kv1 channels elicit twitches in guinea pig ileum by blocking kv1.1 at enteric nervous system and enhancing acetylcholine release. (5/604)

Potent and selective peptidyl blockers of the Shaker-type (Kv1) voltage-gated potassium channels were used to determine the role of these channels in regulating the spontaneous motility of smooth muscle preparations. Margatoxin (MgTX), kaliotoxin, and agitoxin-2 at 1 to 10 nM and agitoxin-1 at 50 to 100 nM induce twitches in guinea pig ileum strips. These twitches are abolished by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 0.5 microM), atropine (1 microM), hexamethonium (10 microM), or nifedipine (0.1 microM). It is proposed that blockade of Kv1 channels by MgTX, kaliotoxin, or the agitoxins increases excitability of intramural nerve plexuses in the ileum, promoting release of acetylcholine from excitatory motor nerve terminals. This, in turn, leads to Ca2+-dependent action potentials and twitching of the muscle fibers. MgTX does not induce twitches in several other guinea pig and/or rat vascular, genitourinary, or gastrointestinal smooth muscles, although small increases in spontaneous myogenic activity may be seen in detrusor muscle exposed to >30 nM MgTX. This effect is not reversed by TTX or atropine. The TTX- and atropine-sensitive twitches of guinea pig ileum are also induced by nanomolar concentrations of alpha-dendrotoxin, a selective blocker of Shaker Kv1.1 and 1.2 subtypes, or stichodactylatoxin, a peptide isolated from sea anemone that displays high affinity for Kv1.1 and 1.3, but not by charybdotoxin, which blocks Kv1.2 and 1.3 but not 1.1. The data taken together suggest that high-affinity blockade of Kv1.1 underlies the ability of MgTX, kaliotoxin, agitoxin-1, agitoxin-2, alpha-dendrotoxin, and stichodactylatoxin to elicit TTX-sensitive twitches in guinea pig ileum.  (+info)

Immune-epithelial interactions in host defense. (6/604)

Over the past 15 years, it has become very clear that the immune system can have profound effects on epithelial function. Acute immune-mediated changes in epithelial physiology are beneficial to host defense against enteric pathogens. For example, ion secretion washes out noxious luminal contents and increased permeability allows phagocytic cells and antibodies to enter the gut lumen. However, ongoing immune activation results in chronic effects that may be pathophysiologic. Responses are mediated by soluble immune mediators that act directly on the epithelium, or indirectly via nerves that also serve to amplify the epithelial response. Here, we will review some of the recent advances that have been made in the field of immunophysiology. The effect of mast cells on transport functions of the epithelium will be reviewed, with emphasis on the consequence of interactions between mast cells and nerves. The use of in vitro coculture systems has recently provided considerable information on the effects of neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes on epithelial functions; the contribution of each immunocyte will be highlighted. Finally, we will describe evidence for the active participation of the epithelium in mucosal immune activation, including pathogen or cytokine induced epithelial cytokine synthesis or secretion and adhesion molecule expression.  (+info)

A role for fasciclin II in the guidance of neuronal migration. (7/604)

The insect cell adhesion receptor fasciclin II is expressed by specific subsets of neural and non-neural cells during embryogenesis and has been shown to control growth cone motility and axonal fasciculation. Here we demonstrate a role for fasciclin II in the guidance of migratory neurons. In the developing enteric nervous system of the moth Manduca sexta, an identified set of neurons (the EP cells) undergoes a stereotyped sequence of migration along the visceral muscle bands of the midgut prior to their differentiation. Probes specific for Manduca fasciclin II show that while the EP cells express fasciclin II throughout embryogenesis, their muscle band pathways express fasciclin II only during the migratory period. Manipulations of fasciclin II in embryonic culture using blocking antibodies, recombinant fasciclin II fragments, and enzymatic removal of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked fasciclin II produced concentration-dependent reductions in the extent of EP cell migration. These results support a novel role for fasciclin II, indicating that this homophilic adhesion molecule is required for the promotion or guidance of neuronal migration.  (+info)

Fundamentals of neurogastroenterology. (8/604)

Current concepts and basic principles of neurogastroenterology in relation to functional gastrointestinal disorders are reviewed. Neurogastroenterology is emphasized as a new and advancing subspecialty of clinical gastroenterology and digestive science. As such, it embraces the investigative sciences dealing with functions, malfunctions, and malformations in the brain and spinal cord, and the sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric divisions of the autonomic innervation of the digestive tract. Somatomotor systems are included insofar as pharyngeal phases of swallowing and pelvic floor involvement in defecation, continence, and pelvic pain are concerned. Inclusion of basic physiology of smooth muscle, mucosal epithelium, and the enteric immune system in the neurogastroenterologic domain relates to requirements for compatibility with neural control mechanisms. Psychologic and psychiatric relations to functional gastrointestinal disorders are included because they are significant components of neurogastroenterology, especially in relation to projections of discomfort and pain to the digestive tract.  (+info)

The enteric nervous system (ENS) arises mainly from cells exiting the vagal neural crest, entering the bowel and migrating caudally. A failure in this migratory process is thought to result in the clinical entity Hirschsprungs disease (HSCR), which is typically characterised by the absence of enteric ganglia in the colon and rectum (aganglionosis). Untreated HSCR may present with life-threatening bowel obstruction in the first few days of life. However, despite recent surgical advances children and adults still suffer significant life-long post-operative morbidity. ENS progenitor cells (ENSPC) have been shown to persist in the postnatal bowel, thereby stimulating research into the potential of manipulating or transplanting these cells to improve long-term outcomes. Early results have been promising, ENSPC have been isolated from children with HSCR and clonally expanded in cultured neurospheres, after which they have been transplanted into aganglionic embryonic mouse gut ex-vivo and shown to ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
The enteric nervous system(ENS) is essential for digestive function and gut homeostasis. Here we show that the amorphous neuroglia networks of the mouse ENS are composed of overlapping clonal units founded by postmigratory neural crest-derived progenitors.The spatial configuration of ENS clones depends on proliferation-driven local interactions of ENS progenitors with ... read more lineally unrelated neuroectodermal cells, the ordered colonization of the serosa-mucosa axis by clonal descendants, and gut expansion. Single-cell transcriptomics and mutagenesis analysis delineated dynamic molecular states of ENS progenitors and identified RETas a regulator of neurogenic commitment. Clonally related enteric neurons exhibit synchronous activity in response to network stimulation. Thus, lineage relationships underpin the organization of the peripheral nervous system. show less ...
The endothelin system is a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles in regulating the cardiovascular system and renal and pulmonary processes, as well as the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. This system is comprised of three structurally similar 21-amino acid peptides that bind and activate two G-protein coupled receptors. In 1994, knockouts of the Edn3 and Ednrb genes revealed their crucial function during development of the enteric nervous system and melanocytes, two neural-crest derivatives. Since then, human and mouse genetics, combined with cellular and developmental studies, have helped to unravel the role of this signaling pathway during development and adulthood. In this review, we will summarize the known functions of the EDN3/EDNRB pathway during neural crest development, with a specific focus on recent scientific advances, and the enteric nervous system in normal and pathological conditions.
Motility and the coordination of moving food through the gastrointestinal tract rely on a complex network of neurons known as the enteric nervous system (ENS). Despite its critical function, many of the molecular mechanisms that direct the development of the ENS and the elaboration of neural network connections remain unknown. The goal of this study was to transcriptionally identify molecular pathways and candidate genes that drive specification, differentiation and the neural circuitry of specific neural progenitors, the phox2b expressing ENS cell lineage, during normal enteric nervous system development. Because ENS development is tightly linked to its environment, the transcriptional landscape of the cellular environment of the intestine was also analyzed. Thousands of zebrafish intestines were manually dissected from a transgenic line expressing green fluorescent protein under the phox2b regulatory elements [Tg(phox2b:EGFP) w37 ].
In humans aberrant development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) manifest as motility disorders. The commonest is Hirschsprungs disease. Mutations in a number of genes implicated in ENS development have been identified, eg receptor tyrosine kinase (RET), GDNF, Endothelin 3 (ET3), and Sox 10. Mouse models of aganglionosis share many of these mutations, providing good models for studying ENS development, isolation, and characterisation of ENS progenitor cells (EPCs), and their use to replenish aganglionic bowel. Myenteric plexus from wild type and mutant postnatal mouse guts were dissected out and cell cultures established. After culturing in defined medium large clusters of cells or neurosphere like bodies (NLBs) were isolated. Dissociated NLBs were infected with a retroviral vector containing a fluorescent protein incorporated into dividing cells. Positive cells were selected using a FACS cell sorter and characterised for the properties of stem cells. The effects of various growth factors, eg ...
AIM: Recently, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been shown to be an excellent model for human paediatric research. Advantages over other models include its small size, externally visually accessible development and ease of experimental manipulation. The enteric nervous system (ENS) consists of neurons and enteric glia. Glial cells permit cell bodies and processes of neurons to be arranged and maintained in a proper spatial arrangement, and are essential in the maintenance of basic physiological functions of neurons. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is expressed in astrocytes, but also expressed outside of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of GFAP expression in developing zebrafish ENS from 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), using transgenic fish that express green fluorescent protein (GFP). METHODS: Zebrafish embryos were collected from transgenic GFP Tg(GFAP:GFP)(mi2001) adult zebrafish from 24 to 120 hpf, fixed and processed for ...
Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, Hirschsprungs disease or diabetic gastropareisis result in the loss of enteric neurons. The replacement of these lost neurons could potentially normalize the functional disturbances associated with these diseases. Within the adult enteric nervous system (ENS) there is a population of neural stem cells (NSCs) that appear to proliferate in vitro following dissociation. Until recently enteric neurogenesis in vivo has proven challenging due to the presence of a brake on proliferation. However dissociation of enteric ganglia appears to release this brake. We hypothesized that dissociation induces enteric neurogenesis by disrupting synaptic connections between enteric neurons. Our primary aim was to test this hypothesis and identify which enteric neurotransmitters might be responsible for the suppression of neurogenesis in vivo. Whole-mount preparations of intact longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) from mouse colon were grown ...
Jackie D. Woods research interests are focused on the enteric nervous system (ENS) , which he named the brain-in-the-gut (Ann Rev Physiol 1981; 43:33-51) due to its functioning as an independent integrative nervous system. His research contributed to the emergence of neurogastroenterology. Neurogastroenterology is the name given to a scientific and clinical subspecialty that was born and matured to adolescence during his thirty years of research at OSU. It is a spin-off from neurologically oriented research in the basic medical sciences and advances in the understanding of functional gastrointestinal disorders in clinical gastroenterology. In clinical medicine, neurogastroenterology subspecializes further the subspecialty of gastroenterology. Neurogastroenterology encompasses the investigative sciences dealing with functions, malfunctions, and malformations in the brain and spinal cord and the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and ENS divisions of the autonomic innervation of the digestive tract. ...
Definition: One of the 5 distinct and partially overlapping functional domains of the premigratory neural crest. Together with the sacral neural crest cells, they develop into the ganglia of the enteric nervous system, also known as the parasympathetic ganglia. These cells, between the head and trunk, contribute post-cranially to the heart and gut, the chromatophores (pigment cells) of the epidermis, and the majority of the neurons and glial cells of the enteric nervous system. Both vagal and sacral neural crest cells contribute to the enteric nervous system in the hindgut ...
The enteric nervous system is large, complex and independent of the central nervous system. Its neuralcrest-derived precursors migrate along defined pathways to colonize the bowel. It has been established that signalling molecules produced by the developing neurons and the mesenchyma of the gut wall play a critical role in the development of the mammalian enteric nervous system. Recent studies have further characterized the roles of the different cellular and molecular elements that are critical for enteric ganglia formation. The application of modern neuroanatomical techniques revealed that the enteric nervous system contains a considerable number of neuronal subpopulations. Most of our knowledge concerning the functional features of the enteric neurons, e.g. chemical coding, neuronal connectivity and electrophysiological behaviour, was derived from studies of the guinea-pig small intestine. In light of the interspecies differences, comparison of the findings on different species is mandatory. ...
Enteric neurons secrete an intimidating array of neurotransmitters. One major neurotransmitter produced by enteric neurons is acetylcholine. In general, neurons that secrete acetylcholine are excitatory, stimulating smooth muscle contraction, increases in intestinal secretions, release of enteric hormones and dilation of blood vessels. Norepinephrine is also used extensively for neurotransmission in the gastrointestinal tract, but it derives from extrinsic sympathetic neurons; the effect of norepinephrine is almost always inhibitory and opposite that of acetylcholine. The enteric nervous system can and does function autonomously, but normal digestive function requires communication links between this intrinsic system and the central nervous system. These links take the form of parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers that connect either the central and enteric nervous systems or connect the central nervous system directly with the digestive tract. Through these cross connections, the gut can ...
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified as a viable treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) have predominated in experimental models whereas the majority of clinical trials have used MSCs derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs), thus there is little consensus on the optimal tissue source. The therapeutic efficacies of these MSCs are yet to be compared in context of the underlying dysfunction of the enteric nervous system innervating the gastrointestinal tract concomitant with IBD. This study aims to characterise the in vitro properties of MSCs and compare their in vivo therapeutic potential for the treatment of enteric neuropathy associated with intestinal inflammation. BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs were validated and characterised in vitro. In in vivo experiments, guinea-pigs received either 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonate acid (TNBS) for the induction of colitis or sham treatment by enema. MSCs were administered at a dose of 1x106 cells via enema 3 hours
Akbareian SE, Nagy N, Steiger CE, Mably JD, Miller SA, Hotta R, Molnar D, Goldstein AM: Enteric neural crest-derived cells promote their migration by modifying their microenvironment through tenascin-C production., DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 382: (2) pp. 446-456 ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of KIF26A Is an Unconventional Kinesin and Regulates GDNF-Ret Signaling in Enteric Neuronal Development. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Authors: Alan J Burns, Allan M Goldstein, Donald F Newgreen, Lincon Stamp, Karl-Herbert Schaefer, Marco Metzger, Ryo Hotta, Heather M Young, Peter W Andrews, Nikhil Thapar, Jaime Belkind-Gerson, Nadege Bondurand, Joel C Bornstein, Wood Yee Chan, Kathryn Cheah, Michael D Gershon, Robert O Heuckeroth, Robert MW Hofstra, Lothar Just, Raj P Kapur, Sebastian K King, Conor J McCann, Nandor Nagy, Elly Ngan, Florian Obermayr, Vassilis Pachnis, Pankaj J Pasricha, Mai Har Sham, Paul Tam, Pieter Vanden Berghe
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Het darmzenuwstelsel zoals we het nu zon beetje kennen: ca. 500 miljoen neuronen in 20 functionele klassen The enteric nervous system of a rats stomach visualized by injecting a tracer derived from a horseradish enzyme into the nervus vagus. Figure 14-5 The enteric nervous system of a rats stomach. By injecting a tracer derived from a horseradish enzyme into the vagus nerve, which connects the brain to the esophagus and stomach, researchers were able to reveal the extent of the nerve network. As nerve fibers fray out into the tiny endings across the stomach, information concerning food volume, hunger, discomfort, and satiety are sent back the brain. Confocal fluorescence micrographs of CB2 receptor immunoreactivity double labeled with enteric neuronal markers in whole-mount preparations of rat ileal myenteric plexus Cover legend: The human enteric nervous system contains ~500 million neurons in 20 functional classes. All of these cells form from a small population of neural crest-derived ...
Enteric Nervous System gutgut Central Nervous System (CNS) brainbrain spinal cordspinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) cranial nerves (12 pr)cranial nerves (12 pr) spinal nerves (31 pr)spinal nerves (31 pr)
Changes in diet are a challenge to the gastrointestinal tract which needs to alter its processing mechanisms to continue to process nutrients and maintain health. In particular, the enteric nervous system (ENS) needs to adapt its motor and secretory programs to deal with changes in nutrient type and load in order to optimise nutrient absorption.The nerve circuits in the gut are complex, and the numbers and types of neurons make recordings of specific cell types difficult, time-consuming, and prone to sampling errors. Nonetheless, traditional research methods like intracellular electrophysiological approaches have provided the basis for our understanding of the ENS circuitry. In particular, animal models of intestinal inflammation have shown us that we can document changes to neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission.Recent studies examining diet-induced changes to ENS programming have opted to use fast imaging techniques to reveal changes in neuron function. Advances in imaging techniques ...
Over The Last Few Years There Have Been Huge Advances Made In Our Understanding Of The Interactions Between The Brain And The Gut The Enteric Nervous System This Book Is Particularly Relevant In The Understanding Diagnosis And Management Of Irritable Bowel Syndrome The Most Common Functional Disorder Of The Bowel
Furness, John B., Callaghan, Brid P., Rivera, Leni R. and Cho, Hyun-Jung 2014, The enteric nervous system and gastrointestinal innervation: integrated local and central control. In Lyte, Mark and Cryan, John F. (ed), Microbial Endocrinology : The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease, Springer New York LLC, New York, N.C., pp.39-71, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0897-4_3. ...
huckebein encodes a predicted zinc finger transcription factor which is transiently expressed in a subset of Drosophila central nervous system precursors (neuroblasts (NBs)). We used DiI cell lineage tracing and cell fate markers to investigate the role of huckebein in the NB 1-1 and NB 2-2 cell lin …
Confocal immunofluorescent detection of wingless protein (green), engrailed protein (blue), and enhancer trap 5953 (red) in a reiterated segment of embryonic Drosophila neuroectoderm (ventral midline, center; anterior, top). The wingless protein nonautonomously activates 5953 expression, maintains expression of the engrailed protein, and controls the formation and specification of central nervous system precursors. See page 1594. [Photo: Chris Q. Doe] ...
A barostat is a device used to maintain constant pressure in a closed chamber. Their main principle is providing constant pressures in a balloon by means of a pneumatic pump. Barostats are frequently used in neurogastroenterology research, where they are used for measuring gut wall tension or sensory thresholds in the gut. A specially designed instrument is needed in neurogastroenterology research since the gut wall has an outstanding capacity to expand and contract spontaneously and by reflex. When this occurs, a balloon placed anywhere in the gut has to be inflated or deflated very rapidly in order to maintain a constant pressure in this balloon. Barostat-balloon systems have been used anywhere in the gut, including the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, and the rectum ampulla. Computer-driven barostats have widely been used to assess sensation and pain thresholds in the gut. Assessment of pain thresholds in the ampulla recti has been proposed as diagnostic measure in irritable bowel ...
Background Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are the main constituent of the enteric nervous system and share similarities with astrocytes from the central nervous system including their reactivity to an inflammatory microenvironment. Previous studies on EGC pathophysiology have specifically focused on mucosal glia activation and its contribution to mucosal inflammatory processes observed in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. In contrast knowledge is scarce on intestinal inflammation not locally restricted to the mucosa but systemically affecting the intestine and its effect on the overall EGC network. Methods and Results In this study, we analyzed the biological effects of a systemic LPS-induced hyperinflammatory insult on overall EGCs in a rat model in vivo, mimicking the clinical situation of systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS). Tissues from small and large intestine were removed 4 hours after systemic LPS-injection and analyzed on transcript and protein level. Laser ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiregional dysmotility in diabetes mellitus assessed using the wireless motility capsule. AU - Brock, C.. AU - Drewes, A. M.. AU - Farmer, A. D.. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. UR - U2 - 10.1111/nmo.13135. DO - 10.1111/nmo.13135. M3 - Comment/debate. C2 - 28782196. AN - SCOPUS:85026820825. VL - 29. JO - Neurogastroenterology and Motility Online. JF - Neurogastroenterology and Motility Online. SN - 1365-2982. IS - 9. M1 - e13135. ER - ...
Cell therapy has the potential to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders caused by diseases of the enteric nervous system. Many studies have demonstrated that various stem/progenitor cells can give rise to functional neurons in the embryonic gut; however, it is not yet known whether transplanted neural progenitor cells can migrate, proliferate, and generate functional neurons in the postnatal bowel in vivo. We transplanted neurospheres generated from fetal and postnatal intestinal neural crest-derived cells into the colon of postnatal mice. The neurosphere-derived cells migrated, proliferated, and generated neurons and glial cells that formed ganglion-like clusters within the recipient colon. Graft-derived neurons exhibited morphological, neurochemical, and electrophysiological characteristics similar to those of enteric neurons; they received synaptic inputs; and their neurites projected to muscle layers and the enteric ganglia of the recipient mice. These findings show that transplanted ...
nucleus, developmental pigmentation, enteric nervous system development, neural crest cell migration, xanthophore differentiation
Diabetic gastroenteropathy: structural alterations. Both in rats after STZ administration (29) and in RIP-I/hIFNβ diabetic mice (19), the GI tract shows a larger length. Apart from these macroscopic alterations, the damage induced by DM in the gut wall and the specific populations of enteric neurons has been analysed using conventional histology, immunohistochemistry and electronic microscopy, as we will show below.. Mucosa. In diabetes, mucosa of the small intestine suffers changes that alter transit of the food bolus, the secretion of enteric juices and the absorption of the digestion products (30). Acute hyperglycaemia in jejunum of rats did not induce any alterations in the mitotic index or mucosal morphometry. However, chronic hyperglycaemia in the rat occurs with hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the intestinal mucosa (30). The increase in the mitotic index may be related with an adaptation of the mucosal layer to chronic pathology.. On the other hand, an increase of goblet cells in the ...
We used the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 Problem 1 data set to search for expression phenotype quantitative trait loci in a highly selected group of genes with a supposedly correlated role in the development of the enteric nervous system. Our strategy was to reduce the level of multiple testing by analyzing at the genome-wide level a limited number of genes considered to be the most promising enteric nervous system candidates on the basis of mouse expression data, and then extend the analysis to a larger number of traits only for a small number of candidate linked regions. Such a study design allowed us to identify a master regulator locus for several genes involved in the enteric nervous system, located in 9q31. In particular, one of four traits included in the genome-wide analysis and 2 of 57 from the follow-up single-chromosome analysis showed LOD scores above 2 around position 109 on chromosome 9 by univariate variance-component linkage analysis. Bivariate linkage analysis further supported the
Researchers in the Pankaj Jay Pasricha Lab are interested in the molecular mechanisms of visceral pain and restoration of enteric neural function with novel strategies, including neural stem cell transplants. Recent research has focused on the enteric nervous system and gut-brain axis, and the complexity of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Another recent study indicates that patients with underlying small intestinal bacterial overgrowth have significant delays in small bowel transit time as compared to those without, while another explored the safety and efficacy of carbon dioxide cryotherapy for treatment of neoplastic Barretts esophagus.. Research Areas: gastroenterology, stem cells, neurogastroenterology, pancreatitis, pain, Barretts esophagus, motility disorders ...
A complex of neurones within the gut wall (the myenteric and submucosal plexuses) that regulates control of gut motility, fluid, and electrolyte transport and control of intestinal blood flow. Together with the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems it forms the autonomic nervous system. Influenced by the autonomic nervous system, but can perform many functions independently. ...
Researchers in the Pankaj Jay Pasricha Lab are interested in the molecular mechanisms of visceral pain and restoration of enteric neural function with novel strategies, including neural stem cell transplants. Recent research has focused on the enteric nervous system and gut-brain axis, and the complexity of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Another recent study indicates that patients with underlying small intestinal bacterial overgrowth have significant delays in small bowel transit time as compared to those without, while another explored the safety and efficacy of carbon dioxide cryotherapy for treatment of neoplastic Barretts esophagus.. Research Areas: gastroenterology, stem cells, neurogastroenterology, pancreatitis, pain, Barretts esophagus, motility disorders ...
Have you ever had a gut wrenching experience? Have you felt butterflies in your stomach, or had a gut feeling? We all have experienced the influence that our thoughts and feelings can have on our stomach, but research is now showing that our guts can influence our mood, behaviour and thinking more that we had previously realized. The stomach and intestines are so rich in nerves that the guts nervous system, the enteric nervous system, has been called the second brain. Surprisingly, there are about 100 million nerve cells in the gut, as many as there are in the head of a cat. Nervous stress can affect digestion from a number of angles including reducing blood flow to the digestive organs, altering secretion of digestive juices, changing gut motility, increasing the leakiness of the intestine and, most importantly, altering the intestinal bacterial lining called the microbiome.. The enteric nervous system also informs our state of mind. A big part of our emotions are probably influenced by ...
Significance The gut microbiota affects several physiological processes, including gut motility. Here we observed that germ-free mice have an immature...
Background The automatic nervous system performs many functions that are abnormal in PWS: feeding, drinking, thermoregulation, intestinal motility, reproduction, reaction to stress and infection an
Stress or anxiety can also cause GI symptoms. The GI tract has a nervous system of its own called the enteric nervous system.. The enteric nervous system contains about 200-600 million neurons in the walls of the GI tract. These neurons help control digestive function.. The nerves in the GI tract respond to stress hormones in the same way as nerves in the brain and other parts of the body.. When the brain perceives danger, it signals to the adrenal glands to release stress hormones, such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol.. These hormones have several physical effects on the body, including:. ...
The enteric nervous system is a regulator of all aspects of motility of the small intestine. The two types of nerve plexuses in the enteric nervous system.
The gut has a mind of its own, the enteric nervous system. Just like the larger brain in the head, researchers say, this system sends and receives
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Insight into the organizational structure of a growing tissue is imperative for understanding its development and function. Structure can reveal the system
As you may know Im very into examining the mechanisms behind our self-belief (or lack thereof). In my work I often find corresponding mirror-like operators in each of the two natures we humans have - the physical and the ethereal.. This duality thing is quite fascinating because it informs us of so many unique qualities that underscore the miracle of what it means to be human.. Case in point is the importance of the strength of our individual self-belief (ethereal body) and the level of glucose in our blood (physical body). Both seem to be indicators of the wellness of the systems that they are such a vital part of.. You probably know already that tests for blood glucose levels can be done by yourself at home using a glucose meter but what about a test for our own strength of self-belief?. I suppose a meter would be a cool thing to have for this too but that might be a bit of a tough thing to come up with since self-belief exists only in the domain of the ethereal.. Fortunately there is a ...
FELLOWS OF THE ASSOCIATION: In the endeavor to chronicle the lives and achievements of Kentucky Pioneers in Surgery, I shall not attempt the resurrection of village Hampdens or mute inglorious Miltons. The men with whom I deal were men of deeds, not men of fruitless promise. It may with truth be said that from Hippocrates to Gross few in our profession who have done enduring work have lacked biographers to pay liberal tribute to their worth. In justice to the unremembered few, I turn back the records of medicine for a century, and put my finger upon two names that in the bustling march of... ...
Consultation de terminologies scientifiques multilingues (définitions, traductions multilingues, synonymes, classifications, termes associés ou spécifiques ou génériques)
Welcome to the neurogastroenterology and motility laboratory website at UC San Diego Health Sciences. Led by Dr. Ravinder Mittal, the labs team of scientists and physicians work to make new discoveries to improve understanding of the complex system of nerves and muscles that allow the food to travel through the gastrointestinal tract.. Learn more about our lab ...
BMPs in the Development of Enteric Neurons Alcmène Chalazonitis, Fabien DAutréaux, Udayan Guha, Tuan D. Pham, Christophe Faure, Jason J. Chen, Daniel Roman, Lixin Kan, Taube P. Rothman, John A. Kessler, and Michael D. Gershon. (see pages 4266-4282). The influence of the local environment drives the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) that derives from the neural crest. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), not being deterred by their name, influence developmental processes in many tissues, including the gut. In this issue, Chalazonitis et al. set out to determine the role of BMP-2 and -4 on the specification and differentiation of enteric neurons. They examined the ENS of mice at embryonic day 12 when neurons first appear in the gut. BMPs, their cognate receptors, as well as several endogenous antagonists were identified in populations of neural crest-derived and non-crest-derived cells. Using transgenic mice that overexpress the endogenous antagonist noggin and thus sequester ...
Valdez-Morales, E., Guerrero-Alba, R., Ochoa-Cortes, F., Benson, J., Spreadbury, I., Hurlbut, D., Miranda-Morales, M., Lomax, A. E. and Vanner, S. (2013), Release of endogenous opioids during a chronic IBD model suppresses the excitability of colonic DRG neurons. Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 25: 39-e4. doi: 10.1111/nmo.12008 ...
Wong, M. W., Liu, T. T., Yi, C. H., Lei, W. Y., Hung, J. S., Omari, T., Cock, C., Liang, S. W., Gyawali, C. P. & Chen, C. L., 27 Mar 2021, (E-pub ahead of print) In: Neurogastroenterology and Motility. 9 p., e14135.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...

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... except that there is no significant blood-enteric nervous system barrier. Nerve fibre bundles within the enteric nervous system ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the intrinsic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract. It contains complete reflex ... Enteric nervous system. A division of the autonomic nervous system whose component neurons lie within the walls of the ... The enteric nervous system receives inputs from the parasympathetic and sympathetic parts of the nervous system, and the ...
The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS ... The enteric nervous system has been described as a "second brain" for several reasons. The enteric nervous system can operate ... the enteric nervous system continues to function. In vertebrates, the enteric nervous system includes efferent neurons, ... 3 as many as in the whole nervous system of a cat. The enteric nervous system is embedded in the lining of the gastrointestinal ...
Enteric nervous system (thing). See all of Enteric nervous system, no other writeups in this node. ... and colon is your enteric nervous system (ENS).. Your ENS is highly integrated with your autonomic nervous system through ... It is uncertain how much the ENS influences the body outside of the digestive system, but it does release a number of peptides ... As with any aspect of the physiology, interactions between systems are more complex than we know, and more complex than we ...
The enteric nervous system is the nervous system of the gut. Development of the ganglia involves the migration, proliferation, ... Sonic hedgehog coordinates the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm to properly pattern the enteric nervous system. ... Sonic hedgehog coordinates the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm to properly pattern the enteric nervous system. ... Sonic hedgehog controls enteric nervous system development by patterning the extracellular matrix. Development 143, 264-275 ( ...
... produced by the mesenchyme of the gut wall play a critical role in the development of the mammalian enteric nervous system. ... The mammalian enteric nervous system is derived from neural crest cells which invade the foregut and hindgut mesenchyme. It has ... Development of the mammalian enteric nervous system Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999 Jun;9(3):321-7. doi: 10.1016/s0959-437x(99)80048- ... The mammalian enteric nervous system is derived from neural crest cells which invade the foregut and hindgut mesenchyme. It has ...
The enteric nervous system (ENS) derives from neural crest cells, which migrate from the neural tube into the developing gut. ... Differentiation of neurospheres from the enteric nervous system.. Schäfer KH1, Hagl CI, Rauch U. ... from the central nervous system (CNS) for the ENS. The gut of NMRI mice at E12 were dissected, mildly dissociated and plated in ... The generation of enteric neurospheres and the following differentiation and 3D culture in vitro can increase our knowledge of ...
MD THESIS PROTOCOL A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE DEVELOPING ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE HUMAN FETAL COLON THESIS PROTOCOL ... The Enteric nervous system is an intrinsic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract , a division of the autonomic nervous ... The Nervous System of the Human Body Essay. 600 Words , 3 Pages The Nervous System of the Human Body The nervous system of the ... The Human Nervous System Essay. 2005 Words , 9 Pages The Human Nervous System The nervous system is the most complex part of ...
... the digestive system is endowed with its own, local nervous system referred to as the enteric or intrinsic nervous system. The ... The enteric nervous system, along with the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, constitute the autonomic nervous ... The Enteric Nervous System. The nervous system exerts a profound influence on all digestive processes, namely motility, ion ... and sympathetic fibers that connect either the central and enteric nervous systems or connect the central nervous system ...
... and by the enteric nervous system (ENS) within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The ENS works... ... The digestive system is innervated through its connections with the central nervous system (CNS) ... The digestive system is innervated through its connections with the central nervous system (CNS) and by the enteric nervous ... Lower Esophageal Sphincter Enteric Nervous System Myenteric Plexus Enteric Neuron Myenteric Neuron These keywords were added by ...
... striking defects in the enteric nervous system (ENS), and abnormal intestinal motility. Cre-induced DNA recombination occurred ... Enteric glia were twice as abundant in mutant mice compared with those in control animals, while myenteric neuron number was ... in all enteric glia and most small bowel myenteric neurons, yet phenotypic effects of Rb1. loss were cell-type specific. ...
The enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a pivotal role in inflammatory and nociceptive processes. Drugs that interact with the ... The Enteric Nervous System in Inflammation and Pain: The Role of Proteinase-Activated Receptors,. Canadian Journal of ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a pivotal role in inflammatory and nociceptive processes. Drugs that interact with the ... The Enteric Nervous System in Inflammation and Pain: The Role of Proteinase-Activated Receptors. ...
Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Movement Disorders. Neurodegenerative Diseases. Pathological ... Analysis of the Enteric Nervous System Using Colonic Biopsies (ColoBioParker). The safety and scientific validity of this study ... Analysis of the Enteric Nervous System Using Colonic Biopsies: a Useful Biomarker for the Differential Diagnosis of ... Multiple System Atrophy. Shy-Drager Syndrome. Parkinsonian Disorders. Basal Ganglia Diseases. Brain Diseases. ...
Avhandlingar om ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sök bland 100011 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på ... central nervous system; peripheral nervous system; enteric nervous system; N-cadherin; GABA; GAD; GABA B receptor; baclofen; ... Sökning: enteric nervous system. Visar resultat 1 - 5 av 43 avhandlingar innehållade orden enteric nervous system. . ... enteric nervous system; Sammanfattning : Aim: To evaluate the role of the enteric nervous system in one of the most common ...
... is a complex genetic disorder of the enteric nervous system (ENS) characterized by the absence of enteric neurons along a ... In humans aberrant development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) manifest as motility disorders. The commonest is ... In the nervous system, Axl and its ligand Growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6) are expressed on multiple cell types. Axl ... Protein tyrosine kinases, which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, are implicated in many neural processes. ...
... deafness and absence of enteric ganglia) are well established. Here, we analysed the … ... The requirement for SOX10 and endothelin-3/EDNRB signalling pathway during enteric nervous system (ENS) and melanocyte ... Interactions between Sox10, Edn3 and Ednrb during enteric nervous system and melanocyte development Dev Biol. 2006 Jul 1;295(1 ... The requirement for SOX10 and endothelin-3/EDNRB signalling pathway during enteric nervous system (ENS) and melanocyte ...
Genetic model system studies of the development of the enteric nervous system, gut motility and Hirschsprungs disease. ... and supporting cells of the enteric nervous system (ENS) that can result in abnormally large enteric neuronal cells (ENCs) in ... Enteric nervous system development and Hirschsprungs disease: advances in genetic and stem cell studies. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8 ... Enteric nervous system: development and developmental disturbances - part 1. Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 5:224-247. View this article ...
... called the enteric nervous system (ENS). The ENS exerts critical local reflex control over many essential gut functions; ... While it is known that enteric ganglia are derived from a stem cell population called the neural crest, mechanisms that dictate ... Ganz, J. Gut feelings: Studying enteric nervous system development, function, and disease in the zebrafish model system. Dev. ... Olsson, C. The Enteric Nervous System in The multifunctional gut of fish (eds Grosell, M., Farrell, A. P. & Brauner, C. J.) 320 ...
1999) The enteric nervous system and regulation of intestinal motility. Annu Rev Physiol 61:117-142. ... of enteric neurones and thus no other candidate mechanism for inducing hyper-reactivity within the enteric nervous system. ... 1989) Ascending enteric reflex: multiple transmitter systems and interactions. Am J Physiol 256:G540-G545. ... which is a candidate phenomenon for laying down memory in the central nervous system. Thus SSPE may be involved in non- ...
... enteric glial cells; enteric nervous system; glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor; glial fibrillary acidic protein; ... Toll-like receptor 2 regulates intestinal inflammation by controlling integrity of the enteric nervous system.. Brun P1, Giron ... Toll-like receptor 2 regulates intestinal inflammation by controlling integrity of the enteric nervous system: why were TLR3s ... We assessed the effects of TLR2 signaling on the enteric nervous system (ENS) in mice. ...
FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION AND NEUROCHEMISTRY OF THE ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. *INVOLVEMENT OF THE ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) derives from the neural crest and consists of neurons distributed in two ganglionated plexuses ... FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION AND NEUROCHEMISTRY OF THE ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The control of motility and secretion in the ...
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia located in the gut wall that controls intestinal reflexes. ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia located in the gut wall that controls intestinal reflexes. ... This protocol describes methods for recording the activity of enteric neurons and glia in live preparations of ENS using Ca2+ ...
Differential RET Signaling Pathways Drive Development of the Enteric Lymphoid and Nervous Systems ... Differential RET Signaling Pathways Drive Development of the Enteric Lymphoid and Nervous Systems ... Differential RET Signaling Pathways Drive Development of the Enteric Lymphoid and Nervous Systems ... Differential RET Signaling Pathways Drive Development of the Enteric Lymphoid and Nervous Systems ...
Role of Central Nervous System Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptors in Enteric Glucose Sensing. ... Role of Central Nervous System Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptors in Enteric Glucose Sensing ... Role of Central Nervous System Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptors in Enteric Glucose Sensing ... Role of Central Nervous System Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptors in Enteric Glucose Sensing ...
Researchers have developed a new system that allows for real time viewing of the enteric nervous system, and could provide a ... peripheral nervous systems, central nervous systems, nerve damage, brain tumors, seizures, neurosurgery, electrophysiology, BMI ... Neural mapping of the enteric nervous system reveals how fetal neurons form during development. The process of neural ... Scientists are conducting experiments to see if targeting the enteric nervous system with a compound can inhibit the ...
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a quasi autonomous part of the nervous system and includes a number of neural circuits that ... enteric nervous system. EPANs. enteric primary afferent neurones. IPANs. intrinsic primary afferent neurones. ChAT. choline ... 1992) Roles of peptides in transmission in the enteric nervous system. Trends Neurosci 15:66-71. ... Modular organisation of the enteric nervous system with repeated and overlapping circumferential, ascending, and descending ...
Within the adult enteric nervous system (ENS) there is a population of neural stem cells (NSCs) that appear to proliferate in ... Neurotransmission modulates neurogenesis within the postnatal enteric nervous system. Masood, Jaudat. en ... However dissociation of enteric ganglia appears to release this brake. We hypothesized that dissociation induces enteric ... Until recently enteric neurogenesis in vivo has proven challenging due to the presence of a brake on proliferation. ...
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains its own nervous system, known as the enteric nervous system (ENS). A unique feature of ... 2008) Enteric nervous system: reflexes, pattern generators and motility. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 24:149-158. doi:10.1097/MOG. ... 1994) The enteric nervous system. Am J Gastroenterol 89:S129-S137. pmid:8048403. ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) contains millions of neurons essential for organization of motor behavior of the intestine. It ...
1991) Time of origin of neurons in the murine enteric nervous system: sequence in relation to phenotype. J Comp Neurol 314:789- ... 2002a) Enteric nervous system: development and developmental disturbances. Part 1. Pediatr Dev Pathol 5:224-247. ... 2002b) Enteric nervous system: development and developmental disturbances. Part 2. Pediatr Dev Pathol 5:329-349. ... 1994) Defects in the kidney and enteric nervous system of mice lacking the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret. Nature 367:380-383. ...
Characterization of the Digestive Functions and the Enteric Nervous System in Obesity. Investigations of Relationships With ...
Hirschsprung disease is a serious disorder of enteric nervous system (ENS) development caused by the failure of ENS precursor ... Vitamin A facilitates enteric nervous system precursor migration by reducing Pten accumulation ... Vitamin A facilitates enteric nervous system precursor migration by reducing Pten accumulation ... Vitamin A facilitates enteric nervous system precursor migration by reducing Pten accumulation ...
  • Enteric glia are now believed to offer not just structural but also biochemical support to neurons and may also function as immune modulators. (
  • This system is home to 100 million neurons within your intestinal wall. (
  • The enteric nervous system in your gut actually contains more neurons than your spinal cord, and produces as many neurotransmitters as your brain, spawning the relatively young field of enteric neuroscience. (
  • Cultured neurosn is the methods of producing the neurons in vitro cultures are instrumental to the advancing of the understanding of the nervous system. (
  • Isolation of the enteric neurons is presented in the isolation of the neurons of the brain. (
  • Some psychoactive compounds made by gut bacteria, they believe, are detected by the enteric nervous system - a think skein of neurons that runs the entire length of the gut. (
  • Digestion is controlled by the enteric nervous system, which located in sheaths of neurons, located in the wall of the "long tube" of your gut, or the alimentary canal. (
  • It consists of a mesh-like system of some 500 million neurons which govern the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The central nervous system, comprising the spinal cord and the brain, connects to the rest of the body, including the digestive system, through nerves, neurons (nerve cells) and neurotransmitters (chemical messengers). (
  • The nervous system transmits and interprets information from all parts of the body through an intricate network of neurons. (
  • Although we mostly associate neurons with the central nervous system and the brain, the gut serves as a secondary hub of neurological activity. (
  • Trillions of bacteria and over 100 million neurons line the digestive tract, and they communicate with the central nervous system, endocrine system and immune system. (
  • A dedicated network of neurons webs your gut called the enteric nervous system (ENS). (
  • 11. There are more neurons (nerve cells that transmit and process information) in your enteric nervous system (which includes the intestines) than there are in your central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. (
  • The gut itself has what is often likened to a 'mini-brain' - an extensive network of neurons called the enteric nervous system. (
  • Some neurons in the enteric nervous system also make and use serotonin as a neurotransmitter. (
  • The enteric nervous system is a mesh-like set of 500 million neurons governing the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • That's 5 times as many neurons as there are in your spinal cord - no wonder the enteric nervous system is sometimes called the second brain! (
  • It is scientifically known as the enteric nervous system (ENS). (
  • The gut is considered the second brain known as the enteric nervous system. (
  • it is technically known as the enteric nervous system and nicknamed the "second brain. (
  • They even discovered a second brain , in our gut, known as the enteric nervous system! (
  • The gut's brain, known as the enteric nervous system (ENS), is located in sheaths of tissue lining the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon. (
  • They also control digestion and send status updates to the brain, letting it know how things are going in your digestive system. (
  • While the enteric nervous system initiates and sustains digestion on its own, signals from the brain, such as stress and anxiety, can have dramatic effects on how well it works. (
  • The body depends on the microbiome to maintain a healthy intestinal lining, keep off certain bad bacteria, shape the immune system, and help in digestion. (
  • The enteric nervous system can control digestion, independently from the brain. (
  • The fight of flight response can shut down blood flow to your your digestive system and slow digestion. (
  • The enteric nervous system aids digestion. (
  • The enteric nervous system responds to this by slowing down or stopping digestion. (
  • Gut health = digestion, absorption, Enteric Nervous System (our guts own nervous system), immune function and gut microbiota. (
  • moreover, there are approximately 100 trillion microbes living in your gut, comprising a system called the microbiome . (
  • The gut microbiome has a direct impact on your body weight , immune system, brain activity,and other aspects of your general health. (
  • Gut microbiome also controls the way your enteric nervous system (ENS) works. (
  • The enteric nervous system and gut microbiome control 80 percent of the communication between the body and the brain. (
  • Your microbiome communicates with the central nervous system - aka the brain and spinal cord - through nervous, endocrine, and immune signalling mechanisms. (
  • We don't yet have a good understanding of how the gut microbiome and central nervous system influence one another, but it's been shown that changes in gut flora composition can result in increased intestinal permeability, allowing neuroactive compounds through and activating the inflammatory response. (
  • Hence, this bidirectional interaction between the microbiome and the central nervous system has been termed the microbiome-gut-brain axis. (
  • The gut microbiome and central nervous system have bidirectional effects on one another. (
  • Basically, the gut microbiome is controlling it, sending signals, because most of your immune system is in your gut, helping you fight infections, such as Covid and early cancers, that the immune system is picking off. (
  • Brain 1 is the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) that controls almost all voluntary and involuntary activities within your body. (
  • Developmental studies of the spinal cord, the mammalian auditory organ and the enteric nervous systems are additional strengths of this program. (
  • The constellation of symptoms from which these patients suffer all originate from the gut-brain axis, the pathway by which the enteric nervous system communicates with the brain," said Cyril De Colle, Founder and Chief Scientific Officer. (
  • The brain communicates with the gut via the enteric nervous system. (
  • This system communicates the same way as the central nervous system and is often referred to as the second brain. (
  • It has been known for a while that the gastrointestinal system communicates with the brain. (
  • The enteric nervous system CAN operate autonomously, however, it communicates with the central nervous system via the vagus nerve and prevertebral ganglia. (
  • Our second brain (enteric nervous system) communicates with our 'real' brain (central nervous system) via the vagus nerve. (
  • The enteric nervous system (ENS) is often considered as the third division of the autonomic system. (
  • It can be broken down into two main sections:the sympathetic nervous system triggers fight or flight response, while the parasympathetic nervous system, and functions to relax the body after danger. (
  • The parasympathetic nervous system is associated with glands and organs. (
  • Colonic motor dysfunction in human diabetes is associated with enteric neuronal loss and increased oxidative stress. (
  • A recent review, led by Dr. Vassilis Pachnis from the Francis Crick Institute in London (United Kingdom), discusses recent advances on the role of gut microbiota and the immune system on the development of the ENS. (
  • Intestinal bacteria may engage the immune system , which can lower our mood and energy level, yet another pathway by which our microbiota might change our behavior. (
  • The gut microbiota has physiological functions associated with nutrition, the immune system, and defense of the host. (
  • The microbiota also supports your immune health by creating chemicals that regulate your immune system, modulate inflammation, and reduce cancer growth 4 . (
  • Yet other microbiota can produce compounds that affect gene expression in the nervous system. (
  • Research has shown that changes in microbiota can cause depression, change social interactions, protect from stress-induced changes to the immune system, and can cause physiological changes that are even transferable between species! (
  • Preclinical studies have identified plainly the powerful influence of gut microbiota on the central nervous system, but there are still issues with reproducibility, so we need continued improvement of experimental approaches. (
  • Our gut plays a vital role in our physical and psychological health by way of it's own neural network: the enteric nervous system (ENS), a complex system of about 100 million nerves found in the lining of the gut. (
  • Today, the group is examining the role of enteric glia in the aetiology and pathology of a broad range of conditions such as Barrett's oesophagus, inflammatory bowel disease and colonic polyps. (
  • Scientists in Munich have at last discovered a physiological IBS sign, finding tiny inflammations in the mucosa of the bowel which then irritates the enteric (gut) nervous system causing the symptoms of IBS. (
  • Gut brain", or enteric nervous system (ENS) dysfunction is associated with gastrointestinal upset and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), depression, and anxiety. (
  • Stress causes irregular bowel habits due to enteric nervous system. (
  • The enteric nervous system, which controls bowel activity, reacts to these substances just like the brain. (
  • Our gut has its own nervous system called the enteric nervous system, and it has serotonin receptors that are denser and more populated than in our brain. (
  • About 90% of the body's total serotonin is made in the gut, the rest is made in the nervous system. (
  • Serotonin is primarily found in the enteric nervous system located in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). (
  • ⁵ This Enteric Nervous System makes hormones and neurotransmitters like serotonin, which is involved with mood, and GABA, which helps calm the brain. (
  • Alterations to neural crest ontogenesis cause several diseases, including cancers and congenital defects, such as Hirschprung disease, which results from incomplete colonization of the colon by enteric NCCs (ENCCs). (
  • The bacteria in our colon can influence how the enteric nervous system behaves. (
  • In collaboration with Prof Arthur Butt (enteric glia) and Prof. Pradeep Bhandari (consultant endoscopist , QA Hospital), the overarching goal is to identify the precise role of glia in a broad range of intestinal pathologies. (
  • A computer model of the enteric nervous system has been developed using MATLAB in order to determine the extent to which the nature of intestinal activity can be explained by our current understanding of the projections and connectivity of enteric neurones. (
  • The digestive system is designed to convert nutrients into micro-units that penetrate the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream to allow for easy transfer into other body cells. (
  • The brain-gut interaction is the connection between our brain, the enteric nervous system and the intestinal bacteria. (
  • This means that IBS is a combination of a problem of the brain, the enteric nervous system and the intestinal flora. (
  • The most accepted hypothesis of IBD pathogenesis is that complex interactions between genetics, environmental factors, and the host immune system lead to aberrant immune responses and chronic intestinal inflammation. (
  • One of the themes in our groups' work is incorporating additional complexities into the human intestinal organoid system, in the hope of inching towards that ultimate goal of personalized treatments. (
  • Fortunately, James was using lengthening devices to increase intestinal length in animal models, and we finally had a way to incorporate mechanics within our system. (
  • IBS is a multifactorial disorder involving impairment in the brain-gut axis, gastrointestinal motor and sensory dysfunction, enteric and central nervous system irregularities and neuro-immune dysregulation, resulting in a lack of clear therapeutic targets. (
  • 80% of our entire immune system is located in our digestive tract, making our digestive tracts critical to health. (
  • The digestive system also has its own nervous system, called the enteric nervous system that runs along the entire length of the digestive tract. (
  • Two wolf in your digestive system- Good bacteria and bad/wrong bacteria, whom you feed the most will grow and take the lead of your health. (
  • When the gut becomes "leaky" and these bacteria and toxins have entered the bloodstream, it can cause extensive inflammation possibly resulting in an immune system trigger reaction. (
  • The digestive system and bacteria play a large role in the immune system by controlling what is absorbed into the body and what is passed out. (
  • Gut bacteria also use them to signal the gut's nervous system and its direct link to the brain. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system facilitates homeostasis and helps prepare the fight-or-flight response. (
  • These hormones activate our sympathetic nervous system, and this is why our heart beats faster, we perspire, and our blood pressure and even our breath increase. (
  • The communication is between the central and enteric nervous system via the vagus nerve. (
  • The ENS or the enteric nervous system relays this communication via the vagus nerve. (
  • Later the two nervous systems connect via a cable called the vagus nerve - the longest of all the cranial nerves whose name is derived from Latin, meaning "wandering. (
  • The involuntary actions carried out by your central nervous system are constantly at work taking care of you. (
  • Of all the networks peripheral to the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system is the most autonomous, as well as the most remote from consciousness. (
  • The ENS is sometimes called the "second brain," and it actually arises from the same tissues as our central nervous system (CNS) during fetal development. (
  • When the "fight or flight" response is triggered by fear or danger the central nervous system is activated. (
  • If the gut and the brain is interconnected by the Gut Brain Axis, then various factors that affect the Central Nervous System (Brain), can affect events in the gut. (
  • It has a direct, two-way connection with the brain via the central nervous system. (
  • It has now been shown that in some cases how we think and emotional triggers, affect the function of the central nervous system (or brain) by the connections of the brain gut relay, can affect the intestines. (
  • However, it is also produced in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically in the Raphe nuclei located in the brainstem. (
  • This biochemical signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system is called the gut-brain axis. (
  • More research on this topic will help us get further insights into disorders of both the gut and the central nervous system. (
  • The digestive system has its own complex system of nerves called the enteric nervous system (ENS), which function independently to the central nervous system. (
  • While one section turns into the central nervous system, another piece migrates to become the enteric nervous system. (
  • The pathogenesis of changes in the gastrointestinal functions in patients with diabetes mellitus is still being investigated at the same time as the role of the enteric nervous system and its neurotransmitters has gained significance. (
  • The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. (
  • The release of stress hormones affect our enteric nervous system, which is located in our stomach. (
  • And these hormones, in turn, suppress the immune system. (
  • As a consequence of the complications in the digestive system, which damage the enteric nervous system, patients with diabetes mellitus may have specific gastrointestinal motility disorders, some of which may be of great relevance, such as diabetic gastroparesis, constipation, and diarrhea. (
  • You even have an enteric nervous system (ENS)-nerves throughout the partitions of your GI tract. (
  • To treat it, you need to calm down the enteric nervous system, lower inflammation processes and treat for allergy. (
  • Stress in turn can influence the nervous system and reduce the ability of the gut to digest and process food, leading to indigestion, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, and can even increase inflammation and leave you more susceptible to infection. (
  • The gut then picks up these messages from the brain through its own nervous system (enteric) and responds accordingly. (
  • Your two nervous systems have an intricate relationship that's just now being explored by scientists through the field of neurogastroenterology (try digesting that easily). (
  • Current research is demonstrating that the gut affects all of our systems from the brain and nervous system to the endocrine and the immune system. (
  • It also affects multiple systems including inside your gastrointestinal organ. (
  • Stress that affects then enteric system is also another reason. (
  • Diabetes mellitus affects the digestive system over the years. (
  • It affects our Mood, metabolism, immune system and lot more. (
  • Lack of sleep and stress has the direct influence to the enteric nervous system. (
  • Explaining how life stress can affect the digestive system allows a patient to feel comfortable to reach out for professional help in dealing with stress or anxiety. (
  • The limbic system is directly connected to parts of the brain that control heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, memory, stress levels, and hormone balance. (
  • Stress or lack of sleep can affect your enteric nervous system and results to being constipated. (
  • GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are entirely unexplored as therapeutic targets for the treatment of IBS despite the expression of these neurotransmitter receptors in the enteric nervous system (ENS). (
  • Target therapy for chronic constipation related to enteric nervous system is still limited to study. (
  • This is because of the enteric nervous system which is in the gut that's in charge of gastrointestinal behavior. (
  • By organising and well categorizing the multi-layered poly faceted nature of our Evolutionarily Inherited Movement and Sensory Systems, we are able to not only predict but relieve the blocks deep within our psyche, by reading the 'defects' within our instinctual posture. (
  • We hope that this serves as a basis for others, working on any organ system, to look beyond our current protocols and augment them, providing additional stimuli within organogenesis. (
  • Collaborations between Queen Alexandra Hospital and this lab are exploring links between bacterial colonisation and enteric glial cell function. (
  • The bacterial messages also can prompt responses from the body's immune system. (
  • Whereas the somatic nervous system transmits voluntary impulses, the autonomic nervous system is the nerve network for internal functioning that is usual subconscious. (
  • The gut has a complex network of brain cells called the Enteric Nervous System. (
  • This post will touch of the complex relationship between our brain, gut, and immune system and why we should support these systems with good nutrition to help improve anxiety. (
  • We have previously employed a transplantation strategy to induce growth and maturation far beyond what we observe in vitro, and even added a functional enteric nervous system to the HIO 2,3 . (
  • After completing his Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology training at Queen's and he carried out post doctoral research training in enteric neurophysiology at the Vollum Institute in Portland, Oregon. (
  • Microbes also interact with the gut's special nervous system, called the enteric nervous system. (
  • Summed up: "Your gut, your brain and your immune system interact," Stevens said. (
  • This system triggers the body's natural healing process and flushes out toxins from the body. (
  • These tiny beings help you break down food traveling through your intestines, hence producing metabolites influencing all your cells - including those of your nervous system. (
  • Next time you are feeling anxious or nervous and start to notice your stomach doing somersaults, you could also try the following simple breathing exercise and see if you can calm both your mind and your gut down. (
  • The Brahmi helps calm the mind and nervous system, pacifies Vata, is nourishing and adds thickness and body. (
  • But did you know that the digestive system also plays an important role in protecting the body from harmful substances. (
  • It helps digest certain foods, helps with the production of certain vitamins, and plays a role in the immune system. (
  • In the brain, the reward system plays an important role in the development of love. (
  • He also investigates the regulation of blood flow in the enteric nervous system. (
  • We even have metaphors to describe these emotional experiences, like "butterflies" in your stomach when feeling anxious or nervous, or having your stomach "sink" when we get bad news. (
  • The instinctual motor neuro-programming is directly wired to our Emotional and Hormonal Systems. (
  • This is an essential player that determines the gastrointestinal system. (
  • As you are reading this blog post, your gastrointestinal system, commonly referred to as your gut, is at work digesting the meal you last ate. (
  • The autonomic nervous system deals with involuntary life sustaining functions, such as breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure, and body temperature. (
  • So the more stressful situation we experience, the less defence our immune system has. (
  • The skin provides one of the first lines of defence in the immune system, but in two ways. (
  • Thanks to the development of the GHIMPR System manual therapy has just received a long over due scientifically valid approach to Rehab and performance enhancement. (
  • Lymphedema refers to the impaired flow of the body's lymphatic system. (
  • Finally, the immune system of the gut wall and the body's other immune components respond to gut microbes, affecting the brain and organs. (
  • I quote another example, if a native is running Mer/Mars Dasha, and has nervous problem, I will reduce Mars-related food and increase the intake of mercury-symbolising food (green-coloured food) in the diet. (
  • An unfriendly gut (from diet and lifestyle choices) will lead to a weak and compromised immune system. (
  • If You're here, you're one of the expert practitioners of wellness and health who want to uplevel your game by genuinely learning how to integrate all aspects of the broken puzzle model of our current security system. (
  • By choosing the right foods, we can support the health of our gut, immune system, and brain which may help reduce the impact that anxiety may have on an individual. (

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