Low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, having a 4-enopyranosuronate sodium structure at the non-reducing end of the chain. It is prepared by depolymerization of the benzylic ester of porcine mucosal heparin. Therapeutically, it is used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Agents that prevent clotting.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
A heparin fraction with a mean molecular weight of 4500 daltons. It is isolated from porcine mucosal heparin and used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
Thiophenes are aromatic heterocyclic organic compounds containing a five-membered ring with four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom, which are found in various natural substances and synthesized for use in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.
Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS, NON-STEROIDAL) similar in mode of action to INDOMETHACIN.
Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Bleeding within the SKULL induced by penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries, including hemorrhages into the tissues of CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM; as well as into the epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces of the MENINGES.
Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.

Heparin and enoxaparin enhance endotoxin-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in human monocytes. (1/358)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether heparin or the low-molecular-weight heparin enoxaparin alter lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced monocyte activation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Heparin is widely used in clinical practice to inhibit the coagulation cascade. However, heparin also is a naturally occurring glucosaminoglycan and a pleiotropic immunomodulator that binds to a variety of proteins. LPS is a component of gram-negative bacteria and is thought to be responsible for many of the deleterious effects seen in sepsis. The binding of LPS to CD14 induces a signaling cascade that results in the release of many inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). METHODS: Monocytes from healthy volunteers were isolated and cultured in the presence of saline, LPS (10 ng/ml), heparin (0.1 to 1000 microg/ml), or enoxaparin (0.1 to 1000 microg/ml). In blocking experiments, cells were pretreated for 60 minutes with the monoclonal anti-CD14 antibody MY4 (10 microg/ml) or with isotype-matched control IgG2 (10 microg/ml). TNF-alpha values were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Significance was assessed with analysis of variance. RESULTS: Heparin (10 to 1000 microg/ml) and enoxaparin (1000 microg/ml) significantly enhanced LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Heparin (1000 microg/ml) or enoxaparin (1000 microg/ml) did not produce TNF-alpha in the absence of LPS. Blockade of CD14 abrogated both LPS-induced TNF-alpha release and the effect of heparin or enoxaparin to enhance LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of heparin to enhance LPS-induced TNF-alpha release is a biologic phenomenon that reveals a novel and potentially important host defense mechanism during endotoxemia and sepsis. Binding of LPS to CD14 is necessary to induce this phenomenon, suggesting that both heparin and enoxaparin induce signaling mechanisms that are downstream from the initial binding of LPS on CD14.  (+info)

Epidural haematoma after removal of an epidural catheter in a patient receiving high-dose enoxaparin. (2/358)

A patient developed an epidural haematoma 6 days after removal of an epidural catheter resulting in paraplegia and death. Insertion and removal of the epidural catheter during anticoagulation with prophylactic unfractionated heparin and subsequent administration of high-dose enoxaparin (Clexane), which commenced 3 days after catheter removal, were implicated.  (+info)

Venographic comparison of subcutaneous low-molecular weight heparin with oral anticoagulant therapy in the long-term treatment of deep venous thrombosis. (3/358)

PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate with venography the rate of thrombus regression after a fixed dose of low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) per day for 3 months compared with oral anticoagulant therapy for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Secondary endpoints were the comparisons of the efficacy and safety of both treatments. METHODS: This study was designed as an open randomized clinical study in a university hospital setting. Of the 165 patients finally enrolled in the study, 85 were assigned LMWH therapy and 80 were assigned oral anticoagulant therapy. In the group randomized to oral anticoagulant therapy, the patients first underwent treatment in the hospital with standard unfractionated heparin and then coumarin for 3 months. Doses were adjusted with laboratory monitoring to maintain the international normalized ratio between 2.0 and 3.0. Patients in the LMWH group were administered subcutaneous injections of fixed doses of 40 mg enoxaparin (4000 anti-Xa units) every 12 hours for 7 days, and after discharge from the hospital, they were administered 40 mg enoxaparin once daily at fixed doses for 3 months without a laboratory control assay. A quantitative venographic score (Marder score) was used to assess the extent of the venous thrombosis, with 0 points indicating no DVT and 40 points indicating total occlusion of all deep veins. The rate of thrombus reduction was defined as the difference in quantitative venographic scores after termination of LMWH or coumarin therapy as compared with the scores obtained on the initial venographic results. The efficacy was defined as the ability to prevent symptomatic extension or recurrence of venous thromboembolism (documented with venograms or serial lung scans). The safety was defined as the occurrence of hemorrhages. RESULTS: After 3 months of treatment, the mean Marder score was significantly decreased in both groups in comparison with the baseline score, although the effect of therapy was significantly better after LMWH therapy (49.4% reduction) than after coumarin therapy (24.5% reduction; P <.001). LMWH therapy and male gender were independently associated with an enhanced resolution of the thrombus. A lower frequency of symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism was also shown in patients who underwent treatment with LMWH therapy (9.5%) than with oral anticoagulant therapy (23.7%; P <.05), although this difference was entirely a result of recurrence of DVT. Bleeding complications were significantly fewer in the LMWH group than in the coumarin group (1. 1% vs 10%; P <.05). This difference was caused by minor hemorrhages. Coumarin therapy and cancer were independently associated with an enhanced risk of complications. Subcutaneous heparin therapy was well tolerated by all patients. CONCLUSION: The patients who were allocated to undergo enoxaparin therapy had a significantly greater improvement in their quantitative venographic score, a significantly lower recurrence rate of symptomatic venous thromboembolism, and a significantly lower incidence of bleeding than patients who underwent treatment with coumarin. LMWH can be used on an outpatient basis as a safer and more effective alternative to classical oral anticoagulant therapy for the secondary prophylaxis of selected patients with DVT.  (+info)

A comparison of enoxaparin with placebo for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. Prophylaxis in Medical Patients with Enoxaparin Study Group. (4/358)

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of thromboprophylaxis in patients with acute medical illnesses who may be at risk for venous thromboembolism have not been determined in adequately designed trials. METHODS: In a double-blind study, we randomly assigned 1102 hospitalized patients older than 40 years to receive 40 mg of enoxaparin, 20 mg of enoxaparin, or placebo subcutaneously once daily for 6 to 14 days. Most patients were not in an intensive care unit. The primary outcome was venous thromboembolism between days 1 and 14, defined as deep-vein thrombosis detected by bilateral venography (or duplex ultrasonography) between days 6 and 14 (or earlier if clinically indicated) or documented pulmonary embolism. The duration of follow-up was three months. RESULTS: The primary outcome could be assessed in 866 patients. The incidence of venous thromboembolism was significantly lower in the group that received 40 mg of enoxaparin (5.5 percent [16 of 291 patients]) than in the group that received placebo (14.9 percent [43 of 288 patients]) (relative risk, 0.37; 97.6 percent confidence interval, 0.22 to 0.63; P< 0.001). The benefit observed with 40 mg of enoxaparin was maintained at three months. There was no significant difference in the incidence of venous thromboembolism between the group that received 20 mg of enoxaparin (43 of 287 patients [15.0 percent]) and the placebo group. The incidence of adverse effects did not differ significantly between the placebo group and either enoxaparin group. By day 110, 50 patients had died in the placebo group (13.9 percent), 51 had died in the 20-mg group (14.7 percent), and 41 had died in the 40-mg group (11.4 percent); the differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic treatment with 40 mg of enoxaparin subcutaneously per day safely and effectively reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with acute medical illnesses.  (+info)

Enoxaparin prevents death and cardiac ischemic events in unstable angina/non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Results of the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 11B trial. (5/358)

BACKGROUND: Low-molecular-weight heparins are attractive alternatives to unfractionated heparin (UFH) for management of unstable angina/non-Q-wave myocardial infarction (UA/NQMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n=3910) with UA/NQMI were randomized to intravenous UFH for >/=3 days followed by subcutaneous placebo injections or uninterrupted antithrombin therapy with enoxaparin during both the acute phase (initial 30 mg intravenous bolus followed by injections of 1.0 mg/kg every 12 hours) and outpatient phase (injections every 12 hours of 40 mg for patients weighing <65 kg and 60 mg for those weighing >/=65 kg). The primary end point (death, myocardial infarction, or urgent revascularization) occurred by 8 days in 14.5% of patients in the UFH group and 12.4% of patients in the enoxaparin group (OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00; P=0. 048) and by 43 days in 19.7% of the UFH group and 17.3% of the enoxaparin group (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.00; P=0.048). During the first 72 hours and also throughout the entire initial hospitalization, there was no difference in the rate of major hemorrhage in the treatment groups. During the outpatient phase, major hemorrhage occurred in 1.5% of the group treated with placebo and 2.9% of the group treated with enoxaparin (P=0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Enoxaparin is superior to UFH for reducing a composite of death and serious cardiac ischemic events during the acute management of UA/NQMI patients without causing a significant increase in the rate of major hemorrhage. No further relative decrease in events occurred with outpatient enoxaparin treatment, but there was an increase in the rate of major hemorrhage.  (+info)

Assessment of the treatment effect of enoxaparin for unstable angina/non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. TIMI 11B-ESSENCE meta-analysis. (6/358)

BACKGROUND: Two phase III trials of enoxaparin for unstable angina/non-Q-wave myocardial infarction have shown it to be superior to unfractionated heparin for preventing a composite of death and cardiac ischemic events. A prospectively planned meta-analysis was performed to provide a more precise estimate of the effects of enoxaparin on multiple end points. METHODS AND RESULTS: Event rates for death, the composite end points of death/nonfatal myocardial infarction and death/nonfatal myocardial infarction/urgent revascularization, and major hemorrhage were extracted from the TIMI 11B and ESSENCE databases. Treatment effects at days 2, 8, 14, and 43 were expressed as the OR (and 95% CI) for enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin. All heterogeneity tests for efficacy end points were negative, which suggests comparability of the findings in TIMI 11B and ESSENCE. Enoxaparin was associated with a 20% reduction in death and serious cardiac ischemic events that appeared within the first few days of treatment, and this benefit was sustained through 43 days. Enoxaparin's treatment benefit was not associated with an increase in major hemorrhage during the acute phase of therapy, but there was an increase in the rate of minor hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: The accumulated evidence, coupled with the simplicity of subcutaneous administration and elimination of the need for anticoagulation monitoring, indicates that enoxaparin should be considered as a replacement for unfractionated heparin as the antithrombin for the acute phase of management of patients with high-risk unstable angina/non-Q-wave myocardial infarction.  (+info)

Comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin sodium) and standard unfractionated heparin for haemodialysis anticoagulation. (7/358)

BACKGROUND: Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) has been suggested as providing safe, efficient, convenient and possibly more cost-effective anticoagulation for haemodialysis (HD) than unfractionated heparin, with fewer side-effects and possible benefits on uraemic dyslipidaemia. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, cross-over study we compared the safety, clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of Clexane (enoxaparin sodium; Rhone-Poulenc Rorer) with unfractionated heparin in 36 chronic HD patients. They were randomly assigned to either Clexane (1 mg/kg body weight, equivalent to 100 IU) or standard heparin, and followed prospectively for 12 weeks (36 dialyses) before crossing over to the alternate therapy for a further 12 weeks. Heparin anticoagulation was monitored using activated coagulation times. RESULTS: Dialysis with Clexane resulted in less frequent minor fibrin/clot formation in the dialyser and lines than with heparin (P<0.001), but was accompanied by increased frequency of minor haemorrhage between dialyses (P<0.001). Clexane dose reduction (to a mean of 0.69 mg/kg) eliminated excess minor haemorrhage without increasing clotting frequencies. Mean vascular compression times were similar in both groups. Over 24 weeks, no changes in standard serum lipid profiles were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a single-dose protocol of Clexane is an effective and very convenient alternative to sodium heparin, but currently direct costs are about 16% more. We recommend an initial dose of 0.70 mg/kg.  (+info)

Intraoperative heparin in addition to postoperative low-molecular-weight heparin for thromboprophylaxis in total knee replacement. (8/358)

The administration of heparin during operation has been reported to enhance the efficacy of thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing total hip replacement. We have performed a small pilot study in which intraoperative doses of heparin were given in addition to the usual postoperative thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin in 32 patients undergoing total knee replacement. The primary endpoint was deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) as demonstrated by bilateral venography on 6 +/- 2 days after operation. Sixteen patients developed DVT; in two the thrombosis was proximal as well as distal and in one the occurrence was bilateral. There was one major haemorrhage. These results are similar to those obtained with the use of postoperative thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin alone. They do not provide support for the initiation of a larger randomised trial of this approach to management.  (+info)

Enoxaparin is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) medication that is used as an anticoagulant to prevent and treat blood clots. It works by binding to and inhibiting the activity of factor Xa, a clotting factor in the blood. This helps to reduce the risk of clot formation and can help to prevent conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Enoxaparin is typically given by injection under the skin (subcutaneously) and is available under the brand names Lovenox and Clexane, among others. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare professional when using enoxaparin, as it can increase the risk of bleeding.

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

Heparin is defined as a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan (a type of polysaccharide) that is widely present in many tissues, but is most commonly derived from the mucosal tissues of mammalian lungs or intestinal mucosa. It is an anticoagulant that acts as an inhibitor of several enzymes involved in the blood coagulation cascade, primarily by activating antithrombin III which then neutralizes thrombin and other clotting factors.

Heparin is used medically to prevent and treat thromboembolic disorders such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and certain types of heart attacks. It can also be used during hemodialysis, cardiac bypass surgery, and other medical procedures to prevent the formation of blood clots.

It's important to note that while heparin is a powerful anticoagulant, it does not have any fibrinolytic activity, meaning it cannot dissolve existing blood clots. Instead, it prevents new clots from forming and stops existing clots from growing larger.

Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) is a medical condition that includes both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). DVT is a blood clot that forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs, while PE occurs when a clot breaks off and travels to the lungs, blocking a pulmonary artery or one of its branches. This condition can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

The medical definition of Venous Thromboembolism is:

"The formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in a deep vein, most commonly in the legs, which can then dislodge and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening blockage of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches (pulmonary embolism). VTE is a complex disorder resulting from an interplay of genetic and environmental factors that affect the balance between thrombosis and fibrinolysis."

Some common risk factors for VTE include immobility, surgery, trauma, cancer, hormonal therapy, pregnancy, advanced age, and inherited or acquired thrombophilia. Symptoms of DVT may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected limb, while symptoms of PE can range from shortness of breath and chest pain to coughing up blood or even sudden death. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical assessment, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI), and laboratory tests (such as D-dimer). Treatment usually includes anticoagulation therapy to prevent further clot formation and reduce the risk of recurrence.

Factor Xa is a serine protease that plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, which is a series of reactions that lead to the formation of a blood clot. It is one of the activated forms of Factor X, a pro-protein that is converted to Factor Xa through the action of other enzymes in the coagulation cascade.

Factor Xa functions as a key component of the prothrombinase complex, which also includes calcium ions, phospholipids, and activated Factor V (also known as Activated Protein C or APC). This complex is responsible for converting prothrombin to thrombin, which then converts fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a stable clot.

Inhibitors of Factor Xa are used as anticoagulants in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. These drugs work by selectively inhibiting Factor Xa, thereby preventing the formation of the prothrombinase complex and reducing the risk of clot formation.

Hemorrhage is defined in the medical context as an excessive loss of blood from the circulatory system, which can occur due to various reasons such as injury, surgery, or underlying health conditions that affect blood clotting or the integrity of blood vessels. The bleeding may be internal, external, visible, or concealed, and it can vary in severity from minor to life-threatening, depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment to prevent further blood loss, organ damage, and potential death.

Fibrinolytic agents are medications that dissolve or break down blood clots by activating plasminogen, which is converted into plasmin. Plasmin is a proteolytic enzyme that degrades fibrin, the structural protein in blood clots. Fibrinolytic agents are used medically to treat conditions such as acute ischemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and myocardial infarction (heart attack) by restoring blood flow in occluded vessels. Examples of fibrinolytic agents include alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase. It is important to note that these medications carry a risk of bleeding complications and should be administered with caution.

Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is a type of heparin used as an anticoagulant, which refers to a group of medications that prevent the formation of blood clots. Heparin is a naturally occurring substance in the body, and low-molecular-weight heparins are obtained through the depolymerization of standard heparin.

LMWH has a lower molecular weight than standard heparin, which results in several pharmacological differences. LMWHs have a more predictable dose response, longer half-life, and higher bioavailability when administered subcutaneously compared to standard heparin. They also exhibit greater anti-factor Xa activity relative to their antithrombin (anti-IIa) activity, which contributes to their anticoagulant effects.

LMWHs are used for the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and other thromboembolic disorders. Common LMWHs include enoxaparin, dalteparin, tinzaparin, and nadroparin.

It is essential to monitor the patient's kidney function when using LMWH since they are primarily cleared by the kidneys. In patients with renal impairment, dose adjustments or alternative anticoagulants may be necessary to reduce the risk of bleeding complications.

Thromboembolism is a medical condition that refers to the obstruction of a blood vessel by a thrombus (blood clot) that has formed elsewhere in the body and then been transported by the bloodstream to a narrower vessel, where it becomes lodged. This process can occur in various parts of the body, leading to different types of thromboembolisms:

1. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A thrombus forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs or pelvis, and then breaks off and travels to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
2. Pulmonary Embolism (PE): A thrombus formed elsewhere, often in the deep veins of the legs, dislodges and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and potentially life-threatening complications if not treated promptly.
3. Cerebral Embolism: A thrombus formed in another part of the body, such as the heart or carotid artery, dislodges and travels to the brain, causing a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Arterial Thromboembolism: A thrombus forms in an artery and breaks off, traveling to another part of the body and blocking blood flow to an organ or tissue, leading to potential damage or loss of function. Examples include mesenteric ischemia (intestinal damage due to blocked blood flow) and retinal artery occlusion (vision loss due to blocked blood flow in the eye).

Prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing thromboembolism and reducing the risk of severe complications.

Venous thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the deep veins, often in the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT), but it can also occur in other parts of the body such as the arms, pelvis, or lungs (pulmonary embolism).

The formation of a venous thrombus can be caused by various factors, including injury to the blood vessel wall, changes in blood flow, and alterations in the composition of the blood. These factors can lead to the activation of clotting factors and platelets, which can result in the formation of a clot that blocks the vein.

Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected area. In some cases, the clot can dislodge and travel to other parts of the body, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as pulmonary embolism.

Risk factors for venous thrombosis include advanced age, obesity, smoking, pregnancy, use of hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer, recent surgery or trauma, prolonged immobility, and a history of previous venous thromboembolism. Treatment typically involves the use of anticoagulant medications to prevent further clotting and dissolve existing clots.

Subcutaneous injection is a route of administration where a medication or vaccine is delivered into the subcutaneous tissue, which lies between the skin and the muscle. This layer contains small blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues that help to absorb the medication slowly and steadily over a period of time. Subcutaneous injections are typically administered using a short needle, at an angle of 45-90 degrees, and the dose is injected slowly to minimize discomfort and ensure proper absorption. Common sites for subcutaneous injections include the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm. Examples of medications that may be given via subcutaneous injection include insulin, heparin, and some vaccines.

Nadroparin is defined as a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) drug, which is used as an anticoagulant. It is derived from unfractionated heparin and works by inhibiting the activity of coagulation factor Xa and to a lesser extent, thrombin. Nadroparin is commonly used for the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), as well as for the management of unstable angina and non-Q wave myocardial infarction.

The drug is administered subcutaneously, and its anticoagulant effect is monitored by measuring the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) or anti-Xa activity. The half-life of nadroparin is approximately 4 hours, and it has a lower risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) compared to unfractionated heparin.

It's important to note that the use of nadroparin or any other anticoagulant medication should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and patients should be closely monitored for bleeding risks and other potential adverse effects.

Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) is a medical laboratory test that measures the time it takes for blood to clot. It's more specifically a measure of the intrinsic and common pathways of the coagulation cascade, which are the series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot.

The test involves adding a partial thromboplastin reagent (an activator of the intrinsic pathway) and calcium to plasma, and then measuring the time it takes for a fibrin clot to form. This is compared to a control sample, and the ratio of the two times is calculated.

The PTT test is often used to help diagnose bleeding disorders or abnormal blood clotting, such as hemophilia or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy, such as heparin. Prolonged PTT results may indicate a bleeding disorder or an increased risk of bleeding, while shortened PTT results may indicate a hypercoagulable state and an increased risk of thrombosis.

Thiophenes are organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring made up of four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom. The structure of thiophene is similar to benzene, with the benzene ring being replaced by a thiophene ring. Thiophenes are aromatic compounds, which means they have a stable, planar ring structure and delocalized electrons.

Thiophenes can be found in various natural sources such as coal tar, crude oil, and some foods like onions and garlic. They also occur in certain medications, dyes, and pesticides. Some thiophene derivatives have been synthesized and studied for their potential therapeutic uses, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antitumor activities.

In the medical field, thiophenes are used in some pharmaceuticals as building blocks to create drugs with various therapeutic effects. For example, tipepidine, a cough suppressant, contains a thiophene ring. Additionally, some anesthetics and antipsychotic medications also contain thiophene moieties.

It is important to note that while thiophenes themselves are not typically considered medical terms, they play a role in the chemistry of various pharmaceuticals and other medical-related compounds.

Unstable angina is a term used in cardiology to describe chest pain or discomfort that occurs suddenly and unexpectedly, often at rest or with minimal physical exertion. It is caused by an insufficient supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle due to reduced blood flow, typically as a result of partial or complete blockage of the coronary arteries.

Unlike stable angina, which tends to occur predictably during physical activity and can be relieved with rest or nitroglycerin, unstable angina is more severe, unpredictable, and may not respond to traditional treatments. It is considered a medical emergency because it can be a sign of an impending heart attack or other serious cardiac event.

Unstable angina is often treated in the hospital with medications such as nitroglycerin, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and antiplatelet agents to improve blood flow to the heart and prevent further complications. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected areas of the heart.

A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot, often formed in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis), breaks off and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This blockage can lead to various symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, rapid heart rate, and coughing up blood. In severe cases, it can cause life-threatening complications like low oxygen levels, hypotension, and even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated with anticoagulant medications or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve the clot.

Dalteparin is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) medication that is used as an anticoagulant to prevent and treat blood clots. It works by binding to an enzyme called antithrombin III and enhancing its ability to inhibit clotting factors in the blood.

Dalteparin is available under the brand name Fragmin and is administered subcutaneously (under the skin) once or twice a day, depending on the indication and dosage prescribed by a healthcare professional. Common side effects of dalteparin include bleeding, bruising, pain at the injection site, and elevated liver enzymes.

As with all medications, it is important to use dalteparin only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and to follow their instructions carefully.

Thrombophlebitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and clotting of blood in a vein, usually in the legs. The term thrombophlebitis comes from two words: "thrombo" which means blood clot, and "phlebitis" which refers to inflammation of the vein.

The condition can occur in superficial or deep veins. Superficial thrombophlebitis affects the veins just below the skin's surface, while deep vein thrombophlebitis (DVT) occurs in the deeper veins. DVT is a more serious condition as it can lead to complications such as pulmonary embolism if the blood clot breaks off and travels to the lungs.

Symptoms of thrombophlebitis may include redness, warmth, pain, swelling, or discomfort in the affected area. In some cases, there may be visible surface veins that are hard, tender, or ropy to touch. If left untreated, thrombophlebitis can lead to chronic venous insufficiency and other long-term complications. Treatment typically involves medications such as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, or thrombolytics, along with compression stockings and other supportive measures.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Blood coagulation, also known as blood clotting, is a complex process that occurs in the body to prevent excessive bleeding when a blood vessel is damaged. This process involves several different proteins and chemical reactions that ultimately lead to the formation of a clot.

The coagulation cascade is initiated when blood comes into contact with tissue factor, which is exposed after damage to the blood vessel wall. This triggers a series of enzymatic reactions that activate clotting factors, leading to the formation of a fibrin clot. Fibrin is a protein that forms a mesh-like structure that traps platelets and red blood cells to form a stable clot.

Once the bleeding has stopped, the coagulation process is regulated and inhibited to prevent excessive clotting. The fibrinolytic system degrades the clot over time, allowing for the restoration of normal blood flow.

Abnormalities in the blood coagulation process can lead to bleeding disorders or thrombotic disorders such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The platelet glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa complex, also known as integrin αIIbβ3 or CD41/CD61, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor found on the surface of platelets and megakaryocytes. It plays a crucial role in platelet aggregation and thrombus formation during hemostasis and pathological conditions such as arterial thrombosis.

The GPIIb-IIIa complex is composed of two non-covalently associated subunits, GPIIb (αIIb or CD41) and IIIa (β3 or CD61). Upon platelet activation by various agonists like ADP, thrombin, or collagen, the GPIIb-IIIa complex undergoes a conformational change that allows it to bind fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and other adhesive proteins. This binding event leads to platelet aggregation and the formation of a hemostatic plug or pathological thrombus.

Inhibition of the GPIIb-IIIa complex has been a target for antiplatelet therapy in the prevention and treatment of arterial thrombosis, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Several pharmacological agents, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule antagonists, have been developed to block this complex and reduce platelet aggregation.

Tolmetin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to relieve pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that cause pain and inflammation in the body. Tolmetin is available in immediate-release and sustained-release forms, and it is typically prescribed to treat conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

The medical definition of Tolmetin can be found in various pharmaceutical and medical references, including the Merck Manual, the American Hospital Formulary Service (AHFS) Drug Information, and the National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus. According to these sources, the chemical name for Tolmetin is (3R,5S)-3-(4-methylbenzoyl)-5-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-indole-2-one, and its molecular formula is C19H16NO3.

Tolmetin has a number of potential side effects, including stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, gas, dizziness, and headache. It can also increase the risk of serious gastrointestinal side effects, such as bleeding, ulcers, and perforations in the stomach or intestines, especially in people who are over the age of 65 or have a history of stomach ulcers or other gastrointestinal problems. Tolmetin can also increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other cardiovascular events, particularly in people who take it for a long time or at high doses.

Tolmetin is available only by prescription, and it should be taken exactly as directed by a healthcare provider. It is important to follow the instructions on the label carefully and to talk to a doctor or pharmacist if there are any questions about how to take Tolmetin or what the potential side effects may be.

Pyridones are a class of organic compounds that contain a pyridone ring, which is a heterocyclic ring consisting of a six-membered ring with five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom, with one oxygen atom attached to the nitrogen atom by a double bond. Pyridones can be found in various natural sources, including plants and microorganisms, and they also have important applications in the pharmaceutical industry as building blocks for drug design and synthesis. Some drugs that contain pyridone rings include antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, and antiviral agents.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition characterized by the death of a segment of heart muscle (myocardium) due to the interruption of its blood supply. This interruption is most commonly caused by the blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot formed on the top of an atherosclerotic plaque, which is a buildup of cholesterol and other substances in the inner lining of the artery.

The lack of oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscle tissue results in damage or death of the cardiac cells, causing the affected area to become necrotic. The extent and severity of the MI depend on the size of the affected area, the duration of the occlusion, and the presence of collateral circulation.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, and sweating. Immediate medical attention is necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. Treatment options for MI include medications, such as thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, and pain relievers, as well as procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage (TIH) is a type of bleeding that occurs within the skull or inside the brain parenchyma as a result of traumatic injury. It can be further classified based on the location and type of bleeding, which includes:

1. Epidural hematoma (EDH): Bleeding between the dura mater and the inner table of the skull, usually caused by arterial bleeding from the middle meningeal artery after a temporal bone fracture.
2. Subdural hematoma (SDH): Bleeding in the potential space between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane, often due to venous sinus or bridging vein injury. SDHs can be acute, subacute, or chronic based on their age and clinical presentation.
3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH): Bleeding into the subarachnoid space, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). SAH is commonly caused by trauma but can also be secondary to aneurysmal rupture or arteriovenous malformations.
4. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH): Bleeding directly into the brain parenchyma, which can result from contusions, lacerations, or shearing forces during traumatic events.
5. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding into the cerebral ventricles, often as a complication of IPH, SAH, or EDH. IVH can lead to obstructive hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure (ICP).

TIHs are medical emergencies requiring prompt diagnosis and management to prevent secondary brain injury and reduce morbidity and mortality. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for the detection and characterization of TIHs, while neurosurgical intervention may be necessary in specific cases.

Antithrombins are substances that prevent the formation or promote the dissolution of blood clots (thrombi). They include:

1. Anticoagulants: These are medications that reduce the ability of the blood to clot. Examples include heparin, warfarin, and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) such as apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
2. Thrombolytic agents: These are medications that break down existing blood clots. Examples include alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase.
3. Fibrinolytics: These are a type of thrombolytic agent that specifically target fibrin, a protein involved in the formation of blood clots.
4. Natural anticoagulants: These are substances produced by the body to regulate blood clotting. Examples include antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S.

Antithrombins are used in the prevention and treatment of various thromboembolic disorders, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), stroke, and myocardial infarction (heart attack). It is important to note that while antithrombins can help prevent or dissolve blood clots, they also increase the risk of bleeding, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Platelet aggregation inhibitors are a class of medications that prevent platelets (small blood cells involved in clotting) from sticking together and forming a clot. These drugs work by interfering with the ability of platelets to adhere to each other and to the damaged vessel wall, thereby reducing the risk of thrombosis (blood clot formation).

Platelet aggregation inhibitors are often prescribed for people who have an increased risk of developing blood clots due to various medical conditions such as atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, stroke, or a history of heart attack. They may also be used in patients undergoing certain medical procedures, such as angioplasty and stenting, to prevent blood clot formation in the stents.

Examples of platelet aggregation inhibitors include:

1. Aspirin: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that irreversibly inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is involved in platelet activation and aggregation.
2. Clopidogrel (Plavix): A P2Y12 receptor antagonist that selectively blocks ADP-induced platelet activation and aggregation.
3. Prasugrel (Effient): A third-generation thienopyridine P2Y12 receptor antagonist, similar to clopidogrel but with faster onset and greater potency.
4. Ticagrelor (Brilinta): A direct-acting P2Y12 receptor antagonist that does not require metabolic activation and has a reversible binding profile.
5. Dipyridamole (Persantine): An antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet aggregation by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in platelets, which leads to decreased platelet reactivity.
6. Iloprost (Ventavis): A prostacyclin analogue that inhibits platelet aggregation and causes vasodilation, often used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
7. Cilostazol (Pletal): A phosphodiesterase III inhibitor that increases cAMP levels in platelets, leading to decreased platelet activation and aggregation, as well as vasodilation.
8. Ticlopidine (Ticlid): An older P2Y12 receptor antagonist with a slower onset of action and more frequent side effects compared to clopidogrel or prasugrel.

Enoxaparin is a FDA pregnancy category B drug which means enoxaparin is not expected to cause harm to an unborn baby when used ... Enoxaparin is sold under several brand names and is available as a generic medication. Enoxaparin is made from heparin. In 2020 ... Enoxaparin is in the low molecular weight heparin family of medications. Enoxaparin was first made in 1981 and approved for ... "ENOXAPARIN SODIUM- enoxaparin sodium injection". DailyMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 19 ...
Enoxaparin has 4500 g/mol.) These heparins have lower anti-thrombin activity than classical LMWHs and act mainly on factor Xa, ...
"Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement (ADVANCE-2): a randomised double-blind trial". The ... "Apixaban versus Enoxaparin for Thromboprophylaxis after Hip Replacement". New England Journal of Medicine. 363 (26): 2487-2498 ...
Lower rate of VTE events was found in betrixaban arm with no increase in major bleedings compared to enoxaparin. Based on these ... Edoxaban Enoxaparin Eriksson BI, Quinlan DJ, Weitz JI (2009). "Comparative pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of oral direct ... Goldhaber SZ, Leizorovicz A, Kakkar AK, Haas SK, Merli G, Knabb RM, Weitz JI (December 2011). "Apixaban versus enoxaparin for ... Previously apixaban and rivaroxaban have failed to show positive risk/benefit ratio in this indication compared to enoxaparin.[ ...
Lovenox (Enoxaparin), for thrombosis, (its biggest seller in 2008). Multaq (Dronedarone), for cardiac arrhythmias. Nitrolingual ...
... is similar to enoxaparin in reducing the risk of ischemic events at nine days, but it substantially reduces major ... "Comparison of fondaparinux and enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes". The New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (14): 1464- ...
63 (11): 552-8. Superficial Thrombophlebitis Treated By Enoxaparin Study Group (July 2003). "A pilot randomized double-blind ...
However, comparison of enoxaparin and tinzaparin shows they are very different from each other with respect to chemical, ... February 2010). "Enoxaparin in primary and facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention A formal prospective nonrandomized ... Used in the manufacture of enoxaparin (Lovenox and Clexane) Oxidative depolymerisation with Cu2+ and hydrogen peroxide. Used in ... focus on enoxaparin". Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety. 5: 133-141. doi:10.2147/DHPS.S28813. PMC 3684140. PMID 23788840. ...
Commonly used low molecular weight heparins are enoxaparin, dalteparin, nadroparin and tinzaparin. In HIT, the platelet count ...
This includes heparin and low molecular weight heparin products such as enoxaparin. There is some low certainty evidence that ...
Low-dose low molecular weight heparin (e.g. enoxaparin) may be used. For life-threatening complications, the platelet count can ...
July 1998). "Enoxaparin plus compression stockings compared with compression stockings alone in the prevention of venous ... March 2002). "Duration of prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism with enoxaparin after surgery for cancer". The New England ... enoxaparin, dalteparin, tinzaparin) are effective in preventing deep vein thromboses and pulmonary emboli in people at risk, ...
The heparin-like drug known as fondaparinux appears to be better than enoxaparin. If there is no evidence of ST segment ... Bundhun, PK; Shaik, M; Yuan, J (8 May 2017). "Choosing between Enoxaparin and Fondaparinux for the management of patients with ...
A common low molecular weight heparin drug is called enoxaparin (brand name Lovenox). Enoxaparin is listed as Pregnancy ...
Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH, such as enoxaparin) is generally used as an alternative. Warfarin and LMWH may safely be ...
Two studies comparing desirudin with enoxaparin (a LMWH) or unfractionated heparin have been performed. In both studies ...
Cox, Stephanie; Eslick, Renee; McLintock, Claire (2019). "Effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin for ... "Effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin for prevention of pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism". ...
January 2010). "Enoxaparin improves the course of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in syndecan-1-deficient mice". The ...
Only daily subcutaneous shots of enoxaparin (Lovenox) is the safe and conservative way to treat this condition. Studies have ... In addition, temporary treatment with an anticoagulant such as enoxaparin (Lovenox) may be required during periods of ...
Similar issues are likely associated with the use of enoxaparin (a LMWH) in these high-risk individuals. Prevention of DVT and ...
Usually, warfarin is avoided in the first trimester, and a low-molecular-weight heparin such as enoxaparin is substituted. With ...
A multicenter study on 300 patients researching the use of enoxaparin sodium at prophylaxis and therapeutic dosages was ...
... but this like Enoxaparin was also to a reference product, Genotropin, originally approved as a biologic drug under the FD&C Act ... enoxaparin, epoetin lambda, etanercept, filgrastim, follitropin alfa, infliximab, insulin aspart, insulin glargine, ...
"Enoxaparin followed by once-weekly idrabiotaparinux versus enoxaparin plus warfarin for patients with acute symptomatic ...
Enoxaparin has 4500 g/mol) These heparins have lower anti-thrombin activity than classical LMWHs and act mainly on factor Xa, ... Clinical trial number NCT00697099 for "Evaluation of AVE5026 as Compared to Enoxaparin for the Prevention of Thromboembolism in ...
... enoxaparin, nadroparin and dalteparin. The ESCAPe-END study". Pharmacology. 78 (3): 136-43. doi:10.1159/000096484. PMID ...
She was required to do a series of self-injections of enoxaparin for several months, but eventually made a full recovery and ...
The care consisted of medicines such as enoxaparin, colchicine, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, or antibiotic therapy as ...
... enoxaparin, flucloxacillin, insulin, and irrigation of both eyes with saline. The treatment after a xylazine overdose primarily ...
... enoxaparin MeSH D09.698.373.400.300.600 - nadroparin MeSH D09.698.373.400.320 - heparinoids MeSH D09.698.373.425 - heparitin ...
Enoxaparin is a FDA pregnancy category B drug which means enoxaparin is not expected to cause harm to an unborn baby when used ... Enoxaparin is sold under several brand names and is available as a generic medication. Enoxaparin is made from heparin. In 2020 ... Enoxaparin is in the low molecular weight heparin family of medications. Enoxaparin was first made in 1981 and approved for ... "ENOXAPARIN SODIUM- enoxaparin sodium injection". DailyMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 19 ...
Enoxaparin Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking enoxaparin,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to enoxaparin, heparin, any other drugs, or ... Continue to use enoxaparin even if you feel well. Do not stop taking enoxaparin without talking to your doctor. ... Enoxaparin is used to prevent blood clots in the leg in patients who are on bedrest or who are having hip replacement, knee ...
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Enoxaparin has not been FDA approved for use in dialysis patients. Its elimination is primarily via the renal route. Serious ...
Low Molecular Wt Heparins / Enoxaparin (Lovenox). Low Molecular Wt Heparins / Enoxaparin (Lovenox). - Discussion: - for ... enoxaparin).. Elective hip and knee arthroplasty and the effect of rivaroxaban and enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis on wound ... subcutaneous enoxaparin 40 mg SQ q24hrs or 30 mg every 12 hours; - onset of activity occurs after about 3 hours; - it is ... anti-Xa to anti IIa ratio for enoxaparin is about 3 to 1 where as unfractionated heparin has a ratio of 1 to 1; - hence LMWH ...
Enoxaparin is a blood thinner which prevents the excessive formation of blood clots in the body.It does not dissolve the ... Enoxaparin - What is it for. Enoxaparin is a blood thinner which prevents the excessive formation of blood clots in the body. ... Enoxaparin does not dissolve existing clots.. There are different brands of Enoxaparin available. Do not switch between brands ...
The use of enoxaparin in addition to standard high-risk care does not reduce the risk of recurrence of preeclampsia and small- ... enoxaparin 18/72 (25%) vs no enoxaparin 17/77 (22.1%) (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-2.64). There was also no ... Enoxaparin for Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction Trial Investigator Group: K Groom, L McCowan, L ... Enoxaparin for the prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction in women with a history: a randomized trial ...
Tags: enoxaparin, FDA, FDA approvals, generics, Lovenox, low molecular weight heparin. You can follow any responses to this ... FDA Approves Generic Enoxaparin. Larry Husten, PHD The FDA announced on Friday that it had approved the first generic ... The original version of enoxaparin, Lovenox, was first approved in 1993. To gain approval as a generic, the FDA required its ... enoxaparin sodium injection for multiple indications including prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The action represents ...
Get up-to-date information on Enoxaparin side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about ... Enoxaparin prevents and treats blood clots. If you are injecting Enoxaparin at home, you will be injecting it under the skin ( ... You should not take enoxaparin if you are breastfeeding. It is not known if enoxaparin is excreted in human breast milk or if ... "Enoxaparin Sodium", DailyMed: Current Medication Information; U.S. National Library of Medicine "Enoxaparin Injection", Medline ...
Comparing Anti-XA Levels in Post-Cesarean Patients Undergoing Enoxaparin Thromboprophylaxis ... Intervention: Enoxaparin (Drug). Phase: Phase 1. Status: Completed. Sponsored by: MemorialCare Health System. Official(s) and/ ... enoxaparin (Lovenox®; Aventis Pharmaceuticals) regimen Group 2 will received the fixed dose (40mg daily) enoxaparin (Lovenox®; ... Allergy to enoxaparin. - Women with renal impairment - Women with contraindications to Lovenox treatment such as women with ...
4.1% enoxaparin), and 1.8% at 43 days (8.6% unfractionated heparin vs. 7.1% enoxaparin). There was a similar effect seen with ... Keywords: Odds Ratio, Coronary Artery Disease, Myocardial Infarction, Follow-Up Studies, Enoxaparin, Myocardial ... Enoxaparin: no IV bolus, 1.0 mg/kg sc every 12 hours with median duration of treatment 2.6 days.. • Heparin: 5000 U bolus ... Enoxaparin: 30 mg intravenous (IV) bolus followed by 1.0 mg/kg sc every 12 hours while in-hospital and then reduced during ...
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... (Lovenox) 1 mg/kg SQ every 12 hours OR. *Enoxaparin (Lovenox) 1.5 mg/kg SQ every 24 hours for inpatients with acute ... As an alternative, Enoxaparin (Lovenox) 1 mg/kg SQ once daily for up to 7 days ... Enoxaparin (Lovenox) 30 mg SQ every 12 hours if s/p knee or hip replacement ... Enoxaparin (Lovenox) 40 mg SQ daily for medical inpatients or abdominal surgery ...
Overall, 8.8% of enoxaparin-treated patients developed PVT compared with 27.7% in the control group, and no cases developed in ... Patients were followed up for a mean of 58 weeks in the control group and 89 weeks in the enoxaparin group, with ultrasound ... Enoxaparin (see structure) significantly reduces portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and increases overall survival in patients with ... The study included 70 cirrhosis patients with a Child-Pugh score of 7-10, aged 18-75 years who received enoxaparin 4000 IU/day ...
Oxygen and enoxaparin, an anticoagulant drug that helps prevent blood clots, are being given to Covid-19 patients as a ... Enoxaparin most-used drug for Covid-19 in hospitals Oxygen and enoxaparin, an anticoagulant drug that helps prevent blood clots ... Oxygen and enoxaparin, an anticoagulant drug that helps prevent blood clots, are given to Covid-19 patients as a supportive ... "Remdisivir, insulin, enoxaparin 6, certiaxone, meropenem and all IV fluids are being used for the ICU patients treatment," ...
... enoxaparin sodium) is used to treat and/or prevent blood clots. It is also used to treat angina & heart attack when used with ... Generic Name: enoxaparin sodium. Product Name: Clexane. Indication: What Clexane is used for. Clexane is used in a number of ...
... or HTS Code and Tariff Classification for enoxaparin ... "enoxaparin" into the USA and the European Union Countries. ...
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The objective of this study was to determine if AT-III activity affects enoxaparin anti-Xa target attainment and to evaluate ... In addition, the optimal strategy for enoxaparin dose adjustment to attain target anti-Xa trough concentrations is unknown in ... Coordinated serum AT-III, anti-Xa, and thromboeslastogram samples were drawn 8 hours after the third dose of enoxaparin. ... Intervention group patients were randomized to one of two dose adjustment strategies 1 enoxaparin 40 mg every 12 hours with ...
There was a 40% reduction in major bleeding with fondaparinux compared with enoxaparin in those treated with GP IIb/IIIa (5.2% ... OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the relative safety and efficacy of fondaparinux and enoxaparin in patients with ... Efficacy and safety of fondaparinux versus enoxaparin in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with glycoprotein IIb/ ... compared with enoxaparin while preserving similar efficacy. Whether this benefit is consistent in the presence or absence of ...
The most commonly used LMWH is enoxaparin (Lovenox). The recommended dosing of enoxaparin for acute VTE in pregnancy is 1 mg/kg ... Enoxaparin binds to antithrombin III, enhancing its therapeutic effect. The heparin-antithrombin III complex binds to and ... The advantages of enoxaparin include intermittent dosing and a decreased requirement for monitoring. Heparin anti-factor Xa ... Enoxaparin is produced by the partial chemical or enzymatic depolymerization of unfractionated heparin (UFH). LMWH differs from ...
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Enoxaparin is usually available with a prescription, and its availability and regulations may vary from country to country. ... Enoxaparin brands, Enoxaparin generic, enoxaparin administration conditions,Enoxaparin buying conditions Enoxaparin mechanism ... For more Enoxaparin information;. Click below button to get Enoxaparin price and learn Enoxaparin availability from European ... Enoxaparin is available almost in all EU countries like Germany (Enoxaparin Lovenox), France (Enoxaparin Clexane/Lovenox), ...
Clexane (Enoxaparin) 40mg Injection 2s. KSh2,780. Clexane 40mg Injection is an anticoagulant used to prevent and treat harmful ... Be the first to review "Clexane (Enoxaparin) 40mg Injection 2s" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. ...
Fondaparinux Compared with Enoxaparin for the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism after Hip-Fracture Surgery Journal Articles ... or 40 mg of enoxaparin once daily, initiated preoperatively, for at least five days. The primary efficacy outcome was venous ...
2020 / Enoxaparin Enoxaparin. Injection 80 mg/ 0.8 mL Injection 80 mg. Injection 40 mg Injection 20 mg/ 0.2 mL Injection 20 mg/ ...
Production of heparin sodium, enoxaparin sodium, heparinoid, dalteparin sodium,chondroitin sulfate and so on. Welcome to ... How to use enoxaparin sodium. Enoxaparin is used to prevent and treat harmful blood clots. This helps to reduce the risk of a ... How to use Enoxaparin SODIUM Syringe. Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start ... Enoxaparin is an anticoagulant, also known as a blood thinner. It is a type of heparin. ...
Enoxaparin Sodium published on 01 Jan 2023 by ASHP. ... Enoxaparin Sodium AHFS 20:12.04.16 in ASHP® Injectable Drug ...
This Enoxaparin Factor IIa Assay Kit is for the determination of enoxaparin in purified solutions by measurement of factor IIa ... Enoxaparin Factor IIa Assay Kit. $625.00. The Eagle Biosciences Enoxaparin Factor lla Assay Kit is intended for the ... Enoxaparin Factor IIa Assay Kit. The Enoxaparin Factor IIa Assay Kit is For Research Use Only ... This inhibition accounts for the anticoagulant effect of enoxaparin. The quantitative determination of enoxaparin levels by the ...
  • Enoxaparin sodium, sold under the brand name Lovenox among others, is an anticoagulant medication (blood thinner). (wikipedia.org)
  • The multiple-dose vials of the brand name enoxaparin (Lovenox) contain 15 mg benzyl alcohol per 1 mL as a preservative. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original version of enoxaparin, Lovenox, was first approved in 1993. (jwatch.org)
  • 35 who have undergone a cesarean delivery and who will receive thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin (Lovenox) at the judgment of their physician. (druglib.com)
  • The most commonly used LMWH is enoxaparin (Lovenox). (medscape.com)
  • Enoxaparin is available almost in all EU countries like Germany (Enoxaparin Lovenox), France (Enoxaparin Clexane/Lovenox), United kingdom (Xaparin/ Inhixa), Italy and Spain. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • RxWiki News) New oral blood thinner rivaroxaban (Xarelto) has been shown to be safer for treating a pulmonary embolism as compared to enoxaparin (Lovenox) injections, and was found to be just as effective. (rxwiki.com)
  • Enoxaparin is in the low molecular weight heparin family of medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enoxaparin is made from heparin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protamine sulfate is less effective at reversing enoxaparin compared to heparin, with a maximum neutralization of approximately 60% of the anti-factor Xa effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to enoxaparin, heparin, any other drugs, or pork products. (medlineplus.gov)
  • TIMI 11B and ESSENCE were Phase III trials designed to test the efficacy of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in patients with unstable angina/non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI). (acc.org)
  • Compared to unfractionated heparin, treatment with enoxaparin would be associated with lower odds of death and nonfatal MI in a pooled analysis from both trials. (acc.org)
  • The incidence of death/nonfatal MI was approximately 20% lower in patients receiving enoxaparin at all time points, with statistical significance observed after eight days and persisting through later follow-up (at eight days, odds ratio [OR] 0.77, p=0.02, for enoxaparin compared to unfractionated heparin). (acc.org)
  • The absolute difference between groups was 1.2% at eight days (5.3% unfractionated heparin vs. 4.1% enoxaparin), and 1.8% at 43 days (8.6% unfractionated heparin vs. 7.1% enoxaparin). (acc.org)
  • In a pooled analysis of TIMI 11B and ESSENCE, treatment with enoxaparin was associated with an approximately 20% reduction in death/nonfatal MI and no difference in major hemorrhage compared with treatment with unfractionated heparin in patients with unstable angina/non-ST elevation MI, with a significant increase in minor hemorrhage. (acc.org)
  • The ongoing SYNERGY trial will evaluate treatment with enoxaparin compared with unfractionated heparin in patients treated with an early invasive strategy. (acc.org)
  • Indirect thrombin inhibitors: These include unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparins (eg, enoxaparin), as well as synthetic heparin pentasaccharides (eg, fondaparinux) and the new orally administered Factor Xa inhibitors (eg, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban). (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, there was a severe shortage of Enoxaparin sodium on the market due to the significant drop in pricing and the need for Upstream feed Heparin in 2022. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • The mechanism of action of enoxaparin sets it apart from unfractionated heparin (UFH), a different widely used anticoagulant that inhibits both thrombin and Factor Xa. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • What is difference between Heparin and Enoxaparin? (cgn-pharma.de)
  • Although Enoxaparin is derived from Heparin but the primary difference between unfractionated Heparin and Enoxaparin is inhibition of Thrombin (factor-IIa) and factor-Xa. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • Due to its higher bioavailability than heparin, enoxaparin is preferable. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • Use of enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin, and unfractionated heparin for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis after elective hip replacement. (northwestern.edu)
  • Enoxaparin sodium is a biological substance obtained by alkaline depolymerization of heparin benzyl ester derived from porcine intestinal mucosa. (medicines.org.uk)
  • These are drugs like warfarin, heparin, or enoxaparin. (drugs.com)
  • The FDA announced on Friday that it had approved the first generic enoxaparin sodium injection for multiple indications including prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). (jwatch.org)
  • Clexane contains the active ingredients enoxaparin sodium. (myvmc.com)
  • Separation type: Bridge Ion Separation Technology, or BIST™ by SIELC Technologies BIST Ionic Modifier Preparation Enoxaparin sodium is a popular anticoagulant used to treat deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolisms, and heart attacks. (bist.lc)
  • Using SIELC's newly introduced BIST™ method, Enoxaparin sodium, which ionizes in water, can be retained on a negatively-charged, cation-exchange BIST™ A column. (bist.lc)
  • Each prefilled syringe contains enoxaparin sodium 4,000 IU anti-Xa activity (equivalent to 40 mg) in 0.4 mL water for injections. (medicines.org.uk)
  • In patients at moderate risk of thromboembolism, the recommended dose of enoxaparin sodium is 2,000 IU (20 mg) once daily by subcutaneous (SC) injection. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Preoperative initiation (2 hours before surgery) of enoxaparin sodium 2,000 IU (20 mg) was proven effective and safe in moderate risk surgery. (medicines.org.uk)
  • In moderate risk patients, enoxaparin sodium treatment should be maintained for a minimal period of 7-10 days whatever the recovery status (e.g. mobility). (medicines.org.uk)
  • In patients at high risk of thromboembolism, the recommended dose of enoxaparin sodium is 4,000 IU (40 mg) once daily given by SC injection preferably started 12 hours before surgery. (medicines.org.uk)
  • If there is a need for earlier than 12 hours enoxaparin sodium preoperative prophylactic initiation (e.g. high risk patient waiting for a deferred orthopaedic surgery), the last injection should be administered no later than 12 hours prior to surgery and resumed 12 hours after surgery. (medicines.org.uk)
  • The recommended dose of enoxaparin sodium is 4,000 IU (40 mg) once daily by SC injection. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Treatment with enoxaparin sodium is prescribed for at least 6 to 14 days whatever the recovery status (e.g. mobility). (medicines.org.uk)
  • Absorption: Bioavailability (subcutaneous injection) ~ 100% Distribution: Volume of distribution (anti-Factor Xa activity) = 4.3 liters Metabolism: Enoxaparin is metabolized in the liver into low molecular weight species by either or both desulfation and depolymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enoxaparin comes as an injection in a syringe to be injected just under the skin (subcutaneously) but not into your muscle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Eligible participants were randomly assigned in a 1-to-1 ratio to standard high-risk care or standard high-risk care plus enoxaparin 40 mg (4000 IU) by subcutaneous injection daily from recruitment until 36 +0 weeks or delivery, whichever occurred sooner. (nih.gov)
  • What is Enoxaparin Injection? (cgn-pharma.de)
  • On behalf of this article you will be know what does Enoxaparin injection do, Enoxaparin brands , Enoxaparin generic, enoxaparin administration conditions,Enoxaparin buying conditions Enoxaparin mechanism of action, and Enoxaparin clinical trials associated. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • Enoxaparin injection is usually available with a prescription, and its availability and regulations may vary from country to country. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • German pharmaceutical wholesaler CGN Pharma are trying to serve the whole world and can supply Enoxaparin Injection to all over the World if buyers' are verified and had GDP. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • This study consisted of the evaluation of in vivo anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity of biodegradable nanoparticles of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with enoxaparin after subcutaneous injection . (bvsalud.org)
  • The phase three EINSTEIN-PE trial compared rivaroxaban with the standard therapy, comprised of an injection of enoxaparin followed by a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) such as warfarin (Coumadin) to prove that the oral medication is equivalent to the more complicated therapy. (rxwiki.com)
  • In Part 3 volunteers will receive either sevuparin or placebo and enoxaparin by subcutaneous injection om a cross-over fashion. (who.int)
  • Enoxaparin binds to and potentiates antithrombin (a circulating anticoagulant) to form a complex that irreversibly inactivates clotting factor Xa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enoxaparin is an indirect anticoagulant that binds to and amplifies antithrombin III (a serine protease inhibitor), forming a complex that permanently inactivates factor Xa. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • Enoxaparin is an anticoagulant, also known as a 'blood thinner. (qjbchina.com)
  • This inhibition accounts for the anticoagulant effect of enoxaparin. (eaglebio.com)
  • Enoxaparin is an anticoagulant widely used in the treatment and prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). (bvsalud.org)
  • This is a multi-center, prospective, randomized controlled study to compare the proportion of patients that achieve the desired effect of LMWH (enoxaparin) thromboprophylaxis as measured by peak anti Xa level with weight based twice daily dosing versus standard fixed daily dosing. (druglib.com)
  • Efficacy and safety of fondaparinux versus enoxaparin in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors or thienopyridines: results from the OASIS 5 (Fifth Organization to Assess Strategies in Ischemic Syndromes) trial. (qxmd.com)
  • The cost-effectiveness of short-term duration (one week) prophylaxis as well as prolonged prophylaxis (four weeks) with fondaparinux versus enoxaparin are examined. (nhh.no)
  • Although enoxaparin is used to prevent blood clots, pregnancy alone can raise a woman's risk of clotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enoxaparin is used to prevent blood clots in the leg in patients who are on bedrest or who are having hip replacement, knee replacement, or stomach surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Enoxaparin can also be taken at home to prevent blood clots in the legs. (rxwiki.com)
  • Enoxaparin is in a class of medications called low molecular weight heparins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2] A new clinical study is done in 2019 which is double-blind randomized clinical trial on Enoxaparin prophylaxis efficacy. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • This report presents cost-effectiveness analysis of fondaparinux compared with enoxaparin, the most common prophylaxis of VTE. (nhh.no)
  • The models used in the analyses are developed to simulate the impact of prophylaxis with fondaparinux compared with enoxaparin after major orthopaedic surgery. (nhh.no)
  • Patients were eligible for inclusion if prescribed enoxaparin 30 mg subcutaneously every 12 hours for venous thromboembolism chemoprophylaxis based on a Greenfield Risk Assessment Profile score of 5 or more. (dtic.mil)
  • Polymeric Nanoparticles of Enoxaparin as a Delivery System: In Vivo Evaluation in Normal Rats and in a Venous Thrombosis Rat Model. (bvsalud.org)
  • There were virtually no formation of venous thrombosis in any of the rats that received enoxaparin encapsulated in nanoparticles (0.03 mg), with a significant difference when compared to groups that received saline (17.2 mg, P enoxaparin (2.87 mg, P = 0.001). (bvsalud.org)
  • This occurred at a rate of 6.9% in 1914 patients who received subcutaneous placebo for around 10 days plus oral betrixaban (80 mg/day) for 35 to 42 days, and of 8.5% in 1956 who received subcutaneous enoxaparin (40 mg/day) plus oral placebo. (med-chemist.com)
  • Subcutaneous enoxaparin encapsulated in PCL nanoparticles (1000 IU/kg) showed a sustained release in vivo for up to 12 hours (Cmax 0.62 IU/mL) a significantly longer period (P enoxaparin (1000 IU/Kg) that disappeared after 9 hours (Cmax 1.50 IU/mL), however with lower anti-Xa activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • The investigators hypothesize that when enoxaparin is dosed by maternal weight and administered twice daily, the anti-factor Xa level would more frequently achieve prophylactic levels when compared to taking a fixed 40 mg of the drug daily. (druglib.com)
  • The impact of antithrombin III activity AT-III and on prophylactic enoxaparin serum trough anti-factor Xa concentration anti-Xa has not been evaluated. (dtic.mil)
  • The study included 70 cirrhosis patients with a Child-Pugh score of 7-10, aged 18-75 years who received enoxaparin 4000 IU/day for 48 weeks or no treatment. (med-chemist.com)
  • Event rates in this cohort were 5.6% in the 2842 patients given betrixaban versus 7.1% in the 2893 given enoxaparin, equating to a significant relative risk of 0.80 ( p =0.03). (med-chemist.com)
  • And in the overall population, which also included patients with neither elevated ᴅ-dimer nor old age, the rates were 5.3% in the 3112 patients given betrixaban versus 7.0% in the 3174 given enoxaparin, again equating to a significant relative risk of 0.76 ( p =0.006). (med-chemist.com)
  • Enoxaparin has not been FDA approved for use in dialysis patients. (globalrph.com)
  • Extended thromboprophylaxis with the direct factor Xa inhibitor betrixaban just fails to show superiority to standard treatment with enoxaparin in acutely ill medical patients. (med-chemist.com)
  • Enoxaparin (see structure) significantly reduces portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and increases overall survival in patients with advanced cirrhosis, the results of an Italian study show. (med-chemist.com)
  • Patients were followed up for a mean of 58 weeks in the control group and 89 weeks in the enoxaparin group, with ultrasound evaluation of the portal vein system every 3 months. (med-chemist.com)
  • As reported by the authors, patients receiving enoxaparin were 90% less likely to experience PVT than those who did not. (med-chemist.com)
  • Overall, 8.8% of enoxaparin-treated patients developed PVT compared with 27.7% in the control group, and no cases developed in the enoxaparin group within the first 2 years. (med-chemist.com)
  • Physicians are commonly prescribing enoxaparin to treat moderate patients who are hospitalised with breathing problems, a number of doctors engaged in Covid-19 treatment said. (tbsnews.net)
  • Remdisivir, insulin, enoxaparin 6, certiaxone, meropenem and all IV fluids are being used for the ICU patients' treatment," said Dr Asadul Mazid Nomaan, a physician at the ICU department of Mugda General Hospital. (tbsnews.net)
  • Almost all Covid-19 patients in the hospital are receiving oxygen and taking enoxaparin," he added. (tbsnews.net)
  • In addition, the optimal strategy for enoxaparin dose adjustment to attain target anti-Xa trough concentrations is unknown in high-risk trauma patients. (dtic.mil)
  • The objective of this study was to determine if AT-III activity affects enoxaparin anti-Xa target attainment and to evaluate two enoxaparin dose adjustment strategies in patients with low anti-Xa concentrations. (dtic.mil)
  • Intervention group patients were randomized to one of two dose adjustment strategies 1 enoxaparin 40 mg every 12 hours with escalation to 50 mg every 12 hours based on repeat anti-Xa group 1 or 2 enoxaparin 30 mg every 8 hours group 2. (dtic.mil)
  • This study sought to evaluate the relative safety and efficacy of fondaparinux and enoxaparin in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) treated with glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors or thienopyridines. (qxmd.com)
  • Patients with ACS (n = 20,078) were randomized as a part of the OASIS 5 trial to receive either fondaparinux or enoxaparin. (qxmd.com)
  • In patients receiving GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors or thienopyridines, fondaparinux reduces major bleeding and improves net clinical outcome compared with enoxaparin. (qxmd.com)
  • METHODS: In a double-blind study, were randomly assigned 1711 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for fracture of the upper third of the femur to receive subcutaneous doses of either 2.5 mg of fondaparinux once daily, initiated postoperatively, or 40 mg of enoxaparin once daily, initiated preoperatively, for at least five days. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Patients in the standard-arm therapy received one milligram of enoxaparin per kilogram of body weight twice a day. (rxwiki.com)
  • Enoxaparin may be harmful in valve replacement patients. (patientassistance.com)
  • Enoxaparin is a prescription medication used to prevent and treat blood clots. (rxwiki.com)
  • The revision recommends exercising caution regarding when spinal catheters are placed and removed in persons taking enoxaparin for spinal puncture or neuroaxial anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you have epidural or spinal anesthesia or a spinal puncture while taking a 'blood thinner' such as enoxaparin, you are at risk for having a blood clot form in or around your spine that could cause you to become paralyzed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • cefuroxime will increase the level or effect of enoxaparin by anticoagulation. (medscape.com)
  • Enoxaparin is a blood thinner which prevents the excessive formation of blood clots in the body. (sgh.com.sg)
  • Enoxaparin prevents and treats blood clots. (rxwiki.com)
  • 3] Through extensive clinical trials, Enoxaparin has proven its efficacy and safety in various clinical settings, ranging from acute coronary syndromes to extended thromboprophylaxis. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • Coordinated serum AT-III, anti-Xa, and thromboeslastogram samples were drawn 8 hours after the third dose of enoxaparin. (dtic.mil)
  • This prospectively planned meta-analysis was designed to provide more statistically robust estimates of the treatment effects of enoxaparin with regard to efficacy and safety. (acc.org)
  • A meta analysis was done in 2018 on efficacy and safety of Enoxaparin. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • Pharmacist, Anyssa Garza, Pharm.D. overviews the uses and side effects of enoxaparin. (rxwiki.com)
  • Enoxaparin: 30 mg intravenous (IV) bolus followed by 1.0 mg/kg sc every 12 hours while in-hospital and then reduced during outpatient phase with median duration of treatment 4.6 days. (acc.org)
  • The trial compared oral rivaroxaban - 15 mg twice daily for three weeks, followed by 20 mg once daily - with the current standard of care (enoxaparin followed by a Vitamin K Antagonist [VKA]) in subjects with acute symptomatic PE with or without symptomatic DVT . (med-chemist.com)
  • The recommended dosing of enoxaparin for acute VTE in pregnancy is 1 mg/kg every 12 hours. (medscape.com)
  • Enoxaparin: no IV bolus, 1.0 mg/kg sc every 12 hours with median duration of treatment 2.6 days. (acc.org)
  • To guarantee its optimal application and improve patient care, it is imperative that ongoing physician education programs emphasize the significance of early diagnosis, adequate risk stratification, and prompt beginning of Enoxaparin treatment. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • The quantitative determination of enoxaparin levels by the measurement of their anti-IIa activity is a necessary tool for monitoring treatment efficacy. (eaglebio.com)
  • Enoxaparin does not cross the placenta therefore it is unlikely an unborn baby would be exposed to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you are injecting Enoxaparin at home, you will be injecting it under the skin (subcutaneously). (rxwiki.com)
  • Enoxaparin comes in an injectable form to be injected under the skin (subcutaneously) or directly into a vein (IV). (rxwiki.com)
  • We sought to assess the effectiveness of enoxaparin in addition to high-risk care for the prevention of preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy in women with a history of these conditions. (nih.gov)
  • 6 The atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator is available online and in mobile app format at http://my.americanheart.org/cvrisk calculator and at http://www.cardiosource.org/en/Science-And-Quality/Practice-Guidelines-and-Quality-Standards/2013-Prevention-Guideline-Tools.aspx . (aafp.org)
  • The Eagle Bioscience's Enoxaparin Factor lla Assay Kit is intended for the quantitative determination of enoxaparin in purified solutions by measurement of factor IIa inhibition activity. (eaglebio.com)
  • The factor IIa inhibition test is the most useful assay covering the widest variety of enoxaparin preparations. (eaglebio.com)
  • In the assay, the rate of factor IIa inhibition is directly proportional to the enoxaparin concentration since both factor IIa and AT-III are in excess. (eaglebio.com)
  • Over the years, numerous clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Enoxaparin. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • Additional lab tests (anti-Factor Xa blood levels) should be performed in certain cases, especially if you are pregnant and have a prosthetic heart valve, or if lack of effectiveness of enoxaparin is suspected. (patientassistance.com)
  • You may contact with German pharmaceutical wholesaler to supply Enoxaparin. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • Click below button to get Enoxaparin price and learn Enoxaparin availability from European pharmaceutical wholesaler. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • Levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin increased among those who developed preeclampsia, but there was no difference in levels of these antiangiogenic factors (nor any of the other serum analytes measured) among those treated with enoxaparin compared to those receiving standard high-risk care only. (nih.gov)
  • Your doctor may take blood samples to monitor your response to enoxaparin. (rxwiki.com)
  • For some medical conditions, enoxaparin may be used in combination with other 'blood thinners. (qjbchina.com)
  • Enoxaparin is a FDA pregnancy category B drug which means enoxaparin is not expected to cause harm to an unborn baby when used during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some fetal deaths have been reported by women who used enoxaparin during pregnancy, but it is unclear if enoxaparin caused these deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is not a complete list of enoxaparin drug interactions. (rxwiki.com)
  • Enoxaparin is one such drug that has grown and gained prominence. (cgn-pharma.de)
  • If you become pregnant while taking enoxaparin, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This analysis shows that Enoxaparin decrease rates of death and MI compared with other anticoagulants. (cgn-pharma.de)