Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Thyroid Diseases: Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome: An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.Iodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.Hyperthyroidism: Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.Thyroid Function Tests: Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Triiodothyronine, Reverse: A metabolite of THYROXINE, formed by the peripheral enzymatic monodeiodination of T4 at the 5 position of the inner ring of the iodothyronine nucleus.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Propylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)Antithyroid Agents: Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.ThyroglobulinIodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Diiodothyronines: These metabolites of THYROXINE are formed by the deiodination of T3 or reverse T3.Thyronines: A group of metabolites derived from THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE via the peripheral enzymatic removal of iodines from the thyroxine nucleus. Thyronine is the thyroxine nucleus devoid of its four iodine atoms.Methimazole: A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.Goiter: Enlargement of the THYROID GLAND that may increase from about 20 grams to hundreds of grams in human adults. Goiter is observed in individuals with normal thyroid function (euthyroidism), thyroid deficiency (HYPOTHYROIDISM), or hormone overproduction (HYPERTHYROIDISM). Goiter may be congenital or acquired, sporadic or endemic (GOITER, ENDEMIC).Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Retinoid X Receptors: A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.Euthyroid Sick Syndromes: Conditions of abnormal THYROID HORMONES release in patients with apparently normal THYROID GLAND during severe systemic illness, physical TRAUMA, and psychiatric disturbances. It can be caused by the loss of endogenous hypothalamic input or by exogenous drug effects. The most common abnormality results in low T3 THYROID HORMONE with progressive decrease in THYROXINE; (T4) and TSH. Elevated T4 with normal T3 may be seen in diseases in which THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN synthesis and release are increased.Graves Disease: A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Genes, erbA: Genes related to the erbA DNA sequence that was first isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN), v-erbA. In cells, erbA genes encode thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA genes have been identified: erbA-alpha located at 17q21; and erbA-beta located at 3p24. Truncations at the N- and C-terminals of erbA result in products resembling v-erbA. Truncations affect hormone responsiveness but not DNA binding capacity.Congenital Hypothyroidism: A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.Thyroiditis, Autoimmune: Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Thyrotropin, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin. It is a 112-amino acid glycopolypeptide of about 16 kD. Full biological activity of TSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Thyroiditis: Inflammatory diseases of the THYROID GLAND. Thyroiditis can be classified into acute (THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE), subacute (granulomatous and lymphocytic), chronic fibrous (Riedel's), chronic lymphocytic (HASHIMOTO DISEASE), transient (POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS), and other AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS subtypes.Receptors, Thyrotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Oncogene Proteins v-erbA: Transforming proteins encoded by erbA oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. They are truncated versions of c-erbA, the thyroid hormone receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE) that have retained both the DNA-binding and hormone-binding domains. Mutations in the hormone-binding domains abolish the transcriptional activation function. v-erbA acts as a dominant repressor of c-erbA, inducing transformation by disinhibiting proliferation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thyrotoxicosis: A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 1: A nuclear protein that regulates the expression of genes involved in a diverse array of processes related to metabolism and reproduction. The protein contains three nuclear receptor interaction domains and three repressor domains and is closely-related in structure to NUCLEAR RECEPTOR CO-REPRESSOR 2.Thyroxine-Binding Proteins: Blood proteins that bind to THYROID HORMONES such as THYROXINE and transport them throughout the circulatory system.Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Goiter, Nodular: An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Methylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent that inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormone. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.Thyroid Crisis: A dangerous life-threatening hypermetabolic condition characterized by high FEVER and dysfunction of the cardiovascular, the nervous, and the gastrointestinal systems.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2: A nuclear co-repressor protein that shows specificity for RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. The dissociation of this co-repressor from nuclear receptors is generally ligand-dependent, but can also occur by way of its phosphorylation by members of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. The protein contains two nuclear receptor interaction domains and four repressor domains and is closely-related in structure to NUCLEAR RECEPTOR CO-REPRESSOR 1.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hashimoto Disease: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, characterized by the presence of high serum thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES; GOITER; and HYPOTHYROIDISM.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Iopanoic Acid: Radiopaque medium used as diagnostic aid.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Thyroxine-Binding Globulin: A thyroid hormone transport protein found in serum. It binds about 75% of circulating THYROXINE and 70% of circulating TRIIODOTHYRONINE.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Prealbumin: A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating: Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers: Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.Diiodotyrosine: A product from the iodination of MONOIODOTYROSINE. In the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, diiodotyrosine residues are coupled with other monoiodotyrosine or diiodotyrosine residues to form T4 or T3 thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Sodium Iodide: A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Myxedema: A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Potassium Iodide: An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1: A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in the transcriptional activation of chromatin regions.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Long-Acting Thyroid Stimulator: An immunoglobulin G, often found in the blood of hyperthyroid individuals. It stimulates the thyroid for a longer duration than does thyrotoxin and may cause hyperthyroidism in newborns due to placental transmission.Thyrotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Monoiodotyrosine: A product from the iodination of tyrosine. In the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE), tyrosine is first iodized to monoiodotyrosine.Thyroiditis, Subacute: Spontaneously remitting inflammatory condition of the THYROID GLAND, characterized by FEVER; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; SORE THROAT; severe thyroid PAIN; and an enlarged damaged gland containing GIANT CELLS. The disease frequently follows a viral infection.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Iodine Isotopes: Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Amiodarone: An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.Carbimazole: An imidazole antithyroid agent. Carbimazole is metabolized to METHIMAZOLE, which is responsible for the antithyroid activity.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret: Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2: A transcription factor that partners with ligand bound GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS and ESTROGEN RECEPTORS to stimulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. It plays an important role in FERTILITY as well as in METABOLISM of LIPIDS.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
Thyroid hormones and antithyroid medicines[edit]. *Levothyroxine. *Potassium iodide. *Methimazole[note 75] ...
Thyroid hormones[edit]. In general, increased levels of the thyroid hormones (thyroxine(T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)), ... These include hormones, notably epinephrine, norepinephrine, and thyroid hormones; levels of various ions including calcium, ... The impact of thyroid hormones is typically of a much longer duration than that of the catecholamines. The physiologically ... Most involve stimulant-like endorphins and hormones being released in the brain, many of which are those that are 'forced'/' ...
Thyroid hormone axis. Bisphenol A affects gene expression related to the thyroid hormone axis, which affects biological ... BRA imitates the female's hormone called estrogen. PBD destroys and causes damage to thyroid hormones, which are vital hormone ... This then decreases the level of thyroid hormone binding proteins that bind to triiodothyronine. By affecting the thyroid ... Sex hormones. BPA can disrupt normal, physiological levels of sex hormones. It does this by binding to globulins that normally ...
Thyroid-stimulating hormone Thyrotropin TSH Glycoprotein Thyrotrophs Basophil Thyroid gland Secretion of thyroid hormones ... Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary are trophic hormones (Greek: trophe, "nourishment") and tropic hormones. Trophic ... and growth hormone (GH) and can stimulate the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Prostaglandins are now known to ... Hormone Other names Symbol(s) Structure Secretory cells Staining Target Effect Adrenocorticotropic hormone Corticotropin ACTH ...
Wu SY, Green WL, Huang WS, Hays MT, Chopra IJ (2005). "Alternate Pathways of Thyroid Hormone Metabolism". Thyroid. 15 (8): 943- ... "3-Iodothyronamine is an endogenous and rapid-acting derivative of thyroid hormone". Nat. Med. 10 (6): 638-42. doi:10.1038/ ... "New compound may act to keep thyroid activity in check". Retrieved 2008-05-30.. ...
Mikael Häggström is a Doctor of Medicine, and the creator of WikiJournal of Medicine, as well as Radlines. He was born in Gothenburg, Sweden, and is a grandchild of Estonian historian Karin Aasma. He grew up in Uddevalla on the Swedish west coast. He decided to become a doctor while backpacking for half a year in 2005, taking the Trans-Siberian train to China and crossing the Himalayas from Tibet to Nepal. He graduated from Uppsala University, Faculty of Medicine in 2013. He did his internship in Sundsvall, and has worked 1.5 years as a physician in obstetrics and gynecology and 3 years in radiology. He is currently doing specialist training in pathology at the NU Hospital Group, Sweden. He has contributed to Wikipedia since 2006, including a multitude of medical images. He is the creator and current editor-in-chief of WikiJournal of Medicine, a new Wikipedia-integrated, peer-reviewed, open-access academic journal.[1] He is also the creator of Radlines and Patholines, containing open access ...
Thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid regulates the function of metabolism. Low levels can lead to weight loss, while high ...
Inactivation of thyroid hormones occurs by removal of an iodine atom on the inner ring, which converts thyroxine to the ... "Thyroid hormone action starts and ends by deiodination". Bianco Lab & The University of Miami. Retrieved 2011-05-08. Valverde C ... In most vertebrates, there are three types of enzymes that can deiodinate thyroid hormones: Deiodinase 1 both activates T4 to ... Like during fetal development, thyroid hormone levels are low in the overloaded heart tissue in a local hypothyroid state, with ...
... the anterior pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4.. •The hypothalamic- ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); ... Vasopressin can be thought of as "water conservation hormone" and is also known as "antidiuretic hormone." It is released when ... Schematic of the HPA axis (CRH, corticotropin-releasing hormone; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone). ...
Thyroid hormone axisEdit. Bisphenol A affects gene expression related to the thyroid hormone axis, which affects biological ... This then decreases the level of thyroid hormone binding proteins that bind to triiodothyronine. By affecting the thyroid ... Sex hormonesEdit. BPA can disrupt normal, physiological levels of sex hormones. It does this by binding to globulins that ... BPA can decrease thyroid hormone receptor (TR) activity by increasing TR transcriptional corepressor activity. ...
Instead, Holtorf advocates labs and diagnostics which look at all thyroid hormone levels, with a particular emphasis on free T3 ... Holtorf condones treating hypothyroidism with compounded combinations of bioidentical thyroid hormones. Chronic Fatigue ... Kent Holtorf Shares Thoughts About The Best Way to Treat an Underactive Thyroid and Hypothyroidism". Thyroid.about.com. 2010-12 ... Holtorf, K (2009). "The bioidentical hormone debate: Are bioidentical hormones (estradiol, estriol, and progesterone) safer or ...
An antithyroid agent is a hormone antagonist acting upon thyroid hormones. The main antithyroid drugs are carbimazole (in the ... Competitive antagonists of thyroid stimulating hormone receptors are currently being investigated as a possible treatment for ... These two markers are an elevated level of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab) and smoking. A positive ... report of a meeting jointly sponsored by the American Thyroid Association and the Food and Drug Administration". Thyroid. 19 (7 ...
Inhibit the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). *Somatostatin suppresses the release of gastrointestinal hormones ... Inhibit the release of growth hormone thus opposing the effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) ... Increased levels of somatostatin inhibit pancreatic hormones and gastrointestinal hormones. Thus somatostatinomas are ...
Hormone Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Enzyme Various, e.g., alkaline phosphatase, ... gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone a follicle-stimulating hormone). *glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, an integrin found on platelets that ... Various proteins involved in cell-cell (e.g., sperm-oocyte), virus-cell, bacterium-cell, and hormone-cell interactions ...
Besides its role in lens biology, CRYM seems also to be involved in thyroid hormone signalling in other tissues. It could be ... Oshima A, Suzuki S, Takumi Y, Hashizume K, Abe S, Usami S (June 2006). "CRYM mutations cause deafness through thyroid hormone ... Mu-crystallin homolog also known as NADP-regulated thyroid-hormone-binding protein (THBP) is a protein that in humans is ... The encoded protein does not perform a structural role in lens tissue, and instead it binds thyroid hormone for possible ...
Selenium also plays a role in the functioning of the thyroid gland. It participates as a cofactor for the three thyroid hormone ... These enzymes activate and then deactivate various thyroid hormones and their metabolites. It may inhibit Hashimotos's disease ... an auto-immune disease in which the body's own thyroid cells are attacked by the immune system. A reduction of 21% on TPO ...
... is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4).[1][4] It is used to treat thyroid hormone deficiency including ... While a minimal amount of thyroid hormones are found in breast milk, the amount does not influence infant plasma thyroid levels ... used as interventional therapy in people with nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer to suppress thyroid-stimulating hormone ... who often require lifelong thyroid hormone therapy.[11] It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid- ...
These vesicles are then exocytosed, releasing the thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland also produces small amounts of T3 ... a feedback control system stabilizes the amount of thyroid hormones that are in the bloodstream. T3 is the true hormone. Its ... "Physiologic Effects of Thyroid Hormones". Colorado State University. Retrieved 2013-09-29. "How Your Thyroid Works - "A ... Of the thyroid hormone that is produced, just about 20% is T3, whereas 80% is produced as T4. Roughly 85% of the circulating T3 ...
Required for synthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine and to prevent goiter: *Iodine in biology ... Nickel deficiency depressed growth in goats, pigs, and sheep, and diminished circulating thyroid hormone concentration in rats. ... The figure includes the relative values of other constituents of blood such as hormones. In the figure, minerals are color ...
Palha JA, Goodman AB (June 2006). "Thyroid hormones and retinoids: a possible link between genes and environment in ... the hormone regulatory centre of the brain and part of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, a key part of the body's stress ...
Thyroid peroxidase is the enzyme catalyzing the biosynthesis of the important thyroid hormones. Because lactoperoxidase ... and thyroid peroxidase. The addition of peroxide with the glutamyl-375 and aspartyl-225 of lactoperoxidase forms ester bonds ... Similar ester bonds with these two methyl groups are thought to form in eosinophil and thyroid peroxidases. Heme l is one ...
Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the thyroid in humans. Calcitonin decreases osteoclast activity, and decreases the ... Indirect effects of alcohol abuse occur via growth hormone, sex steroids, and oxidative stress. Growth hormone is an important ... Low levels of calcium stimulates the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from chief cells of the parathyroid gland. In ... Bisphosphonates, RANKL inhibitors, SERMs-selective oestrogen receptor modulators, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin ...
... due to mutations in luteinizing hormone receptors) and hyperthyroidism (due to mutations in thyroid-stimulating hormone ... Steroid and thyroid-hormone receptors are examples of such receptors.[5]. Membrane receptors may be isolated from cell ... Cells can increase (upregulate) or decrease (downregulate) the number of receptors to a given hormone or neurotransmitter to ... Often, it is hard to determine whether the receptor is nonfunctional or the hormone is produced at decreased level; this gives ...
Thyroid hormone treatment of depression. Thyroid. 5(3):235-239, 1995. *↑ Kirkegaard, C., et al. The role of thyroid hormones in ... Thyroid hormone treatment of primary unipolar depression: a review. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 3:143-147 ... Does thyroid supplementation accelerate tricyclic antidepressant response? A review and meta-analysis of the literature. Am J ... Protocol: Male hormone modulation - a hormonal attack on aging. Life Extension. November 1999. ...
"Molecular aspects of thyroid hormone actions". Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer ...
"The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
... and neonatal thyroid hormone levels",. abstract = "Background: Developing infants may be especially sensitive to hormone ... and neonatal thyroid hormone levels. Julie B. Herbstman, Andreas Sjödin, Benjamin J. Apelberg, Frank R. Witter, Rolf U. Haiden ... and neonatal thyroid hormone levels. / Herbstman, Julie B.; Sjödin, Andreas; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Witter, Frank R.; Haiden, ... and neonatal thyroid hormone levels. In: Environmental health perspectives. 2008 ; Vol. 116, No. 10. pp. 1376-1382. ...
Serum thyroid hormones increased on day 3 following embolization but decreased gradually. Thyroid hormone returned to normal 2 ... It refers to the production of excess thyroid hormones by an overactive thyroid gland. Graves disease, which is an autoimmune ... Information on Graves disease and thyroid storm; Effects of increased levels of thyroid hormones on physiological mechanisms; ... Thyroid;Aug2011, Vol. 21 Issue 8, p879 Background: Increasing evidence suggests that thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) and 3, ...
Your thyroid gland produces T3 and T4, which are hormones that help regulate body functions. Most of the T3 and T4 in your body ... which occurs when your thyroid doesnt produce enough thyroid hormone. ... Your doctor may order a serum TBG level test to assess thyroid issues. It can help your doctor diagnose various thyroid ... acute illness because your bodys production of thyroid hormones decreases when youre sick ...
They can interfere with the production of thyroid hormone.. * Consult your doctor for guidance. ... These vegetables contain compounds that may interfere with iodine uptake in the thyroid gland. ... Other vegetables to avoid that may interfere with iodine transport in the thyroid include: ... These vegetables contain compounds that may interfere with iodine uptake in the thyroid gland. ...
Physiologic Effects of Thyroid Hormones. It is likely that all cells in the body are targets for thyroid hormones. While not ... Thyroid Hormone Receptors and Mechanism of Action. Receptors for thyroid hormones are intracellular DNA-binding proteins that ... A few examples of specific metabolic effects of thyroid hormones include: *Lipid metabolism: Increased thyroid hormone levels ... A few additional, well-documented effects of thyroid hormones include: *Cardiovascular system: Thyroid hormones increases heart ...
Thyroid hormone receptor. The thyroid hormones function via a well-studied set of nuclear receptors, termed the thyroid hormone ... If there is a deficiency of dietary iodine, the thyroid will not be able to make thyroid hormone. The lack of thyroid hormone ... Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). ... Thyroid Hormone Treatment Brochure by the American Thyroid Association. *Elaborate article about the use of thyroid drugs ...
Definition Thyroid hormones are artificially made hormones that make up for a lack of natural hormones produced by the thyroid ... gland [1]. Purpose The thyroid gland [2], a butterfly-shaped structure in the lower part of the neck, normally produces a ... Thyroid Hormones. Definition. Thyroid hormones are artificially made hormones that make up for a lack of natural hormones ... Thyroid hormones also may be used to treat goiter (enlarged thyroid gland) and certain types of thyroid cancer. ...
... the thyroid gland, and other hormonal conditions. Find out what causes thyroid-related depression and how its treated. ... What Other Hormone-Related Conditions Are Associated With Depression? The thyroid gland produces and regulates thyroid hormones ... Thyroid gland hormones can affect food metabolism, mood, and sexual function. When the thyroid produces too much hormone, the ... What Do Hormones Have to Do With Depression?. Levels of certain hormones, such as those produced by the thyroid gland, can be ...
The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4), but other tissues deiodinate this to the more potent hormone, tri- ... Thus, AMPK seems to be well placed to directly regulate the sympathetic nervous system in response to thyroid hormones and ... Vidal-Puig and colleagues 1 now provide evidence that increases in metabolic rate induced by thyroid hormones involve ... Although understanding of how thyroid hormones increase metabolic rate at the molecular level has been elusive, a recent paper ...
Hormone - Hormones of the thyroid gland: The two thyroid hormones, thyroxine (3,5,3′,5′-tetraiodothyronine) and 3,5,3′- ... Although the possibility that the thyroid hormones originated as metabolic by-products is suggested by the widespread ... This arrangement, which provides a reserve of thyroid hormones, perhaps reflects the frequent scarcity of environmental iodine ... Thyroglobulin is stored within the gland in follicles as the main component of a substance called the thyroid colloid. ...
These hormones help to regulate the metabolism, growth and maturation of the human body and their production is regulated by ... The concentration of thyroid hormones in the blood is normally constant, but too much or too little thyroid hormone causes ... If the amount of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 is too high or too low, there is an imbalance between the thyroid hormones needed ... which produces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This triggers the production of thyroid hormones and affects the size of the ...
This exogenous source of thyroid hormones was capable of causing clinical signs and abnormal thyroid hormone panel results in ... thyroid hormone and iodine species in the canned dog foods confirmed that the food was an exogenous source of thyroid hormones ... remnant thyroid tissue could be a source of thyroid hormones.. 1 Hedberg, eW, An outbreak of thyrotoxicosis caused by the ... Results showed elevated thyroid hormone in the blood. Dietary history interviews conducted by the reference lab indicated that ...
T. Otto and J. Fandrey, "Thyroid hormone induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1α gene expression through thyroid hormone receptor β ... N. Shibusawa, K. Hashimoto, A. A. Nikrodhanond et al., "Thyroid hormone action in the absence of thyroid hormone receptor DNA- ... L. C. Moeller and D. Führer, "Thyroid hormone, thyroid hormone receptors, and cancer: a clinical perspective," Endocrine- ... "Plasma membrane transport of thyroid hormones and its role in thyroid hormone metabolism and bioavailability," Endocrine ...
As a result, some countries now promote a TSH-first strategy for diagnosing thyroid dysfunction in ambulatory patients ( ...
Resistance to thyroid hormone due to a novel mutation of thyroid hormone receptor beta gene. Lee JH et al. Ann Pediatr ... Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone caused by a novel mutation (H435A) in the thyroid hormone receptor beta: A case report. ... Human Genetics of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Beta: Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Beta (RTHβ). ... Role of leucine 341 in thyroid hormone receptor β revealed by a novel mutation causing thyroid hormone resistance. ...
Doctors may order TSH blood tests to diagnose and monitor treatment of a thyroid disorder or evaluate pituitary gland ... A thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) test is a common blood test used to evaluate how well the thyroid gland is working. The ... If the thyroid gland is producing too much thyroid hormone (a condition called hyperthyroidism), the pituitary gland produces ... When the thyroid gland isnt producing enough thyroid hormone (a condition called hypothyroidism), the pituitary gland produces ...
hi my T3 and T4 level are normal but TSH is 18.0 plz tell me from which type of thyroid either hyperthyroidism OR ... Generally, a thyroid function panel is ordered when there is suspicion of a problem with thyroid function. ... This Regarding thyroid page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript enabled in your browser.. Toggle navigation ... Your physician, who ordered the blood test to check the function of your thyroid gland, is the person to make the diagnosis. ...
... is either of the tyrosine-based hormones, thyroxine or triiodothyronine, which are secreted by the thyroid ... thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone is either of the tyrosine-based hormones, thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3), which are ... v When the level of thyroid hormones in the blood drops too low, the pituitary gland produces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH ... which causes the thyroid gland to produce more hormones. Under the influence of TSH, the thyroid manufactures and secretes more ...
My main issue is balancing my thyroid levels which I feel arent right because Im having a lot of trouble with cramping and ... I have had my thyroid removed some years ago , heart bypass x 4, and prostatectomy before that. Earlier I had chronic fatigue, ...
Receptors for thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid hormones in human ovarian tissue. Reprod. Biomed. Online 18, 337-347 ( ... Thyroid hormone receptors and resistance to thyroid hormone disorders. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 10, 582-591 (2014).. ... In humans, thyroid disorders are associated with more severe forms of endometriosis. Thus, thyroid function and thyroid hormone ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor and thyroid hormone receptors are involved in human endometrial physiology. Fertil. Steril ...
YOUR QUESTIONS ANSWERED:THYROID AND HORMONES. What Doctors Dont Tell You2 min read ... one of the thyroid hormones, which could have affected you and therefore your children.. Although its impossible to say ... I made a point of telling all the specialists we saw about the fact the hormone was used, but they were not interested.. I ... I did not use Primolut then, but he had a thyroid problem also.. I have had endless problems with both boys, and have never ...
... physiology and pathology of thyroid diseases, with a specific focus on thyroid cancer. ... Journal of Thyroid Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles ... Anjali Amin, Waljit S. Dhillo, and Kevin G. Murphy, "The Central Effects of Thyroid Hormones on Appetite," Journal of Thyroid ... The Central Effects of Thyroid Hormones on Appetite. Anjali Amin, Waljit S. Dhillo, and Kevin G. Murphy ...
Find over 22 Thyroid Hormone Problems and Women groups with 2262 members near you and meet people in your local community who ...
... describes any process that interferes with the effectiveness of thyroid hormone and includes defects in thyroid hormone action ... previously known as reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone) ... Thyroid hormone cell transporter defect. *Thyroid hormone cell ... Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone associated with a mutation in the ligand-binding domain of the human thyroid hormone ... Resistance to thyroid hormone caused by two mutant thyroid hormone receptors beta, R243Q and R243W, with marked impairment of ...
Find thyroid and hormone issues information, treatments for thyroid and hormone issues and thyroid and hormone issues symptoms. ... MedHelps thyroid and hormone issues Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for thyroid and hormone ... Posts on thyroid and hormone issues. Thyroid levels and hormone issues - Thyroid Disorders Community ... Hi, I am 23 week pregnant with thyroid problems and try to be in no salt diet since early ... ...
  • New scrutiny of thyroid hormones and their interaction with HGH has come amid the confusing reports on the health status of Mets shortstop Jose Reyes , who either has an overactive thyroid (as the Mets claim) or is perfectly fine (as Reyes himself claimed on Tuesday). (nydailynews.com)
  • By way of analogy, the action of thyroid hormones is akin to blowing on a smouldering fire. (colostate.edu)
  • Various suggestions have been made as to how peripheral action of thyroid hormones might activate energy expenditure, including futile cycling of Na + across the plasma membrane, or of Ca 2+ between the cytoplasm and the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle 2 . (nature.com)
  • Mondal S, Raja K, Schweizer U, Mugesh G. Chemistry and Biology in the Biosynthesis and Action of Thyroid Hormones. (doccheck.com)
  • RTH was first identified in 1967 as a syndrome of reduced end-organ responsiveness to thyroid hormone [ 5 ] and was subsequently associated with mutations in the gene encoding the beta form of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR-beta) [ 1,6,7 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Evidence suggests that only the vertebrates and the closely related protochordates have a mechanism to synthesize significant amounts of biologically active thyroid hormones. (britannica.com)
  • Dr. Bjorn Vennstrom and colleagues in Spain and at the Karolinska Institute (Sweden) have identified novel neural functions of thyroid hormone (TH), revealing that it is required during discrete periods of brain development to confer "normal" behavior. (eurekalert.org)
  • The scientists used transgenic mice heterozygous for a mutant form of the thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 that has about a ten-fold reduced affinity for its natural ligand, TH. (eurekalert.org)