EnglandRisk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)WalesNew England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Great BritainAnimal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.United StatesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Toxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Consumer Product SafetyObserver Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.ScotlandWater Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.EuropeCrops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.LondonGovernment Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Animals, LaboratoryUncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Endpoint Determination: Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.MiningResidence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Obstetric Nursing: A nursing specialty involving nursing care given to the pregnant patient before, after, or during childbirth.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
  • This article takes a different approach, and examines England and Wales' main counter-terrorism relevant risk and vulnerability assessment tools: the Extremism Risk Guidance (ERG22+) and the Vulnerability Assessment Framework (VAF), concentrating on their shared 22 risk indicators and their uses in counter-terrorism. (nupi.no)
  • The article hence clarifies the ideas of 'radicalisation' underpinning counter- terrorism policies in England and Wales, and considers the operational utility of the tools' present uses. (nupi.no)
  • In recent years, through the availability of remotely sensed data and other national datasets, it has become possible to conduct national-scale flood risk assessment in England and Wales. (repec.org)
  • The national-scale risk assessment methodology outlined in this paper makes use of information on the location, standard of protection and condition of flood defences in England and Wales, together with datasets of floodplain extent, topography, occupancy and asset values. (repec.org)
  • The flood risk assessment was applied to all of England and Wales in 2002 at which point the expected annual damage from flooding was estimated to be approximately £1 billion. (repec.org)
  • Chapter 3 reports a study of how parole decisions related to three widely-used risk assessment instruments (the PCL-R, the HCR-20, and the SVR-20), and recommendations of professionals (psychologists and probation officers) on 100 life sentence prisoners in England and Wales, 84 of whom were eligible for parole. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Chapter 5 discusses the findings, concluding that the present system of risk assessment for parole in England and Wales is not evidence-based and that as a result many low-risk prisoners are likely to undergo prolonged detention unnecessarily. (bham.ac.uk)
  • The results of a questionnaire- and interview-based study involving 151 Local Authority Contaminated Land Officers from England and Wales indicate that bioaccessibility is perceived as a useful tool that facilitates contaminated land management (70% of survey participants either strongly agreed or agreed with the statement). (eugris.info)
  • McCarthy, Simon and Viavattene, Christophe and Sheehan, John and Green, C. (2018) Compensatory approaches and engagement techniques to gain flood storage in England and Wales. (mdx.ac.uk)
  • Suicide in children and adolescents in England and Wales 1970-1998. (bmj.com)
  • Registered in England and Wales. (dovepress.com)
  • Building regulations that apply across England and Wales are set out in the Building Act 1984 while those that apply across Scotland are set out in the Building (Scotland) Act 2003 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Act in England and Wales permits detailed regulations to be made by the Secretary of State. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UK Government (at Westminster) is responsible for the relevant legislation and administration in England, the Welsh Government (at Cardiff) is the responsible body in Wales, the Scottish Government (at Edinburgh) is responsible for the issue in Scotland, and the Northern Ireland Executive (at Belfast) has responsibility within its jurisdiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Company Incorporated by Royal Charter (England/Wales). (csp.org.uk)
  • 17. High Secure Care for Deaf People in England and Wales ( Manjit Gahir ). (wiley.com)
  • 4,500 new cases reported in cattle herds each year during 2014-2018 ( 3 ), M. bovis remains a major issue for animal health in large parts of England and Wales. (cdc.gov)
  • This created Commissioners of Sewers in the main areas of England and Wales which had significant areas of marshland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tenants in Maida Vale's Scottish Towers were furious to discover the CityWest Homes estate's most recent fire risk assessments detail a litany of "high and medium priority" issues that, almost a year later, have not been dealt with. (hamhigh.co.uk)
  • A Westminster City Council spokesman said: "Our main priority is the safety of our residents - fire risk assessments have been completed and the blocks have been audited by London Fire Brigade in the last 12 months to assure residents are safe in their homes. (hamhigh.co.uk)
  • From fire doors that do not shut correctly to the lack of adequate escape routes from some flats in the buildings, the reports - from November 2017 - paint a worrying picture that tenants think puts the buildings, and their lives, at risk. (hamhigh.co.uk)
  • The UK Climate Change Risk Assessment 2017 evidence report, prepared for the UK Government by the the Committee on Climate Change, identifies where more effort is necessary, and urgent, to address the risks of climate change. (politics.co.uk)
  • To provide population-based estimates of use surrounding pregnancy, identify reasons for and mode of use, and understand characteristics of women who continue versus cease marijuana use during pregnancy, CDC analyzed data from eight states participating in the 2017 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) marijuana supplement. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 3.7 million inpatients were admitted in quarter three of 2017-18, with 200,000 not being risk assessed for VTE. (hsj.co.uk)
  • HSJ 's analysis of monthly performance data for more than 150 hospitals from January 2016 to December 2017 period shows the NHS dipped below the target that 95 per cent of all inpatients should be assessed for their risk of VTE on at least three occasions in 2017. (hsj.co.uk)
  • Risk Reduction and Arson Prevention. (eventbrite.co.uk)
  • How does the UK's counter-terrorism strategy play out in in real-life, and what's the (potential) role of risk assessments in the prevention of terrorism? (nupi.no)
  • However, the secondary choices for optimizing cholesterol-lowering therapy, constituting part of the "C" component of the "ABCDEs" of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, should not overshadow the importance of the rest of the ABCDEs: assessment of risk, antiplatelet therapy, blood-pressure management, cholesterol modification and cigarette-smoking cessation, dietary and weight modification, and exercise habits. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • We updated the evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults for 2012. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To show how epidemiological data can be presented and analysed in frequency based and risk based formats and how risk based information can simplify management decisions on injury prevention strategies in professional football. (bmj.com)
  • All stakeholders within professional football were shown to have an important contribution to make in reducing the overall level of risk to players through the provision of risk prevention strategies. (bmj.com)
  • 7 Improved understanding of who is at risk of suicide and the development of interventions to reduce suicide in key high risk groups are priority targets of national research agendas and government suicide prevention strategies. (bmj.com)
  • Several reviews have examined the prevention and epidemiology of suicide, as well as the risk factors. (bmj.com)
  • Using deliberate self harm as a marker of suicidal risk will lead to a misdirection of limited suicide prevention resources towards less appropriate populations. (bmj.com)
  • Multi-disciplinary professionals with specialist knowledge of working with deaf people explore aspects of mild to severe challenging behaviour with reference to its cause, assessment, prevention and management. (wiley.com)
  • Assessing the risk of such failures is essential with respect to incident and accident prevention. (ebsaweb.eu)
  • It concludes by stressing that any benefit associated with risk and vulnerability assessment tools in the counter-terrorism space would seem conditioned on them being reserved for the uses, target groups and assessors they were originally created for, and on them being used as only one component of a broad, contextual assessment of individuals about whom there is an evidence-based terrorism-related concern. (nupi.no)
  • In order to advance disaster management and disaster risk reduction across the region, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is engaged in a project to develop a set of regional risk and vulnerability assessment (RVA) guidelines. (pdc.org)
  • Minor risks, such as exposure to coughs and colds are not counted as a hazard. (citizensadvice.org.uk)
  • Human exposure assessment. (who.int)
  • 4.2.3 Total exposure assessment. (who.int)
  • In order to assess the health risk derived from the exposure to these pollutants in children during the first year of life, data concerning infant formulae contamination has been also considered. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In order to reduce As exposure in rural populations that rely on private wells for drinking water, risk assessment, which includes estimation of population at risk of exposure to As above the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level, is helpful but insufficient because it does not identify individual households at risk. (usgs.gov)
  • The committee took issue with EPA's decision to rely solely on a "linear" model that assumes the risk of cancer is directly proportional to dose at all levels of exposure, including the levels found in the environment, which are generally much lower than those shown to cause cancer in animals. (nationalacademies.org)
  • EPA said there was a lack of data to support a nonlinear approach, but the committee said that compelling new animal data from the National Toxicology Program -- released after EPA completed its reassessment -- when combined with substantial evidence that dioxin does not directly damage DNA, is now adequate to justify the use of nonlinear methods for estimating cancer risk at relatively low levels of exposure. (nationalacademies.org)
  • The risk-weighting is designed to calculate a bank's real world exposure to potential losses. (pinsentmasons.com)
  • A clear view on what the risks are to these regulatory outcomes and our exposure to them. (sra.org.uk)
  • The European Food Safety Authority conducted a review of the scientific literature and risk assessment on aspartame and its breakdown products, finding them safe for human consumption at current levels of exposure. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • A thorough risk assessment includes identification of hazards, frequency of exposure, probability of injury, severity of injury and methods for reducing risk. (ehstoday.com)
  • Machinery hazards can be identified, assessed, and mitigated to limit exposure to risk. (ehstoday.com)
  • Repeated exposure to radiation from medical X rays or other sources also may increase a person's risk of developing genetic mutations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the United Kingdom, Mycobacterium bovis infection in humans is relatively rare ( 1 ), and most cases involve previous exposure to well-recognized risk factors, such as unpasteurized milk ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The masterclass will provide attendees with the necessary exposure to approach the elements of benefit-risk analysis for the new PSUR in their company for new and old drugs, and approaches to evaluate the positive and negative effects of risk minimisation measures. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • The team noted that the Scottish programme of risk-based testing had led to the reduction in the number of tests there meaning that testing not only works but is cost-effective. (eurekalert.org)
  • In patients with cardiovascular disease or multiple CVD risk factors, the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but not nocturnal supplemental oxygen, resulted in a significant reduction in blood pressure. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Over the past decade, federal agencies have bolstered their efforts to identify and minimize threats using traditional risk-based approaches such as continuity of operations and disaster risk reduction processes. (springer.com)
  • Having the ability to risk profile your drivers puts you in a position to decide which would benefit from further training or corrective education, therefore leading to risk reduction, safer drivers and fewer accidents. (fta.co.uk)
  • Across England there has been a decline in the percentage of patients being assessed for their risk of developing a venous thromboembolism, or blood clot, which left untreated can travel to the lungs or brain and leave patients disabled or cause death. (hsj.co.uk)
  • Clinical Risk Assessment and Management provides background and information to mental health professionals working in forensic settings on release decision making, with a particular focus on violent offenders. (worldcat.org)
  • Effect of a genomic classifier test on clinical practice decisions for patients with high-risk prostate cancer after surgery. (springer.com)
  • Development and clinical validation of an in situ biopsy-based multimarker assay for risk stratification in prostate cancer. (springer.com)
  • Developed with focus groups of clinical and front line staff in four hospitals across the east of England, the campaign features a distinctive look to make a very clear and simple message. (nice.org.uk)
  • The overall aim of the study was to investigate barriers to online professional information seeking, use and sharing occurring within the NHS in England, their possible effects (upon education, working practices, working lives and clinical and organisational effectiveness), and possible explanatory or causative factors. (rclis.org)
  • All patients, on admission, receive an assessment of VTE and bleeding risk using the clinical risk assessment criteria described in the national tool. (nice.org.uk)
  • NHS Resolution has also highlighted the risk of VTE clinical negligence claims with more than 123 cases between 2008 and 2014 costing the NHS more than £10m in legal costs and compensation. (hsj.co.uk)
  • This review summarizes the current science in suicide risk assessment and provides an overview of the interventions shown to reduce the risk of suicide, with a focus on the clinical management of people with mental disorders. (bmj.com)
  • 9 10 11 12 This review will complement these by examining two facets of the clinical care of people at risk of suicide-the assessment of suicide risk and interventions that can reduce that risk. (bmj.com)
  • We will begin by describing the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior in clinical populations, highlighting specific patient subgroups that are at higher risk. (bmj.com)
  • For clinical staff, those classed as 'high-risk' should do restricted tasks such as remote patient consultations and paperwork, according to the chart. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • High risk' non-clinical staff should have 'no direct patient contact' and work from home where possible, while those with a 'mild risk' should 'continue working as normal' under the infection control guidelines. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • This event will see these and other aspects of breast cancer discussed in relation to risk, from contrasting perspectives, by a panel of experts. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Across the public forest estates, the adoption of adaptive forest management is under active consideration, e.g. in England through implementation of a Climate Change Action Plan . (forestry.gov.uk)
  • The results of this type of risk analysis can be used to inform policy-making and prioritisation of resources for flood management. (repec.org)
  • The analysis predicts increasing flood risk unless current flood management policies, practices and investment levels are changed - up to 20-fold increase in real terms economic risk by the 2080s in the scenario with highest economic growth. (repec.org)
  • Featuring a new section on risk management, this second edition brings the material up-to-date and enlarges the section on risk variables. (worldcat.org)
  • The authors believe that successful management of the risk assessment team is a key factor is quality reports. (routledge.com)
  • The Management of Health and Safety Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2000 also place a legal duty on employers, through the risk assessment processes, to examine workplace hazards, identify those at risk and take measures to control those risks. (nasuwt.org.uk)
  • The 2012 canadian hypertension education program recommendations for the management of hypertension: blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, and therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, these valuable risk identification and management tools are limited because they rely upon foreseeable factor analyses of steady-state systems with predictable hazard frequencies and severities. (springer.com)
  • In assessing the capability of complex adaptive systems to cope with disruptions, an overemphasis upon engineering resilience through risk management and planning for what is predictable may cloud or detract from our efforts to better understand a system's emergent capabilities to withstand disruptions that are unforeseeable. (springer.com)
  • We offer a notional rationale for broadening our examination of system vulnerabilities and present a conceptual model that combines engineering and SES resilience paradigms to facilitate the identification, assessment, and management of system vulnerabilities. (springer.com)
  • Comments at the end of this page from Tony Tomlin, Hartley MM and from Clive Dennis, Rose and Castle Morris ("a professional health and safety inspector with the HSE for 30 years") Clive recommends the Helath & Safety Executive's Sensible Risk Management . (themorrisring.org)
  • 5 Sheldrick C. The assessment and management of risk in adolescents. (bmj.com)
  • He is currently employed by Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health Trust Risk Management Department. (wiley.com)
  • 18. Risk Assessment and Risk Management with Deaf People ( Sue O'Rourke ). (wiley.com)
  • This course gives you practical tools and techniques to create your own risk management toolkit. (theirm.org)
  • The enhanced management information system also allows managers to more easily identify 'at risk' drivers and organise a suitable training programme for them. (roadsafetygb.org.uk)
  • The guidelines will support a common approach to developing, analyzing, and sharing risk information that would inform decision making within the 10 ASEAN Member States (AMS) and the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on Disaster Management (AHA Centre). (pdc.org)
  • By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Insurance Weekly News -- Investigators publish new report on Risk Management. (insurancenewsnet.com)
  • Management of risks related to activities with hazardous biological material, be it research, development, production or diagnostics, requires risk assessment at various stages of the activity. (ebsaweb.eu)
  • Implementation of a systematic biorisk management system, e.g. adopting the CWA 15793 can help organisations manage these risks. (ebsaweb.eu)
  • The main aim of NHS England is to improve the health outcomes for people in England. (england.nhs.uk)
  • Providers should be aware that higher ERA scores can potentially predict outcomes in high-risk patients. (dovepress.com)
  • The SRA is an outcomes-focused, risk-based regulator. (sra.org.uk)
  • Risk-based regulation means that risks to us acting compatibly with the regulatory objectives are assessed in terms of their probability and the impact of any harm they cause to desired outcomes, before action is taken. (sra.org.uk)
  • In working compatibly with these objectives, the SRA takes a risk-based outcomes-focused approach to regulation. (sra.org.uk)
  • We have also identified the risks that could prevent us from meeting these regulatory outcomes. (sra.org.uk)
  • Day-to-day regulatory activities are guided by a risk-based approach to regulation, focusing attention and activity upon issues, firms and potential risks that pose the greatest threat to our regulatory outcomes. (sra.org.uk)
  • This integrated staff communications campaign asks all staff involved in the care of inpatients throughout the region, to make sure all their patients are risk assessed for VTE, and that they receive the recommended preventative treatment. (nice.org.uk)
  • Universities, as institutions of higher learning and probity, may be vulnerable to public embarrassment and could even risk jeopardising important funding sources. (cla.co.uk)
  • Although no one can predict the 'perfect storm' of power plant outages and transmission line faults, without Vermont Yankee western New England is that much more vulnerable to power failure. (courant.com)
  • If you're still uncertain as to whether or not your organisation would benefit from a security assessment, read our answers to commonly asked questions to find out more. (nexor.com)
  • The PSUR will change from being largely a document based online listings, narratives and simple sales-based incidence statistics to a benefit-risk tool with a much more statistical and quantitative approach to adverse event data, and including the incorporation of efficacy data. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • The master class will provide attendees with the essential skills to ultimately confront the newly revised and incorporated elements of benefit-risk analysis for the new PSUR in their company. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • The master class, led by the Oxon Epidemiology team, will explore the purpose and structure of benefit risk analysis of the new PSUR. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Individual 'radicalisation'- extremism- and terrorism-related risk assessment tools have become increasingly central instruments of counter-terrorism. (nupi.no)
  • Rita Augestad Knudsen's main competence is on terrorism-, extremism, and radicalisation-related risk assessment, the concept of 'radicalisation', UK counter-terrorism, as well as the history of self-determination in international politics and international law, besides the Balkans, especially Kosovo. (nupi.no)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is adding three new hazardous waste sites that pose risks to human health and the environment to the National Priorities List (NPL) of Superfund sites. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The chapter next focuses on the wide range of individual and structural (or environmental) factors that affect IDUs' risk of HIV infection. (nap.edu)
  • Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous highly toxic environmental pollutants which exhibit a potential risk for human health. (biomedsearch.com)
  • WASHINGTON -- Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency presented a comprehensive review of the scientific literature in its 2003 draft reassessment of the risks of dioxin, the agency did not sufficiently quantify the uncertainties and variabilities associated with the risks, nor did it adequately justify the assumptions used to estimate them, according to a new report from the National Academies' National Research Council. (nationalacademies.org)
  • The course does not, however, expand on environmental risk assessment regarding deliberate release of organisms into the environment. (ebsaweb.eu)
  • The workshop is suitable for all interested and involved in thorough biological risk assessment, foremost BSOs facing new challenges regarding genetic modification, biocontainment facilities or complex work processes for situations in both research and manufacturing. (ebsaweb.eu)
  • The Safety Assessment and Decision (SAAD) scorecard places practice workers into either 'mild', moderate' or 'high risk', based on factors such as ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, vitamin D levels and medical conditions. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • The team being the SAAD scorecard has urged practice managers or lead clinicians to meet with practice staff to go through the scorecard and determine their risk level, as well as discuss mental health and wellbeing concerns. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Co-creator of the scorecard and Manchester GP Dr Mohammed Jiva said: 'In the absence of anything coming from NHS England, we decided that as local clinicians and practice manager, we'd look at the evidence out there and see if we could put together something practical and applicable for general practice staff of all ethnicities. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • During December 2012-March 2013, a veterinary practice in Berkshire, England, diagnosed 7 confirmed (culture from lesions or wounds) and 2 suspected (clinically compatible) cases of M. bovis disease in domestic cats. (cdc.gov)
  • In our accompanying report, 'Getting the Message on Mental Health' , we call for Public Health England, the Local Government Association and public heath leaders urgently to agree a systematic review of strategies to improve the physical as well as mental health care of people with mental ill health, and especially those with the most serious of conditions. (thersa.org)
  • A victory parade through London for the triumphant England rugby team has been put in doubt by the heightened threat of terrorist attacks on British interests. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • It can form the starting point for more detailed strategic and local-scale flood risk assessments. (repec.org)
  • Enter a property number or name and its postcode to see long term flood risk information for that area. (service.gov.uk)
  • An update of this report (NE612) has now been produced as part of the second reporting round (see related records), updating the risks to our work and our operational response to them, particularly as a restructured organisation. (naturalengland.org.uk)
  • If your employer sends you back to the agency saying that you can't work there on health and safety grounds, the agency is responsible for telling your employer to do a risk assessment. (citizensadvice.org.uk)
  • Employers may use health and safety risks as an excuse to end your work. (citizensadvice.org.uk)
  • The risks associated with minor, moderate, and major acute injuries and osteoarthritis in lower limb joints of professional footballers were found to be unacceptable when evaluated against work based risk criteria used by the Health and Safety Executive. (bmj.com)
  • It also says, only those who have a 'mild risk' should work at a hot hub in a face-to-face role and do Covid-19 home visits. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • How do these risk assessments work? (fta.co.uk)
  • In terms of employees' health, happiness and therefore productivity, managing work-related road safety can result in a reduced risk of work-related ill health, reduced stress and improved morale. (employeebenefits.co.uk)
  • Participants are asked to actively participate in the workshop by bringing their own risk assessment questions and work situation up for discussion. (ebsaweb.eu)
  • The Military Installation Resilience Assessment model described herein applies risk and resilience principles to evaluate whole systems, focusing on interconnections and their functionality in facilitating response and adaptation. (springer.com)
  • This report focuses on high-risk 1 countries-namely in Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and significant parts of Asia-where injecting drug use is, or is on the verge of becoming, the primary driver of the HIV epidemic. (nap.edu)
  • In this report, such countries are labeled as "high-risk," indicating that injecting drug use is, or is on the verge of becoming, the primary driver of the HIV epidemic. (nap.edu)
  • 1 Hawton K, Rodham K, Evans E, Weatherall R. Deliberate self harm in adolescents: self report survey in schools in England. (bmj.com)
  • The committee that wrote the report recommended that EPA re-estimate the risks using several different assumptions and better communicate the uncertainties in those estimates. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Again, it is instructive to note that the New England Journal of Medicine report was published 7 years before Dr. Greer informed the Hawaii State Senate that the minimum toxic dose of fluoride is 32 mg/kg. (fluoridealert.org)
  • This study is the first published report using a state cancer registry to determine facilitators and barriers to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment among YBCS. (hindawi.com)
  • In a regulatory filing on Friday, Yes Bank said it has received a letter from the RBI which noted that the Risk Assessment Report (RAR) was marked "confidential" and it was expected that no part of the report be divulged except for the information in the form and manner of disclosure prescribed by regulations. (firstpost.com)
  • Suicide risk. (bmj.com)
  • A good marker of suicide risk would be three times more common in males and would rise between the ages of 15 and 25 years. (bmj.com)
  • Good performance in this area is something that makes a great difference overall to care and UH Bristol has promoted VTE risk assessment to priority level since it was first on the national agenda. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • Measuring the risk of radicalization - is that really possible? (nupi.no)