EnglandRisk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)WalesNew England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Great BritainAnimal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.United StatesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Toxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Consumer Product SafetyObserver Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.ScotlandWater Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.EuropeCrops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.LondonGovernment Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Animals, LaboratoryUncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Endpoint Determination: Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.MiningResidence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Obstetric Nursing: A nursing specialty involving nursing care given to the pregnant patient before, after, or during childbirth.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Strategic Flood Risk Assessment. East Riding or Yorkshire Council. Porter, Elizabeth (1978). Water Management in England and ... This created Commissioners of Sewers in the main areas of England and Wales which had significant areas of marshland. They had ... He worked with John Smeaton on the initial assessment, and the two men visited the area in November. There was significant ... This organised the low-lying areas of England and Wales into Catchement Areas, each with its own Catchment Board. These boards ...
"Section 5.4.4: Risk Assessment - Hurricane". Suffolk County, New York. October 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2011. David R. ... Washed out roads and rail lines cut off the state from the rest of New England. In Lewiston, a trapped car in 5 ft (1.5 m) deep ... Throughout New England, 260,000 people lost power, most of whom in Massachusetts. While rapidly losing characteristics of a ... After the storm, Southern New England Telephone sent a crew of 100 workers in 50 trucks to Maine to assist in restoring power. ...
Human factors in diving safety
A Quantitative risk assessment SCUBA Diving. PARAS, Isle of Wight, England.[page needed] Tetlow, Stephen (2006). Formal risk ... Planning failures Inadequate risk assessment Inadequate contingency planning Inadequate dive planning: Gas and decompression ... Failure to check emergency equipment Failure to conduct adequate risk assessment Failure to monitor diving operations according ... In a high risk environment, as is the case in diving, human error is more likely to have catastrophic consequences. A study by ...
Storm tides of the North Sea
"Partnership of Norfolk district councils strategic flood risk assessment" (PDF). South Norfolk Council. Retrieved 5 January ... Also vulnerable is the southern North Sea between England and the Netherlands, where the sea shallows and is funnelled between ... "Coastal Flood Risk and Trends for the future in the North Sea Region" (PDF). Safecoast. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 ... Peter's Flood 1663, December 7,, The diarist Samuel Pepys noted "the greatest tide that ever was remembered in England to have ...
Bradford on Tone
"Avon and Somerset local resilience forum - individual risk assessment" (PDF). Avon Fire. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 ... Images of England: Bradford Bridge "Bridge over Grand Western Canal at Trefusis Farm". Images of England. Archived from the ... Bradford on Tone is a village and civil parish in Somerset, England, situated on the River Tone 4 miles (6.4 km) south west of ... It elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election, and part of the South West England ...
Renal cell carcinoma
"Assessment of Oncologic Risk for Clinical Stage T1 Renal Tumours". Renal Cell Carcinoma Clinical Management. Humana Pr Inc. pp ... Motzer, Robert J.; Bander, Neil H.; Nanus, David M. (1996). "Renal-Cell Carcinoma". New England Journal of Medicine. 335 (12): ... There are some known risk factors, however the significance of other potential risk factors remains more controversial. The ... The risk of renal cell carcinoma can be reduced by maintaining a normal body weight. The type of treatment depends on multiple ...
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Rapid Risk Assessment. Local transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in ... Public Health England issued a travel warning in 2014. In July 2015, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control ... "Travellers to Southern Corsica warned about parasitic infection". Public Health England. gov.uk. 25 June 2014. Retrieved 19 ... declared the risk of transmission to be low. As of 2016[update], transmission appears to be ongoing though, as a case acquired ...
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus
"ECDC Rapid Risk Assessment - Severe respiratory disease associated with a novel coronavirus" (PDF). 19 Feb 2013. Retrieved 22 ... It has been determined through molecular clock analysis, that viruses from the EMC/2012 and England/Qatar/2012 date to early ... "WHO MERS-CoV Global Summary and Assessment of Risk" (PDF). 21 July 2017. Ali Mohamed Zaki; Sander van Boheemen; Theo M. ... On 6 June 2014, the Arab News newspaper highlighted the latest research findings in the New England Journal of Medicine in ...
Trent Bridge (bridge)
"Nottingham Left Bank Flood Alleviation Scheme Flood Risk Assessment" (PDF). broxtowe.gov.uk. 2001. Retrieved 10 May 2013. Stone ... Historic England. "TRENT BRIDGE (1045636)". National Heritage List for England (NHLE). Retrieved 15 June 2015. Civil ... Trent Bridge is an iron and stone road bridge across the River Trent in Nottingham, England. It is the principal river crossing ... Bridges, law and power in medieval England, 700-1400. Alan Cooper History and antiquities of Nottingham. James Orange Civil ...
Genome-wide association study
Manolio TA (July 2010). "Genomewide association studies and assessment of the risk of disease". The New England Journal of ... The reason is that GWAS studies identify risk-SNPs, but not risk-genes, and specification of genes is one step closer towards ... The associated SNPs are then considered to mark a region of the human genome that may influence the risk of disease. GWA ... The median odds ratio is 1.33 per risk-SNP, with only a few showing odds ratios above 3.0. These magnitudes are considered ...
Sea Cut (Scalby Beck)
"North East Yorkshire Strategic Flood Risk Assessment" (PDF). North York Moors.org. 11.1.1: Ryedale DC, Scarborough BC & North ... Historic England. "Farmhouse and outbuildings, High Mill Farm (1393533)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 29 ... Historic England. "Mowthorp Bridge (1296523.)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 27 October 2016. "SCALBY: ... The Sea Cut (Scalby Beck) is a small river that enters the North Sea at Scalby Mills, Scarborough, North Yorkshire, England. ...
Hunt, Abbey (2011). English Heritage Coastal Estate: Risk Assessment. Portsmouth, UK: English Heritage. ISSN 1749-8775. Kenyon ... and the Pope encouraging the two countries to attack England. An invasion of England appeared certain. In response, Henry ... Hurst Castle is an artillery fort established by Henry VIII on the Hurst Spit in Hampshire, England, between 1541 and 1544. It ... Hurst Castle was built as a consequence of international tensions between England, France and the Holy Roman Empire in the ...
"Calderdale Metropolitan Borough Council Draft Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment" (PDF). calderdale.gov. Calderdale Council. ... Historic England. "Church of St Mary the Blessed Virgin (Grade II) (1134509)". National Heritage List for England (NHLE). ... Historic England. "Lord Nelson Inn (Grade II) (1134506)". National Heritage List for England (NHLE). Retrieved 31 May 2017. ... "Local Flood Risk Management Strategy" (PDF). calderdale.gov. Calderdale Council. June 2016. p. 15. Retrieved 30 May 2017. ...
Recreation Ground (Bath)
Recreation Ground, Bath "Strategic Flood Risk Assessment of Bath and North East Somerset" (PDF). Bath and North East Somerset ... The Recreation Ground (commonly the Rec) is a large open space in the centre of Bath, England, next to the River Avon, which is ... However, the Rec remains part of the floodplain at risk of occasional flooding. The ground can still get very boggy after heavy ... "Entrance Kiosks and gates to Recreation Ground". Images of England. English Heritage. Archived from the original on 2 November ...
Electronic cigarette aerosol and liquid
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Farsalinos, K. E.; Polosa, R. (2014). "Safety evaluation and risk assessment of ... UK: Public Health England. p. 65. Retrieved 20 August 2015. Burstyn, I (9 January 2014). "Peering through the mist: systematic ... A Risk-Assessment Analysis of Currently Available Literature". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public ... incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments". Tobacco Control. 23 (Supplement 2): ii47-ii53. doi:10.1136/ ...
Public Health England. Farsalinos, K.E.; Polosa, R. (2014). "Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as ... The risk from being passively exposed to EC vapor is likely to be less than the risk from passive exposure to conventional ... Public Health England has concluded that "international peer-reviewed evidence indicates that the risk to the health of ... The risk is probably low from the inhalation of propylene glycol and glycerin. No information is available on the long-term ...
Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangement
The Police and the National Probation Service use a risk assessment tool called Risk Matrix 2000 which assesses the statistical ... MAPPA in Scotland is based on the systems in place in England and Wales, with a few minor differences. The most noticeable of ... The legislation then requires that the agencies conduct a formal risk assessment of each offender and allocate them to a tier ... Before a management plan is put in place a detailed risk assessment will take place to identify the circumstances and ...
In the case of risk assessments evaluating the magnitude and nature of risk to human health, it is important to control for ... New England Journal of Medicine. 345 (12): 915-9. doi:10.1056/nejm200109203451211. PMID 11565527. Pearl, J. (January 1998). " ... A risk assessment that looks at the effects of smoking but does not control for alcohol consumption or diet may overestimate ... When there is not a large sample population of non-smokers or non-drinkers in a particular occupation, the risk assessment may ...
In 2005 Haldane assumed responsibility for the Systemic Risk Assessment Division within the Financial Stability department. In ... Haldane has been widely cited as a leading Bank of England expert on Financial Stability and is a co-author with Adair Turner ... Haldane said in a speech on 4 April 2014 to a financial audience that "too big to fail" risks that are being tackled by reforms ... Haldane's senior experience back in the Bank of England include heading up the International Finance Division and the Market ...
"Section 5.4.4: Risk Assessment - Hurricane" (PDF). Suffolk County, New York Government. October 2008. Retrieved 2011-08-19. [ ... The New England coast was affected by a powerful nor'easter known as the Perfect Storm about two months after the hurricane ... To avoid possible risks by using helicopter, he drove by motorcade to the base. During this time, portions of Interstate 95 ... Hurricane Bob was one of the costliest hurricanes in New England history. The second named storm and first hurricane of the ...
Giant current ripples
Palaeofloods, Historical Floods and Climate Variability: Application in Flood Risk Assessment, (Proc. of the PHEFRA Workshop, ... Oxford, England, 2002. Spec. Publ. 32. pp. 17-35. Herget, J. Reconstruction of Ice-Dammed Lake Outburst Floods in the Altai- ... Oxford, England, 2002. Spec. Publ. 32. p. 17-35. Рудой А.Н. Основы теории дилювиального морфолитогенеза // Известия Русского ...
Environmental Protection Act 1990
Part VI defines a regime of statutory notification and risk assessment for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). There are ... England and Wales) Regulations 2007 SI 2007/3538 The Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010 SI 2010/675 ... England and Wales) Regulations 2007. Permitting is now regulated by the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) ... The Act demands that the Secretary of State create a National Waste Strategy for England and Wales, and the SEPA, a strategy ...
Building regulations in the United Kingdom
This is to enable a competent person to carry out a fire risk assessment. ... "Building regulation in England covering fire safety matters within and around buildings. 7 December 2010.. .mw-parser-output ... requires a Fire Risk Assessment to be carried out, to take into account how the users are actually using the building (and any ... Other fire laws (England & Wales and Scotland). Once a building is occupied the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order ...
Catherine King (scientist)
Her goal is to develop environmental risk assessment and remediation guidelines for Antarctic and sub-Antarctic marine and ... Dip Education at the University of New England, NSW in 2003. King is an environmental scientist with over 25 years' experience ... in the field of ecotoxicology and environmental risk assessment. She is a Senior Research Scientist at the Australian Antarctic ... This was awarded in recognition of the contribution to research advancing the assessment and regulation of contaminants in ...
An assessment in 2011 by KCC highlighted significant risk for Otford. The risks were not overstated, with some shops out of ... Historic England. "Otford Pond (Grade II) (1259054)". National Heritage List for England (NHLE). Retrieved 19 March 2016. " ... "Risk Assessment". Sevenoaks Chronicle. Retrieved 18 March 2016. "Otford Shop back in business". Sevenoaks Chronicle. Retrieved ... "Visit Otford Heritage Centre". South East England. Retrieved 18 March 2016. Jarrett, Philip (1987). Another Icarus: Percy ...
Assessment of the skull from a top view shows asymmetry of the frontal bones, an increased width of the skull and a forward ... Most surgeons will not intervene until after the age of six months due to the heightened risk which blood loss poses before ... The New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (23): 2185-93. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0907328. PMID 20558369.. ... Eide PK (2006). "Assessment of quality of continuous intracranial pressure recordings in children". Pediatric Neurosurgery. 42 ...
AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team". The New England Journal of Medicine. 337 (11): 725-33. doi:10.1056/ ... However, it failed safety assessments because of its toxicity. Seeing that the research on their drug was heading in the ... Furthermore, it is no longer recommended to use in the United States for initial treatments due to pill burden and risk of ... The New England Journal of Medicine. 337 (11): 734-9. doi:10.1056/nejm199709113371102. PMID 9287228.. ...
"Alternative medicine--The risks of untested and unregulated remedies" (PDF). New England Journal of Medicine. 339 (12): 839-41 ... An assessment of conventional treatments found that 41.3% concluded positive or possibly positive effect, 20% concluded no ... 7 Risks and problems *7.1 Negative outcomes *7.1.1 Adequacy of regulation and CAM safety ... Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230309319. .. CS1 maint: ref=harv (link). *. Walton J., Sir, Science and ...
Positron emission tomography
... where the risk to the patient from lack of knowledge about disease progress is much greater than the risk from the test ... In England, the NHS reference cost (2015-2016) for an adult outpatient PET scan is £798, and £242 for direct access services.[ ... and preliminary assessment of sensitivity to aging effects on dopamine D-2/D-3 receptors". Synapse. 46 (3): 170-88. doi:10.1002 ... FDG-PET imaging of atherosclerosis to detect patients at risk of stroke is also feasible and can help test the efficacy of ...
EVD has a risk of death in those infected of between 25% and 90%. As of September 2014[update], the average risk of ... "The New England Journal of Medicine. 372 (25): 2423-27. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1500306. hdl:2328/35704. PMC 4547451. PMID 25950269. ... "First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... Health-care workers treating people with Ebola are at greatest risk of infection. The risk increases when they do not have ...
... ". The New England Journal of Medicine (Review). 352 (14): 1463-72. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp033487. PMID 15814882.. ... Pregnancy category refers to an evaluation of a substance's risk of injury to a fetus if used by the mother during pregnancy.[ ... and needs assessment". Dermatologic Clinics (Review). 30 (1): 99-106, viii-ix. doi:10.1016/j.det.2011.09.001. PMID 22117871.. ... Zaenglein AL (October 2018). "Acne Vulgaris". The New England Journal of Medicine (Review). 379 (14): 1343-1352. doi:10.1056/ ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
... a new tool for risk assessment before allogeneic HCT". Blood. 106 (8): 2912-19. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-05-2004. PMC 1895304. ... 1957). "Intravenous infusion of bone marrow in patients receiving radiation and chemotherapy". New England Journal of Medicine ... Risks to donor. The risks of a complication depend on patient characteristics, health care providers and the apheresis ... increase the risk of graft rejection. A mismatch of an HLA Type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR, or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft- ...
New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge. pp. 34-43. ISBN 978-0-203-09660-4.. ... Brief report:predictors of heavy internet use and associations with health promoting and health risk behaviors among Hong Kong ... Technology assessment. *Technology tree. *-logy. *Superpower § Possible factors. Theories and concepts in technology. * ... England, dating to around the same time period. The first long-distance road, which came into use around 3500 BCE, ...
These include trauma centers, burn treatment centers, advanced neonatology unit services, organ transplants, high-risk ... which in the UK leads to membership of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (MRCS). At present, some specialties of ... generally in that order although auscultation occurs prior to percussion and palpation for abdominal assessments. ...
The 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, published by the United Nations' Intergovernmental ... Butterfly species have declined by 58% on farmland in England. In the last ten years, 40% of insect species and 22% of mammal ... See also: Extinction risk from global warming, Ocean acidification, Marine pollution, and Social and environmental impact of ... Walter Jetz; Powers, Ryan P. (4 March 2019). "Global habitat loss and extinction risk of terrestrial vertebrates under future ...
MIT professor risks career to reenergize discredited idea", The Boston Globe. *. Derry, Gregory Neil (2002), "What Science Is ... Schaffer 1999, p. 1, Saeta 1999, (pages 3-5; "Assessment"; Morrison, Douglas R.O.) ... Fleischmann left for England in 1995, and the contract with Pons was not renewed in 1998 after spending $40 million with no ... "Historical overview, assessment", Saeta 1999: 1-3. *. Sampson, Mark T. (2009), ""Cold fusion" rebirth? New evidence for ...
Fluorescence in situ hybridization
England: Butterworth & Co. p. 66.. External links. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fluorescence in situ ... and Y is enough to identify oligozoospermic individuals at risk. ... "Microfluidics-assisted fluorescence in situ hybridization for advantageous human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assessment ... "Emergence of Fatal Avian Influenza in New England Harbor Seals". mBio. 3 (4): e00166-e00112. doi:10.1128/mBio.00166-12. PMC ...
412th Test Wing
Risk is an accepted component of flight testing, but Edwards maintains a stellar safety record due to Edwards' benchmark flight ... The AFTC's mission focuses on Developmental Test and Evaluation which is the process used to identify risks that need to be ... The YF-22A was selected to become the Air Force's new advanced tactical fighter after a brief demonstration and validation risk ...
"Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. 88 (5): 454-458. doi:10.1308/003588406X117115. ISSN 0035-8843. PMC 1964698 ... Some joints are more at risk of becoming dislocated again after an initial injury. This is due to the weakening of the muscles ... Assessment. Clinical prediction rules. *Revised Trauma Score. *Injury Severity Score. *Abbreviated Injury Scale ... hyperlaxity and greater tuberosity fractures being the key risk factors. ...
Option value (cost-benefit analysis)
See Option time value.) However, the two can be related insofar as both can be interpreted as a valuation of risk factors. ... Department for Transport, England. 2004. Transport Analysis Guidance *^ Scottish Government, 2009, Review of Economic ... The concept is most commonly used in public policy assessment to justify continuing investment in parks, wildlife refuges and ... Some economists further developed its distinction from consumer surplus and role as an uncertainty risk aversion premium,[ ...
糖尿病 - 維基百科，自由的百科全書
Health technology assessment (Winchester, England). September 2009, 13 (41): 1-190, 215-357, iii-iv. PMID 19726018. doi:10.3310 ... White rice consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis and systematic review. British Medical Journal. 2012-03-15, ... New England Journal of Medicine. 2012, 367 (14): 1332-40. PMID 23034021. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1110560.. ... Effects of High vs Low Glycemic Index of Dietary Carbohydrate on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Insulin Sensitivity. ...
In England and other European countries, the term 'bioarchaeology' is borrowed to cover all biological remains from sites. ... Robbins Schug, Gwen; Goldman, Haviva M. "Birth is but our death begun: a bioarchaeological assessment of skeletal emaciation in ... such as risk of death or sex ratio) of a given age cohort within a population. Age and sex are crucial variables in the ... Klepinger, Linda L (1984). "Nutritional Assessment from Bone". Annual Review of Anthropology. 13: 75-96. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
肥胖症 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Assessment of body mass index and hand anthropometric measurements as independent risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome. ... New England Journal of Medicine. 12 June 2017. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1614362.. *^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 World Health Organization (WHO). ... The New England Journal of Medicine. 2010, 363 (23): 2211-9. PMC 3066051. PMID 21121834. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1000367.. ... New England Journal of Medicine (Research Support). 2007, 357 (4): 370-379. PMID 17652652. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa066082.. ...
Based on the Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (PDF). IUCN Pakistan.. *^ Syangden, B.; Sectionov; Ellis, S.; Williams ... Latter is known as 'Dürer's Rhinoceros'. In about 1684, the first presumably Indian rhinoceros arrived in England. George ... The species is inherently at risk because over 70% of its population occurs at a single site, Kaziranga National Park. Any ... "Assessment of habitat change and threats to the greater one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary ...
Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Coordinates. 53°24′41″N 1°30′06″W / 53.4115°N 1.5016°W / 53.4115; -1.5016Coordinates: ... Risks associated with confining fans in pens were highlighted by the Committee of Inquiry into Crowd Safety at Sports Grounds ( ... A police officer ordinarily made a visual assessment before guiding fans to other pens. However, on the day of the disaster ... The remaining 14 victims lived in other parts of England. Ages. Of those who died, 78 were aged under 30, 38 of whom were under ...
多囊卵巢綜合症 - 维基百科，自由的百
New England Journal of Medicine. 1998-06-25, 338 (26): 1876-1880 [2015-05-24]. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 9637806. doi:10.1056/ ... What are the health risks of PCOS?. Verity - PCOS Charity. Verity. 2011 [21 November 2011]. （原始内容存档于2012年12月25日）.. ... 11 Clinical guideline 11 : Fertility: assessment and treatment for people with fertility problems . London, 2004. ... 風險因子（英语：Risk factor）. 肥胖症、運動不足、家
Singh, JP; Grann, M; Fazel, S (13 December 2010). "A comparative study of violence risk assessment tools: a systematic review ... "Parole Board Members' Views about Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder in England and Wales". International Journal of ... "Authorship Bias in Violence Risk Assessment? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". PLOS ONE. 8 (9): e72484. doi:10.1371/ ... a meta-analytic comparison of nine risk assessment tools". Psychol Bull. 136 (5): 740-67. doi:10.1037/a0020473. PMID 20804235. ...
a b Salo, P., Nordström, M., Thomson, R. L., & Korpimäki, E. (2008). Risk induced by a native top predator reduces alien mink ... A pre-COSEWIC assessment of the Common Lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus, Linnaeus 1758) in Canadian Atlantic and Arctic waters. ... few people in England and Scotland were highly motivated to kill eagles since this could be time-consuming and hazardous ... Information to support the assessment of Arctic Char, Salvelinus alpinus, from the Isuituq River system, Nunavut. Fisheries and ...
Healthcare in Cuba
... family doctor-and-nurse teams follow the Continuous Assessment and Risk Evaluation (CARE) method which monitors individual and ... In April 2007, the Cuba IPV Study Collaborative Group reported in the New England Journal of Medicine that inactivated (killed ... When polio is eliminated in a country, they must stop using the live vaccine, because it has a slight risk of reverting to the ... They perform a neighborhood health diagnosis biannually where community risk factors are evaluated to focus priorities for ...
Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage
In February 2019 the pilot of a BECCS facility went into operation at Drax power station in North Yorkshire, England. The aim ... For the high volatile content biomass, the mill temperature has to be kept at a low temperature to reduce the risk of fire and ... The largest and most detailed techno-economic assessment of BECCS was carried out by cmcl innovations and the TESBiC group ... While other types of carbon sinks such as the ocean, trees and soil may involve the risk of adverse feedback loops at increased ...
நீரிழிவு நோய் (இரண்டாவது வகை) - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) 13 (41): 1-190, 215-357, iii-iv. doi:10.3310/hta13410. பப்மெட்:19726018. ... Raina Elley C, Kenealy T (December 2008). "Lifestyle interventions reduced the long-term risk of diabetes in adults with ... Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) 14 (36): 1-248. doi:10.3310/hta14360. பப்மெட்:20646668. ... McCarthy, MI; Guttmacher, Alan E.; McCarthy, Mark I. (2010-12-09). "Genomics, type 2 diabetes, and obesity". The New England ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
The risk is greater in those who are poor, although whether this is due to poverty itself or other risk factors associated with ... An outcomes strategy for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma in England (PDF). Department of ... "COPD Assessment Test (CAT)". American Thoracic Society. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 29, ... Working in agriculture is also a risk. In some professions, the risks have been estimated as equivalent to that of one-half ...
Obstructive sleep apnea
The New England Journal of Medicine. 342 (19): 1378-1384. doi:10.1056/nejm200005113421901. PMID 10805822. Archived (PDF) from ... Risk factorsEdit. Old age is often accompanied by muscular and neurological loss of muscle tone of the upper airway. Decreased ... "Clinical usefulness of home oximetry compared with polysomnography for assessment of sleep apnea". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care ... Women are at greater risk for developing OSA during pregnancy.. OSA also appears to have a genetic component; those with a ...
"Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) - Minutes for the meeting on 3-6 July 2017" (PDF). European Medicines Agency ... The New England Journal of Medicine. 300 (7): 329-33. doi:10.1056/NEJM197902153000701. PMID 153472.. ... "Isotretinoin risks in acne treatment: Page 3 of 4". October 2014.. *^ a b Moy A, McNamara NA, Lin MC (September 2015). "Effects ... Isotretinoin is a teratogen; there is about a 20-35% risk for congenital defects in infants exposed to the drug in utero, and ...
Climate change england - Uk Climate Change Risk Assessment (England)
... the first assessment of its kind for the UK and the first in a 5 year cycle. ... The Government published the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) on 25 January 2012, ... The Government published the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) on 25 January 2012, the first assessment of its kind for ... The risk assessment is a comprehensive analysis of the threats and opportunities faced by a wide range of habitats, landscapes ...
Measuring radicalisation: risk assessment conceptualisations and practice in England and Wales - Publication | NUPI
... the Extremism Risk Guidance (ERG22+) and the Vulnerability Assessment Framework (VAF), concentrating on their shared 22 risk ... It concludes by stressing that any benefit associated with risk and vulnerability assessment tools in the counter-terrorism ... This article takes a different approach, and examines England and Wales main counter-terrorism relevant risk and vulnerability ... While not rejecting the possible value of specialised terrorism-related individual risk assessment tools, the article finds ...
EconPapers: National-scale Assessment of Current and Future Flood Risk in England and Wales
National-scale Assessment of Current and Future Flood Risk in England and Wales. Jim Hall (. ), Paul Sayers and Richard Dawson ... it has become possible to conduct national-scale flood risk assessment in England and Wales. The results of this type of risk ... The flood risk assessment was applied to all of England and Wales in 2002 at which point the expected annual damage from ... It can form the starting point for more detailed strategic and local-scale flood risk assessments. The national-scale risk ...
UBIRA ETheses - Risk assessment in parole decisions: a study of life sentence prisoners in England and Wales
Risk assessment in parole decisions: a study of life sentence prisoners in England and Wales ... Forde, Robert Anthony (2014). Risk assessment in parole decisions: a study of life sentence prisoners in England and Wales. ... the present system of risk assessment for parole in England and Wales is not evidence-based and that as a result many low-risk ... Chapter 3 reports a study of how parole decisions related to three widely-used risk assessment instruments (the PCL-R, the HCR- ...
VTE Risk Assessment 2015-16 - Datasets - NHS England Data Catalogue
Survey published on the use of bioaccessibility testing in contaminated land risk assessment in England and Wales
... and interview-based study involving 151 Local Authority Contaminated Land Officers from England and Wales indicate that ... testing in contaminated land risk assessment in England and Wales The results of a questionnaire- and interview-based study ... involving 151 Local Authority Contaminated Land Officers from England and Wales indicate that bioaccessibility is perceived as ...
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It presented Natural Englands completed assessment of the risks that climate change poses to our objectives, under the first ... Natural Englands climate change risk assessment and adaptation plan (NE318). This record was published by Natural England on ... Natural Englands climate change risk assessment and adaptation plan (2015) (NE612). Copyright , Privacy , Freedom of ... NE318: Natural Englands climate change risk assessment and adaptation plan - Annexes only, PDF, 880.4 KB. 2012/01/18. ...
Long term flood risk assessment for locations in England - GOV.UK
Genestack Omics Data Manager | GenomeWeb
UC San Diego Teams up With Illumina to Launch Bioinformatics Specialization on Coursera | GenomeWeb
CityWest Homes: Maida Vale estate tenants angry at fire risk assessments | Hampstead, Highgate, Camden, Haringey and Barnet...
Tenants in Maida Vales Scottish Towers were furious to discover the CityWest Homes estates most recent fire risk assessments ... The next fire risk assessment is due in November.. The council and CityWest Homes also confirmed reviews of fire doors were "an ... The fire risk assessment recommends that self-closing mechanisms be fitted to all fire doors, but this has not yet happened. ... CityWest Homes: Maida Vale estate tenants angry at litany of issues raised by fire risk assessments. PUBLISHED: 07:30 25 ...
Violence risk : assessment and management (eBook, 2007) [WorldCat.org]
Violence risk : assessment and management. [Christopher D Webster; Stephen J Hucker] -- Clinical Risk Assessment and Management ... Violence risk : assessment and management/Christopher D Webster; Stephen J Hucker; Chichester, West Sussex, England ; Hoboken, ... assessment_methods> # Risk Assessment--methods a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Risk Assessment--methods"@en ;. . ... Risk assessment a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Risk assessment"@en ;. . ...
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Risk Assessment Based on Molecular and Genetic Markers in Prostate Cancer | SpringerLink
England). 2012;380(9858):2018-27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Risk Assessment Based on Molecular and Genetic Markers in ... Tilki D., Chandrasekar T., Kretschmer A., Chun F.K. (2018) Risk Assessment Based on Molecular and Genetic Markers in Prostate ... Decipher genomic classifier measured on prostate biopsy predicts metastasis risk. Urology. 2016;90:148-52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... Evaluation of GSTP1 and APC methylation as indicators for repeat biopsy in a high-risk cohort of men with negative initial ...
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Measuring radicalisation: risk assessment conceptualisations and practice in England and Wales. 2018 ** Rita Augestad Knudsen ... Preventing terrorism through risk assessments - a UK perspective. Time: 12:00 Location: NUPI ... How does the UKs counter-terrorism strategy play out in in real-life, and whats the (potential) role of risk assessments in ... Rita Augestad Knudsens main competence is on terrorism-, extremism, and radicalisation-related risk assessment, the concept of ...
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Torchwood: Risk Assessment
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New England Journal of Medicine
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WalesFire risk assessments2017PreventionFrameworkVulnerabilityExposureReductionGuidanceFindingsApproachesCardiovascular Risk AssessmentEffective risk assessmentVenous ThromboembolismAppropriate risk assessmentBasic methods of risk assessmentExaminesClinicalUndertakenRelation to riskManagementOutcomesReviewingHazard assessmentIdentifyMethodologyHazardsRapid risk assessmentInpatientsVulnerableAvian influenzaBenefitObjectivesCONCLUSIONSAttendeesUnderstandingExtremismReferralPollutionEnvironmentalClimateSuitableProcessPracticesPracticePublic Health EnglandAnalysisThreatFlood riskWorkAppliesAssess and manageEmployersReportMainSuicide riskPriorityMeasuring
- This article takes a different approach, and examines England and Wales' main counter-terrorism relevant risk and vulnerability assessment tools: the Extremism Risk Guidance (ERG22+) and the Vulnerability Assessment Framework (VAF), concentrating on their shared 22 risk indicators and their uses in counter-terrorism. (nupi.no)
- The article hence clarifies the ideas of 'radicalisation' underpinning counter- terrorism policies in England and Wales, and considers the operational utility of the tools' present uses. (nupi.no)
- In recent years, through the availability of remotely sensed data and other national datasets, it has become possible to conduct national-scale flood risk assessment in England and Wales. (repec.org)
- The national-scale risk assessment methodology outlined in this paper makes use of information on the location, standard of protection and condition of flood defences in England and Wales, together with datasets of floodplain extent, topography, occupancy and asset values. (repec.org)
- The flood risk assessment was applied to all of England and Wales in 2002 at which point the expected annual damage from flooding was estimated to be approximately £1 billion. (repec.org)
- Chapter 3 reports a study of how parole decisions related to three widely-used risk assessment instruments (the PCL-R, the HCR-20, and the SVR-20), and recommendations of professionals (psychologists and probation officers) on 100 life sentence prisoners in England and Wales, 84 of whom were eligible for parole. (bham.ac.uk)
- Chapter 5 discusses the findings, concluding that the present system of risk assessment for parole in England and Wales is not evidence-based and that as a result many low-risk prisoners are likely to undergo prolonged detention unnecessarily. (bham.ac.uk)
- The results of a questionnaire- and interview-based study involving 151 Local Authority Contaminated Land Officers from England and Wales indicate that bioaccessibility is perceived as a useful tool that facilitates contaminated land management (70% of survey participants either strongly agreed or agreed with the statement). (eugris.info)
- McCarthy, Simon and Viavattene, Christophe and Sheehan, John and Green, C. (2018) Compensatory approaches and engagement techniques to gain flood storage in England and Wales. (mdx.ac.uk)
- Suicide in children and adolescents in England and Wales 1970-1998. (bmj.com)
- Registered in England and Wales. (dovepress.com)
- Building regulations that apply across England and Wales are set out in the Building Act 1984 while those that apply across Scotland are set out in the Building (Scotland) Act 2003 . (wikipedia.org)
- The Act in England and Wales permits detailed regulations to be made by the Secretary of State. (wikipedia.org)
- The UK Government (at Westminster) is responsible for the relevant legislation and administration in England, the Welsh Government (at Cardiff) is the responsible body in Wales, the Scottish Government (at Edinburgh) is responsible for the issue in Scotland, and the Northern Ireland Executive (at Belfast) has responsibility within its jurisdiction. (wikipedia.org)
- A Company Incorporated by Royal Charter (England/Wales). (csp.org.uk)
- 17. High Secure Care for Deaf People in England and Wales ( Manjit Gahir ). (wiley.com)
- 4,500 new cases reported in cattle herds each year during 2014-2018 ( 3 ), M. bovis remains a major issue for animal health in large parts of England and Wales. (cdc.gov)
- This created Commissioners of Sewers in the main areas of England and Wales which had significant areas of marshland. (wikipedia.org)
Fire risk assessments2
- Tenants in Maida Vale's Scottish Towers were furious to discover the CityWest Homes estate's most recent fire risk assessments detail a litany of "high and medium priority" issues that, almost a year later, have not been dealt with. (hamhigh.co.uk)
- A Westminster City Council spokesman said: "Our main priority is the safety of our residents - fire risk assessments have been completed and the blocks have been audited by London Fire Brigade in the last 12 months to assure residents are safe in their homes. (hamhigh.co.uk)
- From fire doors that do not shut correctly to the lack of adequate escape routes from some flats in the buildings, the reports - from November 2017 - paint a worrying picture that tenants think puts the buildings, and their lives, at risk. (hamhigh.co.uk)
- The UK Climate Change Risk Assessment 2017 evidence report, prepared for the UK Government by the the Committee on Climate Change, identifies where more effort is necessary, and urgent, to address the risks of climate change. (politics.co.uk)
- To provide population-based estimates of use surrounding pregnancy, identify reasons for and mode of use, and understand characteristics of women who continue versus cease marijuana use during pregnancy, CDC analyzed data from eight states participating in the 2017 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) marijuana supplement. (cdc.gov)
- A total of 3.7 million inpatients were admitted in quarter three of 2017-18, with 200,000 not being risk assessed for VTE. (hsj.co.uk)
- HSJ 's analysis of monthly performance data for more than 150 hospitals from January 2016 to December 2017 period shows the NHS dipped below the target that 95 per cent of all inpatients should be assessed for their risk of VTE on at least three occasions in 2017. (hsj.co.uk)
- Risk Reduction and Arson Prevention. (eventbrite.co.uk)
- How does the UK's counter-terrorism strategy play out in in real-life, and what's the (potential) role of risk assessments in the prevention of terrorism? (nupi.no)
- However, the secondary choices for optimizing cholesterol-lowering therapy, constituting part of the "C" component of the "ABCDEs" of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, should not overshadow the importance of the rest of the ABCDEs: assessment of risk, antiplatelet therapy, blood-pressure management, cholesterol modification and cigarette-smoking cessation, dietary and weight modification, and exercise habits. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- We updated the evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults for 2012. (biomedsearch.com)
- To show how epidemiological data can be presented and analysed in frequency based and risk based formats and how risk based information can simplify management decisions on injury prevention strategies in professional football. (bmj.com)
- All stakeholders within professional football were shown to have an important contribution to make in reducing the overall level of risk to players through the provision of risk prevention strategies. (bmj.com)
- 7 Improved understanding of who is at risk of suicide and the development of interventions to reduce suicide in key high risk groups are priority targets of national research agendas and government suicide prevention strategies. (bmj.com)
- Several reviews have examined the prevention and epidemiology of suicide, as well as the risk factors. (bmj.com)
- Using deliberate self harm as a marker of suicidal risk will lead to a misdirection of limited suicide prevention resources towards less appropriate populations. (bmj.com)
- Multi-disciplinary professionals with specialist knowledge of working with deaf people explore aspects of mild to severe challenging behaviour with reference to its cause, assessment, prevention and management. (wiley.com)
- Assessing the risk of such failures is essential with respect to incident and accident prevention. (ebsaweb.eu)
- They are now seeking an experienced Financial Services Risk & Security Manager who can run a Risk Management Framework with experience of implementing, maintaining, and auditing the ISO 27001:2005/2013 or similar security standard. (accountancyage.com)
- In this book a description is presented of a framework and techniques for modelling structure failure events as well as a proposal to several novel approaches for risk analysis and assessment by numerical, statistical and constrained based methods in particular to the problems of breach modelling and flood water mitigation. (routledge.com)
- In Risc-Kit Christophe is leading a Work Package aiming at developing a coastal risk assessment framework. (mdx.ac.uk)
- The SRA's Regulatory Risk Framework outlines how we operate and oversee risk-based regulation through our risk management process, risk governance and the organisational culture required to embed a risk-based approach. (sra.org.uk)
- Our Regulatory Risk Index sets out the risks that we manage under this framework. (sra.org.uk)
- A standards based risk assessment, using a framework such as ISO 27005, to provide an assessment of a specific business process or secure information exchange challenge. (nexor.com)
- A gap analysis against an existing standard, such as Cyber Essentials, NCSC 10 Steps to Cyber Security, NIST Framework, or the NCSC Cyber Assessment Framework. (nexor.com)
- The baseline is usually one of a set of widely recognised industry standards, including Cyber Essentials, NCSC's 10 Steps to Cyber Security, NIST Cyber Security Framework, NCSC's Cyber Assessment Framework and ISO 27001. (nexor.com)
- A suitable assessment methodology then needs to be chosen alongside the framework. (nexor.com)
- Nexor's security consultants have years of experience that enable them to choose the correct framework and methodology for a security assessment. (nexor.com)
- It concludes by stressing that any benefit associated with risk and vulnerability assessment tools in the counter-terrorism space would seem conditioned on them being reserved for the uses, target groups and assessors they were originally created for, and on them being used as only one component of a broad, contextual assessment of individuals about whom there is an evidence-based terrorism-related concern. (nupi.no)
- In order to advance disaster management and disaster risk reduction across the region, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is engaged in a project to develop a set of regional risk and vulnerability assessment (RVA) guidelines. (pdc.org)
- Minor risks, such as exposure to coughs and colds are not counted as a hazard. (citizensadvice.org.uk)
- Human exposure assessment. (who.int)
- 4.2.3 Total exposure assessment. (who.int)
- In order to assess the health risk derived from the exposure to these pollutants in children during the first year of life, data concerning infant formulae contamination has been also considered. (biomedsearch.com)
- In order to reduce As exposure in rural populations that rely on private wells for drinking water, risk assessment, which includes estimation of population at risk of exposure to As above the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level, is helpful but insufficient because it does not identify individual households at risk. (usgs.gov)
- The committee took issue with EPA's decision to rely solely on a "linear" model that assumes the risk of cancer is directly proportional to dose at all levels of exposure, including the levels found in the environment, which are generally much lower than those shown to cause cancer in animals. (nationalacademies.org)
- EPA said there was a lack of data to support a nonlinear approach, but the committee said that compelling new animal data from the National Toxicology Program -- released after EPA completed its reassessment -- when combined with substantial evidence that dioxin does not directly damage DNA, is now adequate to justify the use of nonlinear methods for estimating cancer risk at relatively low levels of exposure. (nationalacademies.org)
- The risk-weighting is designed to calculate a bank's real world exposure to potential losses. (pinsentmasons.com)
- A clear view on what the risks are to these regulatory outcomes and our exposure to them. (sra.org.uk)
- The European Food Safety Authority conducted a review of the scientific literature and risk assessment on aspartame and its breakdown products, finding them safe for human consumption at current levels of exposure. (sciencemediacentre.org)
- A thorough risk assessment includes identification of hazards, frequency of exposure, probability of injury, severity of injury and methods for reducing risk. (ehstoday.com)
- Machinery hazards can be identified, assessed, and mitigated to limit exposure to risk. (ehstoday.com)
- Repeated exposure to radiation from medical X rays or other sources also may increase a person's risk of developing genetic mutations. (encyclopedia.com)
- In the United Kingdom, Mycobacterium bovis infection in humans is relatively rare ( 1 ), and most cases involve previous exposure to well-recognized risk factors, such as unpasteurized milk ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- The masterclass will provide attendees with the necessary exposure to approach the elements of benefit-risk analysis for the new PSUR in their company for new and old drugs, and approaches to evaluate the positive and negative effects of risk minimisation measures. (smi-online.co.uk)
- The team noted that the Scottish programme of risk-based testing had led to the reduction in the number of tests there meaning that testing not only works but is cost-effective. (eurekalert.org)
- In patients with cardiovascular disease or multiple CVD risk factors, the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but not nocturnal supplemental oxygen, resulted in a significant reduction in blood pressure. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Over the past decade, federal agencies have bolstered their efforts to identify and minimize threats using traditional risk-based approaches such as continuity of operations and disaster risk reduction processes. (springer.com)
- Having the ability to risk profile your drivers puts you in a position to decide which would benefit from further training or corrective education, therefore leading to risk reduction, safer drivers and fewer accidents. (fta.co.uk)
- However, the town hall explained it adheres to national guidance, and risk assessments are undertaken for vulnerable residents. (hamhigh.co.uk)
- Patients assessed to be at risk of VTE are offered VTE prophylaxis in accordance with NICE guidance. (nice.org.uk)
- Advice and guidance on reducing the risks from the Coronavirus (COVID-19) virus to you and your business. (fsb.org.uk)
- risk assessment in line with the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) guidance. (sja.org.uk)
- This briefing paper introduces the concept of risk assessments, summarises the law in this area and gives practical guidance on the role of CSP safety reps in relation to risk assessment. (csp.org.uk)
- The ECB has now published its manual for the AQR which contains the methodology and guidance for national competent authority (NCA) bank teams on how to carry out reviews of risk-weighted assets. (pinsentmasons.com)
- Discusses the accuracy of prediction and highlights how violence assessments would improve if well-established findings became entrenched in clinical and research practice. (worldcat.org)
- Understanding Fire Risk Assessment Significant Findings (Recommended Actions). (eventbrite.co.uk)
- Employers should discuss the findings of the risk assessment with you and not make any changes without your consent. (citizensadvice.org.uk)
- The group created the risk hierarchy by using scientific research findings and their combined clinical experience. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- EPA could improve the transparency and credibility of the assessment by more clearly identifying the assumptions used to support risk estimates and by updating them when significant new findings are made. (nationalacademies.org)
- With this course, participants will not only understand the fundamentals and purpose of risk assessment, the terms used in relation to risk evaluation and the basic methods of risk assessment, but also be in a position to judge to what extent a risk assessment needs to be done, what type of methodology is appropriate and how findings resulting from the risk assessment are to be used. (ebsaweb.eu)
- Risk assessment is challenging for several reasons, not least because conventional approaches to risk assessment rely on patient self reporting and suicidal patients may wish to conceal their plans. (bmj.com)
- Novel approaches to risk assessment have shown promise, including empirically derived tools and implicit association tests. (bmj.com)
- Although several drug based and psychotherapy based treatments exist, the best approaches to reducing the risk of suicide are still unclear. (bmj.com)
- Risk assessment approaches will be discussed in detail, with a review of specific assessment tools and how the science of risk assessment is evolving. (bmj.com)
- Given the prominence of suicide as a health problem and the demands on clinicians to manage this challenging condition, this review will provide an overview of evidence based assessment and treatment approaches to help guide clinical work with this at risk population. (bmj.com)
- This article contends that augmenting traditional risk approaches through the incorporation of methodologies grounded in socio-ecological system (SES) resilience principles offers a potential avenue for improving our agencies' abilities to assess and manage both known and unknown risks. (springer.com)
Cardiovascular Risk Assessment1
Effective risk assessment2
- Behaviour policies which include effective risk assessment procedures will help create conditions in which teachers can teach and pupils can learn effectively. (nasuwt.org.uk)
- Any effective risk assessment requires the experience and expertise to choose an appropriate baseline for assessment. (nexor.com)
Appropriate risk assessment2
- Pupils and staff are being put at risk where the employer fails to undertake an appropriate risk assessment, implement suitable control measures, share adequate information with staff about violent and disruptive pupils, and use the sanctions available when necessary. (nasuwt.org.uk)
- Identifying the most appropriate risk assessment technique. (theirm.org)
Basic methods of risk assessment1
- With this course the participant will understand the fundamentals of risk analysis and purpose and the terms used in risk evaluation, be able to use basic methods of risk assessment, know when to do a risk assessment and what type, be able to identify more advanced methods and applications of risk management and know how to use the finding of the assessment of risk. (ebsaweb.eu)
- This thesis examines the relationships between risk assessment and parole decisions. (bham.ac.uk)
- Generic risk assessment 3.3 examines the hazards, risks and control measures relating to fire and rescue service staff, the personnel of other agencies and members of the public when fighting fires in domestic chimneys. (www.gov.uk)
- Clinical Risk Assessment and Management provides background and information to mental health professionals working in forensic settings on release decision making, with a particular focus on violent offenders. (worldcat.org)
- Effect of a genomic classifier test on clinical practice decisions for patients with high-risk prostate cancer after surgery. (springer.com)
- Development and clinical validation of an in situ biopsy-based multimarker assay for risk stratification in prostate cancer. (springer.com)
- Developed with focus groups of clinical and front line staff in four hospitals across the east of England, the campaign features a distinctive look to make a very clear and simple message. (nice.org.uk)
- The overall aim of the study was to investigate barriers to online professional information seeking, use and sharing occurring within the NHS in England, their possible effects (upon education, working practices, working lives and clinical and organisational effectiveness), and possible explanatory or causative factors. (rclis.org)
- All patients, on admission, receive an assessment of VTE and bleeding risk using the clinical risk assessment criteria described in the national tool. (nice.org.uk)
- NHS Resolution has also highlighted the risk of VTE clinical negligence claims with more than 123 cases between 2008 and 2014 costing the NHS more than £10m in legal costs and compensation. (hsj.co.uk)
- This review summarizes the current science in suicide risk assessment and provides an overview of the interventions shown to reduce the risk of suicide, with a focus on the clinical management of people with mental disorders. (bmj.com)
- 9 10 11 12 This review will complement these by examining two facets of the clinical care of people at risk of suicide-the assessment of suicide risk and interventions that can reduce that risk. (bmj.com)
- We will begin by describing the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior in clinical populations, highlighting specific patient subgroups that are at higher risk. (bmj.com)
- For clinical staff, those classed as 'high-risk' should do restricted tasks such as remote patient consultations and paperwork, according to the chart. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- High risk' non-clinical staff should have 'no direct patient contact' and work from home where possible, while those with a 'mild risk' should 'continue working as normal' under the infection control guidelines. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
Relation to risk1
- Across the public forest estates, the adoption of adaptive forest management is under active consideration, e.g. in England through implementation of a Climate Change Action Plan . (forestry.gov.uk)
- The results of this type of risk analysis can be used to inform policy-making and prioritisation of resources for flood management. (repec.org)
- The analysis predicts increasing flood risk unless current flood management policies, practices and investment levels are changed - up to 20-fold increase in real terms economic risk by the 2080s in the scenario with highest economic growth. (repec.org)
- Featuring a new section on risk management, this second edition brings the material up-to-date and enlarges the section on risk variables. (worldcat.org)
- The authors believe that successful management of the risk assessment team is a key factor is quality reports. (routledge.com)
- The Management of Health and Safety Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2000 also place a legal duty on employers, through the risk assessment processes, to examine workplace hazards, identify those at risk and take measures to control those risks. (nasuwt.org.uk)
- The 2012 canadian hypertension education program recommendations for the management of hypertension: blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, and therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
- However, these valuable risk identification and management tools are limited because they rely upon foreseeable factor analyses of steady-state systems with predictable hazard frequencies and severities. (springer.com)
- In assessing the capability of complex adaptive systems to cope with disruptions, an overemphasis upon engineering resilience through risk management and planning for what is predictable may cloud or detract from our efforts to better understand a system's emergent capabilities to withstand disruptions that are unforeseeable. (springer.com)
- We offer a notional rationale for broadening our examination of system vulnerabilities and present a conceptual model that combines engineering and SES resilience paradigms to facilitate the identification, assessment, and management of system vulnerabilities. (springer.com)
- Comments at the end of this page from Tony Tomlin, Hartley MM and from Clive Dennis, Rose and Castle Morris ("a professional health and safety inspector with the HSE for 30 years") Clive recommends the Helath & Safety Executive's Sensible Risk Management . (themorrisring.org)
- 5 Sheldrick C. The assessment and management of risk in adolescents. (bmj.com)
- He is currently employed by Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health Trust Risk Management Department. (wiley.com)
- 18. Risk Assessment and Risk Management with Deaf People ( Sue O'Rourke ). (wiley.com)
- This course gives you practical tools and techniques to create your own risk management toolkit. (theirm.org)
- The enhanced management information system also allows managers to more easily identify 'at risk' drivers and organise a suitable training programme for them. (roadsafetygb.org.uk)
- The guidelines will support a common approach to developing, analyzing, and sharing risk information that would inform decision making within the 10 ASEAN Member States (AMS) and the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on Disaster Management (AHA Centre). (pdc.org)
- By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Insurance Weekly News -- Investigators publish new report on Risk Management. (insurancenewsnet.com)
- Management of risks related to activities with hazardous biological material, be it research, development, production or diagnostics, requires risk assessment at various stages of the activity. (ebsaweb.eu)
- Implementation of a systematic biorisk management system, e.g. adopting the CWA 15793 can help organisations manage these risks. (ebsaweb.eu)
- The main aim of NHS England is to improve the health outcomes for people in England. (england.nhs.uk)
- Providers should be aware that higher ERA scores can potentially predict outcomes in high-risk patients. (dovepress.com)
- The SRA is an outcomes-focused, risk-based regulator. (sra.org.uk)
- Risk-based regulation means that risks to us acting compatibly with the regulatory objectives are assessed in terms of their probability and the impact of any harm they cause to desired outcomes, before action is taken. (sra.org.uk)
- In working compatibly with these objectives, the SRA takes a risk-based outcomes-focused approach to regulation. (sra.org.uk)
- We have also identified the risks that could prevent us from meeting these regulatory outcomes. (sra.org.uk)
- Day-to-day regulatory activities are guided by a risk-based approach to regulation, focusing attention and activity upon issues, firms and potential risks that pose the greatest threat to our regulatory outcomes. (sra.org.uk)
- Under UK health and safety legislation, employers are required to ensure the health, safety, and welfare of their employees, 1 and, in order to comply with this legislation, they must carry out risk assessments to identify the level of occupational risk. (bmj.com)
- A group of GPs has created a Covid-19 risk assessment scoring system for general practice to help identify and redeploy the most vulnerable staff. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- A full security assessment can identify areas in which your organisation needs to improve. (nexor.com)
- Universities, as institutions of higher learning and probity, may be vulnerable to public embarrassment and could even risk jeopardising important funding sources. (cla.co.uk)
- Although no one can predict the 'perfect storm' of power plant outages and transmission line faults, without Vermont Yankee western New England is that much more vulnerable to power failure. (courant.com)
- If you're still uncertain as to whether or not your organisation would benefit from a security assessment, read our answers to commonly asked questions to find out more. (nexor.com)
- The PSUR will change from being largely a document based online listings, narratives and simple sales-based incidence statistics to a benefit-risk tool with a much more statistical and quantitative approach to adverse event data, and including the incorporation of efficacy data. (smi-online.co.uk)
- The master class will provide attendees with the essential skills to ultimately confront the newly revised and incorporated elements of benefit-risk analysis for the new PSUR in their company. (smi-online.co.uk)
- The master class, led by the Oxon Epidemiology team, will explore the purpose and structure of benefit risk analysis of the new PSUR. (smi-online.co.uk)
- It presented Natural England's completed assessment of the risks that climate change poses to our objectives, under the first reporting round. (naturalengland.org.uk)
- A good risk register informs corporate decisionmaking, and allows an organisation to show how it is identifying and managing threats to its objectives effectively. (theirm.org)
- Analysing business objectives and defining the scope of risk assessments. (theirm.org)
- on risk planning for hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control and some parts of section 22.214.171.124 on biorisk control objectives and targets. (ebsaweb.eu)
- Understanding when to Review the Fire Risk Assessment. (eventbrite.co.uk)
- Complex Premises will require a higher level of knowledge, understanding and, preferably experience on the part of the fire risk assessor. (eventbrite.co.uk)
- With skills covering a wide range of fields (Ecology, Geography, Modelling, Environmental Economics), Christophe's research is mainly focused on understanding how society can better manage the environment through the lens of the water resources and their associated risks (e.g. flood, drought, pollution). (mdx.ac.uk)
- A clear understanding of the risk and value of mortgage assets is critical, particularly in light of the government's guarantee scheme. (mortgagestrategy.co.uk)
- In today's highly competitive environment, understanding your risk is essential to good business practices. (ehstoday.com)
- Understanding and measuring risk in medicine can be difficult, and this is certainly true of breast cancer. (bionews.org.uk)
- It is said that breast cancer screening involves a risk of overdiagnosis or misdiagnosis, but more fundamentally, there are subtle ways in which early detection due to screening might change our understanding of what breast cancer actually is. (bionews.org.uk)
- Individual 'radicalisation'- extremism- and terrorism-related risk assessment tools have become increasingly central instruments of counter-terrorism. (nupi.no)
- Rita Augestad Knudsen's main competence is on terrorism-, extremism, and radicalisation-related risk assessment, the concept of 'radicalisation', UK counter-terrorism, as well as the history of self-determination in international politics and international law, besides the Balkans, especially Kosovo. (nupi.no)
- Genetic counseling and risk assessment are often obtained through referral to a qualified cancer genetic professional [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Recent studies have found that referring providers are not able to consistently recognize appropriate referral indications for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer risk assessment and genetic counseling [ 2 , 9 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is adding three new hazardous waste sites that pose risks to human health and the environment to the National Priorities List (NPL) of Superfund sites. (environmental-expert.com)
- The chapter next focuses on the wide range of individual and structural (or environmental) factors that affect IDUs' risk of HIV infection. (nap.edu)
- Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous highly toxic environmental pollutants which exhibit a potential risk for human health. (biomedsearch.com)
- WASHINGTON -- Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency presented a comprehensive review of the scientific literature in its 2003 draft reassessment of the risks of dioxin, the agency did not sufficiently quantify the uncertainties and variabilities associated with the risks, nor did it adequately justify the assumptions used to estimate them, according to a new report from the National Academies' National Research Council. (nationalacademies.org)
- The course does not, however, expand on environmental risk assessment regarding deliberate release of organisms into the environment. (ebsaweb.eu)
- The Government published the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) on 25 January 2012, the first assessment of its kind for the UK and the first in a 5 year cycle. (forestry.gov.uk)
- The risk assessment is a comprehensive analysis of the threats and opportunities faced by a wide range of habitats, landscapes and services over the next century as the climate warms. (forestry.gov.uk)
- Which is why the Committee on Climate Change has carried out a comprehensive, scientific assessment of the risks and opportunities for the UK. (politics.co.uk)
- The climate change risk assessment is the result of more than three years of work, involving hundreds of leading scientists, and experts from both the public and private sectors. (politics.co.uk)
- Delegates will learn how the fire risk assessment process 'pieces' together with this course covering all of the necessary basic elements of a fire risk assessment. (eventbrite.co.uk)
- he Fire Risk Assessment Process. (eventbrite.co.uk)
- Must be referred to Nottingham Nightstop initially as part of the assessment process. (homeless.org.uk)
- According to the recent cancer genetic counseling recommendations published by the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC), "genetic counseling and risk assessment is the process of identifying and counseling individuals at increased risk of developing cancer and distinguishing between those at high risk (highly penetrant hereditary cancer syndrome), those at modestly increased risk (multifactorial etiology or low penetrance allele), and those at average risk" [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- 1987. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics and the risk assessment process for methylene chloride. (cdc.gov)
- Chapter 2 systematically reviews 29 papers involving 20,568 participants, concluding that practices vary widely, but subjective rather than evidence-based risk assessment predominates. (bham.ac.uk)
- Download this COVID-19 workforce risk assessment form for new and expectant mothers in primary eye care practices in England. (college-optometrists.org)
- These results will help shape the discussion of the risks of natural gas development and will assist in identifying areas of improved well construction and hydraulic fracturing practices to minimize risk. (onepetro.org)
- The Safety Assessment and Decision (SAAD) scorecard places practice workers into either 'mild', moderate' or 'high risk', based on factors such as ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, vitamin D levels and medical conditions. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- The team being the SAAD scorecard has urged practice managers or lead clinicians to meet with practice staff to go through the scorecard and determine their risk level, as well as discuss mental health and wellbeing concerns. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- Co-creator of the scorecard and Manchester GP Dr Mohammed Jiva said: 'In the absence of anything coming from NHS England, we decided that as local clinicians and practice manager, we'd look at the evidence out there and see if we could put together something practical and applicable for general practice staff of all ethnicities. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- During December 2012-March 2013, a veterinary practice in Berkshire, England, diagnosed 7 confirmed (culture from lesions or wounds) and 2 suspected (clinically compatible) cases of M. bovis disease in domestic cats. (cdc.gov)
Public Health England1
- In our accompanying report, 'Getting the Message on Mental Health' , we call for Public Health England, the Local Government Association and public heath leaders urgently to agree a systematic review of strategies to improve the physical as well as mental health care of people with mental ill health, and especially those with the most serious of conditions. (thersa.org)
- An update of this report (NE612) has now been produced as part of the second reporting round (see related records), updating the risks to our work and our operational response to them, particularly as a restructured organisation. (naturalengland.org.uk)
- If your employer sends you back to the agency saying that you can't work there on health and safety grounds, the agency is responsible for telling your employer to do a risk assessment. (citizensadvice.org.uk)
- Employers may use health and safety risks as an excuse to end your work. (citizensadvice.org.uk)
- The risks associated with minor, moderate, and major acute injuries and osteoarthritis in lower limb joints of professional footballers were found to be unacceptable when evaluated against work based risk criteria used by the Health and Safety Executive. (bmj.com)
- It also says, only those who have a 'mild risk' should work at a hot hub in a face-to-face role and do Covid-19 home visits. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- How do these risk assessments work? (fta.co.uk)
- In terms of employees' health, happiness and therefore productivity, managing work-related road safety can result in a reduced risk of work-related ill health, reduced stress and improved morale. (employeebenefits.co.uk)
- Participants are asked to actively participate in the workshop by bringing their own risk assessment questions and work situation up for discussion. (ebsaweb.eu)
- This report focuses on high-risk 1 countries-namely in Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and significant parts of Asia-where injecting drug use is, or is on the verge of becoming, the primary driver of the HIV epidemic. (nap.edu)
- In this report, such countries are labeled as "high-risk," indicating that injecting drug use is, or is on the verge of becoming, the primary driver of the HIV epidemic. (nap.edu)
- 1 Hawton K, Rodham K, Evans E, Weatherall R. Deliberate self harm in adolescents: self report survey in schools in England. (bmj.com)
- The committee that wrote the report recommended that EPA re-estimate the risks using several different assumptions and better communicate the uncertainties in those estimates. (nationalacademies.org)
- Again, it is instructive to note that the New England Journal of Medicine report was published 7 years before Dr. Greer informed the Hawaii State Senate that the minimum toxic dose of fluoride is 32 mg/kg. (fluoridealert.org)
- This study is the first published report using a state cancer registry to determine facilitators and barriers to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment among YBCS. (hindawi.com)
- In a regulatory filing on Friday, Yes Bank said it has received a letter from the RBI which noted that the Risk Assessment Report (RAR) was marked "confidential" and it was expected that no part of the report be divulged except for the information in the form and manner of disclosure prescribed by regulations. (firstpost.com)