Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Urinary Bladder, Overactive: Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Bladder Exstrophy: A birth defect in which the URINARY BLADDER is malformed and exposed, inside out, and protruded through the ABDOMINAL WALL. It is caused by closure defects involving the top front surface of the bladder, as well as the lower abdominal wall; SKIN; MUSCLES; and the pubic bone.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Administration, Intravesical: The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.Cystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Cystitis, Interstitial: A condition with recurring discomfort or pain in the URINARY BLADDER and the surrounding pelvic region without an identifiable disease. Severity of pain in interstitial cystitis varies greatly and often is accompanied by increased urination frequency and urgency.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Urinary Bladder Fistula: An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.Urinary Retention: Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Urinary Diversion: Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Gallbladder Emptying: A process whereby bile is delivered from the gallbladder into the duodenum. The emptying is caused by both contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter mechanism at the choledochal terminus.Hypogastric Plexus: A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Aminobiphenyl Compounds: Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Epispadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is above its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the top or the side of the PENIS, but the urethra can also be open the entire length of the penis. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is often between the CLITORIS and the labia, or in the ABDOMEN.Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Benzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.FANFT: A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Uroplakin III: A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IB to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Mandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Diagnostic Techniques, Urological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.Pudendal Nerve: A nerve which originates in the sacral spinal cord (S2 to S4) and innervates the PERINEUM, the external GENITALIA, the external ANAL SPHINCTER and the external urethral sphincter. It has three major branches: the perineal nerve, inferior anal nerves, and the dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).CresolsBCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Urinary Incontinence, Urge: Involuntary discharge of URINE that is associated with an abrupt and strong desire to void. It is usually related to the involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle of the bladder (detrusor hyperreflexia or detrusor instability).Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Urography: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Receptor, Muscarinic M3: A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Rats, Inbred F344Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Urethral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETHRA. Benign epithelial tumors of the urethra usually consist of squamous and transitional cells. Primary urethral carcinomas are rare and typically of squamous cells. Urethral carcinoma is the only urological malignancy that is more common in females than in males.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Urinary Incontinence, Stress: Involuntary discharge of URINE as a result of physical activities that increase abdominal pressure on the URINARY BLADDER without detrusor contraction or overdistended bladder. The subtypes are classified by the degree of leakage, descent and opening of the bladder neck and URETHRA without bladder contraction, and sphincter deficiency.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.New HampshireUrinary Reservoirs, Continent: Structures which collect and store urine and are emptied by catheterization of a cutaneous stoma or internal diversion to the urethra. The reservoirs are surgically created during procedures for urinary diversion.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Urological Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of urogenital conditions and diseases such as URINARY INCONTINENCE; PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA; and ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.BenzilatesDisease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Cystotomy: Surgical incision or puncture into a URINARY BLADDER. Cystotomy may be used to remove URINARY CALCULI, or to perform tissue repair and reconstruction.Dysuria: Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptor, Muscarinic M2: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Urachus: An embryonic structure originating from the ALLANTOIS. It is a canal connecting the fetal URINARY BLADDER and the UMBILICUS. It is normally converted into a fibrous cord postnatally. When the canal fails to be filled and remains open (patent urachus), urine leaks through the umbilicus.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Nocturia: Frequent URINATION at night that interrupts sleep. It is often associated with outflow obstruction, DIABETES MELLITUS, or bladder inflammation (CYSTITIS).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hair Dyes: Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.ButylaminesMice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Methylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Vesico-Ureteral Reflux: Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
... the implantation of bio-engineered bladders grown from patients' own cells has proven to be a viable treatment for bladder ... Khamsi, Roxanne (April 4, 2006). "Bio-engineered bladders successful in patients". New Scientist. Retrieved January 26, 2011. ... Topics in Biomedical Engineering International Book Series. p. 641. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-33532-2_28. ISBN 978-0-387-30241-6. " ... SENS proposes that rejuvenation may be obtained by removing aging damage via the use of stem cells and tissue engineering, ...
Atala A, Bauer SB, Soker S, Yoo JJ, Retik AB (April 2006). "Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing ... A Tissue Engineer Sows Cells and Grows Organs". Retrieved 28 September 2017. Parson, Ann (11 July 2006). "A Tissue Engineer ... Atala led the team that developed the first lab-grown organ, a bladder, to be implanted into a human. Along with Harvard ... Atala continued his work in tissue engineering and printable organs after moving to Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center and the ...
Atala, Anthony (15-21 April 2006). "Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing cystoplasty". The Lancet. London ... bladders, into human patients. May 15 - The sequence of the last chromosome in the Human Genome Project is published in the ...
Atala A, Bauer SB, Soker S, Yoo JJ, Retik AB (April 2006). "Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing ... Notable achievements announced at WFIRM have been the first lab-grown organ, a urinary bladder, the artificial urinary bladder ... Among other goals, WFIRM scientists are looking for ways to create insulin-producing cells in the laboratory, engineered blood ... "Lab-grown bladders 'a milestone'". BBC News. 3 April 2006. ... of his team members from the Laboratory for Tissue Engineering ...
August 2015 Reed, Brian; Shaw, Rod (2011). G005: Latrine slabs - an engineer's guide. Loughborough, UK: WEDC. p. 11. ISBN ... A guidebook for women with urination anxiety (shy bladder). CJOB Publications, Walnut Creek, California: 61. Tobin, Joseph; ... Environmental Engineering Research. 19 (2): 131-138. Olmert, Carol (2008): Bathrooms make me nervous. ... A guidebook for women with urination anxiety (shy bladder). CJOB Publications, Walnut Creek, California: 61. https://books. ...
Collagen has also been used in nerve repair and bladder engineering. Immunogenicity has limited the applications of collagen. ... Chung HJ, Park TG (May 2007). "Surface engineered and drug releasing pre-fabricated scaffolds for tissue engineering". Adv. ... and easy processability make this polymer a good choice for tissue engineering applications. It is used in engineering tissues ... The main motive of cell encapsulation technology is to overcome the existing problem of graft rejection in tissue engineering ...
Engineering for the Innovator conversion was performed by Spectro engineering of Los Angeles). The wing attach fittings were ... strengthened and fuel capacity increased by adding fuel bladders to the outer wing panels. The engineer's controls were ... conversion to allow operation without a Flight Engineer. Propeller control for the two Lycomings was electrical. The Lycoming's ...
These tissue-engineered 'artificial arteries' have potential use as access fistulae for haemodialysis patients and as coronary ... She has used the same technology to grow bladder and uterine graft with long-term viability. These discoveries have been ... vascular smooth muscle and tissue engineering of the arteries. - Therapeutic Uses of Beta-casein a2 and dietary supplement ...
1997 Gershman, A., Ram Leibig, G., Fuchs, G., Raz, S.: Bladder Wall Replacement Using Biologically Engineered Membrane. J. ... 1998 Gershman, A., Ram-Liebig, G., Fuchs, G., Raz, S.: Bladder Wall Replacement Using Biologically Engineered Membranes. ... 1997 Gershman, A., Raz, S.: Bioengineering For Bladders. Newsletter, Department of Urology. UCLA. 1995 Gill, I., Kavoussi, L., ... 1993 Ehrlich, R., Gershman, A.: Laparoscopic Seromyotomy For Non-neurogenic Neurogenic Bladder In A Child. J. Urol. 1993 ...
This electrode is mostly used to interrupt reflex circuits of the dorsal sacral roots and to control bladder function. Book ... Grill, W. M., Norman, S. E., & Bellamkonda, R. V. (2009). Implanted neural interfaces: biochallenges and engineered solutions. ... Annual review of biomedical engineering, 11, 1-24. doi:10.1146/annurev-bioeng-061008-124927 Donaldson PEK (1983). The Cooper ...
Other engineers believed that rubber bladders improved performance in tests, but anticipated problems under real-world ... But some engineers feared that such a tank might melt and disagreed with others who felt it was safer than the existing metal ... Lee & Ermann 1999: engineers in the design stage were still trying "to find out how to conduct crash tests" (Feaheny 1997; see ... The engineer overseeing the Pinto's design, Harold MacDonald (whose father died in a fuel tank fire when his Model A Ford ...
Annals of biomedical engineering, 2011. Newton, R.C., et al., Progress toward optical biopsy: bringing the microscope to the ... 189: p. 111-9. Sonn, G.a., et al., Optical biopsy of human bladder neoplasia with in vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy. The ...
"David Geiger, Engineer, 54, Dies". The New York Times. 1989-10-04.   "Airbeam Technology". Natick server webpage. US Army ... Airbeams, inflatable spars, inflatable wings, and tensairity-enhanced inflatable bladders provide a means to structure ... The inflatable structures for these applications may take a variety of engineered shapes including stacked toroidal, tension ... while some early balloons were made of dried animal bladders. latex rubber balloons are used for children ...
Modern balls are designed by teams of engineers to exacting specifications, with rubber or plastic bladders, and often with ... bladders. The rugby ball's distinctive shape is supposedly due to the pig's bladder, although early balls were more plum-shape ... The ball is made of leather (possibly from a deer) and a pig's bladder. It has a diameter of between 14-16 cm (5.5-6.3 in), ... The first balls were made of natural materials, such as an inflated pig bladder, later put inside a leather cover, which has ...
In terms of injury repair and tissue engineering, the extracellular matrix serves two main purposes. First, it prevents the ... Not all ECM devices come from the bladder. Extracellular matrix coming from pig small intestine submucosa are being used to ... For medical applications, the ECM required is usually extracted from pig bladders, an easily accessible and relatively unused ... Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. 3 (2): 77-84. doi:10.1002/term.136. PMID 19051218.. ...
He died of bladder disease in 1910 at his house 25 Braid Avenue, Edinburgh, leaving the then substantial sum of over £8000. He ... where his brother Robert Douglas was an iron founder and engineer. He came to early fame with the designs of Briggate Free ... later Imperial College of Engineering. Douglas married the granddaughter of Alexander Cowan leading to his commission to build ...
In June, about 5,000 litres of jet fuel leaked out of a containment bladder in the mine site's tank farm at Milne Inlet. The ... "secondary engineered containment facilities", and that there was no environmental damage. 5,000 l (1,100 imp gal; 1,300 US gal ... of aviation fuel leaked from a fuel bladder at the mine's port facilities on Milne Inlet. The other two leaks of 200 l (44 imp ...
Engineered treatments do not induce an immune response as biological treatments may, and they are easily tunable and ... People have recovered sensation, use of formerly paralysed muscles, and bladder and bowel function after the surgeries, eg ... Use of biomaterials is an engineering approach to SCI treatment that can be combined with stem cell transplantation. They can ... The general hypothesis behind engineered biomaterials is that bridging the lesion site using a growth permissive scaffold may ...
A wet wing is an aerospace engineering technique where an aircraft's wing structure is sealed and used as a fuel tank. Wet ... By eliminating the need for fuel bladders, aircraft can weigh less and the wing root bending moment caused by the lift ...
... successfully transplanted stem cell-engineered bladders to seven pediatric patients suffering from malfunctioning bladders. ... So far bladder and trachea have been developed. This method attempts to address tissue rejection, and there are already cases ...
German engineer Walter Linderer who filed German patent #896,312 on 6 October 1951 was issued on 12 November 1953, ... The airbag specified for automobile use traces its origins to air-filled bladders as early as 1951. The invention is credited ... Hetrick was an industrial engineer and member of the United States Navy. His airbag was designed based on his experiences with ... "240 Landmarks of Japanese Automotive Technology - Subaru Legend airbag system". Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan. ...
A fish's swim bladder controls buoyancy by adjusting the amount of gas in the swim bladder, allowing it to achieve neutral ... Boats, ships and seaplanes are engineered in a way that ensures that they remain afloat. Submarines have controllable buoyancy ... When a fish's overall density becomes higher or lower than the surrounding water due volume change of the swim bladder ... and a gland adjacent to the swim bladder. The human brain exhibits approximately neutral buoyancy as a result of its suspension ...
Scaffolds for tissue engineering Synthetic dura mater Bladder neck suspension Soft tissue replacement Artificial blood vessels ...
Platus PhD, David L., SPIE International Society of Optical Engineering - July 1999, Optomechanical Engineering and Vibration ... Air springs are rubber bladders which provide damping as well as isolation and are used in large trucks. Some pneumatic ... Vibration is undesirable in many domains, primarily engineered systems and habitable spaces, and methods have been developed to ... Pneumatic or air isolators These are bladders or canisters of compressed air. A source of compressed air is required to ...
Treatment of wounded soldiers convinced him that there was a high chance of infection and death, when "spinal bladders" were ... He was a Surgeon Lieutenant to the East London (Tower Hamlets) Royal Engineers (Volunteers) from April 1902. During the First ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific ... Rabie E. Abdel-Halim, Ali S. Altwaijiri, Salah R. Elfaqih, Ahmad H. Mitwall (2003), "Extraction of urinary bladder described by ... a b c d e f g h i Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering, ... a b c Donald Routledge Hill, "Engineering", p. 776, in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. ...
Bladder tissue-engineering: a new practical solution? [Lancet. 2006]. *Re: tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients ... The engineered bladder biopsies showed an adequate structural architecture and phenotype.. CONCLUSIONS: Engineered bladder ... Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing cystoplasty.. Atala A1, Bauer SB, Soker S, Yoo JJ, Retik AB. ... About 7 weeks after the biopsy, the autologous engineered bladder constructs were used for reconstruction and implanted either ...
... shaped like a bladder and seeded with human bladder cells, is dipped into a growth solution (Image: Bladders engineered in the ... Bio-engineered bladders successful in patients * 00:01 04 April 2006 * NewScientist.com news service * Roxanne Khamsi The ... The patients with the bio-engineered bladders gained better urinary control. The improvements were similar to those resulting ... The team then placed muscle cells and cells from the bladder lining on a biodegradable bladder-shaped scaffold and allowed them ...
Engineering, UT Southwestern collaborate on project. National Science Foundation grant funds UTA electrical engineers bladder ... Our device and method can detect as few as two bladder cancer cells in a full liter of urine. Thats the kind of sensitivity we ... Bladder cancer is frequently asymptomatic and as many as 25 percent of patients are diagnosed at an advanced and often ... "This is the least invasive way to detect bladder cancer," Iqbal said. "Theres no MRI. No blood being drawn. Its just a urine ...
PD-1 Knockout Engineered T Cells for Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... A Dose-escalation Phase I Trial of PD-1 Knockout Engineered T Cells for the Treatment of Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer. ... This study will evaluate the safety of PD-1 knockout engineered T cells in treating metastatic advanced bladder cancer. Blood ... Bladder Cancer. 2016 Jan 7;2(1):15-25. Review. Kim J. Immune checkpoint blockade therapy for bladder cancer treatment. Investig ...
... results demonstrate that silk scaffolds support primary and pluripotent cell responses pertinent to bladder tissue engineering ... and differentiation of primary cell lines including human bladder smooth muscle cells (SMC) and urothelial cells as well as ... coatings were assessed as templates for cell-seeded bladder tissue engineering approaches. Two structurally diverse groups of ... Surgical management of a variety of bladder disorders including neurogenic bladder, posterior urethral valves, and bladder ...
Evaluation of Silk Biomaterials in Combination with Extracellular Matrix Coatings for Bladder Tissue Engineering with Primary ... coatings were assessed as templates for cell-seeded bladder tissue engineering approaches. Two structurally diverse groups of ... "Evaluation of Silk Biomaterials in Combination with Extracellular Matrix Coatings for Bladder Tissue Engineering with Primary ... Bladder.. Urology.. Silk.. Tufts University. Department of Biomedical Engineering.. Permanent URL. http://hdl.handle.net/10427/ ...
Optical Engineering Photosensitization of human bladder carcinoma cells in vitro by 9-acetoxy-tetra-n-propylporphycene (ATPPn) ... Bladder carcinoma cells were incubated for 60 mm at 37°C with the liposomes containing 0.5-μg ATPPn ad 1.5-ml medium. Using ... Published in: Optical Engineering Volume 32, Issue 2. Show Author Affiliations. Alexandra Aicher, Univ. of Ulm (Germany). Kurt ... was tested for photodynamic therapy on a human bladder carcinoma cell line. Because of the hydrophobic character of the ...
In this regard, the present paper aims to review the results of,i, in vivo,/i, tissue engineering experimentations, focusing on ... All together, the published reports demonstrate that the proposed tissue engineering approaches spread toward multiple ... It is commonly stated that tissue engineering is the most promising approach to treat or replace failing tissues/organs. For ... J. Lai, P. Chang, and J. Lin, "A comparison of engineered urinary bladder and intestinal smooth muscle for urinary bladder wall ...
... - Jun 30, 2011 - ... More from Architectural & Civil Engineering Products. Architectural & Civil Engineering Products New Hughes Safety Showers and ... We can also build custom potable water bladder tanks, grey water, black water, fuel bladder and chemical containment bladder ... IPIs liquid storage products including, water bladders, water tanks, fuel bladders, pillow tanks and flexible tanks are ...
In the United States, approximately 70,000 patients are newly diagnosed with bladder cancer each year. ... bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and in the top ten for women. ... Researchers engineer probiotics to safely deliver immunotherapies to tumors Researchers at Columbia Engineering have engineered ... What Causes Bladder Cancer?. Read More Bladder Cancer Diagnosis. Read More Bladder Cancer Treatment. Read More ...
Bacteriophages Plentiful in Womens Bladders. By Abby Olena , February 2, 2018 In one of the first looks at the urinary virome ... tags: protein engineering x microbiology x culture x cell & molecular biology x ...
Bacteriophages Plentiful in Womens Bladders. By Abby Olena , February 2, 2018 In one of the first looks at the urinary virome ...
McCammon Engineering Corp.. 7189 Henry Lane, Memo, IN 47861. P: 812.356.4455 E: [email protected] Links. *Home ... When manufacturing these bladders, we perform the dip molding as well as the pre-dry water bath and leach, post-dry tumbling ... The 30-liter bladder is 26″ long, 10″ wide and 5″ in diameter with a material thickness of .030″. To our knowledge, this is the ... We continue to supply the 30-liter (7.92- gallon) bladder and 15-liter (3.96-gallon) sister part despite the fact the original ...
The engineered bladder biopsies showed an adequate structural architecture and phenotype. Conclusions: Engineered bladder ... The engineered bladder biopsies showed an adequate structural architecture and phenotype. Conclusions: Engineered bladder ... The engineered bladder biopsies showed an adequate structural architecture and phenotype. Conclusions: Engineered bladder ... The engineered bladder biopsies showed an adequate structural architecture and phenotype. Conclusions: Engineered bladder ...
The company has engineered mRNAs to prevent immune reactions of the body. "The final step in purification of therapeutic mRNAs ... He cited as a case study the antibody engineering group at VIB in Belgium. The group designed and assembled a family of ... At the recent Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics conference in San Diego, CA, several new research approaches were presented ...
Bladder tissue engineering: tissue regeneration and neovascularization of HA-VEGF-incorporated bladder acellular constructs in ... Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing cystoplasty. Lancet. 2006. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68438-9.PubMed ... Promising results of urinary bladder augmentation with the tissue engineered grafts in children with neurogenic bladder caused ... Tissue engineering give a possibility to create an urinary bladder de novo using biomaterials and patients cells . ...
The prosthetic device comprises a bladder having a liquid cavity at the distal end. The bladder is inflatable and deflatable to ... The prosthetic device comprises a liquid supply system that couples along the column to the bladder for selectively controlling ... liquid flow to the bladder to increase and decrease the girth. ... Medical Engineering Corp.. Penile implant. US4222377. Jun 27, ... The bladder 300 comprises a main bladder body 306 that has a generally round cylindrical shape as illustrated. The main bladder ...
Though the advantage of extracellular matrix extracted from porcine urine bladder (UBM) on tissue ... Interaction of chondrocytes, extracellular matrix and growth factors: relevance for articular cartilage tissue engineering. ... Porcine urinary bladder extracellular matrix activates skeletal myogenesis in mouse muscle cryoinjury. Juquan Song1*, Peter ... Song J, Hornsby P, Stanley M, AbdelFattah KR and Wolf SE. Porcine urinary bladder extracellular matrix activates skeletal ...
regenerative medicine / cell sheet engineering / bladder reconstruction / bladder augmentation / urinary tract regeneration / ... The development of new bladder augmentation technique using cultured bladder epithelial cell sheets.. Research Project ... Bladder reconstruction using gastrointestinal flaps may induce severe complications. The majority of the complications are ... This versatile technology should prove useful in urinary tract tissue engineering and surgical reconstructions. Less ...
... inflatable bladder. Check out our line of inflatable air bladders and short stroke actuators. ... their Program Director of Engineering Technology. ... Powr-Tube® Short Stroke Actuator "Inflatable Bladder". Long ...
This premier marcus evans event will bring together the foremost leaders within the human factors and usability engineering ... Urgent PC Neuromodulation System Stimulates Leg Nerve, Aims to Quell Overactive Bladder. March 2nd, 2010 Editors Neurology, Ob/ ... This premier marcus evans event will bring together the foremost leaders within the human factors and usability engineering ... marcus evans invites Senior Executives, Engineers and Scientists from Medical Device and Life Science Firms with ...
Tissue engineering aims to create new bladder tissue for replacement purposes with both "seeded" and "unseeded" technology. ... Non-traditional management of the neurogenic bladder: tissue engineering and neuromodulation. Scientific World Journal. 2007 ... namely the abnormal relationship between the nerves and the bladder wall. These therapies include transurethral bladder ... However, some patients will fail this therapy and require surgical reconstruction in the form of bladder augmentation surgery ...
Advanced bladder cancerTumorsDiagnosed with bladder cancerUrineScaffoldHuman bladderOveractiveScaffoldsChildren with neurogenic bladderBiopsyConstructsFuel bladdersStorage bladdersBiomaterialsMetastatic bladder cancerNeurogenic bladder disordersPathways that control the bladderSpina bifidaAbstractCreate tissue-engineeredMuscle-invasive Bladder CancerUrotheliumReconstructiveCystoplastyWhole bladderOrgansSpinal cord iHigh recurrence rateRegenerationEpithelialApproachesComplicationsMade of collagenOutlet obstructionIntestinalTreatment of neurogenicCellsEpitheliumTransurethralCancer diagnosesInvasiveTumor modelLeak point pressureIntermittent catheterizationOrgan
- However, while cystoscopy is the "gold standard" for a routine surveillance exam, it remains imperfect with various experimental studies demonstrating 4-10% missed bladder tumors by conventional cystoscopy [2- (washington.edu)
- Background: N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) can cause direct DNA damage and are known to induce a wide range of tumors, including tumors of the bladder in animal models. (medicalxpress.com)
- Proteoglycans in bladder tumors are modified with a distinct oncofetal chondroitin sulfate (ofCS) glycosaminoglycan that is normally restricted to placental trophoblast cells. (nature.com)
- This ofCS-modification can be detected in bladder tumors by the malarial VAR2CSA protein, which in malaria pathogenesis mediates adherence of parasite-infected erythrocytes within the placenta. (nature.com)
- Patients with high-grade bladder tumors displayed a marked increase in urinary ofCSPGs as compared to healthy individuals. (nature.com)
- Bladder cancer, like most other solid tumors, expresses a distinct form of chondroitin sulfate (CS), normally restricted to the placenta 8 . (nature.com)
- Researchers at the UNC School of Medicine conducted a comprehensive genetic analysis of invasive bladder cancer tumors to discover that the disease shares genetic similarities with two forms of breast cancer. (innovations-report.com)
- The siRNA markedly down-regulated RIPK4 expression in bladder cancer cells and bladder tumors, thus inhibiting tumorigenesis and progression in three bladder tumor models (a subcutaneous model, an in situ bladder tumor model, and a lung metastasis model), with no adverse effects. (sciencemag.org)
- and NEW YORK, April 5, 2013 - Removing tumors from the lining of the bladder, a procedure called transurethral resection, could become more tolerable for the patient and easier for the surgeon using a telerobotic platform that is under development. (photonics.com)
- Bladder cancer, the sixth most common form of cancer in the US, is the most expensive to treat in part because the tumors in the bladder lining are exceptionally persistent, requiring continuous surveillance and repeated surgeries. (photonics.com)
- The new microrobotic platform, designed to be inserted through natural orifices - in this case, the urethra - provides surgeons with a much better view of bladder tumors for more accurate diagnostics and removal regardless of location. (photonics.com)
- One reason that bladder cancer is so deadly is the propensity for these tumors to develop resistance to the drugs typically used as frontline therapies, explains study leader Mohammad Hoque, D.D.S, Ph.D., an associate professor of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, urology, oncology and member of the Johns Hopkins Greenberg Bladder Cancer Institute. (brightsurf.com)
- Although eliminating these CSCs is critical to fighting bladder cancer, Hoque adds, little is known about the mechanisms behind how tumors maintain their stem cell populations. (brightsurf.com)
- In the United States, approximately 70,000 patients are newly diagnosed with bladder cancer each year. (news-medical.net)
- In the validation study, overseen by Jacob Kagan, Ph.D., program director of NCI s Cancer Biomarkers Research Group, 15 different biomarkers in 300 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer will be examined in an effort to predict cancer recurrence. (innovations-report.com)
- The study also revealed a possible answer to why women diagnosed with bladder cancer have overall poorer outcomes compared to males. (innovations-report.com)
- A multi-institutional research team has received a $480,000 National Science Foundation grant to build an inexpensive device that uses nanotechnology and a simple urine test to detect the most miniscule amount of bladder cancer cells in a patient. (uta.edu)
- Our device and method can detect as few as two bladder cancer cells in a full liter of urine. (uta.edu)
- A HIGHLY accurate urine test which can rule out bladder cancer with a negative-predictive value of 99% using a hospital laboratory's standard ELISA testing equipment is today being offered free to the NHS to help urologists clear the backlog of people waiting for a diagnosis and monitoring as a result of COVID-19 hospital closures. (news-medical.net)
- By examining genetic changes in DNA obtained through urine samples, the test, if successfully validated, will provide a sensitive and non-invasive method of screening for bladder cancer recurrence. (innovations-report.com)
- For screening for recurrent bladder cancer, DNA can be easily extracted from cells that are normally present in urine, and compared to DNA sequences of unaffected cells, such as lymphocytes, from the same patients. (innovations-report.com)
- In bladder cancer, proteoglycans are constantly shed into the urine, and therefore have the potential to be used for detection of disease. (nature.com)
- In this study we investigated whether recombinant VAR2CSA (rVAR2) protein could be used to detect ofCS-modified proteoglycans (ofCSPGs) in the urine of bladder cancer patients as an indication of disease presence. (nature.com)
- We show that ofCSPGs in bladder cancer urine can be immobilized on cationic nitrocellulose membranes and subsequently probed for ofCS content by rVAR2 protein in a custom-made dot-blot assay. (nature.com)
- Urine ofCSPGs decreased significantly after complete tumor resection compared to matched urine collected preoperatively from patients with bladder cancer. (nature.com)
- Moreover, ofCSPGs in urine correlated with tumor size of bladder cancer patients. (nature.com)
- These findings demonstrate that rVAR2 can be utilized in a simple biochemical assay to detect cancer-specific ofCS-modifications in the urine of bladder cancer patients, which may be further developed as a noninvasive approach to detect and monitor the disease. (nature.com)
- The type-1 fimbriae is a key virulence factor that facilitates bacterial attachment to the bladder epithelium and enables thereby UPEC to resist being rinsed out by the urine flow. (frontiersin.org)
- More critical was that her tiny, rigid bladder would spasm frequently, forcing urine back into her kidneys, where it triggered severe infections that were slowly destroying them. (discovermagazine.com)
- A normal bladder has three layers: On the outside is muscle, in the middle is collagen, and the innermost layer consists of specialized urothelial cells that are impermeable to urine and protect the body from waste fluids. (discovermagazine.com)
- OBJECTIVE: To characterize the contractile activity that occurs in the bladder during the filling phase of the micturition cycle (non-micturition contractions, NMCs), which generate transient rises in intravesical pressure not associated with urine flow. (diva-portal.org)
- The normal function of the urinary bladder is to store and expel urine in a coordinated, controlled fashion. (medscape.com)
- The Purdue University team engineered an array they called polyGPA (polymer-based reverse phase glycoprotein array) and have shown proof-of-concept experiments in using it to detect the presence of glycoproteins associated with bladder cancer in patient urine samples. (medgadget.com)
- The normal function of the bladder is to ensure the storage of urine and its controlled and coordinated excretion. (healthcanal.com)
- The patients affected often perceive little or no urge to void urine and are either unable to begin voiding or cannot stop the bladder from passing urine (incontinence). (healthcanal.com)
- This is due to the fact that after the bladder has been emptied a small amount of urine always remains, promoting the formation of urinary stones (phosphate stones) and bladder infections, which may spread to the kidneys. (healthcanal.com)
- Drug treatment is often targeted towards the muscles involved in the storage of urine and the emptying of the bladder. (healthcanal.com)
- Also the resident said that my sister couldn't have lasted much longer as the bladder would have completely shut off her urine flow very soon -- which we knew. (bladdercancersupport.org)
- Urothelial and muscle cells were grown in culture, and seeded on a biodegradable bladder-shaped scaffold made of collagen, or a composite of collagen and polyglycolic acid. (nih.gov)
- The team then placed muscle cells and cells from the bladder lining on a biodegradable bladder-shaped scaffold and allowed them to grow for about two months. (lankalibrary.com)
- These results demonstrate that silk scaffolds support primary and pluripotent cell responses pertinent to bladder tissue engineering and that scaffold morphology and fibronectin coatings influence these processes. (plos.org)
- In this regard, the present paper aims to review the results of in vivo tissue engineering experimentations, focusing on the role of the scaffold and its specificity with respect to the tissue to be regenerated, in order to verify whether an extracellular matrix-like device, as usually stated, could promote an expected positive outcome. (hindawi.com)
- A simple search on the PubMed website using the key "scaffold tissue engineering" gave 8948 results (July, 2014), the first two papers being published in 1993, characterized by a linear-like distribution starting from the year 2000 (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
- For this aim, the present review focuses on the role of the scaffold in tissue engineering to be considered not just as a passive support for cell seeding but as an active platform that can effectively contribute to tissue regeneration and host integration. (hindawi.com)
- The technical approach to address this issue is summarized into the well-known tissue engineering paradigm [ 3 ], and one of its key points specifically focuses on the definition of a viable and instructive scaffold for cell seeding, proliferation, migration, and differentiation in the case of stem cells. (hindawi.com)
- Endorsing the research, Professor Dietmar W. Hutmacher, from Queensland University of Technology, said: "The quest for the 21 century tissue engineering concepts is not to replicate/copy the physical structure of the tissue to be regenerated but to guide the regeneration process by providing a scaffold that inherits a sculupturous structural design combined with biomolecules which give the crucial signals for guiding the regeneration. (phys.org)
- In seven weeks, the cells had grown to fill in the scaffold, creating a new bladder. (go.com)
- Then we replaced the trachea with this tissue-engineered scaffold. (nytimes.com)
- Scaffolds alone or coated with collagen types I or IV or fibronectin were assessed independently for their ability to support attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of primary cell lines including human bladder smooth muscle cells (SMC) and urothelial cells as well as pluripotent cell populations, such as murine embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (plos.org)
- The recently synthesized photosensitizer 9-acetoxy-tetra-npropylporphycene (ATPPn), a compound of the group of porphycenes, was tested for photodynamic therapy on a human bladder carcinoma cell line. (spie.org)
- The telerobotic system created by engineers and doctors at Vanderbilt and Columbia universities is only 5.5 mm in diameter and is shown in a glass flask about the size of a human bladder. (photonics.com)
- Augmentation cystoplasty with autologous intestine remains the gold standard of surgical treatment for many patients with low capacity, poorly compliant or refractory overactive urinary bladder. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is indicated for symptoms of overactive bladder (eg, urinary urge incontinence, urgency, and frequency). (medscape.com)
- Improvement in overactive bladder symptoms in patients using functional electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve for walking. (medworm.com)
- CONCLUSION: The results of this exploratory study suggest that functional electrical stimulation use does improve overactive bladder symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis. (medworm.com)
- Further exploration is needed to study this association and explore whether the mechanism is similar to that of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation, a recognized treatment for the overactive bladder. (medworm.com)
- Engineered bladder tissues, created with autologous cells seeded on collagen-polyglycolic acid scaffolds, and wrapped in omentum after implantation, can be used in patients who need cystoplasty. (nih.gov)
- Previous studies in bladder tissue engineering have investigated both natural and synthetic scaffolds either alone or seeded with autologous bladder cell populations as alternative strategies for defect repair or neobladder reconstruction . (plos.org)
- Construction of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts in fibrin scaffolds in 30 days. (springer.com)
- The results are eminent to usher the next era of design and fabrication of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. (phys.org)
- The bladders are produced using scaffolds coated with anti-inflammatory peptides. (phys.org)
- Using the patient's own bladder tissue (obtained from biopsy), researchers grew urothelial and muscle cells and seeded them on collagen-based, bladder-shaped scaffolds. (science20.com)
- A bladder biopsy was obtained from each patient. (nih.gov)
- About 7 weeks after the biopsy, the autologous engineered bladder constructs were used for reconstruction and implanted either with or without an omental wrap. (nih.gov)
- To create the new bladders, the researchers took a biopsy from patients whose bladders functioned poorly due to an inherited nervous system disorder. (lankalibrary.com)
- A key requirements for therapy utilizing the tissue engineering methodologies is use of techniques which have the capability to yield a high number of cells, from small tissue biopsy in a relatively short time. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore critical is use of isolation and expansion techniques which have the capability to yield a high number of cells, from small urinary bladder biopsy in a relatively short time. (biomedcentral.com)
- Establishment of UB-SMCs culture for tissue engineering is even more complicated because cells are usually isolated from a small biopsy and have to be expanded to high numbers. (biomedcentral.com)
- If the surgeon, using endoscopic observation or biopsy, determines that a tumor is invasive and has penetrated the muscle layer, a cystectomy is performed, which removes the entire bladder through an incision in the abdomen. (photonics.com)
- He took a stamp-sized biopsy of healthy cells from a little boy's broken bladder. (esquire.com)
- 4.4 Can neo-bladder constructs be made from cells sourced from diseased patients? (elsevier.com)
- QUT biofabrication team has made a major breakthrough by 3D printing mechanically reinforced, tissue engineered constructs for the regeneration of body parts. (phys.org)
- It is now a reality to utilize sophisticated machine control to create tissue-engineered constructs," say Wei Long Ng and co-authors, of the Nanyang Technological University and the Agency for Science, Technology, and Research in Singapore. (nanowerk.com)
- The bladder constructs were then used for reconstruction and implanted, some with an omental wrap. (science20.com)
- Interstate Products has supplied water storage bladders and provided customized solutions for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), USAID and many other relief agencies and non-governmental organizations worldwide. (thomasnet.com)
- and residential application generally utilize water storage bladders in the range of 100, 250, 500 gallons or more to address situations that can last from days to weeks. (thomasnet.com)
- Silk-based biomaterials in combination with extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings were assessed as templates for cell-seeded bladder tissue engineering approaches. (plos.org)
- His research interests are in biomaterials and tissue engineering. (medgadget.com)
- This is an introductory course suitable for anyone interested in the design of the next-generation of better biomaterials and, in particular, at the intersection of nanotechnology and tissue engineering. (techconnectworld.com)
- In patients with metastatic bladder cancer, a novel combination of biomarkers from baseline tumor tissues was predictive of improved clinical responses and prolonged survival following treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, according to researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. (news-medical.net)
- MPDL3280A (anti-PD-L1) treatment leads to clinical activity in metastatic bladder cancer. (nature.com)
- Jamison J, Maguire S, McCann J. Catheter policies for management of long term voiding problems in adults with neurogenic bladder disorders. (medscape.com)
- It is unclear whether patients with neurogenic bladder disorders benefit from the drug L-methionine. (healthcanal.com)
- For these reasons, patients with neurogenic bladder disorders often have a reduced quality of life and an increased risk of kidney damage. (healthcanal.com)
- The IQWiG researchers searched for studies in which one group of patients with neurogenic bladder disorders received L-methionine and the comparator group received either a different drug or non-drug therapy or placebo. (healthcanal.com)
- Dr. Pierre Clément is studying the feasibility of introducing genetic material into the nervous pathways that control the bladder, using harmless viruses. (axa-research.org)
- A life-threatening disability after complete spinal cord injury is urinary dysfunction, which is attributable to lack of regeneration of supraspinal pathways that control the bladder. (jneurosci.org)
- Spina Bifida Research Bibliography: Non-traditional management of the neurogenic bladder: tissue engineering and neuromodulation. (blogspot.com)
- Patients with spina bifida and a neurogenic bladder have traditionally been managed with clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy in order to treat abnormal bladder wall dynamics, protect the upper urinary tract from damage, and achieve urinary continence. (blogspot.com)
- Neuromodulation therapies directly address the root of the problem in patients with spina bifida and a neurogenic bladder, namely the abnormal relationship between the nerves and the bladder wall. (blogspot.com)
- It took about a decade, but in 1999 he and his colleagues began implanting these engineered organs in spina bifida patients aged 4 to 19 who, in addition to spinal cord defects and nerve damage, had abnormal bladders. (discovermagazine.com)
- However, researchers from Wake Forest University and Children's Hospital Boston have reported viable results with engineered bladder tissue in a small group of patients with myelomeningocele (a type of spina bifida). (science20.com)
- The updated outcomes of bladder-preserving trimodal therapy using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. (urotoday.com)
- Bladder-preserving trimodal therapy is recognized as a promising alternative treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. (urotoday.com)
- We report the updated outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients that were treated using our treatment protocol, which involves radiotherapy delivered with a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. (urotoday.com)
- Professor Southgate is a cell/molecular biologist who studies human urothelium, the epithelium of the urinary bladder. (york.ac.uk)
- In addition, a preliminary clinical study is performed to identify the morphological features pertinent to bladder cancer diagnosis, including loss of boundary or image contrast between urothelium and the underlying layers, heterogeneous patterns in the cancerous urothelium, and margin between normal and bladder cancers. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- The gold standard examination of the lower urinary tract consists of an optical examination of the bladder urothelium, the tissue layer lining the interior of the urinary tract, or cystoscopy. (washington.edu)
- E. J. Seibel, T. D. Soper, M. R. Burkhardt, M. P. Porter, and J. W. Yoon, "Multimodal flexible cystoscopy for creating co-registered panoramas of the bladder urothelium," in Photonic therapeutics and diagnostics viii , 2012, p. 82071A-82071A-7. (washington.edu)
- At present, reconstructive surgery is often performed to treat severe bladder problems. (lankalibrary.com)
- Currently, gastrointestinal segments represent the primary option for bladder reconstructive procedures despite numerous complications including chronic urinary tract infection, stone formation, graft rupture, as well as secondary malignancies . (plos.org)
- Reconstructive surgery in which a segment of the bowel is removed and used to replace part of a diseased urinary bladder in patients with low bladder capacity or detrusor compliance, resulting in severe urgency, frequency, incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), pyelonephritis, or progressive renal insufficiency. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing cystoplasty. (nih.gov)
- Patients with end-stage bladder disease can be treated with cystoplasty using gastrointestinal segments. (nih.gov)
- Seven patients with myelomeningocele, aged 4-19 years, with high-pressure or poorly compliant bladders, were identified as candidates for cystoplasty. (nih.gov)
- Surgical management of a variety of bladder disorders including neurogenic bladder, posterior urethral valves, and bladder exstrophy frequently requires augmentation cystoplasty in order to prevent renal damage and incontinence from increased urinary storage and voiding pressures . (plos.org)
- Retik, Alan B. / Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing cystoplasty . (elsevier.com)
- bladder augmentation augmentation cystoplasty . (thefreedictionary.com)
- augmentation cystoplasty, often achieved with the addition of a flap of bowel or stomach to the bladder to increase bladder volume. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cystoplasty using gastrointestinal segments is a common treatment for patients with end-stage bladder disease. (science20.com)
- In this paper, we demonstrate a method for reconstructing the surface of the whole bladder from endoscopic video using structure from motion. (washington.edu)
- The treatment protocol included maximal transurethral resection followed by whole-bladder radiotherapy (40 Gy). (urotoday.com)
- A significant correlation was found between the relaxant effect of ONO-AE1-329 and whole bladder weight. (nih.gov)
- It is commonly stated that tissue engineering is the most promising approach to treat or replace failing tissues/organs. (hindawi.com)
- One of the great expectations from tissue engineering is the potential to develop functional organs to overcome the current limitations related to the shortage of donor organs, incompatibility problems, and the detrimental effects of long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs after transplantation [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Atala continued his work in tissue engineering and printable organs after moving to Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center and the Wake Forest School of Medicine in 2004. (wikipedia.org)
- This study suggests that these exposures may also affect secondary organs such as the bladder," Catsburg said. (medicalxpress.com)
- The intersection of 3D printing for microfluidic fabrication and bioprinting 3D tissues shows great promise in the direction of single-step organ-on-a-chip engineering and can allow greater flexibility and throughput in the research process," says Savas Tasoglu (@SavasTasoglu), assistant professor at the University of Connecticut, who works on developing new applications of 3D printing in microfluidics and organs-on-a-chip. (nanowerk.com)
- Dr. Macchiarini is a leader in the field of tissue engineering, in which the goal is to produce replacement tissues and organs outside the body. (nytimes.com)
- Researchers have shown that compared to placebo, a drug treatment intended to prevent remodeling of the bladder wall and given within 48 hours after spinal cord injury (SCI) in dogs. (eurekalert.org)
- New Rochelle, NY, September 6, 2017 - Researchers have shown that compared to placebo, a drug treatment intended to prevent remodeling of the bladder wall and given within 48 hours after spinal cord injury (SCI) in dogs was associated with significantly higher bladder compliance. (eurekalert.org)
- This study reports on an exciting treatment for canines with low bladder compliance due to spontaneous spinal cord injury. (eurekalert.org)
- This study is a first step towards the development of gene therapy for bladder hyperactivity due to spinal cord injury. (axa-research.org)
- The development of new bladder augmentation technique using cultured bladder epithelial cell sheets. (nii.ac.jp)
- The purpose of this study was to elucidate what virulence factors uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) use to modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequent IL-1β release and the role of NLRP3 for UPEC colonization of bladder epithelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
- The bladder epithelial cell line 5637, CRISPR/Cas9 generated NLRP3, caspase-1 and mesotrypsin deficient cell lines and transformed primary bladder epithelial cells (HBLAK) were stimulated with UPEC isolates and the non-pathogenic MG1655 strain. (frontiersin.org)
- We found that the UPEC strain CFT073, but not MG1655, induced an increased caspase-1 activity and IL-1β release from bladder epithelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
- In conclusion, we found that the NLRP3 inflammasome was important for type-1 fimbriae-dependent colonization of bladder epithelial cells and that both type-1 fimbriae and α-hemolysin can modulate the activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome. (frontiersin.org)
- All together, the published reports demonstrate that the proposed tissue engineering approaches spread toward multiple directions. (hindawi.com)
- At the recent Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics conference in San Diego, CA, several new research approaches were presented along with their application in drug development and discovery. (genengnews.com)
- Two exciting alternative approaches that are currently being investigated are tissue engineering and neuromodulation. (blogspot.com)
- Despite functional success of bladder augmentation in achieving a low pressure reservoir, there are several associated complications of this operation and patients do not have the ability to volitionally void. (blogspot.com)
- Reduced compliance is a major contributor to complications such as urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, and ureteral reflux, as the researchers explain in the article entitled "Early Blockade of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Spinal-Cord-Injured Dogs Results in a Long-Term Increase in Bladder Compliance. (eurekalert.org)
- However, the incompatibility of intestinal tissue and bladder tissue can lead to complications. (childrenshospital.org)
- The study did not provide data on most outcomes such as mortality, hospital stays, other complications caused by the neurogenic bladder disorder, or quality of life. (healthcanal.com)
- Bladder outlet obstruction induced expression of prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP4 in the rat bladder: a possible counteractive mechanism again. (nih.gov)
- Bladder outlet obstruction induced expression of prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP4 in the rat bladder: a possible counteractive mechanism against detrusor overactivity. (nih.gov)
- We examined how the expression of each EP receptor subtype changed in association with bladder outlet obstruction and focused on the functional role of EP4 receptor subtype in the bladder with outlet obstruction. (nih.gov)
- EP4 receptor genes were largely expressed in bladders with outlet obstruction but absent in controls. (nih.gov)
- ONO-AE1-329 (100 μM) significantly relaxed KCl induced contraction of bladder strips from rats with bladder outlet obstruction. (nih.gov)
- In rats with bladder outlet obstruction intravesical infusion of 10 μM ONO-AE1-329 significantly increased bladder capacity without changing micturition pressure while it had no effect in controls. (nih.gov)
- Activation of the EP4 receptors expressed in bladders with outlet obstruction may suppress detrusor muscle contraction and afferent activity. (nih.gov)
- This might be a compensatory mechanism to counteract the deterioration of storage function in bladders with outlet obstruction. (nih.gov)
- Bladders engineered in the laboratory from patients' own cells and then implanted into the body have succeeded in their first clinical trial. (lankalibrary.com)
- Researchers in Japan have replicated cancer cells from diseased bladder tissue in dogs, minimizing the use of costly stem cell products. (news-medical.net)
- Up to date there was no optimal methods of isolation and expansion of urinary bladder smooth muscle cells (UB-SMCs). (biomedcentral.com)
- The most efficient method of establishment of porcine UB-SMCs culture is enzymatic digestion of urinary bladder tissue with collagenase and dispase and culture of isolated cells in SmGM-2. (biomedcentral.com)
- This is an easy and consistent method for obtaining high numbers of urinary bladder smooth muscle cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- We've decoupled the solar cells from the aerodynamics' said the group's chief engineer Peter Mildon. (theengineer.co.uk)
- At Children's, we've pioneered innovations in engineering tissue (growing tissue in the laboratory using the patients' own cells). (childrenshospital.org)
- In conjunction with the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, we are testing the use of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to augment bladder tissue, as well as the use of novel materials, like silk. (childrenshospital.org)
- Bladder augmentation using allogenic bladder submucosa seeded with cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These factors have a major contribution in the growth of CRISPR/Cas9 market subjected to its application in genetic engineering, cell line engineering, and human stem cells. (webnewswire.com)
- Atala wondered whether it would instead be possible to remove bladder cells from a patient and use them to grow a replacement organ, thus eliminating the risk of transplant rejection. (discovermagazine.com)
- Six weeks prior to Kaitlyne's surgery, Atala and his team harvested a dime-size piece of tissue from her bladder, using this as the source of cells to create a new organ. (discovermagazine.com)
- Four weeks of cell division produced enough cells to build a new bladder. (discovermagazine.com)
- That's when I really thought, 'Why not try to grow these children new bladders from their own cells? (go.com)
- Atala collected a small number of cells -- about the size of half a postage stamp -- from the original, inadequate bladders of children with spinal cord birth defects. (go.com)
- Adoptive transfer of receptor-engineered T cells has produced impressive results in treating patients with B cell leukemias and lymphomas. (nature.com)
- Receptor-engineered T cells have the potential to cause lethal toxicity from on-target recognition of normal tissues, and there is a paucity of truly tumor-specific antigens shared across tumor types. (nature.com)
- Figure 2: Safety and tissue-selectivity mechanisms that may be inserted into gene-engineered T cells. (nature.com)
- Two different proteins work separately as well as synergistically to feed a small pool of stem cells that help bladder cancer resist chemotherapy, research led by a Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientist suggests. (brightsurf.com)
- These therapies include transurethral bladder electrostimulation, sacral neuromodulation, and neurosurgical techniques such as selective sacral rhizotomy and artificial somatic-autonomic reflex pathway construction. (blogspot.com)
- When I observed my first transurethral resection, I was amazed at how crude the instruments are and how much pushing and stretching of the patient's body is required," said Nabil Simaan, an associate professor of mechanical engineering at Vanderbilt University, who headed the interdisciplinary collaboration with Columbia University. (photonics.com)
- At the time of the first evaluation (via transurethral resection of the tumor bed), fiducial markers were endoscopically inserted into the bladder wall around the tumor. (urotoday.com)
- This is the least invasive way to detect bladder cancer," Iqbal said. (uta.edu)
- Each of these types of bladder cancer--nonmuscle-invasive, muscle-invasive, and metastatic--requires different management strategies. (eurekalert.org)
- After giving us the report on the first turb his words were,, yes its muscle invasive b/c, stage 3 T-2, my recommendation bladder removal, chemo and radiation possibilities, second opinion at the Cleveland Clinic, we will set it all up for you. (bladdercancersupport.org)
- Post-operatively, the mean bladder leak point pressure decrease at capacity, and the volume and compliance increase was greatest in the composite engineered bladders with an omental wrap (56%, 1.58-fold, and 2.79-fold, respectively). (nih.gov)
- with respect to bladder capacity, leak point pressure (LPP) and leak point volume (LPV). (omicsonline.org)
- Atala led the team that developed the first lab-grown organ (a bladder) to be implanted into a human. (wikipedia.org)
- On April 15, the British medical journal The Lancet carried a landmark article showing that it is now possible to engineer a complex organ to replace one ravaged by disease. (discovermagazine.com)
- In 1997, when he was thirty-eight and working at Harvard, Atala created the world's first tissue-engineered organ. (esquire.com)