The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Techniques for determining the proximity of molecules based on ENERGY TRANSFER between bioluminescent chromophores and acceptor fluorophores that have overlapping emission and absorption spectra.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The metal-free blue phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of blue-green algae. It functions as light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Light energy harvesting structures attached to the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of CYANOBACTERIA and RED ALGAE. These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a.
Luciferases from RENILLA that oxidizes certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to cause emission of PHOTONS.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
The metal-free red phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of red algae. It functions as a light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Factor derived from leukocyte lysates of immune donors which can transfer both local and systemic cellular immunity to nonimmune recipients.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.
A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
A genus of bioluminescent marine invertebrates in the family Renillidae, order Pennatulacea, class ANTHOZOA. It contains Renilla LUCIFERASE which oxidizes coelenterazine resulting in LUMINESCENCE.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A large family of proteins that have been traditionally classified as the light-harvesting proteins of the photosynthetic reaction complex. Chlorophyll binding proteins are also found in non-photosynthetic settings where they may play a photoprotective role in response to light stress.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
Rhodopsin molecules found in microorganisms such as ARCHAEA and PROTEOBACTERIA.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The consumption of edible substances.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Hydrocarbons with more than one triple bond; or an oxidized form of POLYENES. They can react with SULFUR to form THIOPHENES.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA found in most lakes and ponds. It has been used as a nutritional supplement particularly due to its high protein content.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.

Relocating the active site of activated protein C eliminates the need for its protein S cofactor. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer study. (1/1926)

The effect of replacing the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain of activated protein C (APC) with that of prothrombin on the topography of the membrane-bound enzyme was examined using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The average distance of closest approach (assuming kappa2 = 2/3) between a fluorescein in the active site of the chimera and octadecylrhodamine at the membrane surface was 89 A, compared with 94 A for wild-type APC. The gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain substitution therefore lowered and/or reoriented the active site, repositioning it close to the 84 A observed for the APC. protein S complex. Protein S enhances wild-type APC cleavage of factor Va at Arg306, but the inactivation rate of factor Va Leiden by the chimera alone is essentially equal to that by wild-type APC plus protein S. These data suggest that the activities of the chimera and of the APC.protein S complex are equivalent because the active site of the chimeric protein is already positioned near the optimal location above the membrane surface to cleave Arg306. Thus, one mechanism by which protein S regulates APC activity is by relocating its active site to the proper position above the membrane surface to optimize factor Va cleavage.  (+info)

Core RNA polymerase from E. coli induces a major change in the domain arrangement of the sigma 70 subunit. (2/1926)

Luminescence resonance energy transfer measurements were used to show that binding of E. coli core RNA polymerase induced major changes in interdomain distances in the sigma 70 subunit. The simplest model describing core-induced changes in sigma 70 involves a movement of the conserved region 1 by approximately 20 A and the conserved region 4.2 by approximately 15 A with respect to conserved region 2. The core-induced movement of region 1 (autoinhibition domain) and region 4.2 (DNA-binding domain) provides structural rationale for allosteric regulation of sigma 70 DNA binding properties by the core and suggests that this regulation may not only involve directly the autoinhibition domain of sigma 70 but also could involve a modulation of spacing between DNA-binding domains of sigma 70 induced by binding of core RNAP.  (+info)

Imaging protein kinase Calpha activation in cells. (3/1926)

Spatially resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), provides a method for tracing the catalytic activity of fluorescently tagged proteins inside live cell cultures and enables determination of the functional state of proteins in fixed cells and tissues. Here, a dynamic marker of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) activation is identified and exploited. Activation of PKCalpha is detected through the binding of fluorescently tagged phosphorylation site-specific antibodies; the consequent FRET is measured through the donor fluorophore on PKCalpha by FLIM. This approach enabled the imaging of PKCalpha activation in live and fixed cultured cells and was also applied to pathological samples.  (+info)

TAKs, thylakoid membrane protein kinases associated with energy transduction. (4/1926)

The phosphorylation of proteins within the eukaryotic photosynthetic membrane is thought to regulate a number of photosynthetic processes in land plants and algae. Both light quality and intensity influence protein kinase activity via the levels of reductants produced by the thylakoid electron transport chain. We have isolated a family of proteins called TAKs, Arabidopsis thylakoid membrane threonine kinases that phosphorylate the light harvesting complex proteins. TAK activity is enhanced by reductant and is associated with the photosynthetic reaction center II and the cytochrome b6f complex. TAKs are encoded by a gene family that has striking similarity to transforming growth factor beta receptors of metazoans. Thus thylakoid protein phosphorylation may be regulated by a cascade of reductant-controlled membrane-bound protein kinases.  (+info)

Single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer on freely diffusing molecules: observation of Forster distance dependence and subpopulations. (5/1926)

Photon bursts from single diffusing donor-acceptor labeled macromolecules were used to measure intramolecular distances and identify subpopulations of freely diffusing macromolecules in a heterogeneous ensemble. By using DNA as a rigid spacer, a series of constructs with varying intramolecular donor-acceptor spacings were used to measure the mean and distribution width of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiencies as a function of distance. The mean single-pair FRET efficiencies qualitatively follow the distance dependence predicted by Forster theory. Possible contributions to the widths of the FRET efficiency distributions are discussed, and potential applications in the study of biopolymer conformational dynamics are suggested. The ability to measure intramolecular (and intermolecular) distances for single molecules implies the ability to distinguish and monitor subpopulations of molecules in a mixture with different distances or conformational states. This is demonstrated by monitoring substrate and product subpopulations before and after a restriction endonuclease cleavage reaction. Distance measurements at single-molecule resolution also should facilitate the study of complex reactions such as biopolymer folding. To this end, the denaturation of a DNA hairpin was examined by using single-pair FRET.  (+info)

Changes in mitochondrial phosphorylative activity and adenylate energy charge of regenerating rabbit liver. (6/1926)

The changes in the cellular concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP and in oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria were investigated in the remaining liver of partially hepatectomized rabbits. The energy charge (defined as half of the average number of anhydride-bonded phosphate groups per adenosine moiety) of the liver remnant decreased from 0.866 to 0.767 (p less than 0.01) within 24 hr after hepatectomy, and then increased to a substantially higher level than normal within 7 days. On the other hand, the mitochondrial phosphyorylative activity increased rapidly to 170 per cent of the control within 12 hr and then retruned to normal within 7 days. The mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was inversely correlated with energy charge of the liver remnant (r = -0.75, p less less than 0.01). The maximal enhancement of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was found in mitochondria obtained from the liver remnant with the lowest level of energy charge, suggesting a response of mitochondria in vivo involving enhanced biosynthetic ATP-utilizing reactions at an early stage of the regenerating process. The enhancement of phosphorylative activity was accompanied by a rise in the respiratory control ratio, P/O ratio and state 3 respiration. The adenylate kinase [EC 2.7.4.3] activity in the liver remnant increased to more than 160% of the control within 2 days after partial hepatectomy, while the pyruvate kinase [EC 2.7.1.40] activity decreased remarkably. However, the changes in the two enzyme activities did not correlate with those of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity or the energy charge of the liver remnant.  (+info)

Efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and energy dissipation by H+ ion recycling in rat-liver mitochondrial metabolizing pyruvate. (7/1926)

A method was developed for the calculation of metabolic fluxes through individual enzymatic reactions of pyruvate metabolism including the citric acid cycle in rat liver mitochondrial incubated at metabolic states between state 4 and state 3. This method is based on the measurement of the specific radioactivities of the products formed from [2-14C]pyruvate. With this procedure the energy balance of mitochondria incubated in the presence of [2-14C]pyruvate, ATP, bicarbonate and phosphate at different ATP/ADP ratios in the medium was calculated. The ATP/ADP ratios were maintained at a steady state with creatine kinase plus creatine as a phosphoryl acceptor. The calculations revealed that by adding increasing concentrations of creatine up to 20 mM the energy dissipated by the mitochondria decreased but showed a local maximum at 13mM creatine. Omission of bicarbonate from the medium led to a shift of this maximum. When energy dissipation was minimal the overall P/O ratio was maximal. The amount of energy dissipated was paralleled by the magnitude of the pH gradient across the inner membrane. From these results it was concluded that the recycling of H+ ions which consists of a passive leakage of H+ ions into the matrix and an active extrusion of these ions out of this compartment, is an important energy dissipating process. The H+ ion recycling is thus one of the processes which give rise to the state 4 respiration in mitochondria.  (+info)

Stoichiometry of a ligand-gated ion channel determined by fluorescence energy transfer. (8/1926)

We have developed a method to determine the stoichiometry of subunits within an oligomeric cell surface receptor using fluorescently tagged antibodies to the individual subunits and measuring energy transfer between them. Anti-c-Myc monoclonal antibody (mAb 9-E10) derivatized with a fluorophore (europium cryptate, EuK) was used to individually label c-Myc-tagged alpha1-, beta2-, or gamma2-subunits of the hetero-oligomeric gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor in intact cells. The maximal fluorescent signal derived from the alpha1(c-Myc)beta2gamma2 and the alpha1beta2(c-Myc)gamma2 receptors was twice that obtained with alpha1beta2gamma2(c-Myc), suggesting that there are 2x alpha-, 2x beta-, and 1x gamma-subunits in a receptor monomer. This observation was extended using fluorescence energy transfer. Receptors were half-maximally saturated with EuK-anti-c-Myc mAb, and the remaining alpha1(c-Myc) subunits were labeled with excess anti-c-Myc mAb derivatized with the fluorescence energy acceptor, XL665. On exposure to laser light, energy transfer from EuK to XL665 occurred with alpha1(c-Myc)beta2gamma2 and alpha1beta2(c-Myc)gamma2, but no significant energy transfer was observed with alpha1beta2gamma2(c-Myc) receptors, indicating the absence of a second gamma-subunit in a receptor monomer. We confirm that the GABAA receptor subtype, alpha1beta2gamma2, is composed of two copies each of the alpha- and beta-subunits and one copy of the gamma-subunit (i.e. (alpha1)2(beta2)2(gamma2)1) and conclude that this method would have general applicability to other multisubunit cell surface proteins.  (+info)

A new and general procedure is described for a detailed analysis of time-resolved fluorescence depolarisation data in the presence of electronic energy migration. An isotropic ensemble of bifluorophoric molecules (D1-R-D2) has been studied to demonstrate its utility. Intramolecular donor-donor energy migration occurs between the two donor groups (D), which are covalently connected to a rigid linker group (R). These groups undergo restricted reorientational motions with respect to the R group. The analysis of depolarisation data basically involves the search for best-fit parameters which describe the local reorienting motions, the interfluorophore D1-D2 distance, as well as the mutual orientations of the donors. For this, the analysis is partly performed in the Fourier domain and the best-fit parameters are determined by using an approach based on a Genetic Algorithm. The energy migration process has been described by using Monte Carlo simulations and an extended Förster theory. It is found that ...
In this paper, the electrical-to-thermal energy transfer efficiency of the transistor coil ignition system for spark-ignition engines is investigated using both electrical and calorimetry measurements. The gap voltage and discharge current are measured to determine the electrical energy supplied to the spark gap. A pressure-rise calorimeter is used to estimate the thermal energy transferred from the plasma channel to the gas. Firstly, this paper studies the influences of spark gap size, electrode geometry and background pressure on the energy transfer efficiency. To further investigate the effectiveness of increasing breakdown energy on the energy transfer process, a direct-capacitor is paralleled to the spark gap to redistribute the spark energy in both breakdown and glow phases. The varying of the capacitance enables the investigation of the energy transfer efficiency under different breakdown energy level. Results show that the electrical-to-thermal energy transfer efficiency is strongly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Femtosecond transient absorption of zinc porphyrins with oligo(phenylethylnyl) linkers in solution and on TiO2 films. AU - Chang, Chih Wei. AU - Luo, Liyang. AU - Chou, Chung Kung. AU - Lo, Chen Fu. AU - Lin, Ching Yao. AU - Hung, Chen Shiung. AU - Lee, Yuan Pern. AU - Diau, Eric Wei Guang. PY - 2009/7/9. Y1 - 2009/7/9. N2 - We measured femtosecond transient absorption of dye solutions and TiO 2 films sensitized with two zinc porphyrins (PE1 and PE4) to investigate the interfacial dynamics of electron transfer in relation to the dependence of cell performance on the length of the linker (Lin, C.-Y.; Lo, C.-F.; Luo, L.; Lu, H.-P.; Hung, C.-S.; Diau, E. W.-G. J. Phys. Chem. C 2009, 113, 755-764). For both porphyrins adsorbed on TiO2 films with S 1 excitation (λex = 620 nm), the transient absorption kinetics probed at 630 nm and 4.9 μm are complementary to each other because only the excited-state and ground-state species were observed at 630 nm whereas only the charge-separation ...
Two recently developed theories of electronic energy transfer/migration were for the first time applied to real protein systems for extracting molecular distances. The partial donor-donor energy migration (PDDEM) is an extension to the previously developed donor-donor energy migration (DDEM, F Bergström et al PNAS 96, 1999, 12477) which allows using chemically identical but photophysically different fluorophores in energy migration experiments. A method based on fluorescence quenching was investigated and applied to create an asymmetric energy migration between fluorophores which were covalently and specifically attached to plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2). It was also shown experimentally that distance information can be obtained if the fluorescence relaxation for photophysically identical donors, exhibits multi-exponential relaxation.. An extended Förster theory (EFT) that was previously derived (L. B.-Å. Johansson et al J. Chem. Phys., 1996, 105) ha been developed for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On the Mechanism of Light Harvesting in Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria. T2 - B800 to B850 Energy Transfer. AU - Scholes, Gregory D.. AU - Fleming, Graham R.. PY - 2000/3/2. Y1 - 2000/3/2. N2 - The rate of energy transfer from B800 to B850 in the peripheral light harvesting complex LH2 is modeled in detail. A method for determining ensemble average energy transfer rates in complex, coupled multichromophoric systems is reported and is employed to investigate the interplay of electron-phonon coupling (fast fluctuations of the protein) and site energy disorder (slow fluctuations) on the spectral overlap between donor and acceptor, and therefore the energy transfer rate. A series of model calculations for Rb. sphaeroides is reported. The disorder is found to have a marked influence on the calculated rate of energy transfer and is responsible for a faster energy transfer time than would occur in its absence and furthermore accounts for the weak temperature dependence observed in ...
Irradiation of crystalline salts formed between sensitizer-linked amines and photochemically reactive carboxylic acids at wavelengths where only the sensitizers absorb leads to characteristic triplet state reactivity of the carboxylate anions. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd. ...
A wireless energy transfer system includes a first energy transfer unit having at least one resonant frequency, a second energy transfer unit having the at least one resonant frequency, and a load. The first wireless energy transfer unit includes a first coil magnetically coupled to a first wireless energy transfer cell, and the second wireless energy transfer unit includes a second coil magnetically coupled to a second wireless energy transfer cell. The first coil receives first energy and through the magnetic coupling between the first coil and the first wireless energy transfer cell, the first wireless energy transfer cell is caused to generate second energy, wherein the second wireless energy transfer cell receives the second energy and through the magnetic coupling between the second wireless energy transfer cell and the second coil, the second coil is caused to provide third electromagnetic wave energy to the load.
Previous work using reconstituted membranes has shown that energy transfer can be observed in mixed assemblies of LH2 and RCLH1 complexes,36-38 but controlling the relative stoichiometries and two-dimensional organization of energy donor/acceptor photosynthetic complexes on a nanometer scale, and the locations where excitation energy can migrate between them, presents new challenges. For some time, it has been possible to construct nanoarrays of single types of photosynthetic complex, starting with the light-harvesting LH2 complex of Rba. sphaeroides,18,19,21 and later the RCLH1 complex20 and the LHCII complex of plants.22 In each case the function of the complex, in terms of fluorescence emission, was retained; for LHCII it was possible to directly image the ability of immobilized molecules of LHCII to switch between fluorescent and quenched states. For LH2, there were indications of long-range excitation energy transfer; 80 nm-wide nanolines of LH2 complexes exhibited energy propagation on ...
Photosynthesis: How Proteins Control Excitation Energy Transfer: 10.4018/978-1-60566-076-9.ch034: This chapter introduces the theory of optical spectra and excitation energy transfer of light harvesting complexes in photosynthesis. The light energy
In this work the photophysics of four bichromophoric units was studied by means of static and time resolved spectroscopy, with the aim of disentangling the contribution of steric and electronic factors in regulating the efficiency of electronic energy transfer (EET). The newly synthesized dyads share the same acceptor moiety, a substituted BODIPY chromophore, and differ either in the donor or in the molecular bridge connecting the two units. The use of different linkers allows for tuning the conformational flexibility of the dyad, while changing the donor has an influence on the electronic coupling and spectral overlap between the two chromophores. The efficiency of energy transfer is extremely high in all the four dyads and can be modelled within the frame of the Förster equation. In the special case of a dimeric donor, a theoretical analysis was performed to further support the experimental findings. Geometry optimization at DFT level indicated that different conformations with similar energy ...
Energy Transfer LP (NYSE: ET) today announced a quarterly cash distribution of $0.1525 per ET common unit ($0.61 on an annualized basis) for the first quarter ended March 31, 2021. The announced quarterly distribution is consistent with the distribution for the fourth quarter of 2020 and will be paid on May 19, 2021 to unitholders of record as of the close of business on May 11, 2021.. First Quarter 2021 Earnings Release and Conference Call. In addition, Energy Transfer plans to release earnings for the first quarter 2021 on Thursday, May 6, 2021, after the market closes. The company will conduct a conference call on Thursday, May 6, 2021 at 4:00 p.m. Central Time/5:00 p.m. Eastern Time to discuss quarterly results and provide a company update. The conference call will be broadcast live via an internet webcast, which can be accessed on Energy Transfers website at energytransfer.com. The call will also be available for replay on Energy Transfers website for a limited time.. Energy Transfer LP ...
The development of fluorescent sensors for Hg2+ has attracted much attention due to the well-known adverse effects of mercury on biological health. In the present work, the optical properties of two newly-synthesized Hg2+ chemosensors based on the coumarin-rhodamine system (named Pro1 and Pro2) were systematically investigated using time-dependent density functional theory. It is shown that Pro1 and Pro2 are effective ratiometric fluorescent Hg2+ probes, which recognize Hg2+ by Förster resonance energy transfer and through bond energy transfer mechanisms, respectively. To further understand the mechanisms of the two probes, we have developed an approach to predict the energy transfer rate between the donor and acceptor. Using this approach, it can be inferred that Pro1 has a six times higher energy transfer rate than Pro2. Thus the influence of spacer group between the donor and acceptor on the sensing performance of the probe is demonstrated. Specifically, two-photon absorption properties of these two
Artificial Light-Harvesting Arrays: Electronic Energy Migration and Trapping on a Sphere and between Spheres A sophisticated model of the natural light-harvesting antenna has been devised by decorating a C60 hexa-adduct with ten yellow and two blue boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyes in such a way that the dyes retain their individuality and assist solubility of the fullerene. Unusually, the fullerene core is a poor electron acceptor and does not enter into light-induced electron-transfer reactions with the appended dyes, but ineffective electronic energy transfer from the excited-state dye to the C60 residue competes with fluorescence from the yellow dye. Intraparticle electronic energy transfer from yellow to blue dyes can be followed by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and by excitation spectra for isolated C60 nanoparticles dissolved in dioxane at 293 K and at 77 K. Full article ...
Inteins as Traceless Purification Tags for Unnatural Amino Acid Proteins. Batjargal, S.; Walters, C. R.; Petersson, E. J.. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 1734-1737.. Specific Modulation of Protein Activity Through a Bioorthogonal Reaction. Warner, J. B.; Muthusamy, A. K.; Petersson, E. J.. ChemBioChem 2014, 24, 2508-2514.. Thioamide-Based Fluorescent Protease Sensors. Goldberg, J. M.; Chen, X. S.; Meinhardt, N.; Greenbaum, D. C.; Petersson, E. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 2086-2093.. Efficient Synthesis and In Vivo Incorporation of Acridonylalanine, a Fluorescent Amino Acid for Lifetime and Förster Resonance Energy Transfer/Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Studies Speight, L. C.; Muthusamy, A. K.; Goldberg, J. M.; Warner, J. B.; Wissner, R. F.; Willi, T.; Woodman, B.; Mehl, R. A.; Petersson, E. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18806-18814.. Expressed Protein Ligation at Methionine: N-terminal Attachment of Homocysteine, Ligation, and Masking. Tanaka, T.; Wagner, A. M.; Warner, J. B.; ...
China Dts-2L Series Three Phase Electronic Energy Meter, Find details about China Kwh Meter, Energy Meter from Dts-2L Series Three Phase Electronic Energy Meter - Yueqing Tainihan Electrical Technology Co., Ltd.
In this work we report the study of energy transfer between Nd3+ and Yb3+ ions in glasses with the 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 eutectic composition at room temperature by using steady-state and time-resolved laser spectroscopy. The Nd3+→Yb3+ transfer efficiency obtained from the Nd3+ lifetimes in the single doped and codoped samples reaches 73% for the highest Nd3+ concentration. The donor decay curves obtained under pulsed excitation have been used to establish the multipolar nature of the Nd3+→ Yb3+ transfer process and the energy transfer microparameter. The nonradiative energy transfer is consistent with an electric dipole-dipole interaction mechanism assisted by energy migration among donors. Back transfer from Yb3+ to Nd3+ is also observed.. ©2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Luminescence of Ce3+ in the hydrogen peroxide induced sulfuric acid solutions was observed to be quenched by Ce4+ ions in the solution by energy transfer due to electric dipole interaction between Ce3+ and Ce4+. A systematic investigation of the energy transfer characteristics of Ce3+-Ce4+ mixture has been made by measuring the absorption, luminescence and excitation spectra at room temperature. The effect, of the concentration of Ce3+ on the energy transfer process has been also studied and the critical transfer distance (R-o) has been calculated considering Forster type interaction between the ions and found to be 8.7 Angstrom for the mixture of 1 x 10(-4) mol l(-1) Ce3+ and 3 x 10(-4) mol l(-1) Ce4+. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. ...
Absorption of ultraviolet light by DNA is known to lead to carcinogenic mutations, but the processes between photon absorption and the photochemical reactions are poorly understood. In their study of the excited-stated dynamics of model DNA helices using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy1, Crespo-Hernández et al. observe that the picosecond component of the transient signals recorded for the adenine-thymine oligonucleotide (dA)18•(dT)18 is close to that for (dA)18, but quite different from that for (dAdT)9•(dAdT)9; from this observation, they conclude that excimer formation limits excitation energy to one strand at a time. Here we use timeresolved fluorescence spectroscopy to probe the excited-state dynamics, which reveals the complexity of these systems and indicates that the interpretation of Crespo-Hernández et al. is an oversimplification. We also comment on the pertinence of separating base stacking and base pairing in excited-state dynamics of double helices and question the
Donor-bridge-acceptor triads consisting of the Alq3 complex, oligofluorene bridge, and PtII tetraphenylporphyrin (PtTPP) were synthesized. The triads were designed to study the energy level/distance-dependence in energy transfer both in a solution and in solid state. The materials show effective singlet transfer from the Alq3-fluorene fluorophore to the porphyrin, while the triplet energy transfer, owing to the shorter delocalization of triplet excitons, appears to take place via a triplet energy cascade. Using femtosecond transient spectroscopy, the rate of the singlet−singlet energy transfer was determined. The exponential dependence of the donor−acceptor distance and the respective energy transfer rates of 7.1 × 1010 to 1.0 × 109 s-1 with the attenuation factor â of 0.21 ± 0.02 Å-1 suggest that the energy transfer proceeds via a mixed incohererent wire/superexchange mechanism. In the OLEDs fabricated using the Alq3-oligofluorene-PtTPP triads with better triplet level alignment, the order of
Since the triplet-triplet annihilated upconversion (TTA-UC) materials work efficiently only in degassing organic solvents, it is of significance to find a new medium without toxicity and volatility and that promotes TTA-UC. Here, we firstly reported the effect of an OH-containing medium on low power upconver
The conservative and dissipative dynamics of a 2DOF, system composed of a grounded linear oscillator coupled to a lightweight mass by means of both strongly nonlinear and linear negative stiffnesses is investigated. Numerical studies are presented aiming to assess the influence of this combined coupling on the transient dynamics. In particular, these studies are focused on passive nonlinear targeted energy transfer from the impulsively excited linear oscillator to the nonlinear bistable lightweight attachment. It is shown that the main feature of the proposed configuration is the ability of assuring broadband efficient energy transfer over a broad range of input energy. Due to the bistability of the attachment, such favorable behavior is triggered by different nonlinear dynamic mechanisms depending on the energy level. For high energy levels, strongly modulated oscillations occur, and the dynamics is governed by fundamental (1:1) and superharmonic (1:3) resonances; for low energy levels, chaotic ...
Femtosecond transient absorption spectrometer Our femtosecond transient absorption spectrometer is a homemade pump-continuum-probe setup. The main femtosecond laser source is a Ti:Sapphire system from Spectra-Physics (Tsunami oscillator followed by a Spitfire regenerative amplifier). It delivers 50-fs ~0.7 mJ pulses at 1 kHz around 800 nm. Tunable pump pulses in the visible are produced by a noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA, Clark-MXR). A broadband continuum probe is obtained by self-phase modulation of a 800-nm beam in a CaF2 plate. Its time delay with respect to the pump is adjusted in a motorized optical delay line. The pump and probe beams are focused with parabolic mirrors and overlapped in the sample, kept in a 1-mm cell. The sample may be constantly displaced in two directions to avoid the re-excitation of a previously excited area. The sample may also be thermostated with the help of a water bath circulated through the sample holder. Fig 1 gives a schematic view of the ...
UNSPECIFIED (1989) MECHANISM OF ENERGY-TRANSFER IN COLLISIONAL ACTIVATION OF KILOELECTRON-VOLT MACROMOLECULAR IONS. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR NATURFORSCHUNG SECTION A-A JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES, 44 (3). pp. 245-246 ...
i) Photosynthetic organisms are exquisitely arranged so as to capture incident sunlight with high efficacy, and transmit the transient excitation energy to a reaction centre where chemical reactions are initiated. The energy-transfer mechanism is often described by semi-classical models that invoke hopping of the wave-packet along discrete energy levels and over considerable distances set in 3-dimensional space. These energy levels combine to form a large peripheral light-harvesting antenna coupled to individual reaction centres. Many attempts have been made to duplicate the essential features of the natural process, ignoring elaborate events such as self-repair and quantum coherence, and great progress has been made in understanding the basic energy-transfer steps. Mostly, these bio-inspired molecular systems have been studied as standalone entities in 2-dimensions, with little consideration given to longer-range energy transfer between moieties embedded in a solid matrix. We have built and ...
In the design of transcutaneous energy transfer devices variation in spacing between the coils results in energy transfer efficiency changes. These changes may have other causes. It is proposed to use an autotuning circuit and a voltage control circuit in cooperation with feedback from the internal coil in order to better maintain energy transfer levels as desirable. The feedback is typically provided via IR communication; however, when skin is highly pigmented, IR communication is inefficient. A method and system for using RF signals to accomplish the communication is disclosed.
Bypassing the energy functional in density functional theory: Direct calculation of electronic energies from conditional probability ...
The method of orthogonalized plane waves is applied to a calculation of electronic energy levels in potassium, using a potential obtained from a self-consistent field. The energies of twenty-four states at four symmetry points in the Brillouin zone have been obtained. The lowest band is dismissed in detail and the qualitative features of the density of states are presented. Departures from free electron bands are found. Comparison of higher bands with some other calculations suggests that certain features of band schemes may be reasonably independent of the potential used.
This thesis describes studies of collisional energy transfer in two small, combustion relevant free radicals. Collision-induced electronic energy transfer (EET) between the B2r and A2 fj. states of the CH and CD radicals was investigated with the collision partners He, Ar, H2, N2, CO and C02 using a dispersed laser induced fluorescence technique. CH or CD radicals were prepared photolytically, and excited into a single rotational level in either of the B2::E-, v ==°or A211, v =1 levels. Wavelength dispersed, time-resolved emission was then recorded from the initial and product states. Microscopic rate constants for vibronically resolved transfer between the two electronic states were determined for each collision partner, as well as those for vibrational energy transfer in the A state and total removal to other, unobserved states. EET was demonstrated to be ubiquitous, occurring with all of the collision partners used in the study, with varying efficiencies. These relative efficiencies ...
OppenheimerFunds Inc. raised its position in Energy Transfer Equity, L.P.by 4.3% in the first quarter.. 05/10/2017 - ENERGY TRANSFER PARTNERS was upgraded to by analysts at Sanford C. Bernstein. The stock of Energy Transfer Partners LP (NYSE:ETP) has Buy rating given on Tuesday, August 11 by Stifel Nicolaus. Goldman Sachs maintained it with Neutral rating and $17 target in Wednesday, July 13 report. Finally, ValuEngine lowered shares of Energy Transfer Equity, L.P. from a buy rating to a hold rating in a research report on Friday, June 2nd. The firm has Outperform rating given on Wednesday, May 10 by Bernstein. They set a buy rating and a $20.00 price target on the stock. One research analyst has rated the stock with a sell rating, seven have assigned a hold rating, ten have issued a buy rating and one has issued a strong buy rating to the companys stock.. Global X Management Co Llc decreased its stake in Yandex N V (YNDX) by 22.57% based on its latest 2016Q4 regulatory filing with ...
It was once purported that biological systems were far too warm and wet to support quantum phenomena mainly owing to thermal effects disrupting quantum coherence. However, recent experimental results and theoretical analyses have shown that thermal energy may assist, rather than disrupt, quantum coherent transport, especially in the dry hydrophobic interiors of biomolecules. Specifically, evidence has been accumulating for the necessary involvement of quantum coherent energy transfer between uniquely arranged chromophores in light harvesting photosynthetic complexes. The tubulin subunit proteins, which comprise microtubules, also possess a distinct architecture of chromophores, namely aromatic amino acids, including tryptophan. The geometry and dipolar properties of these aromatics are similar to those found in photosynthetic units indicating that tubulin may support coherent energy transfer. Tubulin aggregated into microtubule geometric lattices may support such energy transfer, which could be
Where j is the jth range of intensity, m is the number of pixel in a and d, n is the number of pixel in e and g, DSBTi is the donor bleed-through of the pixel (i) in f, ai is the intensity of pixel i, so is bi, and ei, k is the number of range, DSBT is the total donor bleed-through, ASBTi is the acceptor bleed-through of the pixel (i) in f, ci is the intensity of pixel i, so is di, and gi.k is the number of range, ASBT is the total acceptor bleed-through.. The precision FRET (PFRET) is calculated using following equation where uFRET represents uncorrected FRET which is image f:. PFRET=uFRET-DSBT-ASBT. Energy transfer efficiency (E). Conventionally, energy transfer efficiency (E) is calculated by ratioing the donor image in the presence (IDA) and absence (ID) of acceptor. When using the algorithm as described, we indirectly obtained the ID image by using the PFRET image (Elangovan et al., 2003). ID=IDA+PFRET where IDA is image e. The efficiency calculation is shown in following ...
Methods and apparatus for providing a sufficiently stable power to a load in an energy transfer system that transfers energy from one side of a physical boundary to another side of he boundary. In one example, a power supply and a primary winding are located on a first side of a physical boundary (e.g., external to a body), and a secondary winding and the load are located on a second side of the physical boundary (e.g., internal to the body). A primary voltage across the primary winding is regulated so as to provide a sufficiently stable output power to the load notwithstanding changes in the load and/or changes in a relative position of the primary winding and the secondary winding. One aspect of the invention relates to energy transfer methods and apparatus for use in connection with the human body. In particular, one example of the invention includes a transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) system for transferring power from a power supply external to the body to a device implanted in the body.
From Dynamic Equilibrium to Photoinitiated Processes: Tracking Condensed Phase Dynamics. Abstract. Many important processes in chemistry and biology occur in the solution phase, including protein conformation changes, energy transfer processes, and proton and electron transfer reactions. Understanding condensed phase dynamics is essential for describing and predicting these processes, which is why it is a prevailing topic throughout the scientific community. In this talk I will discuss two different research topics that explore different processes in condensed phase systems. The first focuses on understanding ultrafast photoinitiated processes of photosystem I, a light harvesting complex that catalyzes oxygenic photosynthesis. Here two- dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) gives remarkable insight into the very first steps of light harvesting in photosynthesis. The second explores dynamic equilibrium in a fluxional metal-carbonyl complex. Here two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy ...
Fluorescent labels are provided employing energy absorber/donor components and energy acceptor/fluorescer components joined together by a spacer which comprises sugar phosphate monomeric units, particularly ribosyl phosphate monomeric units, where the sugar groups are free of active hydroxyl groups. Particularly, an energy transfer component is substituted at the 5 position of the spacer chain, while the other energy transfer component is substituted at the 1 position of the 3 terminal ribosyl group of the label forming an ET cassette for linking to a nucleic acid sequence with any compositions. By employing combinations of ET components, with a common energy absorber/donor and different fluorescers, one can provide for families of labels which can be tagged to any target molecules and which can be excited at a single wavelength and fluoresce at different wavelengths with large Stokes shifts. The compositions find particular application in sequencing.
The institutional sentiment decreased to 0.7 in Q2 2015. Its down 0.32, from 1.02 in 2015Q2. The ratio dived, as 78 funds sold all their Energy Transfer Equity LP shares they owned while 123 reduced their positions. 28 funds bought stakes while 112 increased their total positions. Institutions now own 1.02 billion shares which is 305.12% more than the previous share count of 251.55 million in 2015Q2.. Walnut Private Equity Partners Llc holds 21.12% of its total portfolio in Energy Transfer Equity LP, equating to 1.20 million shares. Yorkville Capital Management Llc owns 863,918 shares representing 17.95% of their total US portfolio. Moreover, C V Starr & Co Inc has 12.12% of their total portfolio invested in the company, equating to 110,230 shares. The Kansas-based Whetstone Capital Advisors Llc has a total of 10.07% of their portfolio invested in the stock. Heronetta Management L.P., a New York-based fund reported 638,780 shares owned.. Energy Transfer Equity, L.P. is a limited partnership ...
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Watson, I.M. and Heliotis, G. and Itskos, G. and Lagoudakis, P.G. and Feldmann, J. and Murray, R. and Bradley, D.D.C. and Dawson, M.D. (2006) Non-radiative energy transfer in hybrid structures combining InGaN single QWs and light-emitting polymers. In: 6th International Symposium on Blue Laser and Light Emitting Diodes (ISBLLED 2006), 2006-05-15 - 2006-05-19. (Unpublished) Full text not available in this repository.Request a copy from the Strathclyde author ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Energy transfer in the azobenzene-naphthalene light harvesting system. AU - Abdallah, Dalia. AU - Whelan, Jamie. AU - Dust, Julian M.. AU - Hoz, Shmaryahu. AU - Buncel, Erwin. PY - 2009/6/18. Y1 - 2009/6/18. N2 - We have investigated the model light harvesting systems (LHSs) A and B typifying energy transfer (ET) between a naphthalene, Np (donor, D), and an azobenzene, Az (acceptor, A), shown schematically in Scheme 2. These models were actualized as the naphthyl azo molecules 1 and 4 containing a methylene tether (Scheme 1). The methoxy azo molecules 2 and 5, respectively, served as benchmarks for the assessment of ET. Photophysical data, including initial rate constants for photoisomerization (trans to cis, t-1 →c-1, and cis to trans, c-1 →t-1), the relevant c-1 →t-1 quantum yields, and fluorescence quenching with free naphthalene, 3, as D were measured. Therefore, (1) irradiation of 3 at (270 nm) to give 3* generates fluorescence at 340 nm that is 65% quenched by the ...
6H, please click HERE for all of our daily lesson plans in Science.. Energy can be transferred from one form to another. Sometimes we want to transfer energy in a useful way, but other times we want to prefer to prevent energy transfer.. ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Tesla has a large office in Draper, Utah that it inherited from its acquisition of SolarCity.. Therefore, many of the employees work for Teslas energy division, but it also expended to other operations and customer support roles. Hundreds of Tesla employees now work at the location.. Earlier today, we received tips from employees saying that Tesla was mass-firing people and several people took to social media with similar claims affecting Teslas energy division.. We have reached out to Tesla for a comment on the situation and the company said that it is only transferring its energy support division from Utah in order to centralize it.. A Tesla spokesperson sent us the following comment:. ...
1. (1)中国科学院武汉物理与数学研究所波谱与原子分子物理国家重点实验室,武汉 430071; (2)中国科学院武汉物理与数学研究所波谱与原子分子物理国家重点实验室,武汉 430071;中国科学院安徽光学精密机械研究所激光光谱学开放实验室,合肥 ...
Abstract: According to the theory of quantum electrodynamics, transfer of electronic energy between molecules occurs through the exchange of photons. The nature of energy transfer is highly dependent on distances between molecular centres involved in the transfer process. At short distances photons have a virtual character and molecules are coupled by longitudinal as well as transverse components of the field (with an $ R^{-3} $ dependence on the coupling). As the distance of separation increases, photons take on a more real character and coupling is dominated by transverse components of the field (in the far-zone limit the coupling has the usual Columbic $ R^{-1} $ dependence on separation). Of particular interest is the intermediate- zone where the distance separating the molecular centres is approximately equal to the reduced wavelength of the mediating photon. In this regime, electronic coupling has a separation dependence of $ R^{-2} $.. After a brief introduction to electronic energy ...
A series of single-phased emission-tunable Na0.34Ca0.66Al1.66Si2.34O8:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphors were successfully synthesized by a wet-chemical synthesis method. Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra indicate that the phosphor can be efficiently excited by UV radiation from 250 to 420 nm. Also, NCASO:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor exhibit a broad blue emission band at 440 nm and an orange emission band at 570 nm, which originate from Eu2+ and Mn2+ ions, respectively. Therefore, overall emission color can be tuned from blue to white by increasing the concentration of Mn2+ ions in the host lattice utilizing energy transfer from Eu2+ to Mn2+ ions. This energy transfer phenomenon was demonstrated to be a resonant type through dipole-dipole interaction determined with the help of PL spectra, decay time measurement, and energy transfer efficiency of the phosphor. These results indicate that NCASO:Eu2+,Mn2+ can be a promising single-phased white-emitting phosphor for white-light UV LEDs.. ©2013 Optical Society of ...
The ability to convert between molecular spin states is of utmost importance in materials chemistry. Förster-type energy transfer is based on dipole-dipole interactions and can therefore theoretically be used to convert between molecular spin states. Here, a molecular dyad that is capable of transferring energy from an excited triplet state to an excited singlet state is presented. The rate of conversion between these states was shown to be 36 times faster than the rate of emission from the isolated triplet state. This dyad provides the first solid proof that Förster-type triplet-to-singlet energy transfer is possible, revealing a method to increase the rate of light extraction from excited triplet states. ...
An apparatus is disclosed for exothermically obtaining hydrogen or hydrogen peroxide from water vapor in a reaction chamber. The separation of the hydrogen and oxygen may be accelerated through the use of a combination host and sensitizer material which is present near spaces or voids within the reaction chamber. The water vapor has certain particular absorption bands in its absorption versus frequency characteristic. Each of the sensitizers which are located adjacent the voids in the reactant, in one embodiment forming part of the walls of small cylindrical tubes, has an energy output in the excited state which is precisely in one of the energy absorption bands in the water vapor characteristic. The host material absorbs heat energy and excites the sensitizer material. In addition to the formation of free hydrogen, some hydrogen peroxide is also formed. Other feedstocks may have energy selectively applied to them.Alternative appparatus for applying high intensity radiation to feedstock include (1) a
The principle of energy transfer is a major proposition in the interaction between energy-producing and energy-utilizing pathways in living and thriving cells. Energy transfer from one organism to another is part of the law of conservation of energy.. ...
Energy Transfer Partners, L.P. (NYSE: ETP) today announced that its wholly owned subsidiaries, Energy Transfer Interstate Holdings, LLC (
TY - JOUR. T1 - Excitation energy transfer between dye molecules in lasing microparticles. AU - Takahashi, T.. AU - Fujiwara, K.. AU - Matsuo, S.. AU - Misawa, H.. N1 - Funding Information: The present work was partly supported by the Satellite Venture Business Laboratory of the University of Tokushima. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1999/1/18. Y1 - 1999/1/18. N2 - Energy transfer from excited state donor to ground state acceptor dyes in polymer microparticles with a diameter of 30-60 μm was observed under lasing condition. The energy transfer efficiency was found to be higher with the increasing size of the particle. This result indicates that the excitation energy transfer efficiency can be controlled by the particle size without varying temperature and dye concentration. The dynamics of energy transfer was observed through picosecond time-resolved emission spectral measurements.. AB - Energy transfer from excited state donor to ground state acceptor dyes ...
Double loading of a zeolite with a triplet energy donor and a triplet energy acceptor followed by selective irradiation into the donor absorption band leads to characteristic triplet state reactivity of the acceptor.. ...
During photosynthesis, sunlight is efficiently captured by light-harvesting complexes, and the excitation energy is then funneled towards the reaction centre. These photosynthetic excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways are complex and proceed in a multistep fashion. Ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is an important tool to study EET processes in photosynthetic complexes. However, the multistep EET processes can only be indirectly inferred by correlating different cross peaks from a series of 2DES spectra. Here we directly observe multistep EET processes in LHCII using ultrafast fifth-order three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (3DES). We measure cross peaks in 3DES spectra of LHCII that directly indicate energy transfer from excitons in the chlorophyll b (Chl b) manifold to the low-energy level chlorophyll a (Chl a) via mid-level Chl a energy states. This new spectroscopic technique allows scientists to move a step towards mapping the complete complex EET processes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficient estimation of energy transfer efficiency in light-harvesting complexes. AU - Shabani, A.. AU - Mohseni, M.. AU - Rabitz, H.. AU - Lloyd, S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/7/17. Y1 - 2012/7/17. N2 - The fundamental physical mechanisms of energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes is not yet fully understood. In particular, the degree of efficiency or sensitivity of these systems for energy transfer is not known given their realistic with surrounding photonic and phononic environments. One major problem in studying light-harvesting complexes has been the lack of an efficient method for simulation of their dynamics in biological environments. To this end, here we revisit the second order time-convolution (TC2) master equation and examine its reliability beyond extreme Markovian and perturbative limits. In particular, we present a derivation of TC2 without making the usual weak system-bath coupling assumption. Using this ...
0008]Strand specific methods utilise additional nucleic acid reaction components to monitor the progress of amplification reactions. These methods may use fluorescence energy transfer (PET) as the basis of detection. One or more nucleic acid probes are labelled with fluorescent molecules, one of which is able to act as an energy donor and the other of which is an energy acceptor molecule. These are sometimes known as a reporter molecule and a quencher molecule respectively. The donor molecule is excited with a specific wavelength of light for which it will normally exhibit a fluorescence emission wavelength. The acceptor molecule is also excited at this wavelength such that it can accept the emission energy of the donor molecule by a variety of distance-dependent energy transfer mechanisms. A specific example of fluorescence energy transfer which can occur is Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer or FRET. Generally the acceptor molecule accepts the mission energy of the donor molecule when ...
HU, a multi-functional DNA-binding protein, acts primarily as an architectural protein. The proposed function of HU is stabilization of DNA in a bent conformation or bending of duplex DNA to allow access for other proteins to bind to the DNA and carry
We have studied the influence of the local density of optical states (LDOS) on the rate and efficiency of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from a donor to an acceptor. The donors and acceptors are dye molecules that are separated by a short strand of double-stranded DNA. The LDOS is controlled by carefully positioning the FRET pairs near a mirror. We find that the energy transfer efficiency changes with LDOS, and that, in agreement with theory, the energy transfer rate is independent of the LDOS, which allows one to quantitatively control FRET systems in a new way. Our results imply a change in the characteristic Förster distance, in contrast to common lore that this distance is fixed for a given FRET pair.. ...
Solar power production and solar energy storage are important research areas for development of technologies that can facilitate a transition to a future society independent of fossil fuel based energy sources. Devices for direct conversion of solar photons suffer from poor efficiencies due to spectrum losses, which are caused by energy mismatch between the optical absorption of the devices and the broadband irradiation provided by the sun. In this context, photon-upconversion technologies are becoming increasingly interesting since they might offer an efficient way of converting low energy solar energy photons into higher energy photons, ideal for solar power production and solar energy storage. This perspective discusses recent progress in triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) photon-upconversion systems and devices for solar energy applications. Furthermore, challenges with evaluation of the efficiency of TTA-photon-upconversion systems are discussed and a general approach for evaluation and comparison
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is an energy transfer process between the fluorescent dye molecules [1]. Due to its high sensitivity to the change of distance between the dyes, it has received great interest for the study of biological systems [2]. FRET technique has a spatial resolution of sub-nanometer, and can be used as a probe of inter- and intra-molecular dynamics of biological macromolecules such as protein conformational change, enzyme-substrate reaction, and RNA folding [3][4]. Determination of FRET efficiency in ensemble measurement is, however, not straightforward due to the difficulty in distinguishing FRET pairs from unpaired dyes or the dyes not properly labeled to the bio-molecule in question that might give huge background [5]. By contrast, single-molecule detection provides a method that is free from this obstacle as it can only collect the signal from one single FRET pair. Another advantage of this technique is that it allows monitoring the structural- or ...
This dissertation describes the observed interactions between energy transfer in small clusters of nominally monodisperse semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, QDs) and single molecule phenomena such as fluorescence intermittency (blinking) and antibunching. The relevant literature on energy transfer between QDs has typically invoked the Förster energy transfer mechanism to explain the observations in ensemble measurements. The size dispersion in QDs results in a dispersion in the electronic and optical properties of QDs due to size dependent confinement effects on photogenerated carriers ...
Compartmentalization of high-energy phosphate carriers between intracellular micro-compartments is a phenomenon that ensures efficient energy use. To connect these sites, creatine kinase (CK) and adenylate kinase (AK) energy-transfer networks, which are functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), could serve as important regulators of cellular energy fluxes. Here, we introduce how selective permeabilization of cellular outer membrane and high-resolution respirometry can be used to study functional coupling between CK or AK pathways and OXPHOS in different cells and tissues. Using the protocols presented here the ability of creatine or adenosine monophosphate to stimulate OXPHOS through CK and AK reactions, respectively, is easily observable and quantifiable. Additionally, functional coupling between hexokinase and mitochondria can be investigated by monitoring the effect of glucose on respiration. Taken together, high-resolution respirometry in combination with permeabilization is a
Since Kaiser and Garretts pioneering work on two-photon absorption 40 years ago, observations of blue-shifted fluorescence have been widely used as a marker and measure of non-linear excitation. In doped crystals or in molecular multi-chromophore systems, where resonance energy transfer conveys excitation from the sites of initial photoabsorption to others which yield the fluorescence, this process can play a possible intermediary role in the generation of two-photon fluorescence. Recent work has revealed other competing mechanisms, involving energy transfer between three fluorophore sites, that should be equally or more significant in strongly pumped systems depending on the conditions. It is the purpose of this paper to identify fully the characteristics of one such process involving the coupling of fluorescence energy transfer with Raman emission, and to determine the precise nature of the conditions under which it may be observed.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unique ultrafast energy transfer in a series of phenylene-bridged subporphyrin-porphyrin hybrids. AU - Oh, Juwon. AU - Sung, Jooyoung. AU - Kitano, Masaaki. AU - Inokuma, Yasuhide. AU - Osuka, Atsuhiro. AU - Kim, Dongho. PY - 2014/9/18. Y1 - 2014/9/18. N2 - A series of phenylene-bridged subporphyrin-Zn(ii) porphyrin (SubP-ZnP) hybrid systems undergo extraordinarily fast excitation energy transfer (EET) processes from the SubP to the ZnP, aided by conjugative electronic elongation of the SubP to the phenylene-bridge. This journal is. AB - A series of phenylene-bridged subporphyrin-Zn(ii) porphyrin (SubP-ZnP) hybrid systems undergo extraordinarily fast excitation energy transfer (EET) processes from the SubP to the ZnP, aided by conjugative electronic elongation of the SubP to the phenylene-bridge. This journal is. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84906258454&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84906258454&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - ...
Fleming has compared 2-D electronic spectroscopy to the technique used in the early super-heterodyne radios, where an incoming high frequency radio signal was converted by an oscillator to a lower frequency for more controllable amplification and better reception. In the case of 2-D electronic spectroscopy, scientists can track the transfer of energy between molecules that are coupled (connected) through their electronic and vibrational states in any photoactive system, macromolecular assembly or nanostructure.. Fleming and his group first described 2-D electronic spectroscopy in a 2005 Nature paper, when they used the technique to observe electronic couplings in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) photosynthetic light-harvesting protein, a molecular complex in green sulphur bacteria. Said Engel, The 2005 paper was the first biological application of this technique, now we have used 2-D electronic spectroscopy to discover a new phenomenon in photosynthetic systems. While the possibility that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Photoluminescence from donor-acceptor molecular systems via long distance energy transfer mediated by surface plasmons. AU - Shimada, Takayuki. AU - Tomita, Satoshi. AU - Hotta, Shu. AU - Hayashi, Shinji. AU - Yanagi, Hisao. PY - 2009/4/1. Y1 - 2009/4/1. N2 - We have studied the energy transfer from p-sexiphenyl (p-6P) to 5,5′-bis(4-biphenylyl)-2,2′-bithiophene (BP2T) mediated by surface plasmons (SPs) on a thin silver layer sandwiched between two MgF2 spacers. The SP-mediated fluorescence of the BP2T acceptor is observed at the donor-acceptor distance beyond 200 nm, which is much longer than the Förster distance. The photoluminescence of BP2T is maximized at silver thickness of roughly 40 nm, where the silver layer is transformed from segregated nanoparticles into a continuous film, at an MgF2 thickness of 10.5 to 52.5 nm.. AB - We have studied the energy transfer from p-sexiphenyl (p-6P) to 5,5′-bis(4-biphenylyl)-2,2′-bithiophene (BP2T) mediated by surface plasmons ...
The thermodynamic phase behavior and lateral lipid membrane organization of unilamellar vesicles made from mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2 distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) were investigated by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) as a function of temperature and composition. This was done by incorporating a headgroup-labeled lipid donor (NBD-DPPE) and acceptor (N-Rh-DPPE) in low concentrations into the binary mixtures. Two instances of increased energy transfer efficiency were observed close to the phase lines in the DMPC/DSPC phase diagram. The increase in energy transfer efficiency was attributed to a differential preference of the probes for dynamic and fluctuating gel/fluid coexisting phases. This differential preference causes the probes to segregate (S. Pedersen, K. Jørgensen, T. R. Baekmark, and O. G. Mouritsen, 1996, Biophys. J. 71:554-560). The observed increases in energy transfer match with the boundaries of the DMPC/DSPC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two dimensional electronic spectroscopy of molecular complexes. AU - Cho, Minhaeng. AU - Brixner, Tobias. AU - Stiopkin, Igor. AU - Vaswani, Harsha. AU - Fleming, Graham R.. PY - 2006/2. Y1 - 2006/2. N2 - Two dimensional (2D) heterodyne-detected electronic photon echo spectroscopy is introduced and described. We give an intuitive description of the origin and information content of 2D electronic spectra, focusing on molecular complexes. We identify two important quantities-the transition dipole term, and the transition frequency cross correlation function that controls the appearance of 2D electronic spectra. We also show how the transition frequency cross correlation function controls the rate of exciton relaxation. These concepts are illustrated with experimental data on the seven bacteriochlorophyll FMO complex of a green sulfur bacterium, showing how the pathways and mechanisms of energy flow can be elucidated by combining 2D spectra with theoretical modeling.. AB - Two ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Switching of the inter-component photoinduced electron- and energy-transfer properties of a Ru(II)-azacrown-Re(I) complex; effects of changing temperature, and of incorporation of Ba2+ ion into the macrocyclic spacer between the chromophores. AU - Encinas, S. AU - Bushell, KL. AU - Couchman, SM. AU - Jeffery, JC. AU - Ward, MD. AU - Flamigni, L. AU - Barigelletti, F. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). SP - 1783. EP - 1792. JO - Dalton. JF - Dalton. SN - 1470-479X. ER - ...
Femtochemistry IX: Femtochemistry, Femtobiology, and Femtophysics - Frontries in Ultrafast Science and Technology, Beijing, China, 8-13 August 2009, p. 111 P-43 ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Light harvesting, excitation energy/electron transfer, and photoregulation in artificial photosynthetic systems. AU - Terazono, Yuichi. AU - Moore, Thomas A. AU - Moore, Ana L. AU - Gust, John Devens. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - This chapter summarizes recent research from our laboratory on multichromophoric molecules that perform as components of artificial photosynthetic systems. The basic scientific principles underlying the design of these molecules were drawn from natural photosynthetic energy conversion, but thematerials used to prepare them are synthetic. The systems consist of chromophores and electron and energy donors and acceptors that have been chemically linked to form artificial reaction centers and antennas, and to mimic some aspects of photosynthetic regulation and photoprotection. These chromophores include porphyrins, fullerenes, carotenoid polyenes, antenna moieties, and photochromic materials. We begin with an introduction to artificial photosynthesis ...
Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
Vibrational and electronic transition dipole strengths are often good probes of molecular structures, especially in excitonically coupled systems of chromophores. One cannot determine transition dipole strengths using linear spectroscopy unless the concentration is known, which in many cases it is not. In this paper, we report a simple method for measuring transition dipole moments from linear absorption and 2D IR spectra that does not require knowledge of concentrations. Our method is tested on several model compounds and applied to the amide I band of a polypeptide in its random coil andα-helical conformation as modulated by the solution temperature. It is often difficult to confidently assign polypeptide and protein secondary structures to random coil or α-helix by linear spectroscopy alone, because they absorb in the same frequency range. We find that the transition dipole strength of the random coil state is 0.12 ± 0.013 D^2, which is similar to a single peptide unit, indicating that ...
The rate parameters of solvent-solute energy transfer and of oxygen-solvent quenching have been determined for solutions of 2, 5-diphenyloxazole in benzene, toluene, p-xylene and mesitylene. The role of excited molecules and excimers in transfer to the solute molecules is considered in terms of the Voltz relations, which include the Förster critical transfer distance, the molecular diffusion coefficients, and the solvent excitation migration coefficient. It is proposed that the migration is due to excimer formation and dissociation, and that the energy transfer occurs by a diffusion/migration-controlled collisional process. Dilution of the solvent decreases the migration, but increases the transfer distance, so that the transfer efficiency remains practically constant. The excimer formation and dissociation rate parameters in the pure alkyl benzenes are evaluated. ...
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Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a distance-dependent interaction between the electronic excited states of two dye molecules in which excitation is transferred from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule without emission of a photon.
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a fluorescence microscopy technique suitable for live cells and capable of detecting changes in the conformational state of a single protein or the distance between two interacting proteins when the proteins are conjugated with appropriate donor and acceptor fluorophores
Monitoring protein conformations and interactions by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between mutants of green fluorescent protein
LOC FOR DETECTION OF HYBRIDIZATION OF NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCES WITH FLUORESCENCE RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER (FRET) PROBES - diagram, schematic, and image 21 ...
BioTek 白皮书, 06/20 2005, An Introduction to Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Technology and its Application in Bioscience
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electronic spectroscopy of intermediates involved in the conversion of methane to methanol by FeO+. AU - Aguirre, Fernando. AU - Husband, John. AU - Thompson, Christopher J.. AU - Stringer, Kay L.. AU - Metz, Ricardo B.. PY - 2002/3/8. Y1 - 2002/3/8. N2 - The reaction intermediates [H2C=Fe-OH2]+ and [HO-Fe-CH3]+ by photodissociation were studied. On the basis of experimental results and calculations performed at the B3LYP and TD3LYP level, excited state vibrational frequencies as well as geometry changes upon photoexcitation in [H2C=Fe-OH2]+ and [HO-Fe-CH3]+ were determined.. AB - The reaction intermediates [H2C=Fe-OH2]+ and [HO-Fe-CH3]+ by photodissociation were studied. On the basis of experimental results and calculations performed at the B3LYP and TD3LYP level, excited state vibrational frequencies as well as geometry changes upon photoexcitation in [H2C=Fe-OH2]+ and [HO-Fe-CH3]+ were determined.. UR - ...
Ralph struggled for years digesting childhood trauma, because he never could reconcile a repeated tug of war between two mind states that kept painfully repeating themselves in everyday life. Either he reflected on his trauma and he felt like he was intellectually examining someone elses experience from afar without much details of experience, or he got plunged into reliving the trauma in all its details and felt he was drowning in a tornado of unbearable pain. This left him at a loss as to which view point is the truth.. Our organism is fundamentally energy flow organized into a temporarily well orchestrated collection of interrelated energy flow processes of different kinds and complexities. As such we are energy flow processing machines capable of modulating this energy flow in different complex ways that manifest as different organismic structures, from cells to organs, organ systems and minds. As energy enters our organism through its senses, it first flows in an unencumbered way, only ...
Using low energy electron (LEE) as a catalyst, the electronic origin of the catalytic strategies corresponding to substrate selectivity, reaction specificity and reaction rate enhancement are investigated for a reversible unimolecular elementary reaction. An electronic energy complementarity between the catalyst and the substrate molecule is the origin of substrate selectivity and reaction specificity. The electronic energy complementarity is induced by tuning the electronic energy of the catalyst. The energy complementarity maximizes the binding forces between the catalyst and the molecule. Consequently, a new electronically metastable high-energy reactant state and a corresponding new low barrier reaction path are resonantly created for a specific reaction of the substrate through the formation of a catalyst-substrate transient adduct. The LEE catalysis also reveals a fundamental \textit{structure-energy correspondence} in the formation of the catalyst-substrate transient adduct. Since the ...
Novel linkers for linking a donor dye to an acceptor dye in an energy transfer fluorescent dye are provided. These linkers faciliate the efficient transfer of energy between a donor and acceptor dye in an energy transfer dye. One of these linkers for linking a donor dye to an acceptor dye in an energy transfer fluorescent dye has the general structure R21Z1C(O)R22R28 where R21 is a C1-5 alkyl attached to the donor dye, C(O) is a carbonyl group, Z1 is either NH, sulfur or oxygen, R22 is a substituent which includes an alkene, diene, alkyne, a five and six membered ring having at least one unsaturated bond or a fused ring structure which is attached to the carbonyl carbon, and R28 includes a functional group which attaches the linker to the acceptor dye.
We focus on problems with elucidation of site energies (E-0(n)) for photosynthetic complexes (PSCs) in order to raise some genuine concern regarding the conflicting estimations propagating in the literature. As an example, we provide a stern assessment of the site energies extracted from fits to optical spectra of the widely studied CP47 antenna complex of photosystem II from spinach, though many general comments apply to other PSCs as well. Correct values of E-0(n) for chlorophyll (Chl) a in CP47 are essential for understanding its excitonic structure, population dynamics, and excitation energy pathway(s). To demonstrate this, we present a case study where simultaneous fits of multiple spectra (absorption, emission, circular dichroism, and nonresonant hole-burned spectra) show that several sets of parameters can fit the spectra very well. Importantly, we show that variable emission maxima (690-695 nm) and sample-dependent bleaching in nonresonant hole-burning spectra reported in literature ...
Transition paths of macromolecular conformational changes such as protein folding are predicted to be heterogeneous. However, experimental characterization of the diversity of transition paths is extremely challenging because it requires measuring more than one distance during individual transitions. In this work, we used fast three-color single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer spectroscopy to obtain the distribution of binding transition paths of a disordered protein. About half of the transitions follow a path involving strong non-native electrostatic interactions, resulting in a transition time of 300 to 800 microseconds. The remaining half follow more diverse paths characterized by weaker electrostatic interactions and more than 10 times shorter transition path times. The chain flexibility and non-native interactions make diverse binding pathways possible, allowing disordered proteins to bind faster than folded proteins. ...
Instead, we must do a better instructional job of helping students to realize that it takes energy to break bonds and can release energy when bonds are created. In the end, there really needs to be a comprehensive model that takes into account both bond making, bond breaking, and the net energy transfer after a chemical reaction is completed. Focusing on energy transfer in chemical reactions proves, according to Galleys article and the Modeling Instruction research, far more useful in communicating a coherent view of energy. Galley also promotes schematic diagrams to represent the energy transfer in systems, which he describes happens more frequently in college-level chemistry courses. Other recommendations from Galley include, teaching the difference in bond energy between substances more explicitly, as well as better communicating that the bond energy refers to energy required to break a bond. These changes can make clear that it takes energy to break bonds and releases energy to make bonds; ...
Exploring charge and energy transport in donor-bridge-acceptor systems is an important research field which is essential for the fundamental knowledge necessary to develop future applications. These studies help creating valuable knowledge to respond to todays challenges to develop functionalized molecular systems for artificial photosynthesis, photovoltaics or molecular scale electronics. This tutorial review focuses on photo-induced charge/energy transfer in covalently linked donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) systems. Of utmost importance in such systems is to understand how to control signal transmission, i.e. how fast electrons or excitation energy could be transferred between the donor and acceptor and the role played by the bridge (the molecular wire). After a brief description of the electron and energy transfer theory, we aim to give a simple yet accurate picture of the complex role played by the bridge to sustain donor-acceptor electronic communication. Special emphasis is put on understanding
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
A description is given of the kinetics of the prompt and delayed luminescence components from aromatic materials excited by ionizing radiation. A theoretical model has been developed to describe the origin of the delayed scintillation component. From initial assumptions of molecular triplet state diffusion and triplet-triplet annihilation to form delayed singlet states, equations are obtained defining the intensity of the delayed component with time. These equations are shown to agree well with existing experimental results. From the comparison the following parameters for triplet excitations in anthracene and stilbene crystals have been calculated: diffusion constant, 6 x 10-6 cm2 s-1 (anthracene) and 3 x 10-6 cm2 s-1 (stilbene); triplet-triplet interaction rate constant, 1·3 x 10-11 cm3 s-1 (anthracene) and 7·5 x 10-12 cm3 s-1 (stilbene); and diffusion length, 3·5 x 10-4 cm (anthracene). ...
Development of versatile, chemically tunable photocages for photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT) represents an excellent opportunity to address the technical drawbacks of conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) whose oxygen-dependent nature renders it inadequate in certain therapy contexts such as hypoxic tumors. As an alternative to PDT, oxygen free mechanisms to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by visible light cleavable photocages are in demand. Here, we report the detailed mechanisms by which the small molecule blebbistatin acts as a one-photon blue light-gated or two-photon near-infrared light-gated photocage to directly release a hydroxyl radical (•OH) in the absence of oxygen. By using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and chemoselective ROS fluorescent probes, we analyze the dynamics and fate of blebbistatin during photolysis under blue light. Water-dependent photochemistry reveals a critical process of water-assisted protonation and excited state intramolecular
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiative and non-radiative decays from the excited state of Ti3+ ions in oxide crystals. AU - Yamaga, M.. AU - Gao, Y.. AU - Rasheed, F.. AU - ODonnell, K. P.. AU - Henderson, B.. AU - Cockayne, B.. PY - 1990/11/1. Y1 - 1990/11/1. N2 - The fluorescence spectra of Ti3+ in Y3Al5O12 (YAG), Al2O3 (sapphire), YAlO3 (YAP) observed at 10 K are composed of zero-phonon lines accompanied by the broad vibronic sidebands. The temperature dependence of the fluorescence lifetime and of the total intensity of the broadband measured in YAG and Al2O3 indicate that the radiative decay times from the excited states are nearly constant in the range 10-300 K. This demonstrates that the broadband radiative emissions in Ti3+:YAG and Ti3+:Al2O3 are due to magnetic dipole transitions or to electric dipole transitions induced by static odd-parity distortion, respectively. The decrease of the fluorescence lifetime with increasing temperature in Ti3+:YAG and Ti3+:Al2O3 is due to non-radiative decay from ...
Disclosed is a method for transferring energy wirelessly including transferring energy wirelessly from a first resonator structure to an intermediate resonator structure, wherein the coupling rate between the first resonator structure and the intermediate resonator structure is .kappa..sub.1B, transferring energy wirelessly from the intermediate resonator structure to a second resonator structure, wherein the coupling rate between the intermediate resonator structure and the second resonator structure is .kappa..sub.B2, and during the wireless energy transfers, adjusting at least one of the coupling rates .kappa..sub.1B and .kappa..sub.B2 to reduce energy accumulation in the intermediate resonator structure and improve wireless energy transfer from the first resonator structure to the second resonator structure through the intermediate resonator structure.
The fourth transmembrane helix (S4) is the primary voltage-sensor of voltage-gated ion channels. Recent studies have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer as a spectroscopic ruler to determine the nature and magnitude of the voltage-induced movement of S4 that leads to channel opening.
Automated fluorescence lifetime imaging high-content analysis of Förster resonance energy transfer between endogenously labeled kinetochore proteins in live budding yeast cells
The Hartree-Fock method in 6-311G** molecular orbitals basis set has been applied to calculations of proton affinities and proton transfer reaction energie
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Energy Transfer Crude Oil Pipeline Project (ETCOP)" (PDF). Energy Transfer Partners. ... In 2014, the Energy Transfer Crude Oil Pipeline Project (ETCOP) was announced. ETCOP will use 678 miles (1,091 km) of the ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Smith, Christopher E. (2013-02-20). "Enbridge, Energy Transfer to convert Trunkline ... In 1949-1950, the project was taken over by Panhandle Eastern energy company. In 1998, the pipeline was acquired by CMS Energy ...
Förster resonance energy transfer ( E {\displaystyle E} ) is the quantum yield of the energy-transfer transition, i.e. the ... "Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer". Chemistry LibreTexts. 2013-10-02. Retrieved 2020-11-30. Laidler K.J., Chemical ... dos Remedios, Cristobal G.; Moens, Pierre D.J. (September 1995). "Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Spectroscopy Is a ... is the rate of energy transfer, k f {\displaystyle k_{f}} the radiative decay rate (fluorescence) of the donor, and k n r {\ ...
Kellogg RE, Bennett RG (1964). "Radiationless Intermolecular Energy Transfer. III. Determination of Phosphorescence ...
"Transfer waste into energy". Dawn News. January 11, 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2012. "Rift between LWMC, sanitary workers ...
Energy Localisation and Transfer. Advanced Series in Nonlinear Dynamics. 22. World Scientific. pp. 1-71. doi:10.1142/ ...
... heat energy transfer resistance. CPVC is commonly used in water, chemical, hot and cold, delivery systems for residential, ...
Linear electronic stopping power is identical to unrestricted linear energy transfer. Instead of energy transfer, some models ... At high ion energies, there may also be energy losses due to nuclear reactions, but such processes are not normally described ... When the energies of all atoms in the system have fallen below the threshold displacement energy, the production of new damage ... The total amount of energy deposited by the nuclear collisions to atoms in the materials is called the nuclear deposited energy ...
They proposed that energy transfer can serve as a spectroscopic ruler to reveal proximity relationships in biological ... In 1967, Stryer and Haugland showed that the efficiency of energy transfer depends on the inverse sixth power of the distance ... Retrieved 2010-10-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Stryer, L.; Haugland, R.P. (1967). "Energy transfer: a ... Stryer and coworkers pioneered the use of fluorescence spectroscopy, particularly Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), to ...
Energy transfer was 40% efficient. Professor Soljačić's experiments and work in wireless energy transfer are related in spirit ... unlike Tesla's long-range wireless energy transfer in Colorado, the Soljačić group focuses only on short-range transfer, and ... In addition to wireless energy transfer, Prof. Soljačić works on numerous problems on electromagnetism in materials structured ... is a Croatian-American physicist and electrical engineer known for wireless non-radiative energy transfer. Marin Soljačić was ...
Haugland, R.P.; Yguerabide, J.; Stryer, L. (1969). "Dependence of the Kinetics of Singlet-Singlet Energy Transfer on Spectral ... Two classic papers resulted from this collaboration: 1. Stryer, L., Haugland, R.P. "Energy Transfer: A Spectroscopic Ruler." ... "Energy Transfer: A Spectroscopic Ruler". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 58 (2): 719-726. Bibcode:1967PNAS...58..719S. doi: ... showing in a now widely cited and classic paper that Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) can be used as a "spectroscopic ...
The energy transfer is ended. With its agent destroyed and the energy flow terminated, the Heart of Kalthon begins to die. The ... Before the energy transfer, Kalthon was passively draining power from Alpha, causing reduced heating and equipment malfunctions ... The replica's plans for the energy transfer progress. While Helena frets over the effects of the power reduction on the life- ... The reflector is complete and the power transfer is initiated. As the energy beam is projected at the asteroid, power levels ...
"Energy transferred." "We control the universe." The Pin-Bot character appears in the 1988 Taxi pinball machine (created by ...
Morin JG, Hastings JW (1971). "Energy transfer in a bioluminescent system". J. Cell. Physiol. 77 (3): 313-18. doi:10.1002/jcp. ... the protein occurs together with the green fluorescent protein to produce green light by resonant energy transfer, while ...
Morin, J.G.; Hastings, J.W. (1971). "Energy transfer in a bioluminescent system". J. Cell. Physiol. 77 (3): 313-318. doi: ... His lab first demonstrated that the green in vivo coelenterate bioluminescence occurs because of energy transfer from the ... and some of the initial studies of energy transfer in green fluorescent proteins (GFP) in cnidarian luminescence. Hastings ...
Energy Transfer Dynamics in Biomaterial Systems. Springer Verlag Springer Series on Chemical Physics. Springer Series in ...
279-. ISBN 978-0-470-45223-3. Irene Burghardt; V. May; David A. Micha, E. R. Bittner (22 September 2009). Energy Transfer ... Energy Transfer Dynamics in Biomaterial Systems. p. 165. ISBN 978-3-642-02306-4. Dwaipayan Chakarabarti, Biman Bagchi (2009). " ...
It is owned by Energy Transfer. Its FERC code is 69. "FERC: Natural Gas - Three Digit Pipeline Code List for Index of Customers ...
O'Brien, D. F.; Baldo, M. A.; Thompson, M. E.; Forrest, S. R. (1999). "Improved energy transfer in electrophosphorescent ... The United States Department of Energy has recognized the potential for massive energy savings via the use of this technology ... Due to their potentially high level of energy efficiency, even when compared to other OLEDs, PHOLEDs are being studied for ... One problem that currently hampers the widespread adoption of this highly energy efficient technology is that the average ...
... transfer of excitation energy, and the transfer of electrons and protons (hydrogen ions) in chemical processes, such as ... As the electron transfers through and that usually would be a barrier for the electrons and would lose its energy due to the ... The energy collected in reaction sites must be transferred quickly before it is lost to fluorescence or thermal vibrational ... E. Thyrhaug; K. Zidek; J. Dostal; D. Bina; D. Zigmantas (2016). "Exciton Structure and Energy Transfer in the Fenna−Matthews− ...
"Terenin, A.; Ermolaev, V. Sensitized Phosphorescence in Organic Solutions at Low Temperature; Energy Transfer Between Triplet ... A disadvantage of photochemical processes is the low efficiency of the conversion of electrical energy in the radiation energy ... Triplets tend to be longer-lived than singlets and of lower energy than the singlet of the same configuration. Triplets may ... In addition to the radiation, light sources generate plenty of heat, which in turn requires cooling energy. In addition, most ...
An additional property of fluorescence that has found a large usage is Förster resonance energy transfer (Fret) in which the ... 46(9): p. N221-6. MacColl, R., Allophycocyanin and energy transfer. Biochim Biophys Acta, 2004. 1657(2-3): p. 73-81. Lorand, J. ... Rolinski, O.J., et al., Molecular distribution sensing in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based affinity assay for ... Ballerstadt, R., et al., In vivo performance evaluation of a transdermal near-infrared fluorescence resonance energy transfer ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Darwish, Ali (2004). Contrast and Energy Transfer in Karate. ISBN 9780957751170. ...
Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was first applied to single molecules by Ha et al. and applied to protein folding in ... Once the states are identified, they can be used to calculate the Förster resonance energy transfer distances and transition ... Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (or smFRET) is a biophysical technique used to measure distances at the ... Ha T (September 2001). "Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer". Methods. 25 (1): 78-86. doi:10.1006/meth. ...
Energy transfer versus electron transfer". J. Chem. Phys. 115 (11): 5076. Bibcode:2001JChPh.115.5076Z. doi:10.1063/1.1395555. K ... Then the excess energy of the excitation is transferred interatomically (intermolecularly) to remove an outer-valence electron ... R. Santra; L.S. Cederbaum (2003). "Coulombic energy transfer and triple ionization in clusters". Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (15): ... Weber; H. Schmidt-Böcking; R. Dörner (2010). "Ultrafast energy transfer between water molecules". Nature Physics. 6 (2): 139- ...
Pritt, A.T. (June 1986). Iodine Monofluoride Energy Transfer Studies (PDF). Kirtland Air Force Base: Air Force Weapons ...
Transient absorption spectroscopy has become an important tool for characterizing various electronic states and energy transfer ... energy, charge or electron transfer process; conformational changes, thermal relaxation, fluorescence or phosphorescence ... As the time delay between the pump and the probe are changed, the change in the energy (and sometimes emission direction) of ... In some cases multiple photons of a lower energy are used as the ionizing probe. Time-resolved mass spectrometry Ultrafast ...
Financial documents from Energy Transfer Partners, the pipeline builder for the Dakota Access Pipeline, lists a number of large ... "EnergyTransfer.com - Investor Relations - SEC Filings". governance.energytransfer.com. Archived from the original on January 31 ... Within hours of the order, Chase unblocked the accounts and the funds were transferred through South America to Nazi Germany. ... including transferring 32,000 ounces of gold bullion (valued at approximately $20,560,000) to the benefit of a bank in Iran. ...
Directional energy transfer in a photosynthetic antenna". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1016/S0021- ... This additional PCB faces the exterior of the trimeric ring and is therefore implicated in inter-rod energy transfer in the ... Identification of the terminal energy acceptor bilin in phycocyanins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (13): 6323-7. ... Ratha SK, Prasanna R (February 2012). "Bioprospecting microalgae as potential sources of "Green Energy"-challenges and ...
Davydov, Alexander S. (1977). "Solitons and energy transfer along protein molecules". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 66 (2): ... Thus the Hamiltonian of the energy operator H ^ {\displaystyle {\hat {H}}} is H ^ = H ^ qp + H ^ ph + H ^ int {\displaystyle {\ ... Solitons in which the energy is distributed in a fashion preserving the helical symmetry are dynamically unstable, and such ... vibrational energy of the C=O stretching (or amide I) oscillators that is localized on the α-helix acts through a phonon ...
This excitation energy is transferred from one chromophore to another and ends at a pair of chlorophyll molecules in a ... Directional energy transfer in a photosynthetic antenna". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (1): 1-4. ISSN 0021-9258. ... his work showed that the phycobilisomes have a specific directional pathway for energy transfer towards the reaction center ... were able to be organized onto the surface of photosynthetic lamellae to investigate the specific pathway of energy transfer. ...
"transfer of rule" *^ Going by the given areas, Wilson's figures only include the German and Czech speaking parts of the Reich, ... after 1419 the Papacy directed much of its energy to suppressing the Hussites. The medieval idea of unifying all Christendom ... Kingship continued to be transferred by election, but Kings often ensured their own sons were elected during their lifetimes, ...
Specific energy content and energy density[edit]. The heating value depends on the source of gas that is used and the process ... The first commercial ship-to-ship transfer (STS) transfers were undertaken in February 2007 at the Flotta facility in Scapa ... a b c d e The Outlook for Global Trade in Liquefied Natural Gas Projections to the Year 2020, Prepared For: California Energy ... "Energies. 12 (3): 515. doi:10.3390/en12030515.. *^ "Shell: LNG in transport". May 2015. Archived from the original on 22 June ...
On the other extreme, not using any ECC (i.e. a code-rate equal to 1) uses the full channel for information transfer purposes, ... Another criteria for optimizing the code rate is to balance low error rate and retransmissions number in order to the energy ... One interesting question is the following: how efficient in terms of information transfer can be an ECC that has a negligible ... This establishes bounds on the theoretical maximum information transfer rate of a channel with some given base noise level. ...
The transfer of energy from primary producers to top consumers can also be characterized by energy flow diagrams.[33] ... Each trophic level transforms energy into biomass. Energy flow diagrams illustrate the rates and efficiency of transfer from ... This energy flow diagram illustrates how energy is lost as it fuels the metabolic process that transform the energy and ... Autotrophs produce more biomass energy, either chemically without the sun's energy or by capturing the sun's energy in ...
... near Chakras that they believe are centers of supernatural energies in the belief that these supernatural energies can transfer ... Energy medicine: is a domain that deals with putative and verifiable energy fields: *Biofield therapies are intended to ... Supernatural energies. Bases of belief may include belief in existence of supernatural energies undetected by the science of ... which invokes physically undetectable or unverifiable energy.[80] None of these energies have any evidence to support that they ...
Transformation is a complex developmental process requiring energy and is dependent on expression of numerous genes. In S. ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ...
Siegel, R., Howell, J.R., (2002). Thermal radiation heat transfer. p. 480. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1560329688 ... These give rise to energy losses due to the scattered light, with the following coefficient:[19] ... Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer. 92 (3): 293-310. Bibcode:2005JQSRT..92..293S. doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt. ...
However, lawrencium is an exception, since its last electron is transferred to the 7p1/2 subshell due to relativistic effects.[ ... Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U.; Ishikawa, Y. (1995). "Transition energies of ytterbium, lutetium, and lawrencium by the relativistic ... "Resonance Transition Energies and Oscillator Strengths in Lutetium and Lawrencium". Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (18): 183001. Bibcode ...
They capture the energy in sunlight and use it to make simple sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, from carbon dioxide and ... The petiole mechanically links the leaf to the plant and provides the route for transfer of water and sugars to and from the ... This compound is essential for photosynthesis as it absorbs light energy from the sun. A leaf with white patches or edges is ... The leaf is a vital source of energy production for the plant, and plants have evolved protection against animals that consume ...
Chloroplast genome reduction and gene transferEdit. Over time, many parts of the chloroplast genome were transferred to the ... After a chloroplast polypeptide is synthesized on a ribosome in the cytosol, ATP energy can be used to phosphorylate, or add a ... "Endosymbiotic gene transfer and transcriptional regulation of transferred genes in Paulinella chromatophora". Molecular Biology ... Endosymbiotic gene transfer is how we know about the lost chloroplasts in many chromalveolate lineages. Even if a chloroplast ...
Hohmann transfer. *Inclination change. *Low energy transfer. *Oberth effect. *Phasing. *Rocket equation ...
The Power Transistor - Temperature and Heat Transfer; 1st Ed; John McWane, Dana Roberts, Malcom Smith; McGraw-Hill; 82 pages; ... Circuits with greater energy efficiency are usually possible. For low-power applications (for example, voltage amplification) ... in particular, energy consumption can be very much less than for tubes. ...
On 23 October 1986, the Duke of York (as he was by then) transferred to the General List, enrolled in a four-month helicopter ... to energy companies wishing to deal with Kazakhstan.[71] The trust is believed to have paid £6 million towards the purchase of ... In late 1983, Prince Andrew transferred to RNAS Portland, was trained to fly the Lynx helicopter, and was promoted to the rank ...
Symbols on the crest were explained in the school's Charivari magazine in December 1911: the dolphins symbolise energy, ... This transferred ownership of the school from herself to ensure the long-term succession of the school.[9] ...
This mechanism seeks to reduce the sound energy in the ear by dampening its transfer from eardrum to cochlea. It has been seen ... Although this mechanism can decrease the sound energy, it does not negate the oscillatory pressure. Due to this defense ... During exposure to sound, metabolic energy is needed to maintain the relevant electrochemical gradients used in the ... 2007). "Threshold fatigue and information transfer." Journal of Computational Neuroscience 23(3): 301-311 ...
To facilitate genetic transfer between isolated individuals, barnacles have extraordinarily long penises⁠. Barnacles probably ... As the larva exhausts its finite energy reserves, it becomes less selective in the sites it selects. It cements itself ... their poor skeletal preservation is due to their restriction to high-energy environments, which tend to be erosional - ...
The discovery and utilization of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological ... Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. The earliest known use of wind power is the sailing ship; the ... National Research Council; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Energy Engineering Board; Commission on Engineering ... but it was the use of the wheel as a transformer of energy (through water wheels, windmills, and even treadmills) that ...
The species was transferred to the genus Kluyveromyces by van der Walt in 1956.[1] Since then, 45 species have been recognized ... "Growth of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 6556 on different sugar combinations as sole carbon and energy source". Applied ... Energy, Sustainability and Society. 5 (1). doi:10.1186/s13705-014-0028-2.. ... marxianus is an aerobic yeast capable of respiro-fermentative metabolism that consists of simultaneously generating energy from ...
Kucinich opposed a planned regional radioactive waste dump, and has long advocated renewable energy and efficient energy use.[ ... In 2007, Kucinich voted to require the Department of Defense to present a detailed plan for transferring prisoners out of the ... Environment and energy. Kucinich had a 100% rating during 2005 and 2006 from the League of Conservation Voters, indicating pro- ...
They partnered with a company in Canada called New Energy Farms to grow a large crop of blue tomatoes, from which to create ... Agrobacterium-mediated genetic engineering techniques were developed in the late 1980s that could successfully transfer genetic ...
Thomas, N.; Gaydon, A. G.; Brewer, L. (1952). "Cyanogen Flames and the Dissociation Energy of N2". The Journal of Chemical ... thus interrupting the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. Cyanogen gas is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory system. ...
... potentially reduced energy use via decreased ventilation needs; reduced quantities of litter; healthier environments; and ... solid particulates from secondhand smoke that are adsorbed onto surfaces and later re-emitted as gases or transferred through ...
It was found recently that the pollen of conifers transfers the mitochondrial organelles to the embryo, a sort of meiotic drive ... The leaves are often dark green in colour, which may help absorb a maximum of energy from weak sunshine at high latitudes or ... Added to this would be the photosynthate to produce energy to sustain respiration over this period, an amount estimated to be ...
Dual-energy[edit]. Dual-energy radiography is where images are acquired using two separate tube voltages. This is the standard ... This blurring can be measured as a contribution to the modulation transfer function of the imaging system. ... Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry[edit]. Main article: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry ... The maximum range of a high-energy photon such as an X-ray in matter is infinite; at every point in the matter traversed by the ...
... and ligand-induced conformational changes of melatonin receptors in living cells by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer ...
It is equal to the energy transferred to (or work done on) an object when a force of one newton acts on that object in the ... "Energy Units - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy - Energy Information Administration". www.eia.gov.. ... 6 GJ is about the chemical energy of combusting 1 barrel (159 l) of crude oil.[12] 2 GJ is about the Planck energy unit.. ... The adoption of joules as units of energy, FAO/WHO Ad Hoc Committee of Experts on Energy and Protein, 1971. A report on the ...
Mahone escapes the transfer car and Lang stops him; but he convinces her to let him leave. Sucre departs and Krantz forces ... Burrows' team tracks the man to the energy conference, where Burrows enters before Banarjee is assassinated and Burrows is ... She finds out about the transfer. The team finds a water pipe blocking their way and manages to get across it, but at the cost ... The team gives Scylla to Self, who gives them a package containing their transfer papers and tells them to wait for the ...
... the first ionisation energies and atomisation energies of the alkali metals. Because the first ionisation energy of the alkali ... Indeed, transferring of protons between chemicals is the basis of acid-base chemistry.[10]:43 Also unique is hydrogen's ability ... The first ionisation energy of an element or molecule is the energy required to move the most loosely held electron from one ... The formation of an alkali metal nitride would consume the ionisation energy of the alkali metal (forming M+ ions), the energy ...
Therefore, there is no reflection from the surface, and all the energy of the beam must be in the transmitted ray, T. In the ... calculation of the reflection from a stack of layers, the transfer-matrix method can be used. ...
Energy of electromagnetic radiation.. Radiant energy density. we. joule per cubic metre. J/m3. M⋅L−1⋅T−2. Radiant energy per ... a b c d e Alternative symbols sometimes seen: W or E for radiant energy, P or F for radiant flux, I for irradiance, W for ... Radiant energy. Qe[nb 2]. joule. J. M⋅L2⋅T−2. ... Radiative transfer. *Transparency and translucency. *Sun ... Radiant energy received by a surface per unit area, or equivalently irradiance of a surface integrated over time of irradiation ...
Energy Transfer Equity Crosses Critical Technical Indicator. In trading on Tuesday, shares of Energy Transfer Equity LP (NYSE: ... Buy Energy Transfer Partners For Its 12% Yield And To Play Americas Pipeline Renaissance. Energy Transfer Partners 11.6% yield ... Energy Transfer Takes Eco-Terrorism Allegations To Court. The decision by Energy Transfer to sue Greenpeace and other ... Writing Puts On Energy Transfer Partners. On Wednesday, Energy Transfer Partners posted quarterly results that topped analysts ...
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), resonance energy transfer (RET) or ... is the quantum yield of the energy transfer transition, i.e. the fraction of energy transfer event occurring per donor ... "fluorescence resonance energy transfer" is often used instead, although the energy is not actually transferred by fluorescence. ... "Förster resonance energy transfer" is preferred to "fluorescence resonance energy transfer"; however, the latter enjoys common ...
In dosimetry, linear energy transfer (LET) is the amount of energy that an ionizing particle transfers to the material ... and the linear energy transfer becomes the unrestricted linear energy transfer which is identical to the linear electronic ... if their energy is large enough so that they themselves can ionize. Many studies focus upon the energy transferred in the ... The transfer of energy from an uncharged primary particle to charged secondary particles can also be described by using the ...
"Leaving Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Behind: Nanometal Surface Energy Transfer Predicts the Size-Enhanced Energy Coupling ... Surface energy transfer (SET) is a dipole-surface energy transfer process involving a metallic surface and a molecular dipole. ... equal probability of energy transfer and spontaneous emission). The energy transfer efficiency also follows a similar form ϕ S ... Dexter electron transfer Förster resonance energy transfer Christopher J. Breshike; Ryan A. Riskowski & Geoffrey F. Strouse ( ...
Energy and heat transfer engineering in general 27.015 Energy efficiency. Energy conservation in general Including energy ... Solar energy engineering Including photovoltaic energy systems 27.180 Wind turbine energy systems Including generation of ... Energy management systems, see 03.100.70 Energy efficiency of buildings, see 91.120.10 ... Biological sources and alternative sources of energy 27.200 Refrigerating technology Air-conditioners, see 23.120 Refrigerants ...
... the transfer occurs among different scales and motions. Energy transfer may mean diff ... Energy transfer is the conveyance of energy from one item to another; ... the concept of energy transfer means that the transfer happens from groups of low-energy compounds to those that contain energy ... Energy transfer is the conveyance of energy from one item to another; the transfer occurs among different scales and motions. ...
energy transfer equity, energy transfer partners, ETE, ETP, News, Restoration Hardware Insider Buys Of The Week: Energy ... Energy, energy transfer partners, ETP, Long Ideas, News, Oil & Gas Storage & Transportation Energy Transfer Partners Is Posting ... Analyst Expects Energy Transfers Deal To Acquire PennTex Will Close Monday, May 22, 2017 - 8:48am , 369 Energy Transfer ... Energy, energy transfer partners, ETP, Oil & Gas Storage & Transportation, Oppenheimer, Regency Energy Partners Oppenheimer ...
Energy Transfer (ET) is offering a distribution yield of 8.6%. The Alerian MLP ETF (AMLP), the representative of the top 25 ... Although the turmoil in crude oil prices has dented energy MLPs lately, some of the top-yielding names still seem to catch ... Energy Transfer (ET) is offering a distribution yield of 8.6%. The Alerian MLP ETF (AMLP), the representative of the top 25 ... Although the turmoil in crude oil prices has dented energy MLPs lately, some of the top-yielding names still seem to catch ...
Energy Transfer benefited from surging natural gas prices during the freeze, as power plants and other customers ran low on ... Energy Transfer Reaps $2.4 Billion Windfall From Texas Freeze. Read full article. ... Energy Transfer benefited from surging natural gas prices during the freeze, as power plants and other customers ran low on ...
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Energy Transfer, a master-limited partnership, has underperformed its peers and the value of its ... Energy Transfer Partners , an oil and gas pipeline company, may see its value rise given strong business prospects and a ... which could reduce Energy Transfer Partners payments to Energy Transfer Equity, according to the report. ... Energy Transfer, a master-limited partnership, has underperformed its peers and the value of its units are down about 31 ...
Energy Transfer (ET) stock has recovered in the last two trading sessions after investors hammered it on its plans to acquire ... Energy Transfer (ET) stock has recovered in the last two trading sessions after investors hammered it on its plans to acquire ... Energy Transfer LP (ET) Stock Sinks As Market Gains: What You Should Know. Zacks ...
Energy and charge-transfer in natural photosynthesis. Photosynthetic organisms harness energy from sunlight to power most ... Ultrafast photoinduced energy and charge transfer: Faraday Discussion 8 - 10 April 2019, Ventura, California, United States ... We invite you to join us to discuss the topic of Ultrafast photoinduced energy and charge transfer and make your contribution ... Topics for discussion will span, but not be limited to, the mechanisms of energy transfer in both natural and synthetic systems ...
Subtotal for Subsidiary Energy Transfer Partners: $300,000. Subtotal for Parent Energy Transfer Equity: $240,000 Energy ... Lobbying Expenses Reported by Subsidiary Energy Transfer Partners. Firms Hired. Total Reported by Filer. Reported Contract ... Itemized Lobbying Expenses for Energy Transfer Equity. Firms Hired. Total Reported by Filer. Reported Contract Expenses ( ...
Energy Transfer Partners posted quarterly results that topped analysts forecasts. The MLP research group at Stifel has a buy ... Writing Puts On Energy Transfer Partners. Forbes Premium Income Report. On Wednesday, Energy Transfer Partners posted quarterly ...
... which one will transfer energy faster? I am... ... If youre transferring energy via heat, the thicker wire will ... The larger wire will be able to transfer energy easier, but I believe youre looking for which line will transfer the signal of ... The question was about the energy transfer from one end to the other.. I was thinking about a cord already under tension and ... The thicker line will transfer energy from one end to the other more easily. ...
Energy Transfer Equity, L.P. (NYSE: ETE) today announced a quarterly cash distribution of $0.305 per ETE common unit ($1.22 on ... ETPs general partner is owned by Energy Transfer Equity, L.P. (NYSE: ETE). For more information, visit the Energy Transfer ... which can be accessed on Energy Transfers website at energytransfer.com. The call will also be available for replay on Energy ... For more information, visit the Energy Transfer Equity, L.P. website at energytransfer.com. ...
In re Energy Transfer Fuel, L.P.. , September 25, 2009 at 12:00 AM ...
... an energy transfer component is substituted at the 5 position of the spacer chain, while the other energy transfer component ... By employing combinations of ET components, with a common energy absorber/donor and different fluorescers, one can provide for ... Fluorescent labels are provided employing energy absorber/donor components and energy acceptor/fluorescer components joined ... UV excitable energy transfer reagents. US7169939. Feb 26, 2004. Jan 30, 2007. Applera Corporation. Energy transfer dyes with ...
Energy Transfer Partners, an oil and gas pipeline company, may see its value risegiven strong business prospects and a ... which could reduce Energy Transfer Partners payments to Energy Transfer Equity, according to the report. ... Energy Transfer, a master-limited partnership, has underperformed its peers and the value of its units are down about 31 ... Energy Transfer has strong strategic assets including projects due to be completed next year, according to the report. ...
Transcript of Energy transfer. Energy transfer. L.O. Sankey Diagrams. starter. Sankey Diagram. Efficiency. What have you ...
... on Friday said that increased research is required to ease the energy crisis. ... Advocating the need to develop heavy duty equipment for a national grid and experiments capable of transferring energy via ... We should have more experiments on ways to transfer energy through a satellite, from one region to another.". The workshop was ... "There is a need for increased research work in the field of energy transfer globally, to tide over the crisis. ...
... energy transfer is governed by short-range dipole-dipole interactions through the process of Förster resonance energy transfer ... In photosynthesis, the energy of this exciton is finally transferred to the reaction center, where a charge separation process ... Nonradiative energy transfer is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature. Photosynthesis begins with light harvesting, where pigment- ... provides chemical energy for plants, algae, and bacteria. Human-made organic photovoltaic cells try to mimic this natural ...
... has informed Energy Transfer Equity (ETE) LP ,ETE.N, that it is open to considering a new offer that would amend terms of its $ ... Energy Transfers proposed acquisition of Williams has been in doubt for months, with Williams alleging that Energy Transfer ... Reuters) - Williams Cos Inc WMB.N has informed Energy Transfer Equity (ETE) LP ETE.N that it is open to considering a new offer ... Energy Transfer has made clear it believes the deal has become less attractive. It slashed its estimates for expected cost ...
... activity is for students to recognize heat as an energy transfer and to devise methods to account for heat in energy transfer/ ... Explore how to account for thermal energy transfer during energy transformation events. ... and execute their own investigation into thermal energy and energy conservation. They can choose to investigate thermal energy ... Students discuss what role thermal energy played in the demonstration and explore how to account for thermal energy in an ...
Energy Transfers deal is a complex one in which Southern Union shareholders receive a partnership unit that will yield 8.25 ... That, of course, is what happened: Southern Union agreed to be acquired by Energy Transfer in a complex deal worth $33 a share ...
Wegner G., Arndt G., Graf HJ., Steinbach M. (1977) Energy Transfer in the Solid State Photopolymerization of Diacetylenes. In: ... Triple Bond Polymerization Mecha Packing Property Chain Direction High Energy Radiation These keywords were added by machine ... In solution or melt, diacetylenes are quite stable toward uv- or high energy radiation. In the solid state, however, the same ...
The takeover will increase Energy Transfers pipeline network with crude oil gathering assets as well as crude oil and natural ... Shareholders of SemGroup on Thursday voted in support of Energy Transfers bid to acquire the Oklahoma pipeline company in a ... Shareholders of SemGroup on Thursday voted in support of Energy Transfers bid to acquire the Oklahoma pipeline company in a ... The takeover will increase Energy Transfers pipeline network with crude oil gathering assets as well as crude oil and natural ...
How to calculate the transfer of energy as heat(Q)... ... Related Threads on Transfer of heat energy Energy and Heat ... How to calculate the transfer of energy as heat(Q) during the isotherm and isobaric process?. The temperature and the mass of ... The formula that relates energy, heat, and work would be useful here. Also, the formula that relates energy and temperature of ...
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  • Förster resonance energy transfer ( FRET ), fluorescence resonance energy transfer ( FRET ), resonance energy transfer ( RET ) or electronic energy transfer ( EET ) is a mechanism describing energy transfer between two light-sensitive molecules ( chromophores ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] The efficiency of this energy transfer is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance between donor and acceptor, making FRET extremely sensitive to small changes in distance. (wikipedia.org)
  • These virtual photons are undetectable, since their existence violates the conservation of energy and momentum, and hence FRET is known as a radiationless mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantum electrodynamical calculations have been used to determine that radiationless (FRET) and radiative energy transfer are the short- and long-range asymptotes of a single unified mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cartoon diagram of the concept of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). (wikipedia.org)
  • FRET is a quantum mechanical process involving the radiationless transfer of energy from a donor fluorophore to an appropriately positioned acceptor fluorophore. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The energy transfer efficiency also follows a similar form ϕ S E T = 1 1 + ( d / d 0 ) 4 {\displaystyle \phi _{SET}={\frac {1}{1+({d}/{d_{0}})^{4}}}} Due to the fourth power dependence SET can cover a distance more than 15 nm, which is almost twice the efficiency of FRET. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic materials, energy transfer is governed by short-range dipole-dipole interactions through the process of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), whose spatial range is limited to distances less than 10 nm. (sciencemag.org)
  • Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) enables the study of molecular interactions by exciting a donor fluorophore, which transfers the energy to an acceptor fluorophore if they are in close proximity. (gu.se)
  • Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurs across very short distances (in the nanometer range) between donor and acceptor fluorophores that overlap in their emission and absorption spectra. (nih.gov)
  • Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a phenomenon used to investigate close-range biochemical interactions. (jove.com)
  • In FRET, a donor photoluminescent molecule can non-radiatively transfer energy to an acceptor molecule if their respective emission and absorbance spectra overlap. (jove.com)
  • Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, or FRET, is a non-radiative transfer of energy between light-emitting molecules, and is often used to investigate close-range biochemical interactions. (jove.com)
  • Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), which involves the nonradiative transfer of excitation energy from an excited donor fluorophore to a proximal ground-state acceptor fluorophore, is a well-characterized photophysical tool. (nih.gov)
  • We discuss some of the basic aspects of FRET applied to QDs as both donors and acceptors, and highlight some of the advantages offered (and limitations encountered) by QDs as energy donors and acceptors compared to conventional dyes. (nih.gov)
  • Fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool to measure protein-protein interactions, in nanometer order and in their native cellular environment. (nih.gov)
  • In this article we describe the development of a peptide-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay for LF protease that meets these criteria. (pnas.org)
  • Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been used to demonstrate the bending of DNA and RNA helices for three series of double-stranded molecules containing bulge loops of unopposed adenosine nucleotides (An, n = 0-9). (pnas.org)
  • In a research report published today, Wunderlich named Energy Transfer's lagging behind its rivals in performance as the main reason for the reduction. (benzinga.com)
  • The conference call will be broadcast live via an internet webcast, which can be accessed on Energy Transfer's website at energytransfer.com . (businesswire.com)
  • The call will also be available for replay on Energy Transfer's website for a limited time. (businesswire.com)
  • Energy Transfer's proposed acquisition of Williams has been in doubt for months, with Williams alleging that Energy Transfer has been actively trying to break the deal as ETE has unveiled numerous issues with the tie-up. (reuters.com)
  • Energy Transfer's deal is a complex one in which Southern Union shareholders receive a partnership unit that will yield 8.25 percent and is said to be worth $33. (cnbc.com)
  • Shareholders of SemGroup on Thursday voted in support of Energy Transfer's bid to acquire the Oklahoma pipeline company in a deal worth $5 billion. (smartbrief.com)
  • The takeover will increase Energy Transfer's pipeline network with crude oil gathering assets as well as crude oil and natural gas liquids pipelines in Colorado's Denver-Julesburg Basin and Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma and Kansas. (smartbrief.com)
  • Energy Transfer's group of companies owns and operates about 71,000 miles (114,000 kilometers) of pipelines handling natural gas, liquids derived from gas, fuel and crude oil, according to today's statement. (bloomberg.com)
  • Internal company documents show that paying law enforcement officers for using their authority is Energy Transfer's company policy, and that contractors were used to hire and pay the constables to hide the scheme, Hogan's office said. (dallasnews.com)
  • The Lake Charles project, one of a number of large LNG facilities planned in the wake of the U.S. shale boom, envisaged converting Energy Transfer's existing import and regasification facility into a 2.2-bcfd export facility. (reuters.com)
  • Energy Transfer's sixth facility there is currently under construction. (chron.com)
  • Is Energy Transfer's Acquisition a Game Changer? (equities.com)
  • Wunderlich Securities downgraded its rating on Energy Transfer Equity (NYSE: ETE) from Buy to Hold. (benzinga.com)
  • The company could also benefit from a potential restructuring, which could reduce Energy Transfer Partner's payments to Energy Transfer Equity, according to the report. (yahoo.com)
  • DALLAS--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Energy Transfer Equity, L.P. (NYSE: ETE) today announced a quarterly cash distribution of $0.305 per ETE common unit ($1.22 on an annualized basis) for the first quarter ended March 31, 2018. (businesswire.com)
  • Energy Transfer Equity, L.P. (NYSE:ETE) is a master limited partnership that owns the general partner and 100% of the incentive distribution rights (IDRs) of Energy Transfer Partners, L.P. (NYSE: ETP) and Sunoco LP (NYSE: SUN). ETE also owns Lake Charles LNG Company and the general partner of USA Compression Partners, LP (NYSE: USAC). (businesswire.com)
  • For more information, visit the Energy Transfer Equity, L.P. website at energytransfer.com . (businesswire.com)
  • ETP's general partner is owned by Energy Transfer Equity, L.P. (NYSE: ETE). (businesswire.com)
  • Please note that 100 percent of Energy Transfer Equity, L.P.'s distributions to foreign investors are attributable to income that is effectively connected with a United States trade or business. (businesswire.com)
  • Accordingly, all of Energy Transfer Equity, L.P.'s distributions to foreign investors are subject to federal tax withholding at the highest applicable effective tax rate. (businesswire.com)
  • Nominees, and not Energy Transfer Equity, L.P., are treated as withholding agents responsible for withholding distributions received by them on behalf of foreign investors. (businesswire.com)
  • Reuters) - Williams Cos Inc WMB.N has informed Energy Transfer Equity (ETE) LP ETE.N that it is open to considering a new offer that would amend terms of its $20 billion sale to its larger U.S pipeline peer in an effort to end a stalemate between the companies, according to people familiar with the matter. (reuters.com)
  • Energy Transfer Equity LP controls Regency through ownership of its general partner and already owns about 22 percent of the publicly traded units, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. (bloomberg.com)
  • Billionaire Kelcy Warren, 59, leads Energy Transfer Partners and is chairman and the biggest shareholder of Energy Transfer Equity, which controls both Regency and Energy Transfer Partners. (bloomberg.com)
  • Energy Transfer Partners fell 6.4 percent to $61.13, while Energy Transfer Equity jumped 8.7 percent to $58.70. (bloomberg.com)
  • The announcement comes seven months after Energy Transfer Equity scuttled a reported $15 billion bid for Targa Resources Corp., one of the leading exporters of U.S. natural gas products. (bloomberg.com)
  • This is a deal that obviously Energy Transfer had been keeping its eye on to see if the math works," said Olsen, who rates both Energy Transfer Partners and Energy Transfer Equity at buy. (bloomberg.com)
  • Energy Transfer Equity (ETE) Stock Climbs Further on Williams Cos. (thestreet.com)
  • Energy Transfer Equity (ETE) stock is gaining this afternoon after its lawyers said they would be unable to deliver a tax opinion needed to complete its Williams Cos. (thestreet.com)
  • Energy Transfer Equity's strengths such as its impressive record of earnings per share growth, compelling growth in net income and good cash flow from operations are countered by weaknesses including a generally disappointing performance in the stock itself and poor profit margins. (thestreet.com)
  • Energy Transfer Equity, the general partner was up nearly 4% to $17.94. (barrons.com)
  • News Headlines and Company Releases for Energy Transfer Equity L.P. (marketwatch.com)
  • Energy efficiency. (iso.org)
  • He has also managed several companies in solar energy and energy efficiency. (wiley-vch.de)
  • The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE's) combined Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program is among many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SBIR/STTR programs that provide grants to small businesses or individuals who can form a small business within the required application timeline. (energy.gov)
  • In this way, the excitation energy is directed with high efficiency (close to 100 %) to the reaction center. (igi-global.com)
  • While for organic dyes the efficiency of the energy transfer is very high, in the case of the proteins, there is some shielding of chlorophylls from graphene, partially inhibiting the energy transfer. (intechopen.com)
  • They will also discover that the efficiency of heat transfer relies, in part, on the starting temperature of each calorimeter. (flinnsci.com)
  • The largest energy transfer efficiency is seen when the donor is ~3 nm from the Au nanopshere. (spie.org)
  • A plasmon-enhanced energy transfer efficiency of ~ 40% has been achieved for a separation of 3 nm between the Au nanopshere monolayer and the acceptor monolayer. (spie.org)
  • Despite the increased energy transfer efficiency these conditions result in strong quenching of the acceptor QD emission. (spie.org)
  • Förster resonance energy transfer is named after the German scientist Theodor Förster . (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] When both chromophores are fluorescent, the term "fluorescence resonance energy transfer" is often used instead, although the energy is not actually transferred by fluorescence . (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we describe a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approach that enables visualization of such changes. (springer.com)
  • Stryer L: Intramolecular resonance transfer of energy in proteins. (springer.com)
  • Park YJ, Dyer PN, Tremethick DJ, Luger K: A new fluorescence resonance energy transfer approach demonstrates that the histone variant H2AZ stabilizes the histone octamer within the nucleosome. (springer.com)
  • Shahian T., Narlikar G.J. (2012) Analysis of Changes in Nucleosome Conformation Using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer. (springer.com)
  • It has been concluded that the mechanism of energy transfer involves a nonradiative resonance process. (osti.gov)
  • A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-derived structure of a quantum dot-protein bioconjugate nanoassembly," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 101, no. 26, pp. 9612-9617, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Monitoring botulinum neurotoxin a activity with peptide-functionalized quantum dot resonance energy transfer sensors," ACS Nano , vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 2687-2699, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Quantum dot and Cy5.5 labeled nanoparticles to investigate lipoprotein biointeractions via förster resonance energy transfer," Nano Letters , vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 5131-5138, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Quantum dot-aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on bi-fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Nano Letters , vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 3065-3070, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Microscopy for Measuring Chromatin Complex Structure and Dynamics. (nih.gov)
  • It is based on a 1:1 resonance in the linearized equations, but nonlinearity is essential for the energy transfer. (cambridge.org)
  • A nonlinear normal form is derived close to an internal 1:1 resonance, with the energy transfer manifested by a heteroclinic connection, which connects the purely symmetric sloshing modes to the purely antisymmetric sloshing modes. (cambridge.org)
  • A fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay has been developed for monitoring Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) protease activity. (pnas.org)
  • This peptide sequence was modified further on resin to incorporate donor/quencher pairs to generate substrates for use in fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based appearance assays. (pnas.org)
  • The plasmon-enhanced nonradiative energy transfer is observed to extend over larger distances than conventional Forster resonance energy transfer. (spie.org)
  • The transfer can be measured by looking at the quenching of fluorescence of the donor in presence and absence of the acceptor, the so-called acceptor bleaching method, or directly by excitation of the donor and then looking at the fluorescence of the acceptor, so-called sensitised emission. (gu.se)
  • Photosynthesis: How Proteins Control Excitation Energy Transfer. (igi-global.com)
  • This chapter introduces the theory of optical spectra and excitation energy transfer of light harvesting complexes in photosynthesis. (igi-global.com)
  • The protein holds the pigments in optimal orientation for excitation energy transfer and creates an energy sink by shifting the local transition energies of the pigments. (igi-global.com)
  • The photons of the sunlight are absorbed by so-called antenna pigments (chlorophylls, bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids) and the excitation energy is transferred to the photosynthetic reaction centre (RC), where transmembrane charge transfer reactions are driven. (igi-global.com)
  • This allows for observing interesting effects associated with dependencies on the excitation energy, number of graphene layers, or the substrate that graphene is placed onto. (intechopen.com)
  • It is associated with funnelling excitation energy between molecules, quantum dots or other nanostructures [ 1 ]-in most cases-via dipole-dipole interaction. (intechopen.com)
  • Applying a unified quantum approach, contributors offer fresh insights into the theoretical developments in the excitation energy transfer processes in condensed matter. (dymocks.com.au)
  • By employing combinations of ET components, with a common energy absorber/donor and different fluorescers, one can provide for families of labels which can be tagged to any target molecules and which can be excited at a single wavelength and fluoresce at different wavelengths with large Stokes shifts. (google.com)
  • The amount of energy transferred-and consequently the overall emission of sample-depends on the proximity of an acceptor-donor pair of photoluminescent molecules. (jove.com)
  • Energy is transferred from the photons in the light to the molecules of the earth material. (answers.com)
  • Energy flows through a system of atoms or molecules by a series of processes such as transfers, emissions, or decay. (phys.org)
  • The process the researchers observed is called Interatomic Coulombic Decay (ICD), and is an important means for atoms or molecules to share and transfer energy. (phys.org)
  • Since ICD plays an important role in how living tissues react to radiation exposure-by creating low energy electrons which can go on to cause damage within tissues-these findings are of biological importance, because it is likely that similar bubbles would form in other fluids, like water, and with other molecules like proteins. (phys.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photosynthetic organisms harness energy from sunlight to power most biological activity on Earth, and have been intensely studied by experiment and theory. (rsc.org)
  • The light energy absorbed by protein bound pigments in these complexes is transferred via an exciton mechanism to the photosynthetic reaction center where it drives the photochemical reactions. (igi-global.com)
  • In this chapter, we review recent work on the energy transfer in graphene-based assemblies involving also graphene derivatives (graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide), as well as describe results of fluorescence studies focused on interactions between graphene and photosynthetic protein-pigment complexes. (intechopen.com)
  • In anoxygenic photosynthetic organisms, in which exposure to oxygen is low, chlorophyll to carotenoid triplet-triplet energy transfer (T-TET) is slow, in the tens of nanoseconds range, while it is ultrafast in the oxygen-rich chloroplasts of oxygen evolving photosynthetic organisms. (osti.gov)
  • RALEIGH, N.C., Feb. 1, 2016 - Transferring triplet exciton energy from semiconductor nanocrystals to surface-bound molecular acceptors has extended the lifetime of the originally prepared excited state by six orders of magnitude. (photonics.com)
  • NEW YORK, Dec 3 (Reuters) - Energy Transfer Partners , an oil and gas pipeline company, may see its value rise given strong business prospects and a potential change to its governance, financial publication Barron's reported. (yahoo.com)
  • Energy Transfer Partners LP agreed to buy Regency Energy Partners LP, a pipeline company it controls, streamlining the organization at a time of plunging oil and natural gas prices. (bloomberg.com)
  • Regency spent last year snapping up pipeline and processing assets, including reported talks to buy pipelines in the Marcellus Shale in New York and Pennsylvania from Talisman Energy Inc. Its market value has more than doubled since 2012. (bloomberg.com)
  • In environmental news, a federal judge in Louisiana has revoked a permit for a new crude oil pipeline by Energy Transfer Partners, the same firm which runs the Dakota Access pipeline. (democracynow.org)
  • Energy Transfer also said it is expanding its Lone Star Express NGL pipeline system by adding a new 352-mile pipeline from the Permian to the Fort Worth area. (chron.com)
  • The company building the pipeline, Energy Transfer Partners, said late Wednesday that it had "received all federal authorizations necessary to proceed expeditiously to complete construction of the pipeline. (latimes.com)
  • Energy Transfer Partners says the pipeline, which could transport more than 500,000 barrels of oil daily, will be safer than moving oil by rail or truck. (latimes.com)
  • HOUSTON, June 8 (Reuters) - Pipeline operator Energy Transfer Partners has restored power to a pumping station in West Texas and is in the process of restarting operations on two crude pipelines impacted by an outage following storms, a company spokeswoman said on Friday. (rigzone.com)
  • animal welfare due to Energy Transfer Partners' negligent actions while building the pipeline. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • Unfortunately, Energy Transfer Partners is still escaping accountability for its horrible pipeline construction practices. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • Topics for discussion will span, but not be limited to, the mechanisms of energy transfer in both natural and synthetic systems, including the role of electronic/vibronic coherences, key design features required for efficient proton coupled electron transfer, and molecular mechanisms of natural photo-protection. (rsc.org)
  • Proton-coupled electron transfer reactions are increasingly becoming recognized as one of the key mechanistic steps in photosynthesis, water splitting, enzyme catalysis and redox reactions. (rsc.org)
  • This session will explore topics like (i) the extent to which experiments can distinguish between the operation of concerted PCET or sequential proton/electron transfer processes, (ii) what molecular requirements are necessary for the operation of a photo-induced PCET process, and (iii) how these design principles might be exploited in potential water splitting or future designer enzyme catalysts. (rsc.org)
  • Change in intermolecular distance between electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) can induce intermolecular electron transfer (ET) even in nonpolar solvent, where solvent orientational polarization is absent. (hindawi.com)
  • In the oxygenic photosynthesis water is used as an electron source and the electron transfer is accompanied by proton gradients, which drive the production of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate), the universal energy currency, from ADP (Adenosine diphosphate). (igi-global.com)
  • With the absence of fluorescence, it renders graphene as an exceptional acceptor in devices that utilize energy and/or electron transfer. (intechopen.com)
  • In solution or melt, diacetylenes are quite stable toward uv- or high energy radiation. (springer.com)
  • Inside industrial furnaces and combustion chambers, energy is essentially exchanged by radiation. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Developing a sound understanding of the laws underlying energy exchanges by radiation is therefore essential, not only for establishing design equations for industrial equipment, but also for an optimal harvesting of solar energy and a better understanding of climate change phenomena such as the greenhouse effect. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Energy Transfers by Radiation establishes the basic laws and equations which support the quantification of energy fluxes transferred between surfaces for situations similar to those usually encountered in industrial processes or in solar energy applications. (wiley-vch.de)
  • 3. Analysis of Radiative Energy Transfers: Black-body Radiation. (wiley-vch.de)
  • One notable way of doing that is to interpose a vacuum between the two objects.If heat transfer is by radiation, the energy has to be sent out by the source and absorbed by the sink without interruption. (answers.com)
  • Does radiation require a heated liquid to transfer energy. (answers.com)
  • No. Radiated energy is electromagnetic radiation and can travel through a vacuum. (answers.com)
  • The size-dependent energy bandgaps of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) can be utilized in converting broadband incident radiation efficiently into electric current by cascade energy transfer (ET) between layers of different sized quantum dots, followed by charge dissociation and transport in the bottom layer. (rsc.org)
  • A solar cell converts solar radiation into electrical energy that can then be used to light a bulb or power a computer. (phys.org)
  • Excitons are the electron/hole pairs formed in semiconductor nanocrystals upon absorption of light, temporarily storing it as chemical energy. (photonics.com)
  • The secondary electrons produced during the process of ionization by the primary charged particle are conventionally called delta rays, if their energy is large enough so that they themselves can ionize. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mathematical terms, Restricted linear energy transfer is defined by L Δ = d E Δ d x , {\displaystyle L_{\Delta }={\frac {{\text{d}}E_{\Delta }}{{\text{d}}x}},} where d E Δ {\displaystyle {\text{d}}E_{\Delta }} is the energy loss of the charged particle due to electronic collisions while traversing a distance d x {\displaystyle {{\text{d}}x}} , excluding all secondary electrons with kinetic energies larger than Δ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The methods and apparatus rely upon the ability of the light absorbing compositions to absorb energy which is transferred either radiatively or non-radiatively by the fluorophore when in an excited state. (google.com.au)
  • Fluorescent labels are provided employing energy absorber/donor components and energy acceptor/fluorescer components joined together by a spacer which comprises sugar phosphate monomeric units, particularly ribosyl phosphate monomeric units, where the sugar groups are free of active hydroxyl groups. (google.com)
  • Novel linkers for linking a donor dye to an acceptor dye in an energy transfer fluorescent dye are provided. (google.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 2 in which the enzymatic extension is carried out in the presence of four different terminating nucleotides, each of which terminates primer extension at a different template nucleotide and is labeled with a different, spectrally resolvable fluorescent dye, at least one of which is the energy transfer dye. (google.com)
  • ETE and its subsidiary, Energy Transfer Partners, L.P. (NYSE: ETP), will conduct a joint conference call on Thursday, May 10, 2018 at 8:00 a.m. (businesswire.com)
  • Xcel Energy shares are expected to begin trading as a Nasdaq-listed security on January 2, 2018. (thestreet.com)
  • Xcel Energy Inc. (NYSE: XEL) today announced that it will voluntarily transfer its stock exchange listing from the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) to the Nasdaq Global Select Market (Nasdaq), effective December 29, 2017. (thestreet.com)
  • Current Alternative Energy was introduced in 2017 with the assistance of Dr. Junkuo Gao, who is the current Editor-in-Chief serving since 2017. (benthamscience.com)
  • This session will seek to, for example, (i) explore the extent to which we can visualise, through experiment and companion high level ab initio theory, the transfer of energy and charge in pigment-protein light harvesting antennae, (ii) address whether electronic/vibronic coherences play a role in energy transduction at reaction centres (of higher plants and bacteria), and (iii) establish a photosystem or membrane level model of energy transfer in photosynthesis. (rsc.org)
  • In photosynthesis, the energy of this exciton is finally transferred to the reaction center, where a charge separation process provides chemical energy for plants, algae, and bacteria. (sciencemag.org)
  • In photosynthesis energy from the sunlight is converted to chemical energy (Figure 1). (igi-global.com)
  • Such a scheme evolved for instance in natural photosynthesis [ 2 ] for efficient capturing and transport of the sunlight energy, and has been recently implemented in artificial light-harvesting assemblies [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Scientists from the University of Southampton, in collaboration with the Universities of Sheffield and Crete, have developed a new hybrid energy transfer system, which mimics the processes responsible for photosynthesis. (phys.org)
  • When the CdSe nanocrystal bearing ACA was struck with a green laser pulse, the exciton produced in the CdSe was transferred to the ACA, forming a molecular triplet exciton with a millisecond lifetime. (photonics.com)
  • Using photoluminescence, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, current-sensing AFM measurements in single QD-DNA cascade constructs, and temperature-dependent ensemble devices using TiO 2 nanotubes, we show that Dexter energy transfer, likely mediated by the exciton-shelves formed in these QD-DNA self-assembled structures, can be used for efficient transport of energy across QD-DNA thin films. (rsc.org)
  • Often times, the energy transfers happen via hermodynamically permissible enzymatic reactions. (reference.com)
  • Illustration depicting semiconductor nanocrystal to molecule triplet energy transfer and established subsequent reactions. (photonics.com)
  • If we take the original nanocrystal excited state and transfer its energy to a triplet acceptor on the surface of the nanomaterial, then the molecular triplet excited state you create should have a long enough lifetime to promote chemical reactions. (photonics.com)
  • Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable reactions that require energy that will not occur by themselves, by coupling them to spontaneous reactions that release energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basal metabolic rate of an organism is the measure of the amount of energy consumed by all of these chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Energy Transfer Partners LP (NYSE: ETP)'s proposed transaction in which it will acquire the remaining outstanding LP common units of Penntex Midstream Partners LP (NASDAQ: PTXP) is expected to close, at least according to Baird's Ethan Bellamy. (benzinga.com)
  • Richard Gross of Barclays on Thursday reinstated coverage of Sunoco LP (NYSE: SUN) with an Equal-weight rating and $54 price target following the MACS drop down from parent Energy Transfer Partners (NYSE: ETP) and the Aloha Petroleum acquisition. (benzinga.com)
  • Morgan Keegan reiterated its Market Perform rating on Energy Transfer Partners (NYSE: ETP). (benzinga.com)
  • Morgan Keegan has lowered the price target on Energy Transfer Partners (NYSE: ETP) from $54.50 to $52 and maintains its Market Perform rating. (benzinga.com)
  • Bank of America has lowered the price objective on Energy Transfer Parters (NYSE: ETP) from $58 to $57 and maintains its Buy rating. (benzinga.com)
  • Wunderlich Securities reduced its price target on Energy Transfer Partners (NYSE: ETP) from $60 to $54. (benzinga.com)
  • Morgan Keegan has downgraded Energy Transfer Partners (NYSE: ETP) from Outperform to Market Perform and has lowered the price target from $58 to $54.50. (benzinga.com)
  • Energy Transfer Partners, L.P. (NYSE: ETP) is a master limited partnership that owns and operates one of the largest and most diversified portfolios of energy assets in the United States. (businesswire.com)
  • About Xcel Energy Xcel Energy (NYSE: XEL) provides the energy that powers millions of homes and businesses across eight Western and Midwestern states. (thestreet.com)
  • It is through the same mechanism that the energy emitted by the Sun spreads through different media to reach the Earth. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Here, utilizing the concept of coupled oscillators, we experimentally demonstrated a robust new mechanism for energy transfer between spatially separated dipolar-coupled magnetic disks - stimulated vortex gyration. (nature.com)
  • This mechanism provides the advantages of tunable energy transfer rates, low-power input signals and negligible energy loss in the case of negligible intrinsic damping. (nature.com)
  • This mechanism is a robust means of tunable energy transfer and information-signal transport between physically separated magnetic disks and provides for the advantages of negligible-loss energy transfer and low-power input signals using the resonant vortex excitations. (nature.com)
  • A mechanism is identified that leads to an energy exchange between the vessel dynamics and fluid motion. (cambridge.org)
  • The Clean Development Mechanism and the international diffusion of technologies: An empirical study ," Energy Policy , Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 1273-1283, April. (repec.org)
  • Transient absorption spectra on the nanosecond and sub-picosecond timescales show, for the first time, that an homoconjugated bridge can mediate efficiently in the photoinduced energy transfer from the iridium(III) to the ruthenium(II) centres according to a Dexter-type mechanism. (uva.nl)
  • This session will focus on topics such as (i) understanding the role of dark states in carotenoid photophysics, (ii) probing further the molecular mechanisms of non-photochemical quenching in plants, i.e. state transitions, energy dependent quenching (qE), etc., and (iii) understanding the photo-damage processes that occur in excited states of model DNA and related systems. (rsc.org)
  • These processes involve Ngāi Tahu and other local stakeholders in overseeing and delivering the trap and transfer programme. (meridianenergy.co.nz)
  • Energy transfer is one of the most fundamental processes at the nanoscale. (intechopen.com)
  • Energy may be used in natural processes or machines, or else to provide some service to society (such as heat, light, or motion). (phys.org)
  • Or simply search 'Uswitch - compare switch and save' in the App Store or give us a call on 0800 6888 557 and we'll walk you through the energy comparison and switching process. (uswitch.com)
  • Headquartered in Minneapolis, the company is an industry leader in responsibly reducing carbon emissions and producing and delivering clean energy solutions from a variety of renewable sources at competitive prices. (thestreet.com)
  • RES technology transfer within the new climate regime: A 'helicopter' view under the CDM ," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 1138-1143, June. (repec.org)
  • Technology transfer through climate change: Setting a sustainable energy pattern ," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 1546-1557, August. (repec.org)
  • Meridian Energy is a New Zealand power company that generates electricity through 100% renewable sources - wind, water and sun. (meridianenergy.co.nz)
  • This move is a natural transition for Xcel Energy as the company embraces technology and innovation. (thestreet.com)
  • As the energy industry evolves, Nasdaq remains committed to supporting innovators like Xcel Energy as they lead the clean energy transition on behalf of customers. (thestreet.com)
  • The local transition energies are obtained by two independent methods and are used to predict the orientation of the FMO protein relative to the reaction center. (igi-global.com)
  • Last week, 63-year-old retired school teacher and grandmother Ellen Gerhart was sentenced to 2-6 months in a Pennsylvania jail because Sunoco, a subsidiary of Energy Transfer Partners (ETP), claimed she had interfered with construction on her property - land that was seized by the company via eminent domain for the Mariner East 2 project. (greenpeace.org)
  • Both Sunoco Logistics Partners ( SXL ) and Energy Transfer Partners ( ETP ) were trading lower after the unveil of the plan for much smaller SXL to purchase ETP. (barrons.com)
  • Monday we had big merger news in the MLP space as Energy Transfer Partners (ETP) announced that it will be buying Sunoco (SUN) , making it the most diversified MLP (their words) out there. (equities.com)
  • The important development here is that by purchasing Sunoco, Energy Transfer may be in a position to resume distribution increases on a quarter-to-quarter basis. (equities.com)
  • 11. The method of claim 2 in which the energy transfer dye is covalently linked to the base moiety of the labeled nucleotide. (google.com)
  • We are pleased to join the world's most innovative companies listed on Nasdaq, and to be the first Fortune 500 utility listed on Nasdaq," said Ben Fowke, chairman, president, CEO, Xcel Energy. (thestreet.com)
  • Nasdaq is proud to be the listing venue of choice for Xcel Energy and a dedicated business partner for the company and its shareholders," said Adena Friedman, president and CEO, Nasdaq. (thestreet.com)
  • Set up service at a new or additional address in the Xcel Energy service area. (xcelenergy.com)
  • HomeSmart from Xcel Energy offers several appliance repair and replacement plans to meet your needs. (xcelenergy.com)
  • New to Xcel Energy? (xcelenergy.com)
  • Thank you for visiting Xcel Energy. (xcelenergy.com)
  • In the Preliminary Observations, students observe an energy transformation event in which thermal energy is either added to the system or released to the environment. (vernier.com)
  • Students discuss what role thermal energy played in the demonstration and explore how to account for thermal energy in an energy model. (vernier.com)
  • Students then choose, plan, and execute their own investigation into thermal energy and energy conservation. (vernier.com)
  • They can choose to investigate thermal energy in one of the demonstrations outlined in the Preliminary Observations or one of their own creation. (vernier.com)
  • Explore how to account for thermal energy transfer during energy transformation events. (vernier.com)
  • Why does thermal energy transfer by conduction or convection cannot happen in space? (answers.com)
  • What needs to happen for thermal energy to be transferred and what needs to happen at thermal equilibrium? (answers.com)
  • In this lab experience, students use microscale calorimeters to evaluate the heat flow of metals and discover that metals conduct thermal energy much more easily than nonmetals and nonmetals make good insulators because they do not conduct thermal energy well. (flinnsci.com)
  • As students investigate the thermal energy transfer of metals, they will find that while all metals can transfer heat, not all of them can do it efficiently. (flinnsci.com)
  • Linear energy transfer is best defined for monoenergetic ions, i.e. protons, alpha particles, and the heavier nuclei called HZE ions found in cosmic rays or produced by particle accelerators. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biochemistry, the concept of energy transfer means that the transfer happens from groups of low-energy compounds to those that contain energy-rich bonding particles. (reference.com)
  • The mass of A is 3 times the mass of B , and the energy stored in the sring was 76 J. Assume that the spring has negligible mass and that all its stored energy is transferred to the particles. (physicsforums.com)
  • Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motion of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects). (flinnsci.com)
  • Although the turmoil in crude oil prices has dented energy MLPs lately, some of the top-yielding names still seem to catch investors. (yahoo.com)
  • Certainly, the move puts Energy Transfer Partners in areas where some other MLPs have already moved into. (equities.com)
  • Watch the $51 level on Energy Transfer because a break above that could be a signal that this MLP is about to come alive again after being in the doldrums relative to other MLPs. (equities.com)
  • Kolmogorov had just received the International Balzan Prize for his law of 5/3 in the energy spectra of turbulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Energy transfer from one organism to another is part of the law of conservation of energy. (reference.com)
  • What does the conservation of energy mean? (prezi.com)
  • The acquisition would make Dallas-based Energy Transfer the second-largest master-limited partnership, a structure that allows entities to pass through much of their earnings to investors without paying federal income tax. (bloomberg.com)
  • A county prosecutor in Pennsylvania is accusing Dallas-based Energy Transfer, the owner of multibillion-dollar pipelines carrying highly volatile natural gas liquids across the state, of illegally using uniformed state constables as a private security force in what he called a "buy-a-badge" scheme. (dallasnews.com)
  • 7. The method of claim 6 in which each energy transfer dye comprises the same donor dye. (google.com)
  • 2. The apparatus according to claim 1 , wherein said element comprises an electrical junction element capable of inducing an electric field between said positive and negative regions when exposed to the energy of the first form transmitted by said energy transmission device, whereby said energy of the second form comprises electric energy. (google.es)
  • Section was enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, and not as part of the Department of Energy Organization Act which comprises this chapter. (house.gov)
  • By creating nanonets, the team conquered a longstanding engineering challenge in nanotechnology: creating a material that is extremely thin yet maintains its complexity, a structural design large or long enough to efficiently transfer an electrical charge. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, with an optimized near-field transducer design, we show that optical energy can be transferred efficiently to a lossy metallic medium and yet remain confined in a spot that is much smaller than the diffraction limit. (nature.com)
  • Additionally, the task was intended to support the dissemination of lessons learned and best practices, and help identify follow-on activities (e.g. knowledge transfer seminars on specified topics) that could be performed to efficiently and effectively preserve current PSA expertise. (oecd-nea.org)
  • In the Waiau catchment, the programme involves physically trapping female migrating longfin tuna in Lake Manapōuri and transferring them to below the Manapōuri Lake Control structure - from here they have open access downstream, enabling them to migrate successfully to sea for spawning. (meridianenergy.co.nz)
  • Heat energy involves the transfer of energy from a hotter body to a colder one. (answers.com)
  • Many studies focus upon the energy transferred in the vicinity of the primary particle track and therefore exclude interactions that produce delta rays with energies larger than a certain value Δ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whenever a donor is placed sufficiently close to an acceptor, they could couple via electrostatic interactions and the energy is funnelled down to the acceptor. (intechopen.com)
  • Human cells were irradiated with accelerated ions having linear energy transfer (LET) values in the range 40-225 keV/μm, and 60 Co-photons. (diva-portal.org)
  • If you're transferring energy via heat, the thicker wire will transfer more energy due to the larger cross-section. (physicsforums.com)
  • The goal of this activity is for students to recognize heat as an energy transfer and to devise methods to account for heat in energy transfer/transformation events. (vernier.com)
  • Shell's Utilities, Water, Energy and Heat Transfer (UHT) Engineering discipline offers exciting and varied career development opportunities. (shell.ca)
  • The technical area of the Shell Graduate Programme within Utilities, Water, Energy and Heat Transfer Engineering offers a robust platform from which those keen to become pioneers in their field can establish a long and fulfilling career. (shell.ca)
  • Utilities, Water, Energy and Heat Transfer (UHT) systems are applied in many of Shell's businesses, including Upstream, Downstream, Deep Water, Heavy Oil, Integrated Gas and Unconventionals, and as such, the discipline offers you exciting and varied career development opportunities. (shell.ca)
  • You'll establish a solid basis for your technical career by building proficiency in one of the sub-disciplines of Utilities, Water, Energy or Heat Transfer. (shell.ca)
  • Why heat transfer happen? (answers.com)
  • heat transfer happens because objects that have energy, meaning vibrating atoms will bump against others and transfer the energy to the other atoms and so on. (answers.com)
  • What stops heat transfer? (answers.com)
  • If heat is being transferred by conduction, separating the two objects will stop heat transfer by that means.If heat transfer is by convection, stopping the flow of fluid between two objects will eliminate that means of heat transfer. (answers.com)
  • Some ways of achieving this areplace a non-transparent barrier between the source and sink - of course if the barrier absorbs the heat and then re-radiates it out the other side you still have heat transfermake the surface of the sink perfectly reflective - in which case no energy would be absorbed and thus no heat transfer would occur. (answers.com)
  • Of course we don't have infinite distance to work with so that will only work for a thought experiment.Of course in all cases if the temperatures of two objects are the same, no heat transfer will occur no matter what mode of heat transfer you are considering. (answers.com)
  • Heat energy will be transferred from the hotter objects to cooler objects until they are all at the same temperature. (answers.com)
  • What are the examples of heat energy? (answers.com)
  • The method of heat transfer in a heated liquid is convection, though it can also happen in a gas. (answers.com)
  • For example, an internal combustion engine converts the potential chemical energy in gasoline and oxygen into heat, which is then transformed into the propulsive energy (kinetic energy that moves a vehicle. (phys.org)
  • To accurately measure how well each metal strip transfers heat, there must be a large difference between the starting temperatures. (flinnsci.com)
  • 7. Balances of Radiative Energy Transfers between Black Surfaces. (wiley-vch.de)
  • 8. Balances on Radiative Energy Transfers between Gray Surfaces. (wiley-vch.de)
  • An accurate description of nonadiabatic energy relaxation is crucial for modeling atomistic dynamics at metal surfaces. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • This implies that electron-hole pair induced nonadiabatic coupling at metal surfaces leads to friction-induced mode coupling, therefore opening an additional channel for energy redistribution. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • On the basis of 2-dimensional free energy surfaces, the relation of Marcus ET and exciplex formation is discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • [1] A donor chromophore, initially in its electronic excited state, may transfer energy to an acceptor chromophore through nonradiative dipole-dipole coupling . (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrostatic multiple interaction responsible for the transfer is dipole-dipole in nature. (osti.gov)
  • These linkers faciliate the efficient transfer of energy between a donor and acceptor dye in an energy transfer dye. (google.com)
  • This paper is to carry out an efficient implementation of the OFDM system (i.e. transmitter and receiver) using different encryption and compression algorithm for the energy optimization on data transmission. (techrepublic.com)
  • Technology transfer of energy efficient technologies in industry: a review of trends and policy issues ," Energy Policy , Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 29-43, January. (repec.org)
  • They include reductions in fuel consumption, efficient recycling of normally wasted braking energy, reductions in pollution, increased stopping power, reductions in brake maintenance, due, in part, to the supplementary braking offered when charging the accumulators, and engine wear reductions. (eurekamagazine.co.uk)
  • Fluorescence energy transfer measurements of distances in rhodopsin and the purple membrane protein. (nih.gov)
  • detecting said light of the second wavelength emitted from said admixture after absorption of transferred energy by said ligand, said detected emitted light being a measure of the analyte of interest in the sample. (google.com.au)
  • Given the impressive recent advances in the commercialisation of ultrafast laser technology and on many theoretical fronts, plus the societal emphasis on solar energy, the unique format of the Faraday Discussions will allow for in-depth discussions and opportunities to establish new collaborations. (rsc.org)
  • The finding has implications for fields ranging from solar energy conversion to photochemical synthesis to optoelectronics to light therapy for cancer treatment. (photonics.com)
  • said labels comprising an energy donor component absorbing at a common wavelength, an acceptor component absorbing energy transferred by said energy donor component, where the acceptor for each label emits at a different wavelength, and said energy donor component and acceptor component linked by a backbone comprising sugar phosphate ester monomer linkages with the 1'-hydroxyl group being replaced with a hydrogen or etherified. (google.com)
  • Explore how a deeper understanding of energy transfer and transformations allows us to effectively explain phenomena, predict change and identify solutions in natural and designed systems. (msichicago.org)
  • Formulations for analyzing complicated thermal-hydraulic phenomena in energy systems. (purdue.edu)
  • Latham & Watkins LLP advised Energy Transfer Partners and Baker Botts LLP advised Regency. (bloomberg.com)
  • You can even see Energy Transfer Partners' easement flag behind the horse. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • Reuters) - Royal Dutch Shell Plc pulled out of a major U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant under development following the recent crash in energy prices, quickly followed by its partner, Energy Transfer LP, delaying its final decision on whether to go ahead with the project to next year. (reuters.com)
  • The energy sector is the biggest contributor of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere in Iran. (repec.org)
  • However, abundant potential for implementing low-carbon technologies offers considerable emissions mitigation potential in this sector, and technology transfer is expected to play an important role in the widespread roll-out of these technologies. (repec.org)
  • Using a Ag nanobox array plasmonic component plasmon-enhanced nonradiative energy transfer has also demonstrated from an InGaN quantum well to a ~80 nm thick layer of CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots. (spie.org)
  • Along with bubble formation and the subsequent dynamics, the researchers observed energy transfer, or decay, between the excited atoms, which was over an order of magnitude faster than previously expected-as fast as 400 femtoseconds. (phys.org)
  • The researchers also reported that net triplet energy transfer occurred from surface acceptors to freely diffusing molecular solutes, further extending the lifetime while sensitizing singlet oxygen in aerated solution. (photonics.com)