Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Ovum Transport: Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Chlamydia muridarum: Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sperm Capacitation: The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Metestrus: The period following ESTRUS during which the phenomena of estrus subside in those animals in which pregnancy or pseudopregnancy does not occur.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Conalbumin: A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Animals, Inbred Strains: Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Salpingitis: Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
The energy for this process is supplied by ATP produced by mitochondria. The velocity of a sperm in fluid medium is usually 1-4 ... When spermatozoa reach the isthmic oviduct, their motility has been reported to be reduced as they attach to epithelium. Near ...
In April mating usually initiates, with the female then using the oviduct and the uterine lining to hold sperm over the winter ... As torpor was used frequently and reduced energy expenditure substantially it appears that it plays a central role in the ...
Females require diet with higher protein content for the production of eggs, whereas males require an energy rich diet for call ... Successful mating leads to oogenesis (production of egg), ovulation (release of egg into oviduct), fertilization, and ... comes with a price by shortening of the male lifespan of the male because of the associated high energy expenditure. ...
What little energy is available in the bathypelagic zone filters from above in the form of detritus, faecal material, and the ... One female Osedax can carry more than 200 of these male individuals in its oviduct. Sulfophilic stage: Further decomposition of ... The three main sources of energy and nutrients for deep sea communities are marine snow, whale falls, and chemosynthesis at ... Chemosynthesis of bacteria provide the energy and organic matter for the whole food web in vent ecosystems. Giant tube worms ...
In chickens it is formed from the layers of secretions of the anterior section of the hen's oviduct during the passage of the ... It contains no cholesterol and the energy content is about 17 Calories. Egg white is an alkaline solution and contains around ...
In epithelial cells with motile cilia lining the bronchus and the oviduct, CFTR is located on the cell membrane but not on ... The CFTRs have an evolutionary design to transfer the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to the uphill movement of anions across the ... Tsai, Ming-Feng (October 2012). "CFTR: An ion channel with a transporter-type energy-coupling mechanism". The Journal of ... are uniformly distributed on motile cilia in the oviduct and the respiratory airways". Histochem. Cell Biol. 137 (3): 339-53. ...
From here, a short oviduct passes to the vitelline duct. This duct connects, via a junction, the ovaries, the uterus, and the ... The free-living stages of the parasite are thought to respire aerobically, to gain the most energy from their environment. F. ... This process provides the fluke with energy. In contrast, the free-living miracidia stages of the parasite generally develop ... "Fasciola hepatica miracidia are dependent on respiration and endogenous glycogen degradation for their energy generation". ...
Cestodes are unable to synthesise lipids and are entirely dependent on their host, although lipids are not used as an energy ... and a single lobed or unlobed ovary with the connecting oviduct and uterus as female organs. The common external opening for ...
The ova are arranged in a continuous chain in a coiled section of the oviduct, known as the "tuba". Male rattlesnakes have ... Rubio states, "The skin's acceptance of radiant energy, its ability to determine the temperature, and the snake's ability to ... after which they pass through the body cavity and into one of her two oviducts. ...
This is partly achieved through the elasticity of the tongue and the conversion of elastic potential energy into kinetic energy ... Fertilisation occurs in the oviduct. Gestation takes between 21 and 28 days after copulation, during which time the female ... The metabolic rate is around 30% of that of placental mammals, making it the lowest energy-consuming mammal. This figure is ... During the Australian winter, it goes into deep torpor and hibernation, reducing its metabolism to save energy. As the ...
Much energy is used in the vocalization and it takes a toll on the territory holder who may be displaced by a fitter rival if ... Up to nine larvae can develop in the oviduct at any one time. They are elongated and have paired sac-like gills, small eyes and ... Their metabolic rate is low and as a result, their food and energy requirements are limited. In the adult state, they have tear ... The sperm may be retained in storage tubes attached to the oviduct until the following spring. Most frogs can be classified as ...
Energy requirements during these last few months, and during the first few months of lactation are similar to those of a horse ... Egg Transfer: An oocyte is removed from the mare's follicle and transferred into the oviduct of the recipient mare, who is then ... Once fertilized, the oocyte (egg) remains in the oviduct for approximately 5.5 more days, and then descends into the uterus. ... Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT): The mare's ovum and the stallion's sperm are deposited in the oviduct of a surrogate dam ...
Females may contain up to 13 developing eggs, though 1-4 per oviduct is typical. The number of eggs laid annually per female ... to save energy. It has also been seen resting motionless on the bottom. Known predators of the blackmouth catshark include the ... in which more than one egg can mature within each oviduct simultaneously. ...
The principal site of infection appears to be the upper oviduct. In egg contents, the most important contamination sites are ... energy bars, and peanut butter cookies from at least 343 food companies. Dog treats were affected, as well. At least 691 people ...
This causes superprecipitation which requires active contractions and thus an active energy metabolism. The disorganized ... Effects upon Microfilaments Involved in Morphogenesis of Estrogen-Induced Glands of Oviduct". PNAS. 66 (3): 904-908. Bibcode: ...
He shows that the shape of the egg favours its movement along the oviduct, a gentle pressure on the trailing end sufficing to ... Beesley and Bonnemaison observe that Thompson saw form "as a product of dynamic forces .. shaped by flows of energy and stages ...
Then, eggs will be fertilized individually as they leave the ovaries, before the shell is calcified in the oviduct. After the ... providing birds with energy to fly and maintain high levels of activity. A ruby-throated hummingbird's heart beats up to 1200 ... Female birds in most families have only one functional ovary (the left one), connected to an oviduct - although two ovaries are ...
The ovary of teleosts is often contains a hollow, lymph-filled space which opens into the oviduct, and into which the eggs are ... or descend without having to waste energy in swimming. The bladder is found only in the bony fishes. In the more primitive ... Secondary gymnovarian ovaries shed ova into the coelom from which they go directly into the oviduct. In the third type, the ... Cystovaries characterize most teleosts, where the ovary lumen has continuity with the oviduct. Secondary gymnovaries are found ...
The female can store sperm from multiple males in her oviducts until ovulation. A single clutch may have as many as seven ... Escalation is determined by several factors, including hormone levels, energy expenditure, expected outcome, and importance of ...
In females, it is present in the ovaries, oviducts myometrium, decidua, and placenta. It has also been implicated in the proper ... "The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in endocrine regulation and energy balance". Endocrine Reviews. 27 (1): 73-100 ...
Then, eggs will be fertilized individually as they leave the ovaries, before the shell is calcified in the oviduct. After the ... providing birds with energy to fly and maintain high levels of activity. A ruby-throated hummingbird's heart beats up to 1200 ... connected to an oviduct - although two ovaries are present in the embryonic stage of each female bird. Some species of birds ...
The eggs are fertilised internally in the oviduct. The female deposits them individually on leaves of aquatic plants, such as ... due to global warming may increase newt mortality by disturbing their hibernation and forcing them to expend more energy. ...
Gailliot, Matthew T.; Hildebrandt, Britny; Eckel, Lisa A.; Baumeister, Roy F. "A theory of limited metabolic energy and ... is the second phase of the ovarian cycle in which a mature egg is released from the ovarian follicles into the oviduct. During ... proteins and fats and that 24-hour energy expenditure shows increases between 2.5-11.5%. The increasing intake during the ... "Impact of the menstrual cycle on determinants of energy balance: a putative role in weight loss attempts". International ...
The basic structure of the reproductive tract is similar in both sexes, with a mesodermal gonoduct (sperm duct or oviduct) ... However, a flexed leg of Leiobunum returned 80% of its energy by extending. This springlike property is caused by sclerites ...
... joining to form the common oviduct. The opening (gonopore) of the common oviduct is concealed in a cavity called the genital ... This is because their energy output is high in relation to their body mass. The muscular system of insects ranges from a few ... The female reproductive organs include paired ovaries which empty their eggs (oocytes) via the calyces into lateral oviducts, ... before being used by cells of the body for energy, growth, or reproduction. This break-down process is known as digestion. The ...
In chickens it is formed from the layers of secretions of the anterior section of the hen's oviduct during the passage of the ... It contains no cholesterol and the energy content is about 17 Calories.[3] Egg white is an alkaline solution and contains ...
Up to 40% of cattle embryos die within 3 weeks of fertilisation while they are nutritionally dependent on oviduct and uterine ... Effects of changes in the concentration of systemic progesterone on ions, amino acids and energy substrates in cattle oviduct ... Progesterone increased uterine glucose, decreased oviduct sulfate and, to a lesser degree, oviduct sodium, but had no effect on ... ion and energy substrate composition of oviduct and uterine fluids on Days 3 and 6, respectively, of the oestrus cycle in ...
The energy may include, for example, acoustic energy, radio frequency energy, light energy and magnetic energy. Thus, as the ... and an energy absorption enhancement material configured to absorb energy in response to an activation energy. The energy ... devices can be adjusted within the body of a patient in a minimally invasive or non-invasive manner such as by applying energy ... member is configured to transform from the first configuration to the second configuration in response to the activation energy ...
... albumen and shell deposition in the oviduct). The energy spent in these physiological activities is not directly comparable to ... Energy requirements during pregnancy based on total energy expenditure and energy deposition. American Journal of Clinical ... Energy is widely held to be a universal currency and biologists are increasingly considering how energy management affects the ... Therefore, behavioral adjustments allowed all birds to decrease the total energy expended, but the level of energy reallocation ...
Thus, the avian oviduct has a highly regulated size-function relationship consistent with a high maintenance energy cost for ... Recent studies have suggested that the oviduct might have high energy costs for growth and/or maintenance, contributing ... Oviduct analysis. We divided the oviduct into three sections based on King and McLelland (1984): (a) infundibulum/magnum: we ... 1995) argued that this reflected `release of protein from the oviduct for egg formation, i.e. that the oviduct acts as a ...
2008) Energy substrates in bovine oviduct and uterine fluid and blood plasma during the oestrous cycle. Mol Reprod Dev 75:496- ... 2010) Energy metabolism of the visual system. Eye Brain 2:99-116. doi:10.2147/EB.S9078 pmid:23226947. ... 1990) Concentrations of nutrients in mouse oviduct fluid and their effects on embryo development and metabolism in vitro. J ... Energy Requirements of Odor Transduction in the Chemosensory Cilia of Olfactory Sensory Neurons Rely on Oxidative ...
The energy for this process is supplied by ATP produced by mitochondria. The velocity of a sperm in fluid medium is usually 1-4 ... When spermatozoa reach the isthmic oviduct, their motility has been reported to be reduced as they attach to epithelium. Near ...
... via infection of the primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (PCOECs).The results showed that Yu-PDS-RZ-1 -SLG strain was able ... in cytokine profiles in this study suggested that the production of cytokines might influence the microenvironment of oviduct ... Transmission Chickens and Alternative Energy Eggs. Yakout Mansour • Mar 19, 2015. *Show More ... In vitro adherence and invasion of primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells by Gallibacterium anatis.. @article{Zhang2017InVA, ...
They secrete fructose to provide an energy source for sperm and alkalinity to enhance sperm mobility. The duct of each seminal ... Oviduct: the passage in females from the ovaries to the outside of the body. ... amino acids, citrate, enzymes, flavins, fructose (the main energy source of sperm cells, which rely entirely on sugars from the ... High fructose concentrations provide nutrient energy for the spermatozoa as they travel through the female reproductive system ...
... the concentric mitochondria presented in the spermatozoa might have its prominent function to sustain the energy need of the ... UTERUS, OVIDUCT, AND STORED SPERM IN TURTLE Bjorkman N, Fredricsson B. 1961. The bovine oviduct epithelium and its secretory ... The secretory cells of the oviduct in green turtles Chelonia mydas L likely UTERUS, OVIDUCT, AND STORED SPERM IN TURTLE Fig. 13 ... Fertilization: a function of the oviduct. In: Johnson AD, Foley CW, editors. The oviduct and its function. New York: Academic ...
Which of the following is not a function of seminal fluid? A. to provide energy for sperm B. to cause ... Movement of a fertilized egg in an oviduct occurs with the help of 48. Rising progesterone levels in the blood trigger the ... Which of the following is not a function of seminal fluid? A. to provide energy for sperm B. to cause the growth of sperm C. to ...
... energy source for sperm Prostaglandin promotes contractions of the uterus & oviduct to help transport sperm Ascorbic acid (vit ... energy source for sperm Prostaglandin promotes contractions of the uterus & oviduct to help transport sperm Ascorbic acid (vit ... Sodium Citrate number 1 source of energy, fuels mitochondria in sperm Acid phosphatase activate sperm motility Polyamines ... Sodium Citrate number 1 source of energy, fuels mitochondria in sperm Acid phosphatase activate sperm motility Polyamines ...
Flight is very metabolically costly, requiring 4-10 times the energy as a bird at rest. So birds have all sorts of adaptations ... Their reproductive organs (testes, or ovaries and oviduct) regress and are tiny outside the breeding season. Most flighted ...
In April mating usually initiates, with the female then using the oviduct and the uterine lining to hold sperm over the winter ... As torpor was used frequently and reduced energy expenditure substantially it appears that it plays a central role in the ...
Negative energy balance in dairy cows is associated with specific changes in IGF-binding protein expression in the oviduct. ... In the female reproductive tract, the oviduct, uterus, and embryo all produce IGF1 and IGFBPs, indicating that these are likely ... ACE-modulated adiposity is related to higher energy expenditure and independent of lipolysis and glucose incorporation into ...
If you want to be download solar energy thermal technology Answers about this party, learn create our corrective use percentage ... The structure button: oviduct and directory. The Visual Handbook of Building have always identified from spots and may contact ... You must all please more therapists of the download solar energy than you offer for. Any role of the host millions takes the ... The infectious download solar energy thermal technology of reptiles known with the tamper-resistant server expands to criminal ...
However, an energy reallocation from somatic to reproductive growth would occur once vitellogenesis has started, so that the ... On the other hand, during breeding, a general decrease in the energy content occurred in all tissues, so that the ovary would ... Lipids were also an important source of energy in the ovary and digestive gland and decreased during breeding too. By contrast ... Lipids were also an important source of energy in the ovary and digestive gland and decreased during breeding too. By contrast ...
Avidin is produced in the oviducts of birds, reptiles and amphibians and is deposited in the whites of their eggs. Avidin binds ... Complex I plays a key role in cellular energy production. For the first time, the structure of complex I, the first enzyme of ...
... and Energy Metabolism in Bovine Preadipocytes - Nicotinamide;Bovine Preadipocytes;Nitric Oxide;Triglyceride;Lipolysis;Energy ... Region-specific expression of nitric oxide synthases in the bovine oviduct during the oestrous cycle and in vitro. J. ... The present study provides further evidence of the effects of nicotinamide on lipid and energy metabolism, and suggests that ... This study examined the effects of nicotinamide on proliferation, differentiation, and energy metabolism in a primary culture ...
Whilst in the oviduct spermatozoa undergo capacitation essential for fertilization. Sperm-oviduct interaction is essential for ... Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based reporters1 allow the assessment of endogenous kinase and phosphatase activities ... Mammalian oviduct acts as a reservoir for spermatozoa and provides an environment in which they may compete for the opportunity ... The aims of this work were to measure the AEA content and to characterize the main AEA metabolic pathway in the bovine oviduct ...
Negative energy balance in dairy cows is associated with specific changes in IGF-binding protein expression in the oviduct. ... Negative energy balance in dairy cows is associated with specific changes in IGF-binding protein expression in the oviduct. ... Differential gene expression in porcine oviduct during the oestrous cycle. O. S. Acuña A B D E , M. Avilés A D E , R. López- ... Shirley, B., and Reeder, R. L. (1996). Cyclic changes in the ampulla of the rat oviduct. J. Exp. Zool. 276, 164-173. , Cyclic ...
Calculate the energy available from a bean burrito with cheese (55 grams carbohydrate, 15 grams protein, and 12.... ... In humans, fertilization typically occurs in the ___________. a. vagina b. cervix c. uterus d. oviduct. Biology: The Unity and ... How long will each of the energy sources in the preceding question last at current rates of consumption? Chemistry In Focus ... What is the key concept for this section? What isnet energy yieldand why is it important for evaluatingenergy r.... ...
Effect of dietary energy and protein on bovine follicular dynamics and embryo production in vitro : associations with the ... Expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in the bovine oviduct at oestrus and during early pregnancy ... Maternal protein-energy malnutrition during early pregnancy in sheep impacts the fetal ornithine cycle to reduce fetal kidney ... Maternal protein-energy malnutrition during early pregnancy in sheep impacts the fetal ornithine cycle to reduce fetal kidney ...
Negative energy balance in dairy cows is associated with specific changes in IGF-binding protein expression in the oviduct. ...
... in the oviduct, prior to fertilisation. In fertilisation, only a single sperm may successfully penetrate the ovum to fuse with ... Illustration showing human sperm (blue) swimming towards an egg or ovum (yellow) in the oviduct, prior to fertilisation. In ... Industry: Energy & Mining. *Industry: Manufacture & Commerce. *Lifestyle & Food. *Mathematics. *Medicine: Diagnosis, Treatment ...
A hemostat was clamped around the uterine vasculature between the oviduct and uterus. The ovary and a small part of the oviduct ... 1E). Hence, the MC3R KO exhibits defective energy rheostasis; when animals are unperturbed, energy set point is relatively well ... For example, the increased energy demands of pregnancy result in significant changes in energy intake and storage; this ... Regulation of energy rheostasis by the melanocortin-3 receptor Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
  • 1999 ) found that basal metabolic rate (BMR) was positively correlated with combined dry ovary and oviduct mass. (biologists.org)
  • Lipids were also an important source of energy in the ovary and digestive gland and decreased during breeding too. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, an energy reallocation from somatic to reproductive growth would occur once vitellogenesis has started, so that the rate at which body growths would decrease in favor of ovary growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • On the other hand, during breeding, a general decrease in the energy content occurred in all tissues, so that the ovary would be responsible for the spawning success, whereas muscle tissues and digestive gland would independently supply the energy needed for the body maintenance safeguarding the female survival needed for the maternal care. (frontiersin.org)
  • Peritoneal sheath contractions (5.7 +/- 1.6 contractions/minute) move over the ovary, from tip to base or vice versa, propagating down the oviduct. (nih.gov)
  • On day 80 pi, non-laying birds showed egg yolk peritonitis, and histopathological analyses described profound alteration of the infundibulum architecture, duct ectasia and thinning of the epithelium, while the rest of the oviduct and ovary appeared normal. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In support of this idea, Vézina and Williams ( 2003 ) found that total oviduct mass decreased by 47% immediately following ovulation of the last ovarian follicle even though an oviductal egg was still present at this point (though they did not identify which component(s) of the oviduct accounted for this decrease in mass). (biologists.org)
  • Endocannabinoid levels from ipsilateral oviduct to ovulation were higher than those detected in the contralateral one, suggesting that levels of oviductal AEA may be regulated by ovarian hormones. (jove.com)
  • We propose a new model of tissue-specific actions of octopamine, in which strengthening of peritoneal sheath contractions, coupled with relaxation of the oviduct, eases ovulation. (nih.gov)
  • The laying performance is determined by the number of follicles destined for ovulation and the capacity of the oviduct to transform the ova into a hardshelled egg. (ajas.info)
  • The egg-production process, from follicle maturation to ovulation, is strictly controlled by hormones and other physiological conditions, including energy metabolism and the regulating of apoptosis of oocyte and follicle-associated cells. (ajas.info)
  • The aim of the present study was to identify the gene expression profile of the porcine oviduct in different stages of the cycle using microarray technology. (publish.csiro.au)
  • The porcine oviduct expressed a total of 4929 genes. (publish.csiro.au)
  • The results of the present study demonstrate that gene expression in the porcine oviduct is clearly regulated during the oestrous cycle, with some oviductal proteins that could be related to several reproductive processes described here for the first time. (publish.csiro.au)
  • While these studies suggest potential `costs' to individuals with large oviducts, Christians and Williams ( 1999 ) reported a positive relationship between albumen protein content of eggs and oviduct mass, i.e. individuals with larger oviducts might benefit in being able to produce higher quality eggs ( Williams, 1994 ). (biologists.org)
  • Avidin is produced in the oviducts of bird s, reptiles and amphibians and is deposited in the whites of their eggs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This process takes a lot of energy as well as nutrients such as calcium, so it's amazing that some small birds can lay five or six eggs in as many days, their total weight approaching that of the female bird itself! (ornithology.com)
  • Oviducts are where eggs are produced. (biologycorner.com)
  • As eggs are laid, glands along the hen's oviduct deposit pigments on top of the basic white shell, comprised primarily of calcium carbonate - a mineral found in chalk, limestone and marble. (blogspot.com)
  • Spotted or streaked eggs develop when pigment is deposited as they rotate through the oviduct. (blogspot.com)
  • This was elucidated by utilizing precise temporal manipulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-oviduct axis to manipulate the daily laying cycle and obtain eggs at the same time in the daily cycle which had cuticle deposition or did not have cuticle deposition [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, for some genes, localisation of corresponding protein expression in the oviduct was analysed by immunohistochemistry (i.e. cholecystokinin, glutathione peroxidase 2, mucin 1, phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 4 and tachykinin 3) and mass spectrometry analysis of oviductal fluid allowed identification of peptides from all five proteins. (publish.csiro.au)
  • Unfortunately, most of the analysis doesn't apply very well to biological fluids like the fluid in the oviducts. (biologists.org)
  • With more polymers in solution, high amplitude waves produced little or no net motion, since most of the energy went into squishing or stretching the polymers perpendicular to the tube, not squirting the fluid along the tube. (biologists.org)
  • Eggshell formation takes place in the shell gland of the oviduct of laying hens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides causing a mild respiratory infection, the virus replicated in the oviduct of 60% of the hens causing different degrees of salpingitis throughout the organ, in particular at the level of the infundibulum, where the detection of the virus was associated with severe heterophilic infiltrate, and necrosis of the epithelium. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Our results show that this H9N2 virus is a primary pathogen in layer hens, and that its replication in the infundibulum is responsible for acute and chronic lesions that limits the effective functionality of the oviduct, compromising the commercial life of birds. (beds.ac.uk)
  • usually fat hens in full production, often egg in oviduct, open up and find a huge blood clot in liver and maybe other small hemorrages in the liver. (memorize.com)
  • Regression occurred unequally among different regions of the oviduct, with significant decreases in the proximal infundibulum/magnum and isthmus regions (59% and 40%, respectively), but no change in distal shell gland/vagina mass. (biologists.org)
  • Marked interindividual variation in metabolic rate suggests considerable complexity in energy management strategies, but attempts to further our understanding of the relationship between resting metabolic rate (RMR), daily energy expenditure (DEE), and reproductive effort have been hampered by the complexity of studying this system in the field. (sfu.ca)
  • The aims of this work were to measure the AEA content and to characterize the main AEA metabolic pathway in the bovine oviduct and determine how these change through the oestrous cycle. (jove.com)
  • Negative energy balance (NEB) during early lactation in dairy cows leads to an altered metabolic state that has major effects on the production of IGF family members. (nuigalway.ie)
  • It is suggested that secretion of calcium from the shell gland cells may occur both by active transport and diffusion [ 8 ], involving expenditure of metabolic energy [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study examined the effects of nicotinamide on proliferation, differentiation, and energy metabolism in a primary culture of bovine adipocytes. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The present study provides further evidence of the effects of nicotinamide on lipid and energy metabolism, and suggests that nicotinamide may play an important role in the development of bovine adipose tissue in vivo. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Flying is a very active process that requires a high metabolism and a lot of energy, more than walking and running ( ii ). (keepthemflying.org)
  • MEPE (OC-116), BPIFB3 (OVX-36), RARRES1 (OVX-32), WAP (OVX-25), and genes for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, active transport and energy metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since reproductive and developmental process accompany dynamic changes in metabolism and energy consumption, byproducts are also generated on an extraordinary scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • see also Nilsson and Raberg, 2001 ), and oviduct mass was the only organ that explained variation in RMR among laying females ( Vézina and Williams, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
  • Our study suggests that females minimize increases in DEE during egg production through behavioral energy reallocation (reduced locomotor activity) but that individuals differ in their use of this strategy, which, in turn, is related to the absolute level of reproductive investment. (sfu.ca)
  • By contrast, glycogen had a minor contribution to the energy content and was the unique compound that increased in spawning and post-spawning females. (frontiersin.org)
  • Typically, this reproductive investment in gonad tissues and the fluctuation in somatic condition are largely studied in females as compared to males and usually in conjunction with effects of abiotic factors on growth, such as temperature or food availability, since they might have an impact on the timing and level of energy diverted to reproduction (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • In some females, however, this is due to the blockage of oviducts so that the sperms cannot reach the egg. (theguesspapers.com)
  • This tissue is made up of cells with cilia and so is often found in areas where it is needed to transport something - for example, lining the oviducts and bronchioles of the lungs. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • In this study, the levels of AEA and two other N-acylethanolamines, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, were measured in bovine oviduct collected during different stages of oestrous cycle by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. (jove.com)
  • The expression and localization of N-acylethanolamines metabolizing enzymes in bovine oviduct were also determined by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry but no change was found during the oestrous cycle. (jove.com)
  • MC4R homozygous and heterozygous knockout (KO) mice ( 2 ), as well as humans ( 3 ), present with early onset severe obesity associated with hyperphagia, reduced autonomic outflow and energy expenditure (EE), and significantly reduced response to the adipostatic hormone leptin. (sciencemag.org)
  • hormone is responsible for the development of oviduct. (vetcos.com)
  • Energy balance, dry matter intake, and hormone profiles of cows with ovulatory and nonovulatory follicles during the first postpartum follicle wave. (agresearchforum.com)
  • Here, we describe energy management strategies in a captive-breeding system, using Zebra Finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ), to demonstrate the high level of complexity and interindividual variability in energy expenditure, food intake, locomotor activity, and reproductive effort. (sfu.ca)
  • Therefore, we found important biochemical changes along the reproductive cycle that determined the energetic signature in each tissue, though no significant energy trade-offs between tissues were found, suggesting that, on the one hand, female O. vulgaris obtained energy directly from food accumulated simultaneously in the somatic and reproductive tissues during sexual maturation. (frontiersin.org)
  • We suggest that oviduct function is a significant contributor to the physiological costs of egg production and might mediate individual variation in maternal effects associated with non-yolk components of egg quality (e.g. immunoglobulins, lysozyme). (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the importance of the G1-lineage H9N2 A/chicken/Israel/1163/2011 virus as a primary pathogen in layers, analyzing its tropism and binding affinity for the oviduct tissues, and investigating the long-term impact on egg production. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In particular, we investigated whether the increase in RMR associated with egg production is additive, resulting in higher DEE and a need for elevated food intake, or whether this cost is compensated by reduced expenditure in nonreproductive components of the energy budget. (sfu.ca)
  • To obtain a gross estimate of energy intake we measured food consumption by giving birds 25 g/d of seeds in an open 946-mL plastic food container placed on the cage floor. (sfu.ca)
  • Measuring food intake per pair is therefore a good indicator of female food intake in our experimental context, and we report the pair values as representative of female energy input. (sfu.ca)
  • Hence, the MC4R acts at the heart of the adipostat, regulating both energy intake and expenditure, and is essential for establishing energy set point. (sciencemag.org)
  • Average indulgence is ok (and completely inevitable), however watch your intake of empty energy, especially in the event that they begin to substitute necessary vitamins. (bibsql.com)
  • In countries in which gilts are not routinely provided full feed, increasing energy intake for 10 days before estrus (ie, "flushing") is performed. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Calculate the energy available from a bean burrito with cheese (55 grams carbohydrate, 15 grams protein, and 12. (bartleby.com)
  • Given these identifiable costs and benefits, this predicts that oviduct size should be tightly coupled to the functional demands of this organ ( sensu Diamond and Hammond, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • Adipose stores in mammals are tightly regulated and defended during nutritional challenges, indicating existence of a mechanism that maintains energy stores near a set point. (sciencemag.org)
  • On the contrary, those species who save some energy for survival, and possibly further growing, will spawn more than one time (called iteroparous with or without terminal spawning). (frontiersin.org)
  • This suggests a very complex, individually variable system of energy management to meet the demands of egg production. (sfu.ca)
  • In certain embodiments, the devices include a body member including a shape memory material, and an energy absorption enhancement material configured to absorb energy in response to an activation energy. (google.es)