The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The consumption of edible substances.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Glucose in blood.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Abstaining from all food.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in the treatment of motion sickness, vertigo, and nausea during pregnancy and radiation sickness.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in MITOCHONDRIA. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A drug used in the management of peripheral and cerebral vascular disorders. It is claimed to enhance cellular oxidative capacity and to be a spasmolytic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1310) It may also be an antagonist at 5HT-2 serotonin receptors.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.

Energy depletion differently affects membrane transport and intracellular metabolism of riboflavin taken up by isolated rat enterocytes. (1/13887)

Isolated rat enterocytes, both normal and those de-energized with rotenone, were used to study the energy dependence of membrane and intracellular intestinal riboflavin transport in vitro. Membrane and intracellular transport were investigated by using short (3 min) and long (20 min) incubation times, respectively. For both types of cells and incubation times, [3H]-riboflavin uptake presented a saturable component prevailing at physiologic intraluminal concentrations. At 3 min incubation, saturable [3H]-riboflavin transport was apparently an energy-independent process with high affinity and low capacity. Values of the saturable component and its apparent constants, Km and Jmax, did not differ in normal and de-energized enterocytes. At 20 min incubation, saturable [3H]-riboflavin transport was a strictly energy-dependent process in which values of the saturable component were significantly greater in normal than in de-energized enterocytes. Km values did not differ in the two types of cells and were unmodified over 3 min, whereas in normal enterocytes, Jmax at 20 min [6.25 +/- 0.2 pmol/(mg protein. 20 min)] was significantly greater than at 3 min [2.67 +/- 0.33 pmol/(mg protein. 3 min)] and compared with de-energized enterocytes at 20 min [2.54 +/- 0.16 pmol/(mg protein. 20 min)]. Both membrane and intracellular events were inhibited by unlabeled riboflavin and analogs, which are good substrates for flavokinase, thus demonstrating the paramount role of this enzyme in riboflavin intestinal transport.  (+info)

Energy cost of sport rock climbing in elite performers. (2/13887)

OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen uptake (VO2), blood lactate concentration ([La(b)]), and heart rate (HR) response during indoor and outdoor sport climbing. METHODS: Seven climbers aged 25 (SE 1) years, with a personal best ascent without preview or fall (on sight) ranging from 6b to 7a were assessed using an indoor vertical treadmill with artificial rock hand/foot holds and a discontinuous protocol with climbing velocity incremented until voluntary fatigue. On a separate occasion the subjects performed a 23.4 m outdoor rock climb graded 5c and taking 7 min 36 s (SE 33 s) to complete. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using a telemetry system and [La(b)] collected at rest and after climbing. RESULTS: Indoor climbing elicited a peak oxygen uptake (VO2climb-peak) and peak HR (HRpeak) of 43.8 (SE 2.2) ml/kg/min and 190 (SE 4) bpm, respectively and increased blood lactate concentration [La(b)] from 1.4 (0.1) to 10.2 (0.6) mmol/l (p < 0.05). During outdoor climbing VO2 and HR increased to about 75% and 83% of VO2climb-peak and HRpeak, respectively. [La(b)] increased from 1.3 (0.1) at rest to 4.5 mmol/l (p < 0.05) at 2 min 32 s (8 s) after completion of the climb. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that for elite climbers outdoor sport rock climbs of five to 10 minutes' duration and moderate difficulty require a significant portion of the VO2climb-peak. The higher HR and VO2 for outdoor climbing and the increased [La(b)] could be the result of repeated isometric contractions, particularly from the arm and forearm muscles.  (+info)

Cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations in horses competing in cross-country events. (3/13887)

The cardiovascular and metabolic response to two cross-country events (CC*: preliminary level and CC*** advanced level) were analysed in 8 male eventing horses (4 Anglo-Hunter and 4 Anglo-Arabian). This study focused on the establishment of the main metabolic pathways involved in the muscle energy resynthesis during the competitions. Heart rate (HR) was recorded throughout the CC events. Jugular venous blood samples were withdrawn before the warm-up period, immediately after the competitions and at 5 and 10 min in the recuperation period. The following haematological parameters were studied: red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cells (WBC), and number and percentages of lymphocytes (LYM) and granulocytes and monocytes (GRAN). One fraction of blood was centrifuged and, in plasma, lactate (LA), total plasma protein (TPP) and the rate of LA disappearance were determined. The competitions induced significant increases in RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV and TPP. Plasma LA response exceeded the anaerobic threshold of 4 mmol/l, reaching a maximum level of 13.3 mmol/l. HR ranged from 140 to more than 200 bpm, peaking at 230 bpm, revealing a limitation in the oxygen supply to the working muscles. It was concluded that muscle energy resynthesis during a CC event is provided both through oxidative processes and glycolysis with LA formation. Therefore, both stamina and power exercises are required for eventing horses.  (+info)

Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries. (4/13887)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wheelchair- and subject-related factors influence the efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair propulsion in ultralight and standard wheelchairs in people with different levels of spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four subjects (mean age=26.2 years, SD=7.14, range=17-50) with spinal cord injury resulting in motor loss (30 with tetraplegia and 44 with paraplegia) were studied. METHOD: Each subject propelled standard and ultralight wheelchairs around an outdoor track at self-selected speeds, while data were collected at 4 predetermined intervals. Speed, distance traveled, and oxygen cost (VO2 mL/kg/m) were compared by wheelchair, group, and over time, using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: In the ultralight wheelchair, speed and distance traveled were greater for both subjects with paraplegia and subjects with tetraplegia, whereas VO2 was less only for subjects with paraplegia. Subjects with paraplegia propelled faster and farther than did subjects with tetraplegia. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The ultralight wheelchair improved the efficiency of propulsion in the tested subjects. Subjects with tetraplegia, especially at the C6 level, are limited in their ability to propel a wheelchair.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (5/13887)

Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of ceramide for sphingomyelin synthesis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (6/13887)

LY-A strain is a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant resistant to sphingomyelin (SM)-directed cytolysin and has a defect in de novo SM synthesis. Metabolic labeling experiments with radioactive serine, sphingosine, and choline showed that LY-A cells were defective in synthesis of SM from these precursors, but not syntheses of ceramide (Cer), glycosphingolipids, or phosphatidylcholine, indicating a specific defect in the conversion of Cer to SM in LY-A cells. In vitro experiments showed that the specific defect of SM formation in LY-A cells was not due to alterations in enzymatic activities responsible for SM synthesis or degradation. When cells were treated with brefeldin A, which causes fusion of the Golgi apparatus with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), de novo SM synthesis in LY-A cells was restored to the wild-type level. Pulse-chase experiments with a fluorescent Cer analogue, N-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a, 4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-D-erythro-sphingosine (C5-DMB-Cer), revealed that in wild-type cells C5-DMB-Cer was redistributed from intracellular membranes to the Golgi apparatus in an intracellular ATP-dependent manner, and that LY-A cells were defective in the energy-dependent redistribution of C5-DMB-Cer. Under ATP-depleted conditions, conversion of C5-DMB-Cer to C5-DMB-SM and of [3H]sphingosine to [3H]SM in wild-type cells decreased to the levels in LY-A cells, which were not affected by ATP depletion. ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored or membrane-spanning proteins in LY-A cells appeared to be normal. These results indicate that the predominant pathway of ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of Cer for de novo SM synthesis is ATP dependent and that this pathway is almost completely impaired in LY-A cells. In addition, the specific defect of SM synthesis in LY-A cells suggests different pathways of Cer transport for glycosphingolipids versus SM synthesis.  (+info)

Expression of uncoupling protein-3 and mitochondrial activity in the transition from hypothyroid to hyperthyroid state in rat skeletal muscle. (7/13887)

We sought a correlation between rat skeletal muscle triiodothyronine (T3)-mediated regulation of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression and mitochondrial activity. UCP3 mRNA expression increased strongly during the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition. The rank order of mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration rates was hypothyroid < euthyroid < hyperthyroid. The State 4 increase may have been due to the increased UCP3 expression, as the proton leak kinetic was stimulated in the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition and a good correlation exists between the State 4 and UCP3 mRNA level. As a significant proportion of an organism's resting oxygen consumption is dedicated to opposing the proton leak, skeletal muscle mitochondrial UCP3 may mediate part of T3's effect on energy metabolism.  (+info)

Reduced cytosolic acidification during exercise suggests defective glycolytic activity in skeletal muscle of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy. An in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. (8/13887)

Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder due to mutations in the dystrophin gene, resulting in reduced size and/or content of dystrophin. The functional role of this subsarcolemma protein and the biochemical mechanisms leading to muscle necrosis in Becker muscular dystrophy are still unknown. In particular, the role of a bioenergetic deficit is still controversial. In this study, we used 31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31p-MRS) to investigate skeletal muscle mitochondrial and glycolytic ATP production in vivo in 14 Becker muscular dystrophy patients. Skeletal muscle glycogenolytic ATP production, measured during the first minute of exercise, was similar in patients and controls. On the other hand, during later phases of exercise, skeletal muscle in Becker muscular dystrophy patients was less acidic than in controls, the cytosolic pH at the end of exercise being significantly higher in Becker muscular dystrophy patients. The rate of proton efflux from muscle fibres of Becker muscular dystrophy patients was similar to that of controls, pointing to a deficit in glycolytic lactate production as a cause of higher end-exercise cytosolic pH in patients. The maximum rate of mitochondrial ATP production was similar in muscle of Becker muscular dystrophy patients and controls. The results of this in vivo 31P-MRS study are consistent with reduced glucose availability in dystrophin-deficient muscles.  (+info)

John P. Blass ‡ ‖ ‡ and ... Oxidative energy metabolism is impaired in many neurodegenerative disorders . Search Menu. » Sign up / Log in Mathematical Models for Suspension Bridges av Filippo Gazzola Geliebt Joseph Walsers Maschine Inbunden, 1999. Pris 1433 kr. Köp Oxidative/Energy Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Disorders (9781573312097) av John P Blass på ... Parkinsons disease, Lebers optic neuropathy and other neurodegenerative disorders ... oxidative energy metabolism ... of methylene blue in ... Search database ... ... Dakota in ePub Land of Golden Sunshine av J.Donald Walters Vuur van de engelen Oxidative/Energy Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Disorders av John P. Blass … Pris 3587 kr. Köp Neurochemical Mechanisms in Disease ... av John P Blass på ... Oxidative/Energy Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Dis... John P Blass Special issue dedicated to John P. Blass. ... a shift away from oxidative energy metabolism towards ... is a hallmark of ...
1. Our objectives were to measure total energy expenditure, the daily variation in total energy expenditure and the physical activity level in a group of HIV-positive subjects using the bicarbonate-urea method. The study also aimed to asses the practicalities of using the bicarbonate-urea technique in free-living conditions. 2. Total energy expenditure was measured with the bicarbonate-urea method over 2 consecutive days (1 day in one subject) in 10 male patients with HIV infection (median CD4 count = 30). Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Physical activity level (total energy expenditure/resting energy expenditure) was calculated from these measurements and from activity diaries. 3. Resting energy expenditure was found to be 7.46 +/- 0.87 MJ/day, 5% higher than predicted values. Total energy expenditure was 10.69 +/- 1.95 MJ/day with an intra-individual day-to-day variation of 6 +/- 6%. The measured physical activity level was 1.42 +/- 0.14, higher than the diary estimate
Physical activity is an important non-therapeutic tool in primary prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To improve activity-based health management, patients need to quantify activity-related energy expenditure and the other components of total daily energy expenditure. This review explores differences between the components of total energy expenditure in patients with DM and healthy people and presents various tools for assessing the energy expenditure in subjects with DM. From this review, it appears that patients with uncontrolled DM have a higher basal energy expenditure than healthy people which must be considered in the establishment of new basal energy expenditure estimate equations. Moreover, studies showed a lower activity energy expenditure in patients with DM than in healthy ones. This difference may be partially explained by patient with DMs poor compliance with exercise recommendations and their greater participation in lower intensity activities. These specificities of
Menopause transition is associated with detrimental changes in physical activity, body composition and metabolic profile. Although physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals at higher risk of CVD, the association is unknown in low-risk individuals. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between PAEE and MetS (prevalence and severity) in inactive overweight or obese postmenopausal women with a low Framingham Risk Score (FRS:, 10%). Cross-sectional data of 126 participants were divided into quartiles based on PAEE (Q1= lowest PAEE) while fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were measured by DXA. MetS prevalence was significantly different between Q1 and Q4 (37.9% vs 13.3%, p= 0.03). After controlling for potential confounders, MetS severity was negatively associated with PAEE (B= -0.057, p, 0.01) and positively with FFM (B= 0.038, p, 0.001). Moderation analyses indicated that a greater FFM exacerbated the ...
Baak, M.A. van; Haan, A. de; Saris, W.H.M.; Kordelaar, E. van; Kuipers, H.; Vusse, G.J. van der, 1995: Beta -Adrenoceptor blockage and skeletal muscle energy metabolism during endurance exercise
The human body needs energy to sustain its various functions and help the individual perform his/her desired actions. This energy comes from the food we consume. When we consume food, we are said to be taking energy or assimilating energy or energy in, and when we work, exercise, or undertake any physical activity, we are said to be dissipating energy or giving out energy or energy out.. Since the rates at which we dissipate and assimilate energy are not the same always, the body is capable of storing energy for future use. The energy stored is generally in the form of fat or white adipose tissue. When the rates of energy intake and energy expenditure are reasonably healthy, there is less energy stored, which is considered a healthy energy balance. However, when these rates are largely different, the body is said to achieve an energy imbalance.. How does Energy Imbalance affect us?. There are two types of Energy Balance.. A Negative Energy Balance indicates that more energy is being expended ...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associates with abnormal mitochondrial capacity. While oxidative capacity can be increased in steatosis, hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) descreases in long-standing diabetes. However, longitudinal studies of diabetes-related NAFLD and its relationship to hepatic energy metabolism are lacking.This prospective study comprised volunteers with type 1 (T1DM, n=30) and type 2 (T2DM, n=37) diabetes. At diagnosis and 5 years later, they underwent 1H/31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy for measurements of hepatic lipid (HCL), γATP, inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations and imaging for adipose tissue volumes. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps.At diagnosis, T2DM individuals had higher HCL and adipose tissue volumes, but lower whole-body insulin sensitivity than T1DM, despite comparable glycemic control. NAFLD was present in 38% of T2DM and 7% of T1DM. After 5 years, only persons with T2DM had increased their visceral ...
The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those
Mechanical Engineering Online course and notes for Thermodynamics,Available Energy. Download Mechanical Engineering, Available Energy in Thermodynamics notes
In order to monitor their energy requirements, athletes may desire to assess energy expenditure (EE) during training and competition. Recent technological advances and increased customer interest have created a market for wearable devices that measure physiological variables and bodily movement over prolonged time periods and convert this information into EE data. This mini-review provides an overview of the applicability of the SenseWear armband (SWA), which combines accelerometry with measurements of heat production and skin conductivity, to measure total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and its components such as exercise energy expenditure (ExEE) in athletic populations. While the SWA has been shown to provide valid estimates of EE in the general population, validation studies in athletic populations indicate a tendency towards underestimation of ExEE particularly during high-intensity exercise (|10 METs) with an increasing underestimation as exercise intensity increases. Although limited information
The overall goal is to determine whether any energy expenditure compensation in response to 16 weeks of aerobic exercise at a higher-dose is greater compared to a lower-dose intervention in older women, and to begin to investigate underlying physiological mechanisms that influence energy expenditure changes in older women. Changes in all components of energy expenditure, as well as concentrations of plasma leptin and serum free T3, in response to the two different exercise programs (14 and 8 kcal/kg body weight weekly, 60-65% VO2max, 4 days/wk) will be compared in older, non-obese women (60-75 yrs, BMI=18-30 kg/m2).. Specific Aim 1: To determine whether differential changes in total daily energy expenditure and its components occur in older women in response to two exercise programs of different doses. State-of-the-art methods will be used (total daily energy expenditure by doubly labeled water; non-exercise activity thermogenesis using Physical Activity Monitoring System; resting metabolic rate ...
The effects of intracellular edema and dehydration on energy metabolism in alveolar macrophages were studied. Intracellular edema increased lactate production and reversibly decreased oxygen consumption. Dehydration caused no significant change in lactate production but irreversibly decreased oxygen consumption. These phenomena may be applicable to a wide variety of clinical problems including lung and brain edema. ...
The Committee of Inquiry, commissioned by the Energy Regulation Board to investigate the Nationwide Blackouts that the Country experienced on 19th, 21st and 22nd January 2008, has completed its work and submitted its report to the ERB on Wednesday 09 April 2008.. Read the Full Statement ...
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe form of depression. MDD can significantly interfere with an individuals thoughts, behavior, mood, and physical health. People who suffer from MDD often experience feelings of worthlessness; they may feel hopeless and may be unable to cope with problems in their life. In addition, they often experience sleep disruption, loss of appetite, and chronic pain.. Antidepressant medications are often prescribed for treating MDD; however, 30% to 40% of individuals fail to respond adequately to medication. Preliminary research has shown that lower levels of brain energy metabolism are often associated with MDD. No studies have yet shown whether there is a difference in brain energy metabolism between individuals who respond well to antidepressants versus those who do not. Escitalopram is an antidepressant medication often used to treat MDD. It causes a calming effect and reduces anxiety by increasing the amount of serotonin in the brain. This study will compare ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
5-hour Energy (stylized as 5-hour ENERGY) is an American made energy shot manufactured by Living Essentials LLC. The company was founded by CEO Manoj Bhargava and launched in 2003. The official website lists the active ingredients of 5-hour Energy as: vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin B12, sodium, taurine, glucuronolactone, malic acid and N-Acetyl L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine, caffeine, and citicoline. The product is not U.S Food and Drug Administration approved. It contains no sugar, instead providing the stimulant caffeine and the psychoactive dopamine precursor amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine. According to an article in Consumer Reports, 5-hour Energy should be avoided by children under the age of 12 and as well as nursing or pregnant women. In 2003 Manoj Bhargavas company, Living Essentials LLC, launched a product called 5-Hour Energy. By 2012, retail sales had grown to an estimated $1 billion. A March 2011 article in Consumer Reports reported that, according to a lab test, the ...
FIG. 1. Energy metabolism in response to sodium butyrate. Butyrate increased energy expenditure in C57BL/B6 mice. Energy expenditure was examined using the metabolic chamber at the 1st week and the 10th week on high-fat diet (16 weeks in age). In this study, sodium butyrate was used at 5% wt/wt in high-fat diet. A: Food intake. Food intake was monitored daily for 5 days at each time point. Average daily food intake (g) was converted into kilocalories and normalized with body weight (kg) and 24 h. B: Energy expenditure measured as kilocalories per kilogram lean mass per hour. C: Oxygen consumption measured as milliliters volume oxygen per kilogram lean mass per hour. D: Substrate utilization. This is expressed by respiratory exchange ratio (RER), which is the volume ratio of oxygen consumed versus CO2 exhaled. E: Body weight (BW). F: Body fat content in percentage of body weight. This was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. G: Body muscle content in percentage of body weight. H: Lipid in ...
The reliability of predictive equations versus indirect calorimetry in kidney injury patients has been assessed in this paper published in Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism Journal.
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OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important metabolic regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the role of FGF21 in energy metabolism and to provide mechanistic insights into its glucose and lipid-lowering effects in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) model.. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: DIO or normal lean mice were treated with vehicle or recombinant murine FGF21. Metabolic parameters including body weight, glucose, and lipid levels were monitored, and hepatic gene expression was analyzed. Energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity were assessed using indirect calorimetry and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp techniques.. RESULTS: FGF21 dose dependently reduced body weight and whole-body fat mass in DIO mice due to marked increases in total energy expenditure and physical activity levels. FGF21 also reduced blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels and reversed hepatic steatosis. The profound reduction of hepatic ...
Results 62 critically ill children, 36 males and 26 females were included; mean age (±SD) was 21.5±20.6 months with a body weight and body size of 9.1±4.9 kg and 75.5±19.7 cm, respectively. Reasons for admission were mainly post surgery and respiratory illness. 337 measurements were performed. REEm was 55.4±11.6 kcal/kg/d (median: 55.3; IQ: 46.2 to 62.4 kcal/kg/d). EI was 50.1±26.0 kcal/kg/d with a strong negative balance during the first 2 days which became clearly positive after the 7th day. Schofield estimated REE correctly with a mean bias of -0.40±14.1 kcal/kg/d (ns; 95% CI -1.9 to 1.1). White equation overestimated REE with a mean bias of 40.6±75.7 kcal/kg/d (p,0.0001; 95% CI 32.5 to 48.7). ...
The present study demonstrates that overweight and obese Caucasians with type 2 diabetes have a 7% higher 24-h energy expenditure after adjustment for FFM, fat mass, SPA, sex, and age than overweight and obese individuals without diabetes. Our result is higher than earlier reports of 2-5% higher 24-h energy expenditure in diabetic Pima Indians (8,9). However, it has been reported that healthy Pima Indians have higher adjusted 24-h energy expenditure than Caucasians (23). Therefore, the relative increase in 24-h energy expenditure when developing type 2 diabetes may be less in Pima Indians. Thus, overall our findings are in agreement with other studies where individuals with type 2 diabetes under a strict but low physical activity level have a higher 24-h energy expenditure than healthy nondiabetic individuals (6-9,12,13).. It is notable that the nondiabetic subjects were younger than the type 2 diabetic subjects. However, this is unlikely to have any effect on the results, because age was not an ...
The average total daily energy expenditure is higher in obese than lean individuals when measured at stable weight. However, energy expenditure falls as weight is lost, due in part to loss of lean body mass and to decreased sympathetic nerve activity. When reduced to near-normal weight and maintained there for a while, (some) obese individuals have lower energy expenditure than (some) lean individuals. There is also a tendency for those who will develop obesity as infants or children to have lower resting energy expenditure rates than those who remain lean. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular evolution of aerobic energy metabolism in primates. AU - Grossman, Lawrence I.. AU - Schmidt, Timothy R.. AU - Wildman, Derek E.. AU - Goodman, Morris. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - As part of our goal to reconstruct human evolution at the DNA level, we have been examining Changes in the biochemical machinery for aerobic energy metabolism. We find that protein subunits of two of the electron transfer complexes, complex III and complex IV, and cytochrome c, the protein carrier that connects them, have all undergone a period of rapid protein evolution in the anthropoid lineage that ultimately led to humans. Indeed, subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase (COX; complex IV) provides one of the best examples of positively selected changes of any protein studied. The rate of subunit IV evolution accelerated in our catarrhine ancestors in the period between 40 to 18 million years ago and then decelerated in the descendant hominid lineages, a pattern of rate changes indicative of ...
Abstract: This Program Project Grant addresses the metabolic mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), and aims to identify novel metabolic approaches to prevent and treat HF. The consequences of metabolic dysfunction in HF are poorly understood, but there is strong evidence that energy metabolism can effect contractile function and progressive left ventricular remodeling. This translational research project uses sophisticated animal models of HF to evaluate novel mechanisms that link various aspects of cardiac metabolism to clinically relevant outcomes. This application will investigate fundamental questions about the pathophysiology of HF, and the effects of manipulating energy metabolism on cardiac function and HF progression. This Program Project is composed of four projects: Project 1: Impact of Macronutrient Intake in Heart Failure. The effects of dietary fat, protein and carbohydrate composition on progression of HF will be investigated. Project 2: Heart Rate ...
Abstract: This Program Project Grant addresses the metabolic mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), and aims to identify novel metabolic approaches to prevent and treat HF. The consequences of metabolic dysfunction in HF are poorly understood, but there is strong evidence that energy metabolism can effect contractile function and progressive left ventricular remodeling. This translational research project uses sophisticated animal models of HF to evaluate novel mechanisms that link various aspects of cardiac metabolism to clinically relevant outcomes. This application will investigate fundamental questions about the pathophysiology of HF, and the effects of manipulating energy metabolism on cardiac function and HF progression. This Program Project is composed of four projects: Project 1: Impact of Macronutrient Intake in Heart Failure. The effects of dietary fat, protein and carbohydrate composition on progression of HF will be investigated. Project 2: Heart Rate ...
The Department of Nutrition Sciences established the Energy Metabolism Research Unit (EMRU) in 1994 to provide comprehensive assessment of human body composition, energy expenditure, and substrate metabolism. Services offered were body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); body volume/density by underwater weighting; free-living energy expenditure by doubly-labeled water; 24-h energy metabolism using whole-room indirect calorimetry; and resting and exercise energy metabolism by portable metabolic monitor (indirect calorimetry). In 1997, the EMRU added the BodPod to supplement underwater weighing in response to investigator request for a simpler measure of body volume/density. In 2000, the EMRU became the Energy Metabolism / Body Composition Core of the NIDDK-funded Clinical Nutrition Research Center (CNRC). During the 2005 CNRC renewal, the name was changed to the Metabolism Core. The DXA was updated to a wider scanning bed and a table that could accommodate patients up to ...
Effect of Measured Energy Restriction and Age Intervals on Growth, Nutrient Digestibility, Carcass Parameters, Bone Characteristics and Stress in Broiler Breeders during the Rearing Period - Age;Energy Restriction;Broiler Growers;Performance;
The energy requirements of the brain are very high, and tight regulatory mechanisms operate to ensure adequate spatial and temporal delivery of energy substrates in register with neuronal activity. Astrocytes a type of glial cell have emerged as active players in brain energy delivery, production, utilization, and storage. Our understanding of neuroenergetics is rapidly evolving from a neurocentric view to a more integrated picture involving an intense cooperativity between astrocytes and neurons. This review focuses on the cellular aspects of brain energy metabolism, with a particular emphasis on the metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes.. Keywords: Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance ; Cerebral-Blood-Flow ; Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide ; Lactate-Shuttle Hypothesis ; Human Visual-Cortex ; Rat-Brain ; Glucose-Utilization ; Nitric-Oxide ; In-Vivo ; Oxidative-Metabolism. ...
2019 Body weight has been shown to be a predictor of clinical progression in Huntingtons disease (HD). Alongside widespread neuronal pathology, both HD patients and the R6/2 mouse model of HD exhibit weight loss and increased energy expenditure, providing a rationale for targeting whole-body energy metabolism in HD. Leptin-deficient mice display low energy expenditure and increased body weight. We therefore hypothesized that normalizing energy metabolism in R6/2 mice, utilizing leptin- deficiency, would lead to a slower disease progression in the R6/2 mouse. In this study, we show that R6/2 mice on a leptin-deficient genetic background display increased body weight and increased fat mass compared to R6/2 mice, as well as wild type littermates. The increased body weight was accompanied by low energy expenditure, illustrated by a reduction in respiratory exchange rate. Leptin-deficient R6/2 mice had large white adipocytes with white adipocyte gene expression characteristics, in contrast to white ...
In the present study, we found that individuals with COPD had higher REE and resting carbohydrate oxidation than the controls, regardless of body composition, since both groups had similar muscle mass.. Other studies have also found that patients with COPD have higher REE (approximately 15 to 26%) [6, 19]. The greater energy expenditure of individuals with COPD is probably due to increased respiratory muscle effort and inflammatory mediators, in addition to the effects of medication (oral or systemic corticosteroids, theophylline, hormones, benzodiazepines and antipsychotics) [19-21].. This study found that mean RQ and carbohydrate oxidation were higher in the COPD group, while fat oxidation was similar in both groups. Increased carbohydrate oxidation in the COPD group was probably caused by increased anaerobic metabolism due to reduced ability to capture oxygen [22]. When carbohydrates are oxidized in the absence of oxygen, only 2 ATP molecules per millimol of carbohydrates are generated, while ...
The accumulation of excess body fat appears to be fundamentally a problem resulting from inadequate fat oxidation relative to intake. An increase in body fat mass incrreases the concentration of free fatty acids in the blood, and this increased availability of lipid fuel is associated with increased fat oxidation. The increase in fat utilization that accompanies obesity helps re-establish a new equilibrium between fat intake and fat oxidation that serves to stabilize body weight, albeit at the cost of obesity. Because exercise can increase total daily energy expenditure and fat oxidation, chronic exercise can help prevent expansion of the adipose tissue mass, allowing the physically active individual to achieve fat balance at a lower body fat mass.
Low physical activity is known to be a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. With high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the Portuguese urban population, little is known about how sedentary this population is and what factors are associated to sedentary lifestyles. This studys objective was to examine sedentary lifestyles and their determinants through a cross-sectional study. 2134 adults (18 years and older) were interviewed using a standard questionnaire, comprising of social, behavioural and clinical information. Time spent in a variety of activities per day, including: work, household chores, sports, sedentary leisure time and sleep, were self-reported. Energy expenditure was estimated based on the related metabolic equivalent (MET) and time spent in each activity (min/day). Those with less than 10% of energy expenditure at a moderate intensity of 4 METs or higher were categorised as sedentary. The proportion of sedentary people and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated,
This study evaluated how different approaches to limiting energy availability (LEA) by 15% affected mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-related signaling in mammary carcinomas. Female Sprague Dawley rats, injected with 50mg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea per kilogram body weight, were randomized to a control or three LEA interventions: (i) sedentary and restricted rats fed to 85% of energy available to the control or motorized wheel running (37 m/min) for an average of (ii) 1621±55 (WRL) or (iii) 3094±126 (WRH) meters/day with food intake adjusted to provide the same net amount of available energy across LEA interventions. Under these conditions, LEA reduced overall cancer burden by 28% (P = 0.04) and down-regulated mTOR-related signaling (Hotelling multivariate, P = 0.002). Among the regulatory nodes assessed, reduced levels of activated protein kinase B (pAkt) and induction of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) were the most influential factors in distinguishing between sham control and LEA carcinomas. P-Akt was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic Ago2-mediated RNA silencing controls energy metabolism linked to AMPK activation and obesity-associated pathophysiology. AU - Zhang, Cai. AU - Seo, Joonbae. AU - Murakami, Kazutoshi. AU - Salem, Esam S.B.. AU - Bernhard, Elise. AU - Borra, Vishnupriya J.. AU - Choi, Kwangmin. AU - Yuan, Celvie L.. AU - Chan, Calvin C.. AU - Chen, Xiaoting. AU - Huang, Taosheng. AU - Weirauch, Matthew T.. AU - Divanovic, Senad. AU - Qi, Nathan R.. AU - Thomas, Hala Einakat. AU - Mercer, Carol A.. AU - Siomi, Haruhiko. AU - Nakamura, Takahisa. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - RNA silencing inhibits mRNA translation. While mRNA translation accounts for the majority of cellular energy expenditure, it is unclear if RNA silencing regulates energy homeostasis. Here, we report that hepatic Argonaute 2 (Ago2)-mediated RNA silencing regulates both intrinsic energy production and consumption and disturbs energy metabolism in the pathogenesis of obesity. Ago2 regulates expression of specific ...
We have done some solid research to provide you with an accurate guide on the types of Aloe pills out there that are effective and safe to take. Glass and Stainless steel are unaffected by coffee acids compared to latex rubber bags.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Energy intake and resting energy expenditure in adult male rats after early postnatal food restriction. AU - Remmers, F.. AU - Schreuder, M.F.. AU - Gemke, R.J.B.J.. AU - Delemarre-van d Waal, H.A.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. U2 - 10.1017/S0007114507843546. DO - 10.1017/S0007114507843546. M3 - Article. C2 - 17925052. VL - 99. SP - 1149. EP - 1156. JO - British Journal of Nutrition. JF - British Journal of Nutrition. SN - 0007-1145. IS - 5. ER - ...
The effect of inorganic nitrate on systemic energy homeostasis in a setting of perturbed energy balance: implications for diabetes and obesity., School of Medicine, University of Leeds
TY - CHAP. T1 - Effects of cell-mediated immune response on energy metabolism in weanling piglets.. AU - Moon, H.K.. AU - Han, I.K.. AU - Parmentier, H.K.. AU - Schrama, J.W.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Chapter. SP - 143. EP - 146. BT - Energy metabolism in farm animals. Effects of housing, stress and disease. A2 - McCracken, K.. PB - CAB International. CY - Wallingford, UK. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lactate Is a Preferential Oxidative Energy Substrate over Glucose for Neurons in Culture. AU - Bouzier-Sore, Anne Karine. AU - Voisin, Pierre. AU - Canioni, Paul. AU - Magistretti, Pierre. AU - Pellerin, Luc. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - The authors investigated concomitant lactate and glucose metabolism in primary neuronal cultures using 13C-and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Neurons were incubated in a medium containing either [1- 13C]glucose and different unlabeled lactate concentrations, or unlabeled glucose and different [3-13C]lactate concentrations. Overall, 13C-NMR spectra of cellular extracts showed that more 13C was incorporated into glutamate when lactate was the enriched substrate. Glutamate 13C-enrichment was also found to be much higher in lactate-labeled than in glucose-labeled conditions. When glucose and lactate concentrations were identical (5.5 mmol/L), relative contributions of glucose and lactate to neuronal oxidative metabolism amounted to 21% and 79%, ...
Despite the fact that the ERRs were the first family of orphan nuclear receptors cloned, their biological function has remained uncertain (12, 13). Recent evidence has implicated ERRα and ERRγ in the transcriptional regulation of cellular energy metabolism. ERRα is enriched in adult mammalian tissues with high oxidative metabolic capacity, such as the heart, slow-twitch skeletal muscle, and brown adipose. ERRα and ERRγ have also recently been shown to serve as functional partners for the PGC-1 family of coactivators (17, 19, 21, 42), which have emerged as key regulators of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis (23, 37). We hypothesized that ERR isoforms serve as key regulators of heart and skeletal muscle energy metabolism downstream of PGC-1α. To this end, gene expression profiling experiments were conducted in cardiac myocytes. ERRα overexpression was shown to increase the expression of genes involved in multiple pathways involved in cellular fatty acid utilization, including fatty ...
Energy expenditure is therefore the key to the assessment of energy requirements. It may be measured by several different standard direct techniques. Direct in this context is not equivalent to the classical term direct calorimetry, which refers to the direct measurement of heat output in a calorimeter; in the present usage direct refers to the measurement of energy expenditure from O2 or CO2 output. It therefore includes the various classical techniques of assessing O2 consumption and CO2 output, as well as the doubly-labelled water technique and the use of a whole body calorimeter. Indirect methods of measuring energy expenditure comprise extrapolating from values of total energy intake in food and from heart-rate recording. A description of the techniques, together with a brief analysis of some of the problems, is given in Durnin (1992). 1. Timed record of activities and associated energy costs The method which has probably been used most frequently consists of a combination of a ...
Now-a-days, the focus on lactate is due to its being an oxidative substrate for energy metabolism in brain (and other tissues), rather than a useless end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Mounting evidence indicates that lactate does play a major role in aerobic energy metabolism in the brain, the heart, skeletal muscle and possibly in any other tissue and organ. Nevertheless, this evidence has challenged the old concept of lactate being an anaerobic waste product and ignited a fierce debate between the supporters of glucose as the major oxidative energy substrate and those who support lactate as a possible alternative to glucose under certain conditions. While researchers working on energy metabolism in skeletal muscle have taken great strides toward bridging between these two extreme positions, accepting lactate role as an oxidative energy substrate, neuroscientists appear to be somewhat more emotional about their differences and less agreeable. In this paper I have employed findings from ...
23 AVSD-repaired patients with NYHA class 1 and 2 (age: 20±8 years) and 23 healthy controls (age: 19±8 years) were included. All subjects (Table 1) underwent whole-heart 4D Flow MRI at 3T with free breathing, three-directional velocity-encoding of 150cm/s in all directions, spatial resolution 2.3×2.3×3.0-4.2mm3 and 30 retrospectively-gated phases reconstructed over one cardiac cycle. The LV cavity was manually segmented over diastolic phases from 4D Flow data. For each segmented phase, the kinetic energy within LV was computed as 1/2 mv2, with (m) as the mass representing the voxel volume multiplied by the density of blood (1.025 g/ml) and (v) as the 3-directional velocity from 4D Flow MRI. Total kinetic energy (KE) was then computed by integrating the computed kinetic energy over diastole. Using Navier-Stokes energy equations, non-turbulent viscous energy loss (EL) was evaluated in the LV as the integration of viscous energy dissipation over diastolic period as described previously [2] with ...
Energy metabolism is a sensitive indicator of cellular disorders. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate changes in cardiac and hepatic energ...
As part of the Governments commitment to greater transparency, there is a requirement to publish online central government expenditure over £25,000, this also applies to NHS bodies.. Expenditure is all individual invoices, grant payments, expense payments or other such transactions that are over £25,000. Credit notes over £25,000 are also included. Where amounts shown are less than £25,000 these will relate to invoices or credit notes that contain multiple lines but where the total invoice value exceeds £25,000.. In response to the Prime Ministers desire to improve transparency around how the public sector spends its money, and following guidance issued by HM Treasury in September 2010, Worcestershire Health & Care NHS Trust will publish monthly reports of expenditure over £25,000. For additional information about the publication scheme, see the HM Treasury guidance.. Over 25k March 2021. Over 25k February 2021. Over 25k January 2021. Over 25k December 2020. Over 25k November 2020. Over ...
The residual of the surface energy budget is represented as the linearized sum of energy losses due to storage, advection and flux underestimation. Individual contributions to the residual can be quantified through constrained multiple linear regression which identifies the site specific processes that are responsible for the lack of energy budget closure. This residual decomposition approach is applied to energy balance data from the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test (SLTEST) site at the Dugway Proving Grounds in the Utah Salt Flats. In this case, energy storage in the soil and underestimation of the soil heat flux accounted for 89% of the residual variance. Underestimation of the sensible and latent heat fluxes had no apparent contribution to the residual, and the contribution of advection to the residual was not statistically significant. Citation: Higgins, C. W. (2012), A-posteriori analysis of surface energy budget closure to determine missed energy pathways, Geophys. ...
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Energy-producing organelles are called mitochondria. Animal cells normally have 1000 to 2000 mitochondria. Cells with higher energy needs, such as fat and muscle cells, have more. Mitochondria are...
Looking for online definition of resting energy expenditure in the Medical Dictionary? resting energy expenditure explanation free. What is resting energy expenditure? Meaning of resting energy expenditure medical term. What does resting energy expenditure mean?
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is thought to convey many of the beneficial effects of exercise via its inhibitory effect on acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) and promotion of fatty acid oxidation. Hence, AMPK and ACC have become major drug targets for weight loss and improved insulin action. However, it remains unclear whether or how activation of the fatty acid oxidation pathway without a concomitant increase in energy expenditure could be beneficial. Here, we have used either pharmacological (administration of the AMPK agonist 5() aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside) or genetic means (mutation of the ACC2 gene in mice) to manipulate fatty acid oxidation to determine whether this is sufficient to promote leanness. Both of these strategies increased whole-body fatty acid oxidation without altering energy expenditure or adiposity. We conclude that negative energy balance is a prerequisite for weight reduction, and increased fatty acid oxidation per se has little, if any, effect to
Overweight, energy expenditure and caloric intake are associated with an increased prevalence of asthma. To measure resting energy expenditure and calculate caloric intake of overweight adolescents with asthma and compare results with those of groups of well-nourished adolescents with asthma and overweight adolescents without asthma. Cross-sectional study with 69 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years divided into three matched groups. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric and body composition measurements. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure energy expenditure; caloric intake was estimated from dietary recalls. In each group, there were 23 adolescents (10 girls) aged 12.39±2.40 years. Results for each group (overweight adolescents with asthma; well-nourished adolescents with asthma; and overweight adolescents without asthma) were, respectively: Body mass index = 24.83±2.73 kg/m2, 19.01±2.10 kg/m2, and 25.35±3.66 kg/m2; resting energy expenditure (REE) = 1550.24±547.23 ...
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying weight loss maintenance after gastric bypass surgery are poorly understood. Our aim was to examine the effects of gastric bypass on energy expenditure in rats. METHODS: Thirty diet-induced obese male Wistar rats underwent either gastric bypass (n=14), sham operation ad libitum fed (n=8) or sham-operation body weight-matched (n=8). Energy expenditure was measured in an open circuit calorimetry system. RESULTS: Body weight after 70 days was lower after gastric bypass compared to sham ad libitum fed rats (p,0.0001). Sham-operated body weight-matched controls ate less than gastric bypass animals to reach the same weight (16.2+/-0.5g vs. 27.5+/-0.8g, p,0.001). Twenty-four hour energy expenditure was increased after gastric bypass (4.50+/-0.04 kcal/kg/h) compared to sham-operated ad libitum fed (4.29+/-0.08 kcal/kg/h) and sham-operated body weight-matched controls (3.98+/-0.10 kcal/kg/h, p,0.001). Gastric bypass rats showed higher energy expenditure during the light ...
In islets from individuals with type 2 diabetes and in islets exposed to chronic elevated glucose, mitochondrial energy metabolism is impaired. Here, we studied early metabolic changes and mitochondrial adaptations in human beta cells during chronic glucose stress.Respiration and cytosolic ATP changes were measured in human islet cell clusters after culture for 4 days in 11.1 mmol/l glucose. Metabolomics was applied to analyse intracellular metabolite changes as a result of glucose stress conditions. Alterations in beta cell function were followed using insulin secretion assays or cytosolic calcium signalling after expression of the calcium probe YC3.6 specifically in beta cells of islet clusters.At early stages of glucose stress, mitochondrial energy metabolism was augmented in contrast to the previously described mitochondrial dysfunction in beta cells from islets of diabetic donors. Following chronic glucose stress, mitochondrial respiration increased (by 52.4%, p ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral energy metabolism in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. AU - Biessels, G.J.. AU - Braun, K.P.J.. AU - Graaf, de, R.A.. AU - Eijsden, van, P.. AU - Gispen, W.H.. AU - Nicolaij, K.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Aims/hypothesis. It is increasingly evident that the brain is another site of diabetic end-organ damage. The pathogenesis has not been fully explained, but seems to involve an interplay between aberrant glucose metabolism and vascular changes. Vascular changes, such as deficits in cerebral blood flow, could compromise cerebral energy metabolism. We therefore examined cerebral metabolism in streptozotocin-diabetic rats in vivo by means of localised 31P and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods. Rats were examined 2 weeks and 4 and 8 months after diabetes induction. A non-diabetic group was examined at baseline and after 8 months. Results. In 31P spectra the phosphocreatine:ATP, phosphocreatine:inorganic phosphate and ATP:inorganic phosphate ratios and intracellular pH ...
Looking for online definition of energy reserves in the Medical Dictionary? energy reserves explanation free. What is energy reserves? Meaning of energy reserves medical term. What does energy reserves mean?
The Marfan syndrome is an inherited multisystem disorder caused by mutations in fibrillin 1, with cardiovascular involvement being the most important feature of the phenoptype. Affected individuals have impaired flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of large arteries of a similar severity to patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).Skeletal muscle bioenergetics were studied in patients with the Marfan syndrome in order to evaluate the impact of impaired flow-mediated dilatation on skeletal muscle metabolism. Skeletal muscle metabolism is abnormal in CHF and the aetiology is unclear.Thirteen patients and 12 controls were studied by phosphorus Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy of the calf muscle using an incremental exercise protocol and by Magnetic Resonance imaging.Metabolic variables measured at rest were normal in Marfan patients. For a similar total work output measured at end of the standardized incremental exercise, the total rate of energy consumption (EC) was significantly increased in patients (21.2 +/-
Although sleep deprivation interferes with biological processes essential for performance, health, and longevity, previous studies have failed to reveal any structural or functional changes in brain. We have therefore measured local rates of cerebral glucose utilization (ICMRglc) with the quantitative autoradiographic 2-14C-deoxyglucose method in an effort to determine if and, if so, where sleep deprivation might affect function in sleep-deprived rats. Sleep deprivation was maintained for 11-12 d, long enough to increase whole body energy metabolism, thus confirming that pathophysiological processes that might involve brain functions were evolving. Deep brain temperature was also measured in similarly treated rats and found to be mildly elevated relative to core body temperature. Despite the increased deep brain temperature, systemic hypermetabolism, and sympathetic activation, ICMRglc was not elevated in any of the 60 brain structures examined. Average glucose utilization in the brain as a ...
In an attempt to improve aerobic and anaerobic performance, athletes and fitness enthusiasts consume a variety of supplements. Because of this, energy drinks are quickly becoming more and more popular every day. Despite its highly addictive nature, caffeine, which is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, is gaining recognition as an ergogenic aid. However, due to the many factors that affects the action of caffeine, and because the research on caffeine and anaerobic performance is limited, the potential for studying energy drinks and anaerobic performance is quite large. PURPOSE: To determine if a commercially available energy drink has any ergogenic effects on lower body and upper body resistance exercise performance. METHODS: In a block randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study thirteen recreationally trained male and female volunteers (mean ± SD age = 22.5 ± 3.4 years) performed 4 sets of the leg press and 4 sets of the bench press exercises (at 80% of 1 RM with all sets
Define Blood circulation effects on energy level. Blood circulation effects on energy level synonyms, Blood circulation effects on energy level pronunciation, Blood circulation effects on energy level translation, English dictionary definition of Blood circulation effects on energy level. circulatory system Arteries carry blood rich in oxygen from the heart to tissues of the body. Veins carry blood low in oxygen back to the heart. n. 1. Cellular Bioenergetics: Role of Coupled Creatine Kinases [4194320] - Preface. I: Muscle Energy Metabolism. II: Substrate and Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme Compartmentation. III: Creatine Kinases and Metabolic Integration. IV: Molecular Biology of Creatine Kinases. V: Developmental and Pathological Alterations of Creatine Kinases. VI: Metabolic Regulation: Theoretical Basis.InhaltsverzeichnisPreface. I: Muscle Energy Metabolism. II: Substrate and Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme
Unlike other energy drinks, 5-hour Energy is a 1.93 fluid ounce. 5-hour Energy Linked to 13 Deaths. 5-hour Energy has been.Energy drinks are generally safe, but like most things, you should drink them in moderation.Vigrx Plus is designed to be. did so on 3 separate occasions once even with a 5 hour energy shot for ...
The entire list of independent variables was used in the models involving the dependent variables of in-hone energy expenditures and in-home energy expenditures per capita. For the in-home energy expenditures per room per 1000 degree days, the number of rooms and the city variables were dropped from the list of independent variables.. For the car and truck fuel expenditures the house characteristics were, of course, not included as independent variables.. RESULTS. Tables 1 and 2 summarize the results of the testing of the regression models. Presented in these tables are all the significant variables in the models with the numerical values given for the estimates of the intercept terms and the total expenditures variable parameters. Also given are the adjusted R-squared values for the models.. TABLE 1. FACTORS EXPLAINING VARIANCE IN IN-HOME ENERGY EXPENDITURES OF URBAN CANADIAN HOUSEHOLDS, 1969-1982. In-Home Energy. In-home energy expenditure variances were well explained by the model elements . ...
A repeated 4×4 Latin square design was conducted with eight ileal cannulated castrates to examine the effect of source of starch and fiber on nutrient balance and energy metabolism. Pigs were fed on one of the four experimental diets: Control diet (C) mainly based on cooked rice; and diets P, S and W with the inclusion of either raw potato starch, sugar beet pulp or wheat bran supplementation, respectively. With the exception of an increased (p|0.05) energy loss from methane production with diet S observed, no significant differences (p|0.05) in the ratio of metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy, the utilization of ME for fat deposition and for protein deposition, energy loss as hydrogen and urinary energy were found between diets. The efficiency of utilization of ME for maintenance was lower (p|0.05) with diets P and S than with diet C. The inclusion of fiber sources (sugar beet pulp or wheat bran) or potato starch reduced the maintenance energy requirement. The fecal energy excretion was
The time course of energy metabolism has been studied in weight-stable and nongrowing mice with a transplantable methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma.. Daily oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured in relation to the tumor growth from the time of tumor implantation. The time course of energy dynamics was related to the end-state changes in body composition. Freely fed sarcoma-bearing mice decreased their whole-body energy expenditure in proportion to the tumor growth. This was due to the accompanying anorexia. The alteration in oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production was continuously evident 24 hr/day in sarcoma-bearing mice. The tumor-bearing mice lost body fat and had decreased respiratory quotient, while pair-fed controls maintained their body composition, and their respiratory quotients agreed with the food respiratory quotient. Loss of body lipids in freely fed sarcoma-bearing mice reflected a negative energy balance, accompanied with increased fat oxidation, ...
The central role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in cellular energy metabolism and signaling makes them important nodes that link the metabolic state of cells with energy homeostasis and gene regulation. NAD+NADH and from 50 to 100 for NADP+NADPH recognition. The assays are sturdy (Z worth 0.7) as well as the inhibitor response curves generated utilizing a known NAD biosynthetic pathway inhibitor FK866 correlate good using the reported data. Moreover, by multiplexing the dinucleotide recognition assays using a fluorescent nonmetabolic cell viability assay, we present that dinucleotide amounts can be reduced significantly ( 80%) by FK866 treatment before adjustments in cell viability are discovered. The utility from the assays to recognize modulators of intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide amounts was further verified using an oncology energetic compound collection, where book dinucleotide regulating substances were identified. For instance, the histone deacetylase inhibitor ...
AMP-activated protein kinase connects cellular energy metabolism to KATP channel function. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012 Feb; 52(2):410-8 ...
Energy-Saving LED Street Lamp and Method for Saving Energy with the Same - The present invention provides an energy-saving LED street lamp and a method of saving energy with said LED street lamp. A energy-saving LED street lamp comprises lamp body, power supply adapters, constant current actuating device, and LED lamps. said constant current actuating device is connected in series with the output end of the Power supply adapter, supplying power to said LED lamps. Said energy-saving lamp also comprises auto light-dimmer energy-saving controller; the signal output end of said auto light-dimmer energy-saving controller being connected with constant current actuating device. Said LED lamps compose a plurality of working module; each of the said working module is connected with an independent Power supply adapter. Said auto light-dimmer energy-saving controller has a plurality of routes of output signal, and each of the route of signal output end is connected with a constant current actuating device, ...
This is the final paper in or series examining the link between the energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. In this paper the kinetic energy of the limbs and body relative to the centre of mass (EKE, tot of paper two) is combined with the potential plus kinetic energy of the centre of mass (ECM, tot of paper three) to obtain the total mechanical energy (excluding elastic energy) of an animal during constant average-speed locomotion. The minimum mass-specific power required of the muscles and tendons to maintain the observed oscillations in total energy, Etot/Mb, can be described by one equation: Etot/Mb = 0.478. vg 1.53 + 0.685. vg + 0.072 where Etot/Mb is in W kg-1 and vg is in m s-1. This equation is independent of body size, applying equally as well to a chipmunk or a quail as to a horse or an ostrich. In marked contrast, the metabolic energy consumed by each gram of an animal as it moves along the ground at a constant speed increases linearly with speed and is proportional to ...
This is the final paper in or series examining the link between the energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. In this paper the kinetic energy of the limbs and body relative to the centre of mass (EKE, tot of paper two) is combined with the potential plus kinetic energy of the centre of mass (ECM, tot of paper three) to obtain the total mechanical energy (excluding elastic energy) of an animal during constant average-speed locomotion. The minimum mass-specific power required of the muscles and tendons to maintain the observed oscillations in total energy, Etot/Mb, can be described by one equation: Etot/Mb = 0.478. vg 1.53 + 0.685. vg + 0.072 where Etot/Mb is in W kg-1 and vg is in m s-1. This equation is independent of body size, applying equally as well to a chipmunk or a quail as to a horse or an ostrich. In marked contrast, the metabolic energy consumed by each gram of an animal as it moves along the ground at a constant speed increases linearly with speed and is proportional to ...
The Science of Human Energy Expenditure - Part III In Part II of this series on energy expenditure, we turned our attention to the measurement of free
The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin that acts as a barrier to protect the body from the external environment and to control water and heat loss. This barrier function is established through the multistage differentiation of keratinocytes and the presence of bioactive sphingolipids such as c …
In eukaryotic cells AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in regulating cellular energy balance. AMPK responds to changes in intracellular adenine nucleotide levels, being activated by an increase in AMP/ADP relative to ATP. Activation of AMPK increases the rate of catabolic (ATP-generating) pathways and decreases the rate of anabolic (ATP-utilising) pathways. In addition to its role in maintaining intracellular energy balance, AMPK regulates whole body energy metabolism. Given its key role in controlling energy homeostasis, AMPK has attracted widespread interest as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and, more recently, cancer. Here I review the regulation of AMPK and its potential as a target for therapeutic intervention in human disease ...
Neuroscience is a technology‐driven discipline and brain energy metabolism is no exception. Once satisfied with mapping metabolic pathways at organ level, we are now looking to learn what it is exactly that metabolic enzymes and transporters do and when, where do they reside, how are they regulated, and how do they relate to the specific functions of neurons, glial cells, and their subcellular domains and organelles, in different areas of the brain. Moreover, we aim to quantify the fluxes of metabolites within and between cells. Energy metabolism is not just a necessity for proper cell function and viability but plays specific roles in higher brain functions such as memory processing and behavior, whose mechanisms need to be understood at all hierarchical levels, from isolated proteins to whole subjects, in both health and disease. To this aim, the field takes advantage of diverse disciplines including anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, bioenergetics, cellular biology, molecular biology,
Men use proportionately more carbohydrate and less fat during submaximal exercise than women and circulating hormones appear to play a role in mediating this difference. We have shown that circulating estrogen and progesterone have potent and opposing effects on the regulation of substrate use during exercise in women, but the role of testosterone in mediating exercise substrate use in men is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high concentrations of testosterone (T) would shift substrate use toward greater carbohydrate utilization. Nine healthy active men cycled at ∼60% of VO2peak for 90 min under 3 hormonal conditions: physiological T (no intervention), low T (pharmacological suppression of endogenous T with GnRH antagonist) and high T (supplementation with transdermal T). Total plasma testosterone was significantly different between physiological T, low T, and high T (mean±SEM, 5.5±0.4 ng/ml, 0.8±0.1, 10.9±1.0 (p , 0.0001), respectively). Despite the large change in plasma T, there ...
The level of dietary energy intake influences metabolism, reproductive function, the development of age-related diseases, and even cognitive behavior. Because males and females typically play different roles in the acquisition and allocation of energy resources, we reasoned that dietary energy intake might differentially affect the brains of males and females at the molecular level. To test this hypothesis, we performed a gene array analysis of the hippocampus in male and female rats that had been maintained for 6 months on either ad libitum (control), 20% caloric restriction (CR), 40% CR, intermittent fasting (IF) or high fat/high glucose (HFG) diets. These diets resulted in expected changes in body weight, and circulating levels of glucose, insulin and leptin. However, the CR diets significantly increased the size of the hippocampus of females, but not males. Multiple genes were regulated coherently in response to energy restriction diets in females, but not in males. Functional physiological pathway
Several hundred genes associated or linked to obesity have been described in the scientific literature. Whereas many of these genes are potential targets for the treatment of obesity and associated conditions, none of them have permitted the developement of an efficient drug therapy. As proposed by the `thrifty genotype theory, obesity genes may have conferred an evolutionary advantage in times of food shortage through efficient energy exploitation, while `lean or `energy expenditure genes may have become very rare during the same periods. It is therefore a challenge to identify `energy expenditure genes or `energy absorption genes, whose mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms do result in reduced energy intake. We submit that such `energy absorption or `energy expenditure genes (crucial genes) are potential new targets for the treatment of obesity. These genes can be identified in rare genetic diseases that produce a lean, failure-to-thrive, energy malabsorption or starvation ...
0009]Special embodiments of the present invention are [0010]the use of β-carotene for maintaining the energy metabolism, the energy flow and/or the energy production in skin or of skin of animals including humans; [0011]the use of β-cryptoxanthin for maintaining the energy metabolism, the energy flow and/or the energy production in skin or of skin of animals including humans; [0012]the use of lutein for maintaining the energy metabolism, the energy flow and/or the energy production in skin or of skin of animals including humans; [0013]the use of lycopene for maintaining the energy metabolism, the energy flow and/or the energy production in skin or of skin of animals including humans; [0014]the use of a combination of lutein and lycopene for maintaining the energy metabolism, the energy flow and/or the energy production in skin or of skin of animals including humans; [0015]the use of a combination of lutein and β-cryptoxanthin for maintaining the energy metabolism, the energy flow and/or the ...
Lead (Pb2+) is a widespread pollutant and potent central neurotoxin. We have studied its effect on energetic metabolism of cerebellar granule cells (CGC) in pre- and postnatally intoxicated rats. Pregnant Wistar rats received 0.1% lead acetate in water. CGC were prepared from 8-day-old born rats according to a standard procedure. Pb2+concentration was measured in blood and in cerebellum homogenates by AAS. Intracellular Pb2+ concentrations in CGC was studied by fl uorescent microscopy, in neurons loaded with the Ca2+-sensitive indicator Oregon Green. Intracellular Pb2+ was evaluated from the fl uorescence intensity and estimate in μM range. Pb-induced decrease in Adenylate Energy Charge (by 10%) and ATP concentration (by 35%) in cerebellum homogenates (HPLC method) was observed at Pb concentrations in whole blood (7.05 ± 2.05 μg/dL).The function of mitochondria of neurons of Pb-treated and control rats were evaluated using: Mitotracker Green FM and JC-1. We observed active mitochondria ...
Obesity is a growing epidemic with no consensus regarding solutions. Thirty healthy overweight and obese female subjects (41.9 ± 12 years, 166 cm ± 7 cm, a 100.5 kg ± 19.6 kg, 46.0% ± 4.0% body fat, and BMI 37.4 ± 6.9) participated in the study. A 14-day dietary intervention examined acute effects of energy balance and macronutrient type on dietary intake, REE, body weight, body composition, and thyroid panel. Significant changes occurred in weight loss over time (p , 0.001); body fat mass over time (p , 0.001) and time x diet (p = 0.02); body fat percentage over time (p , 0.002) and time x diet (p = 0.023); REE over time (p = 0.03), and thyroid panel. Body weight continued to decrease during positive energy balance, yet metabolism rebounded. Results suggest energy balance has a greater overall effect on REE and weight loss than macronutrient type ...
Studies have demonstrated the role mechanical stress plays in regulating osteoblastic functions, such as cellular proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, signal transduction and apoptosis (14-16,26). Energy metabolism is essential to maintaining the biological activities of osteoblasts (17). In the present study, we revealed a novel mechanism in osteoblastic mechanobiology, through which cyclic stretch promotes osteoblastic energy metabolism by increasing the expression of enzymes associated with energy metabolism, partially through the Akt/mTOR/p70s6k signaling pathway. Firstly, cyclic mechanical stretch promoted energy metabolism in the MG-63 cells, which was evidenced by the increased glucose consumption, and the increased levels of lactate, intracellular ATP, and energy metabolism-related genes (ATP5B, ATP5F1, ATP5J, F1-ATPase α, LDHA and enolase 1), and ATP5B and ATP5J proteins. Secondly, cyclic mechanical stretch stimulated the activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70s6k pathway by prompting the ...
The inaccuracy of resting energy expenditure (REE) prediction formulae to calculate energy metabolism in children may lead to either under- or overestimated...
10 Hours Energy and Brain Power drink provides ingredients that are used to synthesize neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters include dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline. This drink is chock full of vitamins, amino acids, fumaric acid and biotin. This beverage provides energy that lasts all day and doesnt generate afternoon crashes like some other energy drinks. This mixture naturally acts as an appetite suppressor to keep you on track and may help combat stress you experience during the day. Pure Health Trends touts that you get Double the energy at half the price of most energy drinks. 10 Hour Energy helps to keep your alert, increase concentration and memory. And, it has zero calories, zero carbs, zero fat, sweetened with Xylitol, and has a great lemonade flavor.. ...
Metabolic reprogramming in skeletal muscles in the human and animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be an important factor in the diseases progression. We hypothesized that swim training, a modulator of cellular metabolism via changes in muscle bioenergetics and oxidative stress, ameliorates the reduction in muscle strength in ALS mice. In this study, we used transgenic male mice with the G93A human SOD1 mutation B6SJL-Tg (SOD1,sup>G93A,/sup>) 1Gur/J and wild type B6SJL (WT) mice. Mice were subjected to a grip strength test and isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria were used to perform high-resolution respirometry. Moreover, the activities of enzymes involved in the oxidative energy metabolism and total sulfhydryl groups (as an oxidative stress marker) were evaluated in skeletal muscle. ALS reduces muscle strength (-70% between 11 and 15 weeks, p , 0.05), modulates muscle metabolism through lowering citrate synthase (CS) (-30% vs. WT, p = 0.0007) and increasing cytochrome c ...
The brain has high energy demands, which are met by the complete oxidation of glucose, the obligatory energy substrate for the brain under physiological conditions. Glucose oxidative metabolism consists of cytosolic processes that generate pyruvate, TCA cycle that provides reducing equivalents, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation that converts energy to ATP. Consistent with the crucial role of energy metabolism in the maintenance of brain function, impaired glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathobiology of many brain disorders, including Alzheimers disease (AD) and diabetes. In this dissertation, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered glucose metabolism in the brains at genetic risk for AD and perturbed mitochondrial function in diabetes-associated brain dysfunction are studied. In the first study, the impact of human ApoE isoforms, which confer differential risk for AD, on brain glucose metabolism were investigated in human ApoE ...
The aim of the study was to assess the link between the metabolic profile and the proliferation capacity of a range of human and murine cancer cell lines. First, the combination of mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic efficiency measurements allowed the determination of different metabolic profiles among the cell lines, ranging from a mostly oxidative to a mostly glycolytic phenotype. Second, the study revealed that cell proliferation, evaluated by DNA synthesis measurements, was statistically correlated to glycolytic efficiency. This indicated that glycolysis is the key energetic pathway linked to cell proliferation rate. Third, to validate this hypothesis and exclude non-metabolic factors, mitochondria-depleted were compared to wild-type cancer cells, and the data showed that enhanced glycolysis observed in mitochondria-depleted cells is also associated with an increase in proliferation capacity. ...
Said study was conducted by Anne B. Loucks and Edward M. Heath who worked at the Derpartment of Biological Sciences and the College of Osteopathic Medicine at the Ohio University back in 1994. The purpose of their study was to characterize the functional relationship between energy availability and thyroid metabolism to gain insight into the extent of he dietary reform that might be necessary. The scientists expected to find a proportional relationship that would prove the necessity of dietary compensation for exercise energy expenditure to prevent reductions in T3 levels, scientists call low T3 syndrome ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitochondrial energy production and cation control in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion. AU - Ferrari, R.. AU - Pedersini, P.. AU - Bongrazio, M.. AU - Gaia, G.. AU - Bernocchi, P.. AU - Di Lisa, F.. AU - Visioli, O.. PY - 1993/9. Y1 - 1993/9. N2 - In the heart mitochondria exert two roles essential for cell survival: ATP synthesis and maintainance of Ca2+ homeostasis. These two processes are driven by the same energy source: the H+ electrochemical gradient (ΔμH) which is generated by electron transport along the inner mitochondrial membrane. Under aerobic physiological condition mitochondria do not contribute to the beat to beat regulation of cytosolic Ca2+, although Ca2+ transient in mitochondrial matrix has been described. Increases in mitochondrial Ca2+ of μmolars concentration stimulate the Krebs cycle and NADH redox potential and, therefore, ATP synthesis. Under pathological conditions, however, mitochondrial Ca2+ transport and overload might cause a series of vicious ...
In part 1 of this topic, the levels of daily feed intakes typically achieved by Genesus nursery and finishing animals were covered along with a comparison to feed intake figures expected from other genotypes. Total daily energy consumption was also discussed.. This article will cover how daily energy consumption can be influenced through dietary manipulation to optimise income over feed costs.. Choosing the appropriate energy level is particularly critical for diets fed to pigs from 30 kg to market weight. Feed usage during this phase represents 75 percent of the total operational feed budget, and energy contributes at least 50 percent to the final diet costs. A key component of setting optimum energy specifications is an understanding of how various levels of daily energy intake affect pig performance and carcass characteristics.. Table 1 below provides the performance response of Genesus full programme pigs to a range of dietary energy levels. The diets in this trial were based on using a ...
The adipose tissue functions as the bodys main energy reservoir and plays a central role in maintaining whole body energy homeostasis. The ability to modulate this tissues inherent endocrine and metabolic functions has promising implications in treating disease associated with adipose tissue dysfunction. This work revolves around two diseases where adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction drive the disease, obesity and cachexia. Both diseases impact a significant population of U.S. adults and substantially reduce patient quality of life. In this study, we first demonstrate the use of novel therapeutic platforms engineered to specifically target adipose tissue inflammation and lipid catabolism through localized drug delivery for the treatment of obesity. Specifically, we developed poly(lactide-coglycolide) scaffolds loaded with resveratrol, a small molecule with promising anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties, but one that suffers from poor bioavailability. Implant into the
The Annual Energy Outlook 2010 (AEO2010) reference case by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents updated projections for U.S. energy consumption and production through 2035.. Our projections show that existing policies that stress energy efficiency and alternative fuels, together with higher energy prices, curb energy consumption growth and shift the energy mix toward renewable fuels, said Richard Newell, EIA administrator. However, assuming no new policies, fossil fuels would still provide about 78 percent of all the energy used in 2035.. These reference case projections do not include the effects of potential future policies that have not yet become law and only include technologies that are commercially available or can reasonably be expected to become commercially available over roughly the next decade.. The report predicts total primary energy consumption to grow by 14 percent between 2008 and 2035, as the fossil fuel share of total U.S. energy consumption falls from ...
The central nervous system mediates energy balance (energy intake and energy expenditure) in the body; the hypothalamus has a key role in this process. Recent evidence has demonstrated an important role for hypothalamic malonyl CoA in mediating energy balance. Malonyl CoA is generated by the carboxylation of acetyl CoA by acetyl CoA carboxylase and is then either incorporated into long-chain fatty acids by fatty acid synthase, or converted back to acetyl-CoA by malonyl CoA decarboxylase. Increased hypothalamic malonyl CoA is an indicator of energy surplus, resulting in a decrease in food intake and an increase in energy expenditure. In contrast, a decrease in hypothalamic malonyl CoA signals an energy deficit, resulting in an increased appetite and a decrease in body energy expenditure. A number of hormonal and neural orexigenic and anorexigenic signaling pathways have now been shown to be associated with changes in malonyl CoA levels in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Despite ...
Fowler , P A , Drake , A J , OShaughnessy , P J , Bhattacharya , S , Raab , A , Sinclair , K D , Feldmann , J & Meharg , A A 2016 , Comment on Effects of Arsenite during Fetal Development on Energy Metabolism and Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Diseases in Male Mice and Mechanisms Underlying Latent Disease Risk Associated with Early-Life Arsenic Exposure: Current Trends and Scientific Gaps Environmental Health Perspectives , vol 124 , no. 6 , pp. A99-A99 . DOI: 10.1289/ehp. ...
This dataset corresponds to the article published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface titled: The foot is more than a spring: human foot muscles perform work to adapt to the energetic requirements of locomotion Compare how step on level ground versus stepping up and down 26 cm platforms. Dataset consists of EMG activation of the Flexor Digitorum Brevis (FDB) and Abductor Hallucis (AH) muscles in addition to dynamic data of the foot and leg joints such as mechanical work and moments, as estimated by performing inverse dynamics with force plate and motion capture data.
Barenys, M.; Recasens, M.A.; Martí-Henneberg, C.; Salas-Salvadó, J., 1993: Effect of exercise and protein intake on energy expenditure in adolescents
09.07.2019 - Important lessons can be learned from the two global frontrunners in the energy transition, Germany and California, a new report shows. Being the 4th biggest and 5th biggest economies worldwide, both jurisdictions draw more than 30 percent of their electricity from wind and solar and biomass, both have ambitious renewables targets of 80 and 100 percent by mid-century. An international team of scientists from Germany and the US now analyzed Californian and German policy pathways to draw conclusions for the way ahead. They find that market and renewable policy design adjustments in both jurisdictions to integrate the first 30 percent were small compared to the adjustments needed to integrate the second 30 percent. Importantly, strengthening CO2-pricing and policies to foster electrification must be an integral part of this.
The California Energy Commission said the rules it approved unanimously Thursday will raise the average cost of a new home by nearly $2,300.
In 1913 Niels Bohr proposed a model to describe how energy levels are organized around an atom. According to the theory, an electron travels from one energy level to the next, a bit like changing lanes in traffic and you overtake on the outer lane. If you want to travel slower, you go on the inside lane.. When an electron absorbs enough light energy, it travels up an energy level onto the faster lane. However, it may quickly becomes unstable and starts to loose energy. When this happens, the electron moves back down an energy level. Its called decay and the electron emits a photon of red light.. In this theory, energy levels are given as n=1, n=2, n=3 and n=4. If an electron moves from n=1 to n=3, the amount of energy aborbed is 2 energy level. If it goes from level 4 to 3, then it looses 1 energy level.. Dont confuse energy levels with orbitals. One energy level can cover over a few orbitals.. ...
Context/Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the regulation of the fuel partitioning and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle during lipid overfeeding in healthy men. Design/Participants/Intervention: Thirty-nine healthy volunteers were overfed for 56 days with a high-fat diet (3180 kJ/d). Energy metabolism (indirect calorimetry) was characterized in the fasting state and during a test meal before and at the end of the diet. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at day 0 and day 56. Main Outcome Measures: Change in gene expression, mitochondrial respiration, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content, and acetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha) in skeletal muscle was measured. Results: Overfeeding increased body weight (+2.6 kg) and fat mass concomitantly with a shift in the use of substrates as energy fuel toward preferential oxidation of carbohydrates instead of lipids. Changes in lipid metabolic gene expression supported this
Representative ketones, from the left: acetone, a common solvent; oxaloacetate, an intermediate in the metabolism of sugars; ... Acetoacetate is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle which releases energy from sugars and carbohydrates.[22] ... in various inborn errors of metabolism, and intentionally induced via a ketogenic diet, and in ketoacidosis (usually due to ...
Many mammals, in the absence of sufficient food requirements in an environment, suppress their metabolism and conserve energy ... Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to ... Humphries, M. M.; Thomas, D.W.; Kramer, D.L. (2003). "The role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation: A cost-benefit ... Physiologically, animals must be able to obtain both energy and nutrients from plant and animal materials to be considered ...
... basic to metabolism."[28]:1230-1231 The units in energy flow webs are typically a measure mass or energy per m2 per unit time. ... This energy flow diagram illustrates how energy is lost as it fuels the metabolic process that transform the energy and ... Autotrophs produce more biomass energy, either chemically without the sun's energy or by capturing the sun's energy in ... Energy flow web - quantified fluxes of energy between nodes along links between a resource and a consumer.[3][39] ...
Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U.; Ishikawa, Y. (1995). "Transition energies of ytterbium, lutetium, and lawrencium by the relativistic ... Lutetium salts are known to cause metabolism and they occur together with other lanthanide salts in nature; the element is the ... "Resonance Transition Energies and Oscillator Strengths in Lutetium and Lawrencium". Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (18): 183001. Bibcode ...
A Vital Legacy: Biological and Environmental Research in the Atomic Age, U.S. Department of Energy, The Office of Biological ... Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 20 (3): 423-451. doi:10.1097/00004647-200003000-00001. PMID 10724107.. ... and the whole body occupational dose limit for nuclear energy workers in the USA is 50mSv/year.[30] For scale, see Orders of ... Because the oxygen atom that is replaced by F-18 to generate FDG is required for the next step in glucose metabolism in all ...
"Glucosinolate metabolism, functionality and breeding for the improvement of Brassicaceae vegetables". Breed Sci. 64 (1): 48-59 ...
Food energyEdit. Alcoholic drinks are a source of food energy. The USDA uses a figure of 6.93 kilocalories (29.0 kJ) per gram ... the same intermediate product as in glucose metabolism. Because ethanol is mostly metabolized and consumed by the liver, ... of alcohol (5.47 kcal or 22.9 kJ per ml) for calculating food energy.[21] In addition to alcohol, many alcoholic drinks contain ...
... marxianus is an aerobic yeast capable of respiro-fermentative metabolism that consists of simultaneously generating energy from ... "Growth of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 6556 on different sugar combinations as sole carbon and energy source". Applied ... The balance between respiration and fermentation metabolisms is strain specific.[5] This species also ferments inulin, glucose ... Energy, Sustainability and Society. 5 (1). doi:10.1186/s13705-014-0028-2.. ...
Possible energy sourceEdit. I was wondering if anyone knows how to force cyanobacteria to produce Hydrogen. I was told all you ... I think the word "metabolism" should perhaps read "mechanism"? I'll leave it to a proper user to decide though, as I'm not ... Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta or blue-green algae, is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through ... As far as I am aware, nothing classified as an "animal" respirates Carbon Dioxide for energy and emits Oxygen. Redwood Elf ( ...
Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism (3 ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. p. 69. ISBN ...
The nitrogen metabolism of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss and Pinus banksiana Lamb. as influenced by mineral nutrition. Can. J. Bot ... The leaves are often dark green in colour, which may help absorb a maximum of energy from weak sunshine at high latitudes or ... Added to this would be the photosynthate to produce energy to sustain respiration over this period, an amount estimated to be ...
Discarding this synthesis may not necessarily allow the parasite to conserve significant energy or resources and grow faster, ...
... the first ionisation energies and atomisation energies of the alkali metals. Because the first ionisation energy of the alkali ... Rubidium has no known biological role, but may help stimulate metabolism,[234][235][236] and, similarly to caesium,[234][237] ... The first ionisation energy of an element or molecule is the energy required to move the most loosely held electron from one ... The formation of an alkali metal nitride would consume the ionisation energy of the alkali metal (forming M+ ions), the energy ...
Some carbons have been able to achieve bonding energies of 5-10 kJ per mol. The gas may then be desorbed when subjected to ... toxic to metabolism and neurotoxic. ... The United States Department of Energy has specified certain ... Bradley RH, Sutherland I, Sheng E (1996). "Carbon surface: Area, porosity, chemistry, and energy". Journal of Colloid and ... In vapour phase systems this needs to be considered against pressure drop, which will affect energy cost. Careful consideration ...
MetabolismEdit. Sustained energy output (joules) of a typical reptile versus a similar size mammal as a function of core body ... Their poikilotherm metabolism has very low energy requirements, allowing large reptiles like crocodiles and large constrictors ... Garnett, S. T. (2009). "Metabolism and survival of fasting Estuarine crocodiles". Journal of Zoology. 4 (208): 493-502. doi: ... Digestion is slower than in mammals, reflecting their lower resting metabolism and their inability to divide and masticate ...
... which can be used to generate energy.[25] The primary by-products of metabolism are carbon dioxide and water; carbon dioxide is ... non-energy-restricted diets appear to be at least as effective as low-fat, energy-restricted diets in inducing weight loss for ... the body's cells rely on internally stored energy sources, such as complex carbohydrates and fats, for energy. The first source ... It is important to know the amount of energy your body is using every day, so that your intake fits the needs of one's personal ...
Metabolism * sw:Metabolism. Metal * sw:Metal. Metallurgy * sw:Metallurgy. Metre * sw:Metre. Mexico * sw:Mexico. Mexico City * ... Energy * sw:Energy. Engineering * sw:Engineering. English * sw:English. Enrico Fermi * sw:Enrico Fermi. Enzyme * sw:Enzyme. ... Conservation of energy * sw:Conservation of energy. Conservatism * sw:Conservatism. Constantine the Great * sw:Constantine the ... Renewable energy * sw:Renewable energy. Reproduction * sw:Reproduction. Reproductive system * sw:Reproductive system. Reptile ...
They also function as a carbon and energy source for the development of a vegetative bacterium during germination. ... Microbial metabolism. *Nitrogen fixation. *Microbial ecology. *Primary nutritional groups. *Substrate preference *Lipophilic ...
Microbial metabolism. *Phage ecology. Food webs. *Biomagnification. *Ecological efficiency. *Ecological pyramid. *Energy flow ...
2008). Lipoic acid: energy production, antioxidant activity and health effects. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 1-4200-4537-7.. ... Teichert J, Hermann R, Ruus P, Preiss R (2003). „Plasma kinetics, metabolism, and urinary excretion of alpha-lipoic acid ...
... and energy storage and expenditure. It is the common mechanism for interactions among glands, hormones, and parts of the ... the mobilization of energy, learning (in the face of novel, dangerous stimuli) as well as increased appetite for biochemical ... energy storage. In contemporary society, the endurance of the HPA axis and early life programming will have important ... Metabolism. *Blood sugar regulation. *Calcium metabolism. Fields. *Neuroendocrinology. *Pediatric endocrinology. * ...
Harris, Ph.D., Edward D. (1 January 2014). Minerals in Food Nutrition, Metabolism, Bioactivity (chapter 3.4) (1st ed.). ... A component of bones (see apatite), cells, in energy processing, in DNA and ATP (as phosphate) and many other functions Red ... Gropper, Sareen S.; Smith, Jack L. (1 June 2012). Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Cengage Learning. pp. 527-8. ISBN 1- ... The dietary focus on chemical elements derives from an interest in supporting the biochemical reactions of metabolism with the ...
不同的區域與國家的人均飲食熱量攝取(英语:Dietary energy supply)差別很大,並會隨著時代而有明顯改變[89]。從1970年代早期到1990年代晚期,除了東歐地區外,全球的人均每日熱量攝取(購買的食物量)都在上升。1996年,人均每日熱 ... 脂質遺傳性(英语:Inborn error of lipid metabolism)代謝缺陷 : 血脂異常(英语:dyslipidemia) (E78、272.0-272.6(英语:List of ICD-9 codes
Several missions on the Aquarius have been canceled due to hurricane activity. During Hurricane Gordon in 1994, a crew of scientists and divers had to evacuate Aquarius and climb up a rescue line to the surface in 15-foot seas after one of the habitat's generators caught fire.[9][10] In 1998, Hurricane Georges nearly destroyed Aquarius, breaking a joint in one of its legs and moving two 8000-pound weights on the wet porch nearly off the structure. Both Hurricane Georges and Hurricane Mitch, later in 1998, also destroyed way stations outside Aquarius used to refill aquanauts' scuba tanks.[9] In 2005, Hurricane Rita broke two of the habitat's seabed anchors and moved one end of Aquarius by twelve feet.[9][11] In 2017 Hurricane Irma ripped the habitat's 94,000 pound life support buoy from its moorings and blew it 14 miles away to the Lignum Vitae Channel, as well as damaging the underwater living quarters and 'wet porch' area.[12] As of 2008[update], no scientists or staff members had been injured ...
... exhibit a great variety of chemical reactions in their metabolism and use many sources of energy. These reactions are ... Nutritional types in archaeal metabolism. Nutritional type. Source of energy. Source of carbon. Examples. ... Carbon-fixation is powered by inorganic energy sources. No known archaea carry out photosynthesis.[125] Archaeal energy sources ... The energy stored in these electrochemical gradients is then converted into ATP by ATP synthase.[86] This process is a form of ...
ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate), the biological energy source, reacts with luciferin with the aid of the enzyme luciferase to ... The capacity to produce light is an extension of normal metabolism: all chemical reactions produce a few photons. Visible light ... Bioluminescence is the result of chemical processes, where the energy produced is released as visible light. Bioluminescence ...
Genes containing the TATA-box tend to be involved in stress-responses and certain types of metabolism and are more highly ... "Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer shows uniformity in TATA binding protein-induced DNA bending and ...
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 50 (3): 167-172. doi:10.1159/000090736. PMID 16407641.. ...
Future Energies (30 October 2003). "PORT HUENEME, Calif: U.S. Navy to Produce its Own Biofuels :: Future Energies :: The future ... Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... According to a joint research agenda conducted through the US Department of Energy,[30] the fossil energy ratios (FER) for ... National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2 March 2007). "Research Advantages: Cellulosic Ethanol" (PDF). National Renewable Energy ...
There is no thermal activation energy for the transformation from austenite to martensite.[clarification needed] Moreover, ... They can also be used for converting pig iron to steel, but they use a lot of electrical energy (about 440 kWh per metric ton ...
Uses of energy in cells. The body utilizes energy for a variety of functions. Energy is needed to carry out mechanical work ... Energy currency. ATP of adenosine triphosphate is the energy currency in most animal cells. It carries chemical energy. In ... Anabolism requires energy that is provided by catabolic processes.. Overall, both processes of metabolism must occur ... The energy flow. The breakdown of complex organic molecules to yield simple molecules releases energy and the process is called ...
Metabolism and energy. Metabolism: chemical reactions in cells. Countless chemical reactions take place in cells and are ... The energy required is called the activation energy (Ea).. Reaction profiles: following the course of a one-step exergonic ... The energy hump shows how much energy reacting molecules must have for a successful collision, i.e. one that leads to ... Activated complexes and activation energy. Some reactions take place in a single step. We can represent this using an energy ...
... "energy metabolism"[MeSH Terms] OR ("energy"[All Fields] AND "metabolism"[All Fields]) OR "energy metabolism"[All Fields]). ... Cannabidiol attenuates OGD/R-induced damage by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics and modulating glucose metabolism via ... Cannabidiol attenuates OGD/R-induced damage by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics and modulating glucose metabolism via ... Identification of cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for metabolism of cannabidiol by human liver microsomes. ...
... is critical for cellular health and function. It plays a role in many diseases and is an ... What is Energy Metabolism?. Cells must perform a balancing act of maintaining energy levels, biosynthesis of new material, and ... Energy Metabolism Product Groups. Lipid Metabolism Bioluminescent assays for quantitating glycerol, triglyceride, cholesterol ... Top Energy Metabolism Products for Your Lab. Glucose Uptake-Glo™ Assay. Non-radioactive assay for measuring glucose uptake. ...
Energy Balance, and Obesity program supports basic and clinical studies related to energy balance and physiological mechanisms ... and behaviors that lead to changes in energy balance, t ... The Metabolism, Energy Balance, and Obesity program supports ... Metabolism, Energy Balance & Obesity. Basic and clinical studies related to energy balance and physiological mechanisms ... Karen L. Teff, Ph.D. Effects of bariatric surgery on diabetes and metabolism, clinical and basic science of hepatic metabolism ...
Christian Andersens ugly duckling is actually a beautiful swan-has the potential to reshape the field of energy metabolism. ... circulating lactate enables the uncoupling of carbohydrate-driven mitochondrial energy generation from glycolysis. Lactate and ... Lactate: the ugly duckling of energy metabolism. *Joshua D. Rabinowitz. ORCID: & ... Wahren, J., Felig, P., Ahlborg, G. & Jorfeldt, L. Glucose metabolism during leg exercise in man. J. Clin. Invest. 50, 2715-2725 ...
... aims to understand how energy intake and expenditure, and diabetes, affect neuronal plasticity ... The Energy Metabolism Project The energy metabolism project aims to understand how energy intake and expenditure, and diabetes ... energy levels and measured multiple physiological variables related to reproduction, energy metabolism, and behavior (39). In ... Home Research & Funding Labs at NIA Laboratory of Neurosciences The Energy Metabolism Project ...
Source for information on Advances in the Understanding of Energy Metabolism: Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social ... Advances in the Understanding of Energy MetabolismOverviewInvestigation of the chemistry of life had begun in the nineteenth ... and the complexity of energy metabolism was unknown. By 1950 the basic steps in the breakdown of all the energy-rich nutrients- ... and the last phosphate is attached with a high-energy bond created using the energy from the Krebs cycle and from other energy- ...
The bodys natural ability to maintain energy balance is regulated by different kinds of energy-sensing neurons in the brain ... "Tbx3 affects systemic energy homeostasis by controlling the peptidergic identity profile of different populations that directly ... the underlying mechanisms and once again focuses attention on the central role of the brain in regulating energy metabolism," ... "Two groups of neurons in the hypothalamus control body weight and energy balance via various molecular messengers. Like yin and ...
Energy metabolism (Include extended shelves). You can also browse an alphabetical list from this subject or from: Energy ... Filed under: Metabolism*. The Status of Food Enzymes in Digestion and Metabolism. (Chicago: National Enzyme Co., 1946), by ... Filed under: Metabolism -- Disorders*. Inborn Errors of Metabolism. (second edition, 1923), by Archibald E. Garrod (PDF files ... Filed under: Drugs of abuse -- Metabolism*. Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, and Pharmaceutics of Drugs of Abuse. , ed. by Rao S. ...
In this review, the physiology of energy metabolism in muscle is described, followed by the presentation of distinct disorders ... Patients suffering from metabolic myopathies due to compromised energy metabolism may present with exercise intolerance, muscle ... impairment of skeletal and cardiac muscle in both children and adults may be caused by inborn errors of energy metabolism as ... abnormalities may be detected in patients with defects in energy metabolism. 4. Inborn Errors of Energy Metabolism in Muscle. ...
Work in several model organisms suggests that there is a link between aging and energy metabolism. Ashrafi et al. identified ... activity and increased energy pools consistent with a model for aging in which there is a shift in metabolism toward energy ...
Energy metabolism covers various biochemical ways of energy transformation and regulation of thousands of chemical reactions. ... Energy metabolism covers various biochemical ways of energy transformation and regulatory mechanisms of over thousands chemical ... We will first establish the concept of energy metabolism and subsequently examine biochemical steps involved in energy ... We will first establish the concept of energy metabolism and subsequently examine biochemical processes involved in energy ...
... , Glycogen Storage Disease, Disorder of Carbohydrate Metabolism, Lipid Metabolism Disorders. ... Disorders of Energy Metabolism. Aka: Disorders of Energy Metabolism, Glycogen Storage Disease, Disorder of Carbohydrate ... LIPID METABOLISM DISORDER NOS, Disorder of lipoid metabolism NOS, Lipoid metabolism disorder NOS, Metabolism Disorder, Lipid, ... Lipid metabolism disorder, Disorders of lipoid metabolism, Disorder of lipid metabolism, Disorder of lipid metabolism (disorder ...
The focus of our section is to understand this variability in the response to excess energy by studying mechanisms of fat ... Generation of fat is an important mechanism for the body to store excess energy for future use. However, excess accumulation of ... animal models and human tissue and blood samples to dissect the mechanism by which these genes affect fat metabolism in the ...
Energy metabolism is also involved in the immune networking of the body for self defence and against pathophysiology. The ... This review tried to focus the involvement of nanoparticles in metabolic pathways and its influence in the energy metabolism, a ... Physiological Interactions of Nanoparticles in Energy Metabolism, Immune Function and Their Biosafety: A Review ... The human body utilizes energy derived from food resources through a series of biochemical reactions involving several enzymes ...
Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine have discovered that decaffeinated coffee may improve brain energy ... "Impaired energy metabolism in the brain is known to be tightly correlated with cognitive decline during aging and in subjects ... Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine have discovered that decaffeinated coffee may improve brain energy metabolism ... Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine have discovered that decaffeinated coffee may improve brain energy metabolism ...
... present in different parts of the body determine when and how much energy must be supplied by mitochondria (the power house of ... Top 10 Ways to Speed up Your Metabolism For Weight Loss. Boosting metabolism is what we need to pump our weight loss regime. ... A new research has found that how exactly the 24 hour circadian rhythm regulates energy metabolism in the body. According to ... Relationship between circadian clock and energy production The scientists also showed that the mitochondrial network loses its ...
The study of energy metabolism in brain is particularly interesting due to the fact that although the brain has scant energy ... The high-energy phosphate compounds ATP and phos- phocreatine, supplied by the oxidative metabolism of glucose, are necessary ...
Tumor cells are characterized by altered metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Multiple metabolic pathways affected by ... An Overview of Common Energy Metabolism Pathways. Several complex pathways are involved with energy metabolism within the cell ... Interrogating Energy Metabolism Pathways for Drug Discovery. Tumor cells are characterized by altered metabolism, resulting in ... Cellular Energy Metabolism Wall Chart. This wall poster is a great reference to understand the relationships among metabolic ...
I can tell you about the basics of energy and metabolism, and thats exactly what this two-part blog post will focus on. What ... Do you ever feel like you need more energy? Maybe you stayed up all night studying for exams, or you just finished an intense ... Ultimately, carbohydrates give us glucose, which most of our bodys cells need in order to create energy for themselves (with ... While I cant give you more energy via the internet (it would be pretty amazing if I could, though), ...
Purchase Energy Metabolism and the Regulation of Metabolic Processes in Mitochondria - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Energy Metabolism and the Regulation of Metabolic Processes in Mitochondria 1st Edition. ... Energy Metabolism and the Regulation of Metabolic Processes in Mitochondria contains papers presented at the 1972 symposium on ... Separating 16 papers into chapters, this book first discusses the general aspects of control of the biological energy ...
M. F. Allard, "Energy substrate metabolism in cardiac hypertrophy," Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 430-435, ... Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein: Complex Particles in Cardiac Energy Metabolism. You-Guo Niu1 and Rhys D. Evans2 ... W. C. Stanley, G. D. Lopaschuk, and J. G. McCormack, "Regulation of energy substrate metabolism in the diabetic heart," ... Studies on fat, ketone and amino acid metabolism," The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 504-515, 1954. View at ...
Thyroid and Glucose and Energy Metabolism. Official Title ICMJE Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Conversion and Glucose and Energy ... Thyroid and Glucose and Energy Metabolism. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Fasting venous blood samples will be collected for the determination of the parameters of lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. ... Resting Energy Expenditure at Levothyroxine Treatment Phase [ Time Frame: One month of therapy. ] ...
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant human disorder characterized by abnormal bone development that is mainly due to defective intramembranous bone formation by osteoblasts. Here, we describe a mouse strain lacking the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 that shows phenotypic similarities to CCD. Loss of RNF146 stabilized its substrate AXIN1, leading to impairment of WNT3a-induced β-catenin activation and reduced Fgf18 expression in osteoblasts. We show that FGF18 induces transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) expression, which is required for osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through transcriptional enhancer associate domain (TEAD) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) transcription factors, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate that adipogenesis is enhanced in Rnf146-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Moreover, mice with loss of RNF146 within the osteoblast lineage had increased fat stores and were glucose intolerant with severe osteopenia because ...
Cancer cells do not obtain their energy from the breakdown of sugar to carbon dioxide and water, but from energy-rich ... Cancer cells utilize energy-rich intermediates of sugar metabolism: Research. *Download PDF Copy ... Cancer cells do not obtain their energy from the breakdown of sugar to carbon dioxide and water, but from energy-rich ... that an altered energy production in human metabolism is characteristic of cancer. The key enzyme M2-PK (PKM2) hereby plays a ...
The resulting cellular energy imbalance may promote energy failure and stimulation of angiogenesis. In the first paper, energy ... Energy metabolism requires supply of glucose and oxygen. In atherosclerotic plaques and cancer tumors, there are local areas ... Energy metabolism, Hypoxia, Reactive oxygen species, Intussusceptive angiogenesis Subject categories. Cardiac and ... In summary, this thesis provides evidence of energy deficiency in human atherosclerotic plaques, new insights into ROS ...
... calorie burning with GNC Womens Ultra Mega Energy & Metabolism multis- with vitamin B12 & thermogenics. Try our womens ... Womens energy & metabolism works great for me ! it helps digest better since I have hormone problem from my hypo thyroid ... Great for energy!. Great! Gives me energy! I can tell a big difference when I run out and miss a few days of taking them. Yes, ... It doesnt make me feel like an Energizer Bunny on drugs like some energy and metabolism products from other companies. I use ...
The heart has a very high energy demand but very little energy reserves. In order to sustain contractile function, the heart ... The treatment of heart disease by optimizing energy metabolism is also discussed, which includes increasing overall energy ... Cardiac Energy Metabolism in Health and Disease describes the research advances that have been made in understanding what ... Cardiac energy metabolism Cardiac ischemia Cardiomyopathy Fatty acid oxidation Mitochondrial function Editors and affiliations ...
... Glia. 2007 Sep;55(12):1263-71. doi: 10.1002/glia.20557. ... In the case of CNS white matter, this source of energy can extend axon function for 20 min or longer. Likewise, during periods ... of intense neural activity when energy demand exceeds glucose supply, astrocyte glycogen is degraded to lactate, a portion of ...
  • Rats fed with a high-fat, high-glucose diet supplemented with high-fructose corn syrup showed alterations in energy and lipid metabolism similar to clinical diabetes, with elevated fasting glucose and increased cholesterol and triglycerides. (
  • Thyroid hormone action plays an important role in the regulation of many physiologic processes, among them glucose and lipid metabolism. (
  • The aim of the present study is the evaluation of the role of peripheral thyroid hormone conversion in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by assessing the differential response to T4 or T3 treatment in subjects devoid of endogenous thyroid hormone production. (
  • Fasting venous blood samples will be collected for the determination of the parameters of lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. (
  • The researchers compared measures including weight gain/loss, energy expenditure, gene expression in fat tissue, lipid levels in the blood, liver, and feces, and blood insulin levels as an indication of insulin resistance in animals with diet-induced obesity who did or did not receive supplementation with dietary yerba mate. (
  • They then showed that when mice underwent bouts of intense exercise, there were more interactions between BRCA1 and the phosphorylated form of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a critical regulator of lipid metabolism. (
  • Revealing the importance of lipid metabolism in disease vulnerability and the value of molecular profiling as a means to glean biological insights into the relationship between adipose tissue function and health. (
  • We were able to demonstrate for the first time that glucocorticoid hormone-regulated miRNA-379 is a key control switch for disruptions in lipid and glucose metabolism," says Herzig. (
  • Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the breakdown or storage of fats for energy and the synthesis of structural and functional lipids, such as those involved in the construction of cell membranes. (
  • Lipid metabolism often begins with hydrolysis, which occurs with the help of various enzymes in the digestive system. (
  • Lipid metabolism also occurs in plants, though the processes differ in some ways when compared to animals. (
  • Digestion is the first step to lipid metabolism, and it is the process of breaking the triglycerides down into smaller monoglyceride units with the help of lipase enzymes. (
  • The second step in lipid metabolism is absorption of fats. (
  • Cannabidiol attenuates OGD/R-induced damage by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics and modulating glucose metabolism via pentose-phosphate pathway in hippocampal neurons. (
  • Growth factors can influence cell growth and survival through effects on glucose metabolism. (
  • Loss of lipoprotein lipase-derived fatty acids leads to increased cardiac glucose metabolism and heart dysfunction," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 281, no. 13, pp. 8716-8723, 2006. (
  • Clock genes are involved in regulating glucose metabolism in the liver. (
  • In addition to its rather well-established roles in the regulation of circadian rhythms, sleep, and reproduction, melatonin has also been identified as an important regulator of glucose metabolism. (
  • Additionally, a large number of animal studies have highlighted a role for melatonin in the regulation of both glucose metabolism and energy balance. (
  • Within recent decades, a large number of animal studies using both pinealectomized rats and melatonin receptor knock out (KO) mice have begun to establish a rather unexpected role for melatonin in the regulation of glucose metabolism and energy balance. (
  • Lactate metabolism is associated with mammalian mitochondria. (
  • This rhythm is integral to determining when and how much energy the mitochondria can supply. (
  • Energy Metabolism and the Regulation of Metabolic Processes in Mitochondria contains papers presented at the 1972 symposium on metabolic regulation, held at the University of Nebraska Medical School in Omaha, Nebraska. (
  • An addition to these confused observations has been the recent suggestion that under some circumstances we might expect mitochondria to produce fewer free radicals when metabolism is higher - particularly when they are uncoupled. (
  • These new ideas concerning the manner in which mitochondria generate free radicals as a function of metabolism shed some light on the complexity of observations linking body size, metabolism and lifespan. (
  • Mitochondria use energy derived from fuel combustion to create a proton electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane. (
  • It activates proteins within mitochondria which participate in cellular respiration thus controlling energy metabolism. (
  • We take oxygen from the air we breathe and the food we eat and burn it in the little energy factories in our cells called mitochondria. (
  • When our mitochondria are damaged, the resultant loss of energy can often show up as a broken brain-fatigue, brain fog, depression, dementia, autism, and more. (
  • So the key to getting more energy is to remove the agents that are harming your mitochondria. (
  • Thankfully, by eating a plant-based diet, reducing toxic exposures, and supplementing with mitochondria-protective and antioxidant compounds we can protect and restore our energy metabolism to optimal function. (
  • Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine have discovered that decaffeinated coffee may improve brain energy metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes. (
  • A hypothesis from the 1990's postulates, that a well-orchestrated collaboration between two cell types, astrocytes and neurons, is the basis of brain energy metabolism. (
  • Tbx3 affects systemic energy homeostasis by controlling the peptidergic identity profile of different populations that directly modulate the activity of the melanocortin system in ARC neurons during neonatal life, when maturation of the melanocortin system occur," the researchers noted. (
  • While they suggest that the findings highlight a conserved role for Tbx3 in the regulation of energy homeostasis in invertebrates and in mammals, including humans, they also acknowledge that the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underpin these effects might differ across different species. (
  • In contrast to liver glycogen, muscle glycogen does not serve glucose homeostasis in the body but is almost exclusively used for energy metabolism in muscle itself. (
  • Recently, GPR43 has been reported to regulate host energy homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissues. (
  • The Spiegelman Lab defines the transcriptional programs governing development of adipocytes, as well as their roles in regulating energy balance and homeostasis. (
  • Determining for the first time in any primate species the importance of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the regulation of energy homeostasis. (
  • Estrogens play an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in female mammals and a reduced ovarian function, due to natural aging or surgery, is associated with body weight increase and fat redistribution. (
  • In addition, by means of in vivo imaging, the TSEC treatment was shown to increase estrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional activity selectively in the arcuate nucleus, which is a key area for the control of energy homeostasis. (
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We are in the midst of an epidemic of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, so a better understanding of the basic pathways of energy homeostasis is critical to the development of new medical therapies. (
  • Cardiac failure is the most prevalent cause of death at higher age, and is commonly associated with impaired energy homeostasis in the heart. (
  • The energy metabolism project aims to understand how energy intake and expenditure, and diabetes, affect neuronal plasticity and vulnerability to disease. (
  • These studies suggest that diabetes exerts detrimental effects on hippocampal structure, and that this state can be attenuated by increasing energy expenditure and decreasing energy intake. (
  • The body's natural ability to maintain energy balance is regulated by different kinds of energy-sensing neurons in the brain that work together to control appetite and energy expenditure. (
  • Resting Energy Expenditure at Levothyroxine Treatment Phase [ Time Frame: One month of therapy. (
  • After ingesting the d-allulose water, researchers observed a significant increase in fat energy expenditure at 90 minutes compared to the aspartame group. (
  • Meanwhile, carbohydrate energy expenditure was significantly lower in the d-allulose group. (
  • However, it is still unclear where in the body energy expenditure is enhanced or precisely what triggers an increase in energy metabolism, they added. (
  • Obesity is the result of a long-term imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is therefore regulated by multiple pathways involving metabolites, hormones, and neuropeptides ( 3 ). (
  • Because the exponents for mass-specific RMR are close to the exponents for lifespan, but have opposite signs, their product (the mass-specific expenditure of energy per lifespan) is independent of body mass (exponent between -0.08 and 0.08). (
  • This is primarily because comparisons made across classes (for example, between birds and mammals) do not conform to the expectations, and even within classes there is substantial interspecific variability in the mass-specific expenditure of energy per lifespan. (
  • For example, appeals that the resultant lifetime expenditure of energy per gram of tissue is `too variable' depend on the biological significance rather than the statistical significance of the variation observed. (
  • A novel comparison using daily energy expenditure (DEE), rather than BMR, suggests that lifetime expenditure of energy per gram of tissue is NOT independent of body mass, and that tissue in smaller animals expends more energy before expiring than tissue in larger animals. (
  • In addition there is a significant negative relationship between residual lifespan and residual daily energy expenditure in mammals. (
  • Freely fed sarcoma-bearing mice decreased their whole-body energy expenditure in proportion to the tumor growth. (
  • Sarcoma-bearing mice showed a significantly higher energy expenditure in relation to their food intake compared to that of pair-fed controls. (
  • Estimates of partition of oxygen uptake in sarcoma-bearing mice support that both the host and the tumor account for the elevated energy expenditure. (
  • This study has confirmed a small but significantly increased energy expenditure in sarcoma-bearing mice, which was continuously present 24 hr/day in spite of unlimited availability of food. (
  • This breakfast-based intervention measures how breakfast protein and carbohydrate content influence health through energy intake and energy expenditure. (
  • In the four weeks of the intervention we will provide you with a food diary and an activity monitor to assess your energy intake and energy expenditure. (
  • The feedback will include a detailed analysis of your diet, including calorie intake and macronutrient composition, detailed breakdown of your metabolic rate and energy expenditure, feedback on your circulating metabolites and hormones in your blood. (
  • In rodents, UCP1 activity and brown fat contribute importantly to whole-body energy expenditure. (
  • lotus-root starch) predominant, late-evening snack (LES), containing 200 kcal (50 g CHO) on fasting resting energy expenditure (REE) and nutrient oxidation in hospitalized adults with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). (
  • Energy metabolism is central to life and altered energy expenditure is often cited as a central mechanism responsible for development of the obese phenotype. (
  • Total energy expenditure (EE) is the sum of resting EE, EE of physical activity, cold-induced thermogenesis and thermic effect of feeding. (
  • The breakdown of complex organic molecules to yield simple molecules releases energy and the process is called catabolism. (
  • Overall, both processes of metabolism must occur concurrently because catabolism provides the energy necessary for anabolism. (
  • Due to the large variety of food compounds, and the large number of biochemical reactions which need energy in anabolism, it would be quite inefficient to couple a specific anabolic reaction to a specific energy source in catabolism. (
  • Catabolism and anabolism are aspects of your metabolism that help create energy. (
  • Your metabolism includes the process of breaking large molecules down into smaller units which are easier to handle (catabolism) and repairing and building up compounds and tissues in your body (anabolism). (
  • Metabolism is of the following two types: catabolism and anabolism. (
  • Metabolism is of two types: Catabolism: in this process molecules break down producing energy Anabolism: in this process synthesis of essential compounds needed by the cells are produced (such as DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis). (
  • Usually, catabolism releases energy, and anabolism consumes energy. (
  • By providing mammalian cells with both a convenient source and sink for three-carbon compounds, circulating lactate enables the uncoupling of carbohydrate-driven mitochondrial energy generation from glycolysis. (
  • The human body utilizes energy derived from food resources through a series of biochemical reactions involving several enzymes, co-factors (metals, non-metals, vitamins etc.) through the metabolic pathways (glycolysis, tri carboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport chain, etc.) in cellular system. (
  • This location is thought to be important for the integration of glycolysis with mitochondrial energy metabolism. (
  • Glycolysis is the process in which cells break glucose down into pyruvate, the first step in constructing the energy transfer molecule ATP. (
  • One of the main observations of the metabolism of cancer cells is that they display an enhanced rate of glycolysis during periods of fast growth. (
  • In the cytosol of the cell (for example a muscle cell), the glycerol will be converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, which is an intermediate in the glycolysis, to get further oxidized and produce energy. (
  • Certain pathophysiological contexts, such as hypertrophy and ischemia, drive metabolism toward glucose utilization, whereas in uncontrolled diabetes, the heart utilizes FAs almost exclusively. (
  • Alterations in activity or expression of nuclear receptors (PPARs and ERRs) and PGC-1α mediate these shifts in energy substrate utilization. (
  • 2009. Genomic reconstruction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 metabolism reveals a novel machinery for lactate utilization , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106(8):2874-2879. (
  • The present study examined the effect of 1-84 PTH and its amino-terminal fragment (1-34 PTH) on energy production, transfer, and utilization by skeletal muscle. (
  • Our data demonstrate that both 1-84 and 1-34 PTH impair energy production, transfer, and utilization. (
  • The regulation of energy intake and utilization at the cellular and organismic level is of profound importance to human health, and disrupted metabolic pathways contribute to cancer. (
  • This is an active area of biological research that includes the study of thousands of different cellular processes such as cellular respiration and the many other metabolic processes that can lead to production and utilization of energy in forms such as ATP molecules. (
  • Currently in development, the metabolism will begin with campus energy metrics of energy utilization index (EUI) and consumption totals by building in addition to hosting the competition. (
  • 3 One of the important comorbidities associated with ACLF in adults with Hepatitis B is the high rate of protein-energy malnutrition, which has been associated with alterations in nutrient utilization (increased fat and protein utilization and decreased carbohydrate utilization) in the fasted state. (
  • Nocturnal supplementation is recommended by both the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 10 and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism guidelines 11 to avoid increased utilization of lean body stores to meet energy needs in patients with liver cirrhosis in the fasted state. (
  • Nutrient Utilization in Humans: Metabolism Pathways. (
  • Anabolism requires energy that is provided by catabolic processes. (
  • This energy comes from the fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in food. (
  • If these were reversed, the organism would disassemble its own DNA and proteins for energy, a rather unfortunate strategy. (
  • B-vitamins aid in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. (
  • Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3: potential regulators of mitochondrial energy metabolism. (
  • Humans obtain energy from carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. (
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (
  • We describe a simple methodology for high-throughput multiparametric assessment of cell bioenergetics, called cell energy budget (CEB) platform, and demonstrate its practical use with cell models. (
  • A scientific field that focuses on energy production and flow though living cells and organisms is called bioenergetics. (
  • Bioenergetics is the subject of a field of biochemistry that concerns energy flow through living systems. (
  • Bioenergetics describes the metabolic pathways by which a cell obtains energy. (
  • This reconceptualization of lactate as a fuel-analogous to how Hans Christian Andersen's ugly duckling is actually a beautiful swan-has the potential to reshape the field of energy metabolism. (
  • Likewise, during periods of intense neural activity when energy demand exceeds glucose supply, astrocyte glycogen is degraded to lactate, a portion of which is transferred to axons for fuel. (
  • Nerve cells cover their high energy demand with glucose and lactate and a new report shows for the first time in the intact mouse brain evidence for an exchange of lactate between different brain cells. (
  • The supply of energy for nerve cells and the particular role of lactic acid (lactate) has been a matter of intense research for many years. (
  • Astrocytes produce lactate, which flows to neurons to cover their high energy needs. (
  • Nerve cells cover their high energy demand with glucose and lactate. (
  • BACKGROUND: In patients with traumatic brain injury as well as stroke, impaired cerebral oxidative energy metabolism may be an important factor contributing to the ultimate degree of tissue damage. (
  • Early mammalian development is crucially dependent on the establishment of oxidative energy metabolism within the trophectoderm (TE) lineage. (
  • However, molecular mechanisms that regulate establishment of oxidative energy metabolism in TE cells are incompletely understood. (
  • Loss of TEAD4 impairs recruitment of POLRMT, resulting in reduced expression of mtDNA-encoded electron transport chain components, thereby inhibiting oxidative energy metabolism. (
  • The energy for various functions of the human body comes from the nutrient molecules that have been metabolised. (
  • They break down the larger and complex molecules produced by the plants to utilize them as energy sources. (
  • In general, the energy to synthesize ATP molecules must be obtained from fuel molecules. (
  • The more collisions there are between molecules with sufficient energy and correct alignment, the faster the reaction takes place. (
  • At high temperatures molecules have more energy than at lower temperatures. (
  • Therefore collisions are more frequent and the likelihood of the molecules having enough energy is greater. (
  • The energy 'hump' shows how much energy reacting molecules must have for a 'successful' collision, i.e. one that leads to reaction. (
  • The formation of an activated complex requires energy to bring molecules together in the correct orientation. (
  • These basic molecules that make up the plant and animal matter we consume are the same ones our own cells need to repair themselves and to supply the energy they need to perform key functions. (
  • In addition to functioning as an energy source, SCFAs are also essential nutrients that act as signaling molecules. (
  • Members of our department use a combination of biochemical, genetic, and computational techniques to define key molecules and pathways that govern cellular and whole-body metabolism. (
  • This energy is stored in small molecules known as adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. (
  • A speeding bullet, a walking person, the rapid movement of molecules in the air (which produces heat), and electromagnetic radiation like light all have kinetic energy. (
  • In case of an increased quantity of cAMP molecules the energy metabolism will be stimulated. (
  • Conversely, a reduction in the cAMP molecules weakens the energy metabolism. (
  • This enzyme produces cAMP molecules from the cellular energy reservoir adenosyne triphosphate (ATP). (
  • The chemical energy in these molecules is transformed into thermal, kinetic, and other chemical forms. (
  • Digestion Following a meal, it is the first stage of carbohydrate metabolism which breaks down food molecules into smaller chemical units that can be utilised further by various cells. (
  • Since lipids are hydrophobic molecules, they need to be solubilized before their metabolism can begin. (
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (
  • The disruption of cells and the isolation of specific enzymes were important tools in discovering how cells break down sugar, most commonly glucose, and release chemical energy from the bonds between the atoms in the glucose molecule. (
  • Recent findings suggest that chemiosmotic coupling enzymes known from their use in methylotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens-in addition to unique terminal reductases-biochemically facilitate energy conservation during complete CH 4 oxidation to CO 2 . (
  • Thus, variation in energy metabolism may be caused largely by variation in transcript and/or protein levels of enzymes within the metabolic pathways. (
  • How enzymes regulate energy metabolism. (
  • Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable reactions that require energy that will not occur by themselves, by coupling them to spontaneous reactions that release energy. (
  • Lipids help our body make cell membranes ( phospholipid bilayers ), store energy, absorb fat-soluble vitamins, insulate neurons, and protect and support internal organs. (
  • SCFAs can be used for de novo synthesis of lipids and glucose, which are the main energy sources for the host ( 8 ). (
  • Loss of body lipids in freely fed sarcoma-bearing mice reflected a negative energy balance, accompanied with increased fat oxidation, while maintenance of body composition in pair-fed controls reflected a decreased metabolic rate. (
  • Metabolism is a general term for the sum of all the chemical reactions that make up these processes. (
  • Beginning in 1908, Otto Warburg (1883-1970) studied the use of oxygen in energy-releasing processes in cells, developing a number of techniques to carefully measure the uptake of this gas. (
  • Changes in bioenergetic parameters report on metabolic rearrangement, dysfunction of major pathways, and regulatory processes within the cell, adaptation to energy stress, or new physiological condition. (
  • We will first establish the concept of energy metabolism and subsequently examine biochemical processes involved in energy production as well as photosynthesis. (
  • It is expected that development of physiologically compatible nanoparticles controlling energy metabolic processes, immune functions may show new dimension in the pathophysiology linked with energy and immunity. (
  • This fact led to the notion that ageing and lifespan are processes regulated by energy metabolism rates and that elevating metabolism will be associated with premature mortality - the rate of living theory. (
  • Efficient physiological performance must require the coordinated functioning of these modules to process metabolites and create energy for the physiological processes that contribute to organismal fitness. (
  • An international research team led by Professor Clemens Steegborn, University of Bayreuth, currently detected a system of biochemical signals and processes interacting collectively in order to control the energy metabolic processes within cells. (
  • A key role for the energy metabolic processes within cells is assigned to cyclical Adenosine Monophosphate, in short: "cAMP", which is acting as messenger transmitting signals that are essential for a functioning metabolism. (
  • For the sake of analysis, one may think of energy metabolism and information metabolism as separate processes. (
  • These genomic regions are of special interest as they may coordinately regulate components of energy metabolism with effects on whole-organism physiological performance. (
  • Metabolism is defined the sum of all chemical reactions which occurs and are involved in sustaining life of a cell, and thus an organism. (
  • During the energy exchange, the organism strives to maintain its characteristic order (negentropy) and projects that order onto the surroundings. (
  • Information metabolism may be generally seen as the exchange of signals between the organism and its environment, but also as the processing of signals originating in the organism. (
  • The basal metabolic rate of an organism is the measure of the amount of energy consumed by all of these chemical reactions. (
  • Both in a preclinical model and in fruit flies, the absence of Tbx3 leads to a kind of identity crisis of satiety neurons, resulting in obesity," commented Alexandre Fisette, PhD, co-lead author of the researchers' published paper in Nature Metabolism and a senior postdoctoral fellow at Helmholtz Zentrum München. (
  • An international collaboration of researchers has discovered a new enzyme in a species of bacteria with potential environmental cleanup and energy roles. (
  • This advance in understanding of the microbe's metabolism will help researchers use the bugs to clean up toxic or radioactive pollutants. (
  • While multiple animal studies have been conducted to explore d-allulose's potential as an antidiabetic and antiobese sweetener, " no studies thus far have been done to see if and how d-allulose modifies energy metabolism in humans," ​ the researchers said. (
  • The researchers tracked 213 children with autism and found 17 per cent of them had consistently abnormal levels of the unique blood markers and evidence of abnormal cellular energy production. (
  • Core WNPRC staff associated with the EMCD Working Group are fully integrated into a new campus-wide program known as the Morgridge Institute Metabolism Initiative, which harnesses the expanding interest among campus researchers in the role of metabolism in disease. (
  • Officially part of the Morgridge Institute for Research, this initiative is being spearheaded by leading metabolism researchers across the University of Wisconsin-Madison campus and receives funds from the Department of Nutritional Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, the Cell and Molecular Biology Program, the School of Medicine and Public Health and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. (
  • The colloquium features local and invited lecturers and brings together metabolism researchers to share ideas, expertise and resources. (
  • Addressing the issue of scale in energy analysis by cutting through the confusion found in current applications of energy analysis, this book should be of interest to researchers, students and policy makers in energy within a variety of disciplines. (
  • A new research has found that how exactly the 24 hour circadian rhythm regulates energy metabolism in the body. (
  • The PPARGC1A protein is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism. (
  • PGC1a regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism in many tissues, and links these genetic programs to the external environment. (
  • Our studies identify a novel TEAD4-dependent molecular mechanism that regulates energy metabolism in the TE lineage to ensure mammalian development. (
  • While plants utilize energy from the sun in the photosynthetic process, animals and humans use the plants for food. (
  • Vertebrates (including humans) use both sources of fat to produce energy for organs such as the heart to function. (
  • In this review, the physiology of energy metabolism in muscle is described, followed by the presentation of distinct disorders affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle: glycogen storage diseases types III, V, VII, fatty acid oxidation defects, and respiratory chain defects (i.e., mitochondriopathies). (
  • Impaired energy metabolism in the brain is known to be tightly correlated with cognitive decline during aging and in subjects at high risk for developing neurodegenerative disorders," said Dr. Pasinetti. (
  • Consequently, such active ingredients could increase energy metabolism and contribute to successfully fighting metabolic disorders or, in addition, neuronal diseases. (
  • Cerebral energy metabolism during induced mitochondrial dysfunction. (
  • The study describes cerebral energy metabolism during mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sevoflurane in piglets. (
  • Clinical states with primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism are associated with muscle dysfunction, suggesting that parathyroid hormone (PTH) may affect muscle metabolism. (
  • The consequences of metabolic dysfunction in HF are poorly understood, but there is strong evidence that energy metabolism can effect contractile function and progressive left ventricular remodeling. (
  • It also indicates there was no genetic factor causing the abnormal energy metabolism, and suggests an environmental trigger such as the identified elevations in gut bacteria-derived propionic acid causes mitochondrial dysfunction in autistic children. (
  • item 5 GNC Women's Ultra Mega Energy & Metabolism Multivitamin (180 ct. (
  • In this review, we shall first describe the physiology of energy metabolism in muscle, and then deal with different myopathies caused by inborn errors of energy metabolism. (
  • Y.-G. Niu and R. D. Evans, "Metabolism of very-low-density lipoprotein and chylomicrons by streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat heart: effects of diabetes and lipoprotein preference," American Journal of Physiology , vol. 295, no. 5, pp. (
  • This program also supports studies that explore mathematical models contributing to the understanding of whole-body energy balance and metabolism as well as the metabolic pathways in cells, tissues, and organs. (
  • In this early phase, muscle relies on its own energy reserves, that is, muscle glycogen, and generates energy via anaerobic pathways. (
  • This review tried to focus the involvement of nanoparticles in metabolic pathways and its influence in the energy metabolism, a fundamental criteria for the survival and physiological activity of living beings. (
  • The mitochondrion serves a critical role as a platform for energy transduction, signaling, and cell death pathways relevant to common diseases of the myocardium such as heart failure. (
  • This review focuses on the molecular regulatory events and downstream effector pathways involved in mitochondrial energy metabolic derangements known to occur during the development of heart failure. (
  • Therefore, one should know all the metabolic pathways which control the energy conversion and regulation. (
  • The energy generation process runs through a number of different metabolic pathways of glucose oxidation and is divided into 4 main stages. (
  • The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, each step being facilitated by a specific enzyme. (
  • A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the basic metabolic pathways among vastly different species. (
  • ATP of adenosine triphosphate is the energy currency in most animal cells. (
  • It was also Warburg who began experiments on tissue slices, a technique that was later used in studies of energy use in liver and muscle cells. (
  • Zhdanov AV, Favre C, O'Flaherty L, Adam J, O'Connor R, Pollard PJ, Papkovsky DB (2011) Comparative bioenergetic assessment of transformed cells using a cell energy budget platform. (
  • Glucose, fatty acids, and, to a lesser extent, amino acids serve as energy substrates for skeletal muscle cells. (
  • The time of day determines the design of the mitochondrial network, and this, in turn, influences the cells' energy capacity," explains study leader Professor Anne Eckert from the University of Basel's Transfaculty Research Platform Molecular and Cognitive Neurosciences MCN. (
  • The scientists also showed that the mitochondrial network loses its rhythm if the circadian clock is impaired, which causes a decline in energy production in the cells. (
  • A multitasking plasma membrane protein coordinates cell division and energy metabolism in healthy-and perhaps also cancerous- Drosophila cells. (
  • Ultimately, carbohydrates give us glucose, which most of our body's cells need in order to create energy for themselves (with neurons and red blood cells being especially demanding). (
  • Cancer cells do not obtain their energy from the breakdown of sugar to carbon dioxide and water, but from energy-rich intermediates of sugar metabolism instead. (
  • Metabolic activities in normal cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to generate ATP for energy. (
  • Cellular metabolism requires that the cells must have oxygen, and the blood which circulates through your body must also contain sufficient levels of oxygen for life to be maintained. (
  • Cancer cells must adjust their metabolism accordingly to enable this frenzied growth. (
  • Cells require energy to absorb nutrients, to react to changes in their surroundings, to maintain their internal environment, grow and replicate. (
  • The very existence of living cells relies heavily on structural potential energy. (
  • Therefore, Herzig's team took a closer look at specific microRNAs in the liver cells of mice with dysfunctional energy metabolism. (
  • So in this blog I want to teach you a bit about where your energy comes from, how you can protect the little energy-making factories in your cells, and how you can get a metabolic tune-up. (
  • To do this, you use special "neuro-nutrients" to help your cells make more energy. (
  • The compensation mechanism described here contributes to the survival of Top1mt-/- cells and mice despite alterations of mitochondrial functions and metabolism. (
  • This makes it possible for tissues and cells to transform the chemical energy of digestive end products into useful work. (
  • Impaired activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism in the presence of glucose has been demonstrated in pancreatic beta-cells from patients with type 2 diabetes. (
  • Scientists from Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) in Japan have have discovered how nerve cells adjust to low energy environments during the brain's growth process. (
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (
  • The metabolism of cancer cells is different from the metabolism of normal cells, and these differences can be used to find targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. (
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (
  • The study of the reactions involved in providing energy for organisms resulted in some of the most important advances. (
  • Work in several model organisms suggests that there is a link between aging and energy metabolism. (
  • The apparent enzyme modularity of these organisms highlights how microbes can arrange their energy metabolisms to accommodate diverse chemical potentials in various ecological niches, even in the extreme case of utilizing "reverse" thermodynamic potentials. (
  • however, there are two sources of fats that organisms can use to obtain energy: from consumed dietary fats and from stored fat. (
  • Metabolism (/məˈtæbəlɪzəm/, from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. (
  • Glucocorticoid hormones such as the widely recognized hormone cortisol regulate numerous important functions in the body, including energy metabolism. (
  • Energy is obtained from breaking down nutrients through a process of metabolic reactions known as respiration. (
  • In this manner, the messenger cAMP acts as an enzyme controlled switch which strengthens or weakens the energy metabolism. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Enzyme metabolism" applicable to this article? (
  • The study is published in the journal Cell Metabolism and involved scientists from the University of Basel, University of Zurich and University Psychiatric Clinics Basel (UPK Basel). (
  • Houstĕk, J., Cannon, B. & Lindberg, O. Gylcerol-3-phosphate shuttle and its function in intermediary metabolism of hamster brown-adipose tissue. (
  • Studies investigating the mechanism by which interventions, including drugs, devices, and surgery, affect food consumption or food preferences, physical activity, body composition, or other aspects of energy regulation are also supported by this program. (
  • Generation of fat is an important mechanism for the body to store excess energy for future use. (
  • The free-radical theory of ageing provides a potential mechanism that links metabolism to ageing phenomena, since oxygen free radicals are formed as a by-product of oxidative phosphorylation. (
  • Based on our laboratory results, we can assume that this mechanism for controling energy metabolism basically operates in this fashion in all mammals", Steegborn declares. (
  • Catabolic reactions give out energy. (
  • About the first question, particular reactions can need or produce energy, althrough, they are in the catabolic or anabolic pathway, but the overall pathway will probably be always exergonic and endergonic in the case of catabolic or anabolic reactions, respectively. (
  • Estrogen replacement therapy regulation of energy metabolism in female mouse hypothalamus. (
  • Glucocorticoid hormones play an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism, but we haven't fully understood this role yet," says Professor Dr. Stephan Herzig, a metabolism expert who leads a joint research department between the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ), Heidelberg University and Heidelberg University Hospital. (
  • This confirms the hypothesis developed by the German Noble prizewinner Otto Warburg over 80 years ago, that an altered energy production in human metabolism is characteristic of cancer. (
  • Understanding healthy diet and the relationship between nutrition and metabolism in common marmosets. (
  • Basic and clinical studies related to energy balance and physiological mechanisms modulating weight gain, loss and maintenance. (
  • To elucidate the physiological basis of sex differences in responses to energy intake, we maintained groups of male and female rats for 6 months on diets with usual, reduced calories (20% and 40% CR), ADF, or elevated (high-fat/high-glucose) energy levels and measured multiple physiological variables related to reproduction, energy metabolism, and behavior (39). (
  • Cardiac energy substrate selection is a dynamic balance influenced by developmental, physiological, and pathological cues. (
  • In this review, we summarize the identification, structure, and activities of GPR43, with a focus on host energy regulation, and present an essential overview of our current understanding of its physiological roles in host energy regulation that is mediated by gut microbiota. (
  • Of all the nutrients used by the mammalian system, only glucose is able to satisfactorily maintain the metabolism of cerebral tissue. (
  • Previous studies, including work funded under this grant, have shown that the PGC1 coactivators are major regulators of energy metabolism in mammalian systems. (
  • Causal relationships will be explored between altered energy substrate metabolism and oxidative stress in HF. (
  • however functional impairment of skeletal and cardiac muscle in both children and adults may be caused by inborn errors of energy metabolism as well. (
  • Cardiac-specific knock-out of lipoprotein lipase alters plasma lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism and cardiac gene expression," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 279, no. 24, pp. 25050-25057, 2004. (
  • This translational research project uses sophisticated animal models of HF to evaluate novel mechanisms that link various aspects of cardiac metabolism to clinically relevant outcomes. (
  • This application will investigate fundamental questions about the pathophysiology of HF, and the effects of manipulating energy metabolism on cardiac function and HF progression. (
  • Mitochondrial metabolism appears critical to sustain cardiac function to counteract aging. (
  • Diabetes and excessive energy intake adversely affect multiple components of hippocampal plasticity. (
  • Exercise and dietary energy restriction counteract the adverse effects of diabetes on hippocampal plasticity. (
  • To investigate whether manipulations that enhance neurotrophin levels will also restore neuronal structure and function in diabetes, we examined the effects of wheel running and dietary energy restriction on hippocampal neuron morphology and BDNF levels in db/db mice, a model of insulin resistant diabetes (59). (
  • Finally, dysregulated energy metabolism in pathological conditions such as diabetes and cancer will be discussed. (
  • The gut microbiota affects nutrient acquisition and energy regulation of the host and can influence the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. (
  • Effect of parathyroid hormone on energy metabolism of skeletal muscle. (
  • Taken together, the data suggest that BRCA1 is important in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. (
  • Using further experimental techniques the team subsequently confirmed that Tbx3 played a pivotal role in maintaining energy and sugar metabolism, was critical for the differentiation of Pomc neurons during development, and also controlled the identity and plasticity of mature Pomc neurons. (
  • To investigate metabolism alterations after CA, which may be detected via changes in VCO2, VO2, and RQ. (
  • It contains key nutrients that safely and naturally work in your metabolism to help promote the normal function of thyroid hormone in your body. (
  • Energy is trapped in complex chemical compounds and in nutrients. (
  • In fact, the main purpose of food intake is supply of energy. (
  • Starch in carbohydrates is the major source of dietary glucose which is the main focal point of carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. (
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (
  • Physiologic medium rewires cellular metabolism and reveals uric acid as an endogenous inhibitor of UMP synthase. (
  • A waste product called carbon dioxide is formed during the cellular metabolism, and this product must be removed from the cell or the pH level of the cell can change. (
  • Chemical reactions that occur during metabolism are affected by temperature. (
  • Energy metabolism covers various biochemical ways of energy transformation and regulatory mechanisms of over thousands chemical reactions. (
  • Energy metabolism covers various biochemical ways of energy transformation and regulation of thousands of chemical reactions. (