The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The consumption of edible substances.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Glucose in blood.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Abstaining from all food.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in the treatment of motion sickness, vertigo, and nausea during pregnancy and radiation sickness.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in MITOCHONDRIA. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A drug used in the management of peripheral and cerebral vascular disorders. It is claimed to enhance cellular oxidative capacity and to be a spasmolytic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1310) It may also be an antagonist at 5HT-2 serotonin receptors.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.

Energy depletion differently affects membrane transport and intracellular metabolism of riboflavin taken up by isolated rat enterocytes. (1/13887)

Isolated rat enterocytes, both normal and those de-energized with rotenone, were used to study the energy dependence of membrane and intracellular intestinal riboflavin transport in vitro. Membrane and intracellular transport were investigated by using short (3 min) and long (20 min) incubation times, respectively. For both types of cells and incubation times, [3H]-riboflavin uptake presented a saturable component prevailing at physiologic intraluminal concentrations. At 3 min incubation, saturable [3H]-riboflavin transport was apparently an energy-independent process with high affinity and low capacity. Values of the saturable component and its apparent constants, Km and Jmax, did not differ in normal and de-energized enterocytes. At 20 min incubation, saturable [3H]-riboflavin transport was a strictly energy-dependent process in which values of the saturable component were significantly greater in normal than in de-energized enterocytes. Km values did not differ in the two types of cells and were unmodified over 3 min, whereas in normal enterocytes, Jmax at 20 min [6.25 +/- 0.2 pmol/(mg protein. 20 min)] was significantly greater than at 3 min [2.67 +/- 0.33 pmol/(mg protein. 3 min)] and compared with de-energized enterocytes at 20 min [2.54 +/- 0.16 pmol/(mg protein. 20 min)]. Both membrane and intracellular events were inhibited by unlabeled riboflavin and analogs, which are good substrates for flavokinase, thus demonstrating the paramount role of this enzyme in riboflavin intestinal transport.  (+info)

Energy cost of sport rock climbing in elite performers. (2/13887)

OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen uptake (VO2), blood lactate concentration ([La(b)]), and heart rate (HR) response during indoor and outdoor sport climbing. METHODS: Seven climbers aged 25 (SE 1) years, with a personal best ascent without preview or fall (on sight) ranging from 6b to 7a were assessed using an indoor vertical treadmill with artificial rock hand/foot holds and a discontinuous protocol with climbing velocity incremented until voluntary fatigue. On a separate occasion the subjects performed a 23.4 m outdoor rock climb graded 5c and taking 7 min 36 s (SE 33 s) to complete. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using a telemetry system and [La(b)] collected at rest and after climbing. RESULTS: Indoor climbing elicited a peak oxygen uptake (VO2climb-peak) and peak HR (HRpeak) of 43.8 (SE 2.2) ml/kg/min and 190 (SE 4) bpm, respectively and increased blood lactate concentration [La(b)] from 1.4 (0.1) to 10.2 (0.6) mmol/l (p < 0.05). During outdoor climbing VO2 and HR increased to about 75% and 83% of VO2climb-peak and HRpeak, respectively. [La(b)] increased from 1.3 (0.1) at rest to 4.5 mmol/l (p < 0.05) at 2 min 32 s (8 s) after completion of the climb. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that for elite climbers outdoor sport rock climbs of five to 10 minutes' duration and moderate difficulty require a significant portion of the VO2climb-peak. The higher HR and VO2 for outdoor climbing and the increased [La(b)] could be the result of repeated isometric contractions, particularly from the arm and forearm muscles.  (+info)

Cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations in horses competing in cross-country events. (3/13887)

The cardiovascular and metabolic response to two cross-country events (CC*: preliminary level and CC*** advanced level) were analysed in 8 male eventing horses (4 Anglo-Hunter and 4 Anglo-Arabian). This study focused on the establishment of the main metabolic pathways involved in the muscle energy resynthesis during the competitions. Heart rate (HR) was recorded throughout the CC events. Jugular venous blood samples were withdrawn before the warm-up period, immediately after the competitions and at 5 and 10 min in the recuperation period. The following haematological parameters were studied: red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cells (WBC), and number and percentages of lymphocytes (LYM) and granulocytes and monocytes (GRAN). One fraction of blood was centrifuged and, in plasma, lactate (LA), total plasma protein (TPP) and the rate of LA disappearance were determined. The competitions induced significant increases in RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV and TPP. Plasma LA response exceeded the anaerobic threshold of 4 mmol/l, reaching a maximum level of 13.3 mmol/l. HR ranged from 140 to more than 200 bpm, peaking at 230 bpm, revealing a limitation in the oxygen supply to the working muscles. It was concluded that muscle energy resynthesis during a CC event is provided both through oxidative processes and glycolysis with LA formation. Therefore, both stamina and power exercises are required for eventing horses.  (+info)

Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries. (4/13887)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wheelchair- and subject-related factors influence the efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair propulsion in ultralight and standard wheelchairs in people with different levels of spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four subjects (mean age=26.2 years, SD=7.14, range=17-50) with spinal cord injury resulting in motor loss (30 with tetraplegia and 44 with paraplegia) were studied. METHOD: Each subject propelled standard and ultralight wheelchairs around an outdoor track at self-selected speeds, while data were collected at 4 predetermined intervals. Speed, distance traveled, and oxygen cost (VO2 mL/kg/m) were compared by wheelchair, group, and over time, using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: In the ultralight wheelchair, speed and distance traveled were greater for both subjects with paraplegia and subjects with tetraplegia, whereas VO2 was less only for subjects with paraplegia. Subjects with paraplegia propelled faster and farther than did subjects with tetraplegia. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The ultralight wheelchair improved the efficiency of propulsion in the tested subjects. Subjects with tetraplegia, especially at the C6 level, are limited in their ability to propel a wheelchair.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (5/13887)

Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of ceramide for sphingomyelin synthesis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (6/13887)

LY-A strain is a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant resistant to sphingomyelin (SM)-directed cytolysin and has a defect in de novo SM synthesis. Metabolic labeling experiments with radioactive serine, sphingosine, and choline showed that LY-A cells were defective in synthesis of SM from these precursors, but not syntheses of ceramide (Cer), glycosphingolipids, or phosphatidylcholine, indicating a specific defect in the conversion of Cer to SM in LY-A cells. In vitro experiments showed that the specific defect of SM formation in LY-A cells was not due to alterations in enzymatic activities responsible for SM synthesis or degradation. When cells were treated with brefeldin A, which causes fusion of the Golgi apparatus with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), de novo SM synthesis in LY-A cells was restored to the wild-type level. Pulse-chase experiments with a fluorescent Cer analogue, N-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a, 4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-D-erythro-sphingosine (C5-DMB-Cer), revealed that in wild-type cells C5-DMB-Cer was redistributed from intracellular membranes to the Golgi apparatus in an intracellular ATP-dependent manner, and that LY-A cells were defective in the energy-dependent redistribution of C5-DMB-Cer. Under ATP-depleted conditions, conversion of C5-DMB-Cer to C5-DMB-SM and of [3H]sphingosine to [3H]SM in wild-type cells decreased to the levels in LY-A cells, which were not affected by ATP depletion. ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored or membrane-spanning proteins in LY-A cells appeared to be normal. These results indicate that the predominant pathway of ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of Cer for de novo SM synthesis is ATP dependent and that this pathway is almost completely impaired in LY-A cells. In addition, the specific defect of SM synthesis in LY-A cells suggests different pathways of Cer transport for glycosphingolipids versus SM synthesis.  (+info)

Expression of uncoupling protein-3 and mitochondrial activity in the transition from hypothyroid to hyperthyroid state in rat skeletal muscle. (7/13887)

We sought a correlation between rat skeletal muscle triiodothyronine (T3)-mediated regulation of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression and mitochondrial activity. UCP3 mRNA expression increased strongly during the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition. The rank order of mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration rates was hypothyroid < euthyroid < hyperthyroid. The State 4 increase may have been due to the increased UCP3 expression, as the proton leak kinetic was stimulated in the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition and a good correlation exists between the State 4 and UCP3 mRNA level. As a significant proportion of an organism's resting oxygen consumption is dedicated to opposing the proton leak, skeletal muscle mitochondrial UCP3 may mediate part of T3's effect on energy metabolism.  (+info)

Reduced cytosolic acidification during exercise suggests defective glycolytic activity in skeletal muscle of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy. An in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. (8/13887)

Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder due to mutations in the dystrophin gene, resulting in reduced size and/or content of dystrophin. The functional role of this subsarcolemma protein and the biochemical mechanisms leading to muscle necrosis in Becker muscular dystrophy are still unknown. In particular, the role of a bioenergetic deficit is still controversial. In this study, we used 31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31p-MRS) to investigate skeletal muscle mitochondrial and glycolytic ATP production in vivo in 14 Becker muscular dystrophy patients. Skeletal muscle glycogenolytic ATP production, measured during the first minute of exercise, was similar in patients and controls. On the other hand, during later phases of exercise, skeletal muscle in Becker muscular dystrophy patients was less acidic than in controls, the cytosolic pH at the end of exercise being significantly higher in Becker muscular dystrophy patients. The rate of proton efflux from muscle fibres of Becker muscular dystrophy patients was similar to that of controls, pointing to a deficit in glycolytic lactate production as a cause of higher end-exercise cytosolic pH in patients. The maximum rate of mitochondrial ATP production was similar in muscle of Becker muscular dystrophy patients and controls. The results of this in vivo 31P-MRS study are consistent with reduced glucose availability in dystrophin-deficient muscles.  (+info)

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

Examples of inborn errors of metabolism include:

1. Phenylketonuria (PKU): A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine, leading to a buildup of this substance in the blood and brain.
2. Hypothyroidism: A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, leading to developmental delays, intellectual disability, and other health problems.
3. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down certain amino acids, leading to a buildup of these substances in the blood and urine.
4. Glycogen storage diseases: A group of disorders that affect the body's ability to store and use glycogen, a form of carbohydrate energy.
5. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS): A group of disorders that affect the body's ability to produce and break down certain sugars, leading to a buildup of these substances in the body.
6. Citrullinemia: A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down the amino acid citrulline, leading to a buildup of this substance in the blood and urine.
7. Homocystinuria: A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down certain amino acids, leading to a buildup of these substances in the blood and urine.
8. Tyrosinemia: A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down the amino acid tyrosine, leading to a buildup of this substance in the blood and liver.

Inborn errors of metabolism can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood and urine tests. Treatment for these disorders varies depending on the specific condition and may include dietary changes, medication, and other therapies. Early detection and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, including:

1. Genetics: Insulin resistance can be inherited, and some people may be more prone to developing the condition based on their genetic makeup.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly around the abdominal area, can contribute to insulin resistance.
3. Physical inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle can lead to insulin resistance.
4. Poor diet: Consuming a diet high in refined carbohydrates and sugar can contribute to insulin resistance.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and some antipsychotic drugs, can increase insulin resistance.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause can lead to insulin resistance.
8. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can contribute to insulin resistance.
9. Chronic stress: Chronic stress can lead to insulin resistance.
10. Aging: Insulin resistance tends to increase with age, particularly after the age of 45.

There are several ways to diagnose insulin resistance, including:

1. Fasting blood sugar test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after an overnight fast.
2. Glucose tolerance test: This test measures the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels after consuming a sugary drink.
3. Insulin sensitivity test: This test measures the body's ability to respond to insulin.
4. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA): This is a mathematical formula that uses the results of a fasting glucose and insulin test to estimate insulin resistance.
5. Adiponectin test: This test measures the level of adiponectin, a protein produced by fat cells that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance.

There is no cure for insulin resistance, but it can be managed through lifestyle changes and medication. Lifestyle changes include:

1. Diet: A healthy diet that is low in processed carbohydrates and added sugars can help improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Exercise: Regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercise and strength training, can improve insulin sensitivity.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight, particularly around the abdominal area, can improve insulin sensitivity.
4. Stress management: Strategies to manage stress, such as meditation or yoga, can help improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Sleep: Getting adequate sleep is important for maintaining healthy insulin levels.

Medications that may be used to treat insulin resistance include:

1. Metformin: This is a commonly used medication to treat type 2 diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): These medications, such as pioglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the body's ability to use insulin.
3. Sulfonylureas: These medications stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, which can help improve insulin sensitivity.
4. DPP-4 inhibitors: These medications, such as sitagliptin, work by reducing the breakdown of the hormone incretin, which helps to increase insulin secretion and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. GLP-1 receptor agonists: These medications, such as exenatide, mimic the action of the hormone GLP-1 and help to improve insulin sensitivity.

It is important to note that these medications may have side effects, so it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. Additionally, lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can also be effective in improving insulin sensitivity and managing blood sugar levels.

These diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms such as fatigue, weight changes, and poor wound healing. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Brain hypoxia is a serious medical condition that requires prompt treatment to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients. Treatment options may include oxygen therapy, medications to improve blood flow to the brain, and surgery to remove any blockages or obstructions in blood vessels.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

Mitochondrial diseases can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender, and they can be caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or the nuclear DNA (nDNA). These mutations can be inherited from one's parents or acquired during embryonic development.

Some of the most common symptoms of mitochondrial diseases include:

1. Muscle weakness and wasting
2. Seizures
3. Cognitive impairment
4. Vision loss
5. Hearing loss
6. Heart problems
7. Neurological disorders
8. Gastrointestinal issues
9. Liver and kidney dysfunction

Some examples of mitochondrial diseases include:

1. MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes)
2. Kearns-Sayre syndrome (a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs)
3. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), which is characterized by weakness of the extraocular muscles and vision loss
4. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.
5. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
6. Leigh syndrome, which is a rare genetic disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord.
7. LHON (Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy), which is a rare form of vision loss that can lead to blindness in one or both eyes.
8. Mitochondrial DNA mutation, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.
9. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
10. Kearns-Sayre syndrome, which is a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs.

It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there are many more mitochondrial diseases and disorders that can affect individuals. Additionally, while these diseases are rare, they can have a significant impact on the quality of life of those affected and their families.

There are many different approaches to weight loss, and what works best for one person may not work for another. Some common strategies for weight loss include:

* Caloric restriction: Reducing daily caloric intake to create a calorie deficit that promotes weight loss.
* Portion control: Eating smaller amounts of food and avoiding overeating.
* Increased physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, such as walking, running, swimming, or weightlifting, to burn more calories and build muscle mass.
* Behavioral modifications: Changing habits and behaviors related to eating and exercise, such as keeping a food diary or enlisting the support of a weight loss buddy.

Weight loss can have numerous health benefits, including:

* Improved blood sugar control
* Reduced risk of heart disease and stroke
* Lowered blood pressure
* Improved joint health and reduced risk of osteoarthritis
* Improved sleep quality
* Boosted mood and reduced stress levels
* Increased energy levels

However, weight loss can also be challenging, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are not effective in the long term and can lead to nutrient deficiencies and other negative health consequences. Instead, it is important to focus on making sustainable lifestyle changes that can be maintained over time.

Some common misconceptions about weight loss include:

* All weight loss methods are effective for everyone.
* Weight loss should always be the primary goal of a fitness or health program.
* Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are a good way to lose weight quickly.
* Weight loss supplements and fad diets are a reliable way to achieve significant weight loss.

The most effective ways to lose weight and maintain weight loss include:

* Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is high in nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training.
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels.
* Aiming for a gradual weight loss of 1-2 pounds per week.
* Focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale.

It is important to remember that weight loss is not always linear and can vary from week to week. It is also important to be patient and consistent with your weight loss efforts, as it can take time to see significant results.

Overall, weight loss can be a challenging but rewarding process, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. By focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale, you can achieve a healthy weight and improve your overall quality of life.

Starvation is a condition where an individual's body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions and growth. It can be caused by a lack of access to food, poverty, poor nutrition, or other factors that prevent the intake of sufficient calories and essential nutrients. Starvation can lead to severe health consequences, including weight loss, weakness, fatigue, and even death.

Types of Starvation:

There are several types of starvation, each with different causes and effects. These include:

1. Acute starvation: This occurs when an individual suddenly stops eating or has a limited access to food for a short period of time.
2. Chronic starvation: This occurs when an individual consistently does not consume enough calories and nutrients over a longer period of time, leading to gradual weight loss and other health problems.
3. Malnutrition starvation: This occurs when an individual's diet is deficient in essential nutrients, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Marasmus: This is a severe form of starvation that occurs in children, characterized by extreme weight loss, weakness, and wasting of muscles and organs.
5. Kwashiorkor: This is a form of malnutrition caused by a diet lacking in protein, leading to edema, diarrhea, and other health problems.

Effects of Starvation on the Body:

Starvation can have severe effects on the body, including:

1. Weight loss: Starvation causes weight loss, which can lead to a decrease in muscle mass and a loss of essential nutrients.
2. Fatigue: Starvation can cause fatigue, weakness, and a lack of energy, making it difficult to perform daily activities.
3. Weakened immune system: Starvation can weaken the immune system, making an individual more susceptible to illnesses and infections.
4. Nutrient deficiencies: Starvation can lead to a deficiency of essential nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, which can cause a range of health problems.
5. Increased risk of disease: Starvation can increase the risk of diseases such as tuberculosis, pellagra, and other infections.
6. Mental health issues: Starvation can lead to mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and irritability.
7. Reproductive problems: Starvation can cause reproductive problems, including infertility and miscarriage.
8. Hair loss: Starvation can cause hair loss, which can be a sign of malnutrition.
9. Skin problems: Starvation can cause skin problems, such as dryness, irritation, and infections.
10. Increased risk of death: Starvation can lead to increased risk of death, especially in children and the elderly.

It is important to note that these effects can be reversed with proper nutrition and care. If you or someone you know is experiencing starvation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately.

There are two main types of fatty liver disease:

1. Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease in the United States.
2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is not caused by alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease worldwide. It is often associated with obesity, diabetes, and high cholesterol.

There are several risk factors for developing fatty liver disease, including:

* Obesity
* Physical inactivity
* High calorie intake
* Alcohol consumption
* Diabetes
* High cholesterol
* High triglycerides
* History of liver disease

Symptoms of fatty liver disease can include:

* Fatigue
* Abdominal discomfort
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abnormal liver function tests

Diagnosis of fatty liver disease is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

* Liver biopsy
* Imaging studies (ultrasound, CT or MRI scans)
* Blood tests (lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and liver function tests)

Treatment of fatty liver disease depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet can help improve the condition. In severe cases, medications such as antioxidants, fibric acids, and anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary.

Prevention of fatty liver disease includes:

* Maintaining a healthy weight
* Eating a balanced diet low in sugar and saturated fats
* Engaging in regular physical activity
* Limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high cholesterol.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Types of Nutrition Disorders:

1. Malnutrition: This occurs when the body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions. Malnutrition can be caused by a lack of access to healthy food, digestive problems, or other underlying health issues.
2. Obesity: This is a condition where excess body fat accumulates to the point that it negatively affects health. Obesity can increase the risk of various diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.
3. Anorexia Nervosa: This is an eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight or becoming obese. People with anorexia nervosa may restrict their food intake to an extreme degree, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Bulimia Nervosa: This is another eating disorder where individuals engage in binge eating followed by purging or other compensatory behaviors to rid the body of calories consumed. Bulimia nervosa can also lead to malnutrition and other health issues.
5. Diabetes Mellitus: This is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes, in particular, has been linked to poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity.
6. Cardiovascular Disease: Poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease and stroke.
7. Osteoporosis: A diet low in calcium and vitamin D can contribute to the development of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by brittle bones and an increased risk of fractures.
8. Gout: This is a type of arthritis caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood. A diet rich in purine-containing foods such as red meat, seafood, and certain grains can increase the risk of developing gout.
9. Dental Problems: Poor dietary habits, particularly a diet high in sugar, can contribute to dental problems such as cavities and gum disease.
10. Mental Health Disorders: Malnutrition and other health problems caused by poor dietary habits can also contribute to mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety.

In conclusion, poor dietary habits can have significant negative effects on an individual's overall health and well-being. It is essential to adopt healthy dietary habits such as consuming a balanced diet, limiting processed foods and sugars, and increasing physical activity to maintain good health and prevent chronic diseases.

Types of Lipid Metabolism Disorders:

1. Hyperlipidemia: Elevated levels of lipids in the blood, including cholesterol and triglycerides.
2. Hypolipidemia: Low levels of lipids in the blood.
3. Lipoprotein disorders: Abnormalities in the structure or function of lipoproteins, such as chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).
4. Cholesteryl ester storage disease: A rare genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the body, leading to progressive damage to the liver, heart, and other organs.
5. Familial dyslipidemia: Inherited disorders that affect the metabolism of lipids, such as familial hypercholesterolemia (elevated LDL levels) or familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (low HDL and LDL levels).
6. Glycogen storage disease type III: A rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, leading to the accumulation of fat in the liver and other organs.
7. Lipid-lowering drug therapy: The use of medications, such as statins, to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pediatric lipidemias: Lipid disorders that affect children and adolescents, such as familial hypercholesterolemia in children.
9. Pregnancy-related lipid metabolism disorders: Changes in lipid metabolism during pregnancy, which can lead to the development of gestational diabetes and other complications.
10. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS): A severe inflammatory lung disease that can cause abnormal lipid metabolism and fat accumulation in the lungs.
11. X-linked dystonia-Parkinsonism: A rare genetic disorder that affects the brain and nervous system, leading to movement disorders and other symptoms.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of lipid metabolism disorders that exist. Each type has its own set of symptoms, causes, and treatment options, and it is important to work with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for each individual case.

Types of Experimental Diabetes Mellitus include:

1. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of streptozotocin, a chemical that damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
2. Alloxan-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of alloxan, a chemical that also damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
3. Pancreatectomy-induced diabetes: In this type of EDM, the pancreas is surgically removed or damaged, leading to loss of insulin production and high blood sugar levels.

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus has several applications in research, including:

1. Testing new drugs and therapies for diabetes treatment: EDM allows researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments on blood sugar control and other physiological processes.
2. Studying the pathophysiology of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the progression of diabetes and its effects on various organs and tissues.
3. Investigating the role of genetics in diabetes: Researchers can use EDM to study the effects of genetic mutations on diabetes development and progression.
4. Evaluating the efficacy of new diagnostic techniques: EDM allows researchers to test new methods for diagnosing diabetes and monitoring blood sugar levels.
5. Investigating the complications of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the development of complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease.

In conclusion, Experimental Diabetes Mellitus is a valuable tool for researchers studying diabetes and its complications. The technique allows for precise control over blood sugar levels and has numerous applications in testing new treatments, studying the pathophysiology of diabetes, investigating the role of genetics, evaluating new diagnostic techniques, and investigating complications.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

Symptoms of Reye Syndrome can include:

* Headache
* Confusion
* Vomiting
* Seizures
* Loss of consciousness
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain

If you suspect that your child may have Reye Syndrome, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. The condition can be difficult to diagnose, as it can resemble other conditions such as meningitis or encephalitis. A healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis.

There is no specific treatment for Reye Syndrome, but the condition is usually managed with supportive care in a hospital setting. Treatment may include:

* Medication to control seizures
* Intravenous fluids and nutrition
* Monitoring of vital signs and liver function
* Antiviral medication in some cases

Reye Syndrome can be fatal if left untreated, so early diagnosis and aggressive management are crucial. The condition is rare, but it is important for parents and healthcare providers to be aware of the signs and symptoms in order to provide prompt and appropriate care.

These disorders can cause a range of symptoms including cognitive impairment, confusion, memory loss, seizures, and changes in behavior and mood. Treatment options for brain disease metabolic disorders vary depending on the specific condition and may include medication, lifestyle changes, and other interventions such as surgery or rehabilitation therapy.

Examples of brain diseases, metabolic include:

* Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
* Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar)
* Diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2)
* Metabolic stroke
* Traumatic brain injury
* Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.

It is important to note that while these conditions are considered metabolic disorders, they can also have a significant impact on other aspects of an individual's life, including their mood, behavior, and cognitive functioning. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

The term ischemia refers to the reduction of blood flow, and it is often used interchangeably with the term stroke. However, not all strokes are caused by ischemia, as some can be caused by other factors such as bleeding in the brain. Ischemic stroke accounts for about 87% of all strokes.

There are different types of brain ischemia, including:

1. Cerebral ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain and responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thought, emotion, and voluntary movement.
2. Cerebellar ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating and regulating movement, balance, and posture.
3. Brainstem ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the brainstem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
4. Territorial ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to a specific area of the brain, often caused by a blockage in a blood vessel.
5. Global ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the entire brain, which can be caused by a cardiac arrest or other systemic conditions.

The symptoms of brain ischemia can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Weakness or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
2. Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden vision loss or double vision
4. Dizziness or loss of balance
5. Confusion or difficulty with memory
6. Seizures
7. Slurred speech or inability to speak
8. Numbness or tingling sensations in the face, arm, or leg
9. Vision changes, such as blurred vision or loss of peripheral vision
10. Difficulty with coordination and balance.

It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms, as brain ischemia can cause permanent damage or death if left untreated.

There are several types of mitochondrial myopathies, each with different clinical features and inheritance patterns. Some of the most common forms include:

1. Kearns-Sayre syndrome: This is a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system, muscles, and other organs. It is characterized by weakness and paralysis, seizures, and vision loss.
2. MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes): This condition is characterized by recurring stroke-like episodes, seizures, muscle weakness, and cognitive decline.
3. MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers): This disorder is characterized by myoclonus (muscle jerks), seizures, and progressive muscle weakness.
4. LHON (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy): This condition affects the optic nerve and can lead to sudden vision loss.

The symptoms of mitochondrial myopathies can vary widely, depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the mutation. They may include muscle weakness, muscle cramps, muscle wasting, seizures, vision loss, and cognitive decline.

There is no cure for mitochondrial myopathies, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include physical therapy, medications to control seizures or muscle spasms, and nutritional supplements to support energy production. In some cases, a lung or heart-lung transplant may be necessary.

The diagnosis of a mitochondrial myopathy is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to measure the levels of certain enzymes and other molecules in the body, as well as muscle biopsy to examine the muscle tissue under a microscope. Genetic testing can help identify the specific mutation responsible for the condition.

The prognosis for mitochondrial myopathies varies depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the symptoms. Some forms of the disease are slowly progressive, while others may be more rapidly debilitating. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome.

There is currently no cure for mitochondrial myopathies, but research is ongoing to develop new treatments and therapies. In addition, there are several organizations and support groups that provide information and resources for individuals with these conditions and their families.

There are several types of acidosis, including:

1. Respiratory acidosis: This occurs when the lung's ability to remove carbon dioxide from the blood is impaired, leading to an increase in blood acidity.
2. Metabolic acidosis: This type of acidosis occurs when there is an excessive production of acid in the body due to factors such as diabetes, starvation, or kidney disease.
3. Mixed acidosis: This type of acidosis is a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis.
4. Severe acute respiratory acidosis (SARA): This is a life-threatening condition that occurs suddenly, usually due to a severe lung injury or aspiration of a corrosive substance.

The symptoms of acidosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

1. Fatigue
2. Weakness
3. Confusion
4. Headaches
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Abdominal pain
7. Difficulty breathing
8. Rapid heart rate
9. Muscle twitching

If left untreated, acidosis can lead to complications such as:

1. Kidney damage
2. Seizures
3. Coma
4. Heart arrhythmias
5. Respiratory failure

Treatment of acidosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:

1. Oxygen therapy
2. Medications to help regulate breathing and heart rate
3. Fluid and electrolyte replacement
4. Dietary changes
5. Surgery, in severe cases.

In conclusion, acidosis is a serious medical condition that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have acidosis. With prompt and appropriate treatment, it is possible to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.

In other words, pure autonomic failure refers to a situation where an individual experiences a decline in their autonomic nervous system's ability to regulate involuntary functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and body temperature, without any identifiable underlying cause. This can result in a range of symptoms, including fatigue, dizziness, lightheadedness, and difficulty maintaining balance.

Pure autonomic failure is rare and often presents challenges for diagnosis and treatment. It may be associated with other medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders or neurodegenerative diseases, but in some cases, the cause remains unknown. Treatment options are limited and may include medication, lifestyle modifications, and management of symptoms.

Some common examples of neurodegenerative diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive loss of cognitive function, memory, and thinking skills that is the most common form of dementia.
2. Parkinson's disease: A disorder that affects movement, balance, and coordination, causing tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with walking.
3. Huntington's disease: An inherited condition that causes progressive loss of cognitive, motor, and psychiatric functions.
4. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): A disease that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventually death.
5. Prion diseases: A group of rare and fatal disorders caused by misfolded proteins in the brain, leading to neurodegeneration and death.
6. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: A rare, degenerative, and fatal brain disorder caused by an abnormal form of a protein called a prion.
7. Frontotemporal dementia: A group of diseases that affect the front and temporal lobes of the brain, leading to changes in personality, behavior, and language.

Neurodegenerative diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, age, lifestyle, and environmental factors. They are typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment options for neurodegenerative diseases vary depending on the specific condition and its underlying causes, but may include medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes.

Preventing or slowing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases is a major focus of current research, with various potential therapeutic strategies being explored, such as:

1. Stem cell therapies: Using stem cells to replace damaged neurons and restore brain function.
2. Gene therapies: Replacing or editing genes that are linked to neurodegenerative diseases.
3. Small molecule therapies: Developing small molecules that can slow or prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.
4. Immunotherapies: Harnessing the immune system to combat neurodegenerative diseases.
5. Lifestyle interventions: Promoting healthy lifestyle choices, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet, to reduce the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases.

In conclusion, neurodegenerative diseases are a complex and diverse group of disorders that can have a profound impact on individuals and society. While there is currently no cure for these conditions, research is providing new insights into their causes and potential treatments. By continuing to invest in research and developing innovative therapeutic strategies, we can work towards improving the lives of those affected by neurodegenerative diseases and ultimately finding a cure.

... is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the breakdown or storage of fats for energy and ... Their function is to produce energy during periods of starvation or low food intake. "Overview of Lipid Metabolism". Merck ... ISBN 978-1-4557-4580-7. Arrese EL, Soulages JL (2010). "Insect fat body: energy, metabolism, and regulation". Annual Review of ... Since lipids are hydrophobic molecules, they need to be solubilized before their metabolism can begin. Lipid metabolism often ...
For the sake of analysis, one may think of energy metabolism and information metabolism as separate processes. Kępiński ... Information metabolism, sometimes referred to as informational metabolism or energetic-informational metabolism, is a ... Information metabolism is the other side of the same process, but it concerns the structural aspect (i.e. how matter and energy ... The energy metabolism concept is relatively easy to understand. The molecules of the body are continually replaced. Catabolic ...
"An upper limit on Gibbs energy dissipation governs cellular metabolism" (PDF). Nature Metabolism. 1 (1): 125-132. doi:10.1038/ ... Stream metabolism Metabolism Vazquez, Alexei (2017-10-27). Overflow Metabolism: From Yeast to Marathon Runners. Academic Press ... there is thought to be a trade-off between efficient energy capture through central metabolism (i.e. respiration) and fast ... than supporting fast growth with an incompletely oxidative metabolism (e.g. fermentation). Given that cells have limited energy ...
... is the means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and ... How the organism obtains energy for living and growing: phototrophic - energy is obtained from light chemotrophic - energy is ... Chemolithotrophy is a type of metabolism where energy is obtained from the oxidation of inorganic compounds. Most ... for sugar metabolism and the citric acid cycle to degrade acetate, producing energy in the form of ATP and reducing power in ...
Bartholomew, George A. (1982). "Energy Metabolism". In Gordon, Malcolm S. (ed.). Animal Physiology: Principles and Adaptations ... This reduction in metabolism allows it to conserve 30% of fat stores amassed from the previous day. Without using torpor the ... Daily torpor, on the other hand, is not seasonally dependent and can be an important part of energy conservation at any time of ... Slowing metabolic rate to conserve energy in times of insufficient resources is the primarily noted purpose of torpor. This ...
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Radiosynthesis is the theorized capture and metabolism, by living organisms, of energy from ionizing radiation, analogously to ... Metabolism of ionizing radiation was theorized as early as 1956 by the Russian microbiologist S. I. Kuznetsov. Beginning in the ... B2 US patent 8652827 B2, Dadachova, Ekaterina; Bryan, Ruth; Casadevall, Arturo, "Radiosynthesis as an alternative energy ...
Energy-yielding metabolism. In: Rose, A.H., Harrison, J.S. (Eds), The yeasts, vol. 2, 2nd ed. Academic Press, London, pp. 205. ... This, in turn, will dramatically reduce any need for active extrusion of protons and acid anions, thus saving a lot of energy. ... Aerobic sugar metabolism in the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii. FEMS Yeast Research 4, 277-283. Sousa-Dias, S., ... The slow fermentation of sucrose is directly related to fructose metabolism. According to Pitt and Hocking (1997), Z. bailii ...
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Siesjö, Bo K. (1978). Brain Energy Metabolism. New York: Wiley. p. 612. ISBN 978-0-471-99515-9. Rennie, Michael J. (2007). "An ... Energy is supplied to the brain in the form glucose and oxygen (which is transferred by hemoglobin). The blood supply is ... The genes expressed during wakefulness may perform numerous duties including energy allocation, synaptic excitatory ... consistently regulated so that areas of activation receive higher amounts of energy compared to areas that are less activated. ...
Scientists at the DDZ have recently contributed to a better understanding of the energy metabolism at NAFLD (AG Prof. Roden) ... "Research Group Energy Metabolism". Deutsches Diabetes-Zentrum (DDZ). Retrieved 2020-04-24. "Research Group Islet Cell Research ...
Kelly DP, Mason J, Wood A (1987). "Energy Metabolism in Chemolithotrophs". In van Verseveld HW, Duine JA (eds.). Microbial ... The freed energy is stored as potential energy in ATP, carbohydrates, or proteins. Eventually, the energy is used for life ... Chemoorganotrophs are organisms which use the chemical energy in organic compounds as their energy source and obtain electrons ... Phototrophs absorb light in photoreceptors and transform it into chemical energy. Chemotrophs release chemical energy. ...
Brand, M. D.; Couture, P.; Else, P. L.; Withers, K. W.; Hulbert, A. J. (1 April 1991). "Evolution of energy metabolism. Proton ...
... energy metabolism and obesity; and iron metabolism. In 2003 she was invited by the Belgian government to give expert evidence ... Geissler, C.A. Effects of weight loss, ephedrine, and aspirin on energy expenditure in obese women. Int. J. Obes. 17 (Suppl 1): ... Geissler, C.A., Brun, T.A., Mirbagheri, I., Soheli, A., Naghibi, A., Hedayat, H. The energy expenditure of female carpet ... Brun, T.A., Geissler, C.A., Mirbagheri, I., Hormozdiary, H., Bastani, J., Hedayat, H. The energy expenditure of Iranian ...
Jul 2003). "Energy contribution of octanoate to intact rat brain metabolism measured by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ... The brain typically gets most of its energy from oxygen-dependent metabolism of glucose (i.e., blood sugar), but ketones ... Oct 2010). "The contribution of blood lactate to brain energy metabolism in humans measured by dynamic 13C nuclear magnetic ... Soengas, JL; Aldegunde, M (2002). "Energy metabolism of fish brain". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 131 (3): 271- ...
Miki, K (2007). "Energy metabolism and sperm function". Society of Fertility Supplement. 65: 309-325. PMID 17644971. Scharf, I ... Also, if the amount of energy intake does not equal the energy expended, then this could be potentially fatal to the male. ... With all of these energy costs that go along with guarding a mate, timing is crucial so that the male can use the minimal ... There is a lot of energy that is expended when a male is guarding his mate. For instance, in polygynous mate-guarding systems, ...
Moreno-Sánchez R, Rodríguez-Enríquez S, Marín-Hernández A, Saavedra E (March 2007). "Energy metabolism in tumor cells". The ... When the energy needs of a cell are high, mitochondria grow and divide. When energy use is low, mitochondria are destroyed or ... Ivannikov MV, Macleod GT (June 2013). "Mitochondrial free Ca²⁺ levels and their effects on energy metabolism in Drosophila ... the concept of the phosphate bonds of ATP being a form of energy in cellular metabolism was developed by Fritz Albert Lipmann. ...
Brain metabolism normally relies upon blood glucose as an energy source, but during times of low glucose (such as fasting, ... ISBN 978-0-397-51820-3. Mrsulja, B.B. (2012). Pathophysiology of Cerebral Energy Metabolism. Springer Science & Business Media ... The energy consumption of the brain does not vary greatly over time, but active regions of the cortex consume somewhat more ... The brain consumes up to 20% of the energy used by the human body, more than any other organ. In humans, blood glucose is the ...
Garfinkel L, Altschuld R, Garfinkel D (1986). "Magnesium in cardiac energy metabolism". J Mol Cell Cardiol. 18 (10): 1003-13. ... The term "high energy" refers to the fact that it is high relative to the amount of energy released in the organic chemical ... The energy released in ATP hydrolysis, ATP4− + H2O → ADP3− + Pi− at ΔG ≈ {\displaystyle \approx } -36.8 kJ mol−1 is large by ... Previously, it was considered either as "molecular fossil" or as only a phosphorus and energy source providing the survival of ...
AMPD3 functions in energy metabolism. FAM200A has no known function. Based on expression data, there are several topics that ...
Powers, Melissa (4 December 2019). "Energy transition: reforming social metabolism". Research Handbook on Global Climate ... doi:10.1016/ ISSN 0360-5442. Dell'Anna, Federico (1 February 2021). "Green jobs and energy efficiency as ... of energy footprints and consume less than the top 5% in terms of trade-corrected energy. High-income individuals usually have ... some of the fossil fuels companies that freely invest into renewable energies to slowly transform into renewable energy ...
"Nutrients involved in energy metabolism". The Science of Nutrition. Pearson Education. pp. 292-321. ISBN 978-0-13-429880-1. ... Higher energy costs affect these costs, especially transportation. The increase in food prices the consumer has been seeing is ... This can require large amounts of energy in the form of combustible gases (propane or natural gas) and electricity to power the ... In 2005, the US National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) formed a ...
Garfinkel, L.; Altschuld, R.; Garfinkel, D. (1986). "Magnesium in cardiac energy metabolism". J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 18 (10): ... It was proposed to be the intermediary between energy-yielding and energy-requiring reactions in cells by Fritz Albert Lipmann ... The energy used by human cells in an adult requires the hydrolysis of 100 to 150 mol/L of ATP daily, which means a human will ... Fermentation is the metabolism of organic compounds in the absence of air. It involves substrate-level phosphorylation in the ...
This supports muscle energy metabolism. Enhanced growth and elevated photosynthetic amino acid is associated with plastidial ... "Adenylate kinase 1 deficiency induces molecular and structural adaptations to support muscle energy metabolism". The Journal of ... adenylate kinase is an important regulator of energy expenditure at the cellular level. As energy levels change under different ... In essence, adenylate kinase shuttles ATP to sites of high energy consumption and removes the AMP generated over the course of ...
Lam, Yan Y. (November 2016). "Analysis of energy metabolism in humans: A review of methodologies". Molecular Metabolism. 5 (11 ... Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy per unit of ... Studies of energy metabolism using both methods provide convincing evidence for the validity of the respiratory quotient (RQ), ... Endergonic reactions require energy and include anabolic reactions and the contraction of muscle. Metabolism is the total of ...
The metabolism of cortisol to cortisone involves oxidation of the hydroxyl group at the 11-beta position. 11-beta HSD1 uses the ... Thus, a negative net energy balance leads to activation of the HPA axis and the circulating concomitants of the catabolic state ... Endocrinology and Metabolism. 301 (1): E11-24. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00100.2011. PMC 3275156. PMID 21540450. Hoehn K, Marieb EN ( ... Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 27 (6): 795-801. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2013.10.008. PMID 24275191. Dolomie-Fagour L, Corcuff ...
Energy accounting Industrial ecology Material flow accounting Material flow analysis Information metabolism Social metabolism ... Industrial metabolism is a concept to describe the material and energy turnover of industrial systems. It was proposed by ... Industrial metabolism: Theory and policy. In: Ayres, R.U., Simonis, U.K. (Eds.), Industrial Metabolism: Restructuring for ... Industrial metabolism is a subsystem of the anthropogenic or socioeconomic metabolism, which also comprises non-industrial ...
"Serotonin and the orchestration of energy balance". Cell Metabolism (Review). 6 (5): 352-61. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2007.09.012. ... Sutton, AK; Myers MG, Jr; Olson, DP (2016). "The Role of PVH Circuits in Leptin Action and Energy Balance". Annual Review of ... Much of what is known about brain control's of overall energy balance and fat storage stem from the discoveries about the ... This system is a principal nexus of body weight regulation through its role in appetite and energy expenditure via leptin, ...
3. Nitrogen, Electrolytes, Water and Energy Metabolism. Basel-Munchen-Paris-London-New York- Sydney: S.Karger, 1979. 260 pp. ... In his research, he initially specialized in amino acid metabolism, including the utilization of D-amino acids and non specific ...
Wada T, Gao J, Xie W (Aug 2009). "PXR and CAR in energy metabolism". Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism. 20 (6): 273-9. doi ... CAR is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, and is a key regulator of xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. Unlike ... CAR-regulated genes are involved in drug metabolism and bilirubin clearance. Examples for CAR-regulated genes are members of ... In response, expression of proteins responsible for the metabolism and excretion of these substances is upregulated. Hence, CAR ...
... but prefers to utilize the alternate energy source: fructose. The metabolism of sugars may play an important role in the ...
Implications for stream metabolism and nutrient cycling". Hydrobiologia. 111 (3): 219-228. doi:10.1007/BF00007202. ISSN 1573- ... provides an important contribution to the attenuation of contaminants dissolved in the channel water and to the cycle of energy ...
There must be an energy balance between the peptide new order and hydrogen bond formation in the loop, between the loop and the ... Traut TW, Jones ME (1996). Uracil metabolism--UMP synthesis from orotic acid or uridine and conversion of uracil to beta- ... an energy-carrying molecule in many important biosynthetic pathways. In humans, the gene that codes for this enzyme is located ... Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism in Man VI. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 253A. pp. 511-8. doi:10.1007/ ...
... since the baby will pass more stool and the milk provides energy to the liver to allow metabolism of bilirubin. Uncontrolled ... Phototherapy uses photons of energy that are infused and absorbed by bilirubin located in superficial capillaries and ...
... functions to conserve energy when sufficient food is not available. To achieve this energy saving, an endothermic ... Lundberg, D. A.; Nelson, R. A.; Wahner, H. W.; Jones, J. D. (1976). "Protein metabolism in the black bear before and during ... Larger species become hyperphagic, eating a large amount of food and storing the energy in fat deposits. In many small species ... Humphries, M. M.; Thomas, D.W.; Kramer, D.L. (2003). "The role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation: A cost-benefit ...
The brain is not able to switch to anaerobic metabolism and, because it does not have any long term energy stored, the levels ... Ischemia leads to alterations in brain metabolism, reduction in metabolic rates, and energy crisis. There are two types of ... During brain ischemia, the brain cannot perform aerobic metabolism due to the loss of oxygen and substrate. ... In the absence of biochemical energy, cells begin to lose the ability to maintain electrochemical gradients. Consequently, ...
Though it is an obligate aerobe, it is able to survive in low-oxygen conditions by utilizing light energy. H. salinarum express ... "A transcription factor links growth rate and metabolism in the hypersaline adapted archaeon Halobacterium salinarum". Molecular ... The proton gradient formed thereby can then be used to generate chemical energy via ATP synthase. To obtain more oxygen, H. ... Amino acids are the main source of chemical energy for H. salinarum, particularly arginine and aspartate, though they are able ...
The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of the energy in food to energy available to run cellular processes; ... catabolism releases energy, and anabolism consumes energy. The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic ... Metabolism Look up metabolism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Metabolism. General ... Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle ( ...
... basic to metabolism.": 1230-1231 The units in energy flow webs are typically a measure mass or energy per m2 per unit time. ... Autotrophs produce more biomass energy, either chemically without the sun's energy or by capturing the sun's energy in ... Energy pyramids, however, will always have an upright pyramid shape if all sources of food energy are included and this is ... The transfer of energy from primary producers to top consumers can also be characterized by energy flow diagrams. A common ...
A20 from Costa Rica and Comparative Analyses of the Putative Pathways of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Various ... Sulfolobales are metabolically dependent on sulfur: heterotrophic or autotrophic, their energy comes from the oxidation of ...
It damages the intestines, bladder, and other organs and can lead to anemia and protein-energy deficiency. Along with malaria, ... HIV infection can affect the production of hormones that interfere with the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In ... Similarly, malnutrition of both macronutrients (such as protein and energy) and micronutrients (such as iron, zinc, and ...
As topical fluoride lowers the pH, bacteria have to consume more energy to maintain a neutral environment, leaving less energy ... These processes contribute to reducing the risk of dental caries by inhibiting microbial metabolism in the tooth plaque. ... Hydrogen fluoride subsequently acidifies the bacterial cytoplasm, inactivating the essential enzymes for bacterial metabolism, ... the inhibition of the cariogenic microbial metabolism in dental plaque and the increase of tooth resistance to acid dissolution ...
However, the energy discharge from the Decimation caused their vault to open early. Sabretooth also reveals that he was hired ... identifying any person or object they might have touched and recognizing subtle shifts in their body chemistry or metabolism, ... He possesses magma powers that are fueled by the energy he gets from his surroundings. He has been killed by Iceman. Cadena ( ... Aguja (Needle): She possesses powers that include the projection of energy blasts and force fields. During the battle against ...
With respect to specific types of chemical damage caused by metabolism, it is suggested that damage to long-lived biopolymers, ... Lipid peroxidation of the inner mitochondrial membrane reduces the electric potential and the ability to generate energy. It is ... de Magalhães JP, Costa J, Church GM (February 2007). "An analysis of the relationship between metabolism, developmental ... a fast metabolism may reduce lifespan, in general this theory does not adequately explain the differences in lifespan either ...
The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase enzyme is active (i.e. it uses energy from ATP). For every ATP molecule that the pump uses, three sodium ions ... Lynch RM, Paul RJ (March 1987). "Compartmentation of carbohydrate metabolism in vascular smooth muscle". The American Journal ... For neurons, the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase can be responsible for up to 3/4 of the cell's energy expenditure. In many types of tissue, ATP ... ISBN 978-0-470-57095-1. Howarth C, Gleeson P, Attwell D (July 2012). "Updated energy budgets for neural computation in the ...
... which may have an effect on organism metabolism and/or fitness. Mutations of mitochondrial DNA can lead to a number of ... cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, such as ... apparently to enhance the synthesis of mitochondrial proteins necessary for energy production. Interestingly, while the ...
Oxidative/Energy Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Disorders (with Fletcher H. McDowell, 1999, New York Academy of Sciences, ISBN ... where he described the first hereditary defect in a major enzyme of human oxidative/energy metabolism, pyruvate dehydrogenase ... Blass's research has concentrated on brain metabolism and metabolic diseases of the brain, particularly diseases affecting the ... in particular relating to brain metabolism. He holds patents based on decades of scientific research, including a ...
Cells utilize product inhibition to regulate of metabolism as a form of negative feedback controlling metabolic pathways. ... Renewable Energy. 131: 261-267. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2018.07.030. (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short description, ...
... so that the activation energy is roughly 80 kJ/mol (20 kcal/mol). However, the activation energy can be lowered (and the ... PMID 14988435.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Meister A. (November 1988). "Glutathione metabolism ... The formation of the peptide bond consumes energy, which, in organisms, is derived from ATP. Peptides and proteins are chains ... Both of these mechanisms for lowering the activation energy have been observed in peptidyl prolyl isomerases (PPIases), which ...
... lipids and proteins into smaller components to provide energy for the body. Disorders that store this intracellular material ... as they relate to sphingolipid metabolism. Members of this group include Niemann-Pick disease, Fabry disease, Krabbe disease, ...
"Heme metabolism in macrophages". eClinpath. Archived from the original on 2018-05-17. Retrieved 2019-05-05. "Bilirubin and ... sensitive early indicator of liver diseases as the liver may have reserved its capacity in removal of bilirubin to save energy ... Drugs that inhibit the activities of the components involved in bilirubin metabolism can give rise to accumulation of bilirubin ... Sanjiv Chopra; Elizabeth B Rand; Shilpa Grover (eds.). "Bilirubin metabolism". UpToDate. Archived from the original on 2017-10- ...
Luo Y, Ge M, Wang B, Sun C, Wang J, Dong Y, Xi JJ (2002). "Aspects of the metabolism of hydrogen production by Rhodobacter ... Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a kind of purple bacterium; a group of bacteria that can obtain energy through photosynthesis. Its ... Tao Y, Liu D, Yan X, Zhou Z, Lee JK, Yang C (2012). "Network Identification and Flux Quantification of Glucose Metabolism in ... Synthetic biology-driven engineering of the metabolism of R. sphaeroides, in combination to the functional replacement the MEP ...
doi:10.1146/ Jensen, Paul D.; Basson, Lauren; Hellawell, Emma E.; Bailey, Malcolm R.; Leach, Matthew ( ... Eco-industrial park Industrial ecology Industrial metabolism Waste valorization Lombardi, D. Rachel; Laybourn, Peter (February ... IS systems such as the web of materials and energy exchanges among companies in Kalundborg, Denmark have spontaneously evolved ... Industrial symbiosis is a subset of industrial ecology, with a particular focus on material and energy exchange. Industrial ...
Individuals with SPCD cannot produce ketone bodies as energy due to the interruption of fatty acid oxidation. Although SPCD is ... Carnitine is an important amino acid for fatty acid metabolism. When carnitine cannot be transported into tissues, fatty acid ... Decreased levels of plasma carnitine inhibit fatty acid oxidation during times of excessive energy demand. Carnitine is needed ... Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 100 (1): 46-50. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.12.015. PMID 20074989. "Faroe Islands Ministry of ...
... is involved in energy homeostasis. In mice, PM20D1 is highly expressed and secreted into the blood by brown fat. Its ... July 2018). "N-acyl amino acid control of metabolism and nociception". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... August 2017). "Long-Term Cold Adaptation Does Not Require FGF21 or UCP1". Cell Metabolism. 26 (2): 437-446.e5. doi:10.1016/j. ... Consequently PM20D1 is involved in the generation of potent bioactive lipid metabolites from two abundant cellular energy ...
According to the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office: "A method and system to capture kinetic energy of the sea waves and convert it ... Her first assignment being as a project officer at the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism and Digestive Diseases of ... "Puerto Rican Inventor Develops Hydroelectric Wave-Energy Conversion System"; US Fed News Service; May 1, 2008 "Puerto Rican ... Hydroelectric Wave-Energy Conversion System Jorge Negrón Crespo of San Juan, Puerto Rico, has invented a hydroelectric wave- ...
Levy, H. L. (2016). "The remarkable S. Harvey Mudd - A reminiscence". Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 118 (3): 143-144. doi: ... Mudd, Stuart; Yoshida, Akira; Koike, Masaatsu (1958). "Polyphosphate as Accumulator of Phosphorus and Energy". Journal of ...
He suggested that g reflected individual differences in "mental energy", and hoped that future research would uncover the ... rate of brain glucose metabolism, and general health. The book puts the broad-sense heritability of g at .40 to .50 in children ... biological basis of this energy. The book argues that because it is difficult to arrive at a consensual scientific definition ...
... s inhibit NADH dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in energy metabolism. Li, N.; Shi, Z.; Tang, Y.; Chen, J.; Li, X. (2008 ...
... to repress pyruvate metabolism in mitochondria. Under energy stress conditions, PGK1 phosphorylates Beclin1 to regulate ... Lu's research focuses on cancer metabolism and made contributions to the cancer metabolism filed by discoveries of the protein ... His research interests include cancer metabolism, tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Lu is a fellow of American Association ... Cell Metabolism. 33 (1): 33-50. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2020.12.015. PMID 33406403. S2CID 230814282 - via PubMed. Yang, Weiwei; Xia ...
Energy Balance, and Obesity program supports basic and clinical studies related to energy balance and physiological mechanisms ... and behaviors that lead to changes in energy balance, t ... The Metabolism, Energy Balance, and Obesity program supports ... Metabolism, Energy Balance & Obesity. Basic and clinical studies related to energy balance and physiological mechanisms ... Padma Maruvada, Ph.D. Nutrient Metabolism; Clinical Obesity and Nutrition * Corinne M. Silva, Ph.D. The role of circadian ...
Detailed quantitative studies were performed on the generation and utilization of energy by resting and phagocytosing human ...
Efficiency of Energy Metabolism in Thoroughbred Horses polymorphic for Myostatin. *Efficiency of Energy Metabolism in Cattle ... Porters research focuses on understanding mammalian energy metabolism. His research achievements are based ideas founded in ...
... kinases that coordinate metabolism with cell growth. Deletion of the Lkb1 (also call … ... Lkb1 regulates cell cycle and energy metabolism in haematopoietic stem cells Nature. 2010 Dec 2;468(7324):653-8. doi: 10.1038/ ... kinases that coordinate metabolism with cell growth. Deletion of the Lkb1 (also called Stk11) gene in mice caused increased ...
However, the impact of influenza infection on white adipose tissue (WAT), a key tissue in the control of systemic energy ... Here, we show that influenza infection induces alterations in whole-body glucose metabolism that persist long after the virus ... report that mice infected with influenza A virus show persistent altered glucose metabolism. They find that infection is ... metabolism and immunity, may play in influenza infection. Asma Ayari et al. ...
... the iCAN Digital Precision Cancer Medicine Flagship and just off the press in Gastroenterology reveals how energy metabolism ... Connecting energy metabolism to intestinal stem cell fate A new study from the iCAN Digital Precision Cancer Medicine Flagship ... The results reveal that stem cell intrinsic energy metabolism controls intestinal stem cell fate. ... The intestinal stem cells use cellular respiration for energy and produce progeny leading to all the six differentiated cell ...
Energy and protein requirements : report of a Joint FAO/WHO ad hoc expert committee [‎meeting held in Rome from 22 March to 2 ... Joint FAO/WHO Ad Hoc Expert Committee on Energy and Protein Requirements; World Health Organization; Food and Agriculture ... Joint FAO/WHO Ad Hoc Expert Committee on Energy and Protein Requirements; World Health Organization; Food and Agriculture ... Joint FAO/WHO Ad Hoc Expert Committee on Energy and Protein Requirements; World Health Organization; Food and Agriculture ...
Cardiac Energy Metabolism in Heart Failure. Grant Number: 7P01HL074237-10 PI Name: Stanley. Project Title: Cardiac Energy ... The consequences of metabolic dysfunction in HF are poorly understood, but there is strong evidence that energy metabolism can ... and the effects of manipulating energy metabolism on cardiac function and HF progression. This Program Project is composed of ... Causal relationships will be explored between altered energy substrate metabolism and oxidative stress in HF. Project 4: " ...
Metabolism. Metabolism: The set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living organisms to sustain life. ... There are 2 types or parts of metabolism. *Catabolism- the chemical breakdown of organic matter. Seen in cellular respiration. ... There are some parts of metabolism that dont fit in any category. ...
All the latest news about energy metabolism from Medical Xpress ... News tagged with energy metabolism. * Date 6 hours 12 hours 1 ... Scientists identify protein crucial to tumor cells metabolism and immune evasion. Tumor cells typically alter their energy ... In addition to their role in energy metabolism, mitochondria play important roles in other cellular processes, such as ... Changes in how the heart produces energy may be the earliest signal of cardiac deterioration. Heart failure is often identified ...
SIRT1 and energy metabolism Xiaoling Li. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2013 Jan. ... This review focuses on the role of SIRT1 in regulating energy metabolism at different metabolic tissues. ... thereby modulating a variety of cellular processes such as energy metabolism and stress response. Recent studies have shown ... Sirtuin 1 in lipid metabolism and obesity. Schug TT, Li X. Schug TT, et al. Ann Med. 2011 May;43(3):198-211. doi: 10.3109/ ...
Mammalian sirtuins and energy metabolism Xiaoling Li et al. Int J Biol Sci. 2011. ... Recent studies have shed light on the critical roles of sirtuins in mammalian energy metabolism in response to nutrient signals ... The diverse functions of SIRT1 in central nutrient sensing and peripheral energy metabolism. The activity of SIRT1 is regulated ... Mitochondrial sirtuins in the center of mitochondrial energy metabolism and anti-oxidative stress response. Mitochondria are ...
Project Title: Molecular Control of Brown Adipose Cell Fate and Energy Metabolism. Abstract: This application is an ... Grant Abstract: Molecular Control of Brown Adipose Cell Fate and Energy Metabolism. ... "Molecular Control of Brown Adipose Cell Fate and Energy Metabolism" which focuses on the role of a newly identified non- ... in the regulation of energy expenditure and glucose metabolism. During studies examining the mechanisms of Ca2+ cycling ...
Metabolic syndrome and diabetes are pandemic in modern society. Humans with increased and elevated body burden of certain lipophilic xenobiotics such as dioxins are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. These anthropogenic substances exert their effects through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Preliminary data present a compelling argument that disruption of circadian rhythmicity, particularly desynchronization of the central clock from those in metabolically important organs, occurs subsequent to long-term AhR activation. Metabolic syndrome develops in mice that have a disrupted circadian clock, and diabetic mice display marked alterations in circadian rhythms. Chronic AhR activation causes a similar disruption in rhythms in liver and adipose tissue. This proposal thus seeks to link the development of metabolic syndrome in response to long-term AhR activation to circadian clock disruption. Because many AhR agonists accumulate in fat, this proposal focuses ...
Beyond brain energy rescue, this opens additional opportunities for therapeutic exploration of D-BHB supplements as a super ... Beyond brain energy rescue, this opens additional opportunities for therapeutic exploration of D-BHB supplements as a ... There is growing interest in the metabolism of ketones owing to their reported benefits in neurological and more recently in ... There is growing interest in the metabolism of ketones owing to their reported benefits in neurological and more recently in ...
Here are a few tips and what Ive find out about energy and when you eat. ... why should you be concerned about getting more energy as you age? ... Getting More Energy As You Age. Getting more energy as you age seems to be something that people start to be concerned about ... How to get more energy. So, if youre wondering how to get more energy, the first place to look is your lifestyle choices. For ...
Measuring energy metabolism in cultured cells, including human pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells.. Journal: Nat ... Home › About CIRM › Our Publications › Grantee publications › Measuring energy metabolism in cultured cells, including human ... Measurements of glycolysis and mitochondrial function are required to quantify energy metabolism in a wide variety of cellular ... Here we provide protocols for analyzing energy metabolism in hPSCs and their early differentiated progenies that are generally ...
Here, we elucidate a transcellular signaling mechanism by which oligodendrocytes support axonal energy metabolism via ... The role of myelin and oligodendrocytes in axonal energy metabolism. Saab AS, Tzvetanova ID, Nave KA. Saab AS, et al. Curr Opin ... Oligodendrocyte-derived transcellular signaling regulates axonal energy metabolism. Li S, Sheng ZH. Li S, et al. Curr Opin ... Oligodendrocytes enhance axonal energy metabolism by deacetylation of mitochondrial proteins through transcellular delivery of ...
... promotes cell death yet also controls mitochondrial homeostasis and energy metabolism. It is unclear how these activities are ... MicroRNAs as Regulators of Cancer Cell Energy Metabolism. Suriya Muthukumaran N, Velusamy P, Akino Mercy CS, Langford D, ... Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) promotes cell death yet also controls mitochondrial homeostasis and energy metabolism. It is ... The enzymatic activity of apoptosis-inducing factor supports energy metabolism benefiting the growth and invasiveness of ...
6.1: The Flow of Energy in Living Systems. *6.1A: The Role of Energy and Metabolism ... 6: Energy and Metabolism is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts. ... 6.5: Metabolism- The Chemical Description of Cell Function. All living things must have an unceasing supply of energy and ... The transformation of this energy and matter within the body is called metabolism.. ...
There is increasing evidence that essential components of myocardial energy metabolism are among the highly sensitive and early ... with an emphasis on the emerging importance of defects in energy-transferring and -signalling systems, like creatine kinase and ... Alterations in myocardial energy metabolism induced by the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin.. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 2006, 329 ( ... Alterations in myocardial energy metabolism induced by the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin.. ...
... the present study analyzes the contribution of NaHCO3 to energy metabolism during exercise. Following a search through five ... were performed using a random-effects model to determine the effects of NaHCO3 supplementation on energy metabolism. Subgroup ... This meta-analysis has found that the anaerobic metabolism system (AnMS), especially the glycolytic but not the oxidative ... 1 body mass of NaHCO3 90 min before the exercise in which energy is supplied by the glycolytic system. ...
Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) promotes cell death yet also controls mitochondrial homeostasis and energy metabolism. It is ... The enzymatic activity of apoptosis-inducing factor supports energy metabolism benefiting the growth and invasiveness of ... The enzymatic activity of apoptosis-inducing factor supports energy metabolism benefiting the growth and invasiveness of ... studies show that AIF is an important factor for advanced prostate cancer cells and that through control of energy metabolism ...
... Americans Are Still Eating Too Much Added Sugar, Fat Posted on October 1st, 2019. by Dr. Francis Collins ... Tags: 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, aging, carbohydrates, diet, dietary guidelines, eating, energy metabolism, ... The same is true for studies of energy metabolism, genetic variation influencing our dietary preferences, and the effects of ...
The ability to do work and to change or move matter is called energy. ... Other forms of energy include heat, light, electrical energy,mechani-cal energy, and sound.. ... The cells then transfer about 40% of the released energy to special energy-- carrying molecules. The remaining energy escapes ... Chemical Energy. The ability to do work and to change or move matter is called energy. Most metabolic processes use chemical ...
Home,The Research,,Intermediate and energy metabolism of trypanosomes (iMET). Intermediate and energy metabolism of ... brucei have become the favourite models to study metabolism and other processes shared with other trypanosomatid species. ...
Metabolism DAY. $19.95 Metabolism DAY Description This all natural energy & metabolism boosting formula supports the body at ... Metabolism NITE. $30 Truthentics METABOLISM NITE Energy and Rejuvenation Formula is an amino acid rich complex, designed to ... to better absorb nutrients and break them down to create energy, ... Read More ...
  • Maren Laughlin, Ph.D. Energy balance, thermogenesis and mitochondria biology, whole body intermediary carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, and functional and metabolic imaging in adipose, pancreas and other metabolic organs. (
  • In addition to their role in energy metabolism, mitochondria play important roles in other cellular processes, such as apoptosis, calcium signaling and the synthesis of certain biomolecules. (
  • One of the main benefits of ketones is their ability to act as an alternative energy source to glucose or fatty acids for production of ATP by mitochondria. (
  • Here, we show that influenza infection induces alterations in whole-body glucose metabolism that persist long after the virus has been cleared. (
  • This supplement aims to expand the scope of the parent R01DK097441-08, entitled "Molecular Control of Brown Adipose Cell Fate and Energy Metabolism" which focuses on the role of a newly identified non-canonical adipose tissue thermogenesis (UCP1-independent Ca2+ cycling thermogenesis) in the regulation of energy expenditure and glucose metabolism. (
  • This reduced survival correlated with decreased expression of mitochondrial complex I protein subunits and concomitant changes in glucose metabolism. (
  • Activity, energy expenditure and energy requirements of infants and children : proceedings of an IDECG workshop held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, November 14 to 17, 1989 / Beat Schürch and Nevin S. Scrimshaw, editors. (
  • This meta-analysis has found that the anaerobic metabolism system (AnMS), especially the glycolytic but not the oxidative system during exercise is affected by ingestion of NaHCO 3 . (
  • Its excess represents increased anaerobic metabolism due to tissue hypoperfusion. (
  • This translational research project uses sophisticated animal models of HF to evaluate novel mechanisms that link various aspects of cardiac metabolism to clinically relevant outcomes. (
  • This application will investigate fundamental questions about the pathophysiology of HF, and the effects of manipulating energy metabolism on cardiac function and HF progression. (
  • Beyond brain energy rescue, this opens additional opportunities for therapeutic exploration of D-BHB supplements as a "super fuel" in cardiac and chronic kidney diseases. (
  • Here we review doxorubicin-induced detrimental changes in cardiac energetics, with an emphasis on the emerging importance of defects in energy-transferring and -signalling systems, like creatine kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase. (
  • Regulating cardiac energy metabolism is a frontier topic in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases . (
  • Our hypothesis was that these agents prevent the derangement of cardiac energy metabolism. (
  • Two months later, cardiac function was measured in the isolated heart by a left ventricular balloon (pressure-volume curves), and energy metabolism of residual intact myocardium was analyzed in terms of total and isoenzyme creatine kinase (CK) activity, steady-state levels (ATP, phosphocreatine), and turnover rates (CK reaction velocity) of high-energy phosphates (31P nuclear magnetic resonance) and total creatine content (HPLC). (
  • Thus the favorable functional effects of beta-receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors post-MI are accompanied by substantial beneficial effects on cardiac energy metabolism. (
  • Causal relationships will be explored between altered energy substrate metabolism and oxidative stress in HF. (
  • the glycolytic system mainly provides energy for medium-high-intensity, short-term exercise (i.e., 400 m running and 100 m swimming) and the oxidative system mainly functions for low-medium-intensity, medium-long time exercise (i.e., long distance running, rowing and cycling), (Table 2 ). (
  • Additionally, sampling of urine can be used to assess protein metabolism or the retention of various nutrients. (
  • Overall these studies show that AIF is an important factor for advanced prostate cancer cells and that through control of energy metabolism and redox balance, the enzymatic activity of AIF is critical for this support. (
  • The purpose of the present study is to investigate early alterations in redox status, energy metabolism and astrocytic reactivity of rats submitted to ALF. (
  • Acute liver failure (ALF) implies a severe and rapid liver dysfunction that leads to impaired liver metabolism and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). (
  • Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) have recently been incriminated as a cause of hepatic coma, and in vitro studies have suggested that the coma may be due to impaired cerebral energy metabolism. (
  • We studied the Lkb1 tumour suppressor and its substrate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), kinases that coordinate metabolism with cell growth. (
  • The energy substrate of the glycolytic system is glucose, which synthesizes ATP by decomposing glucose. (
  • This is an active area of biological research that includes the study of thousands of different cellular processes such as cellular respiration and the many other metabolic processes that can lead to production and utilization of energy in forms such as ATP molecules. (
  • Measurements of glycolysis and mitochondrial function are required to quantify energy metabolism in a wide variety of cellular contexts. (
  • In basic terms, lactic acid is essentially a carbohydrate within cellular metabolism and its levels rise with increased metabolism during exercise and with catecholamine stimulation. (
  • Alterations in myocardial energy metabolism induced by the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin. (
  • Recent studies have suggested that several brain alterations such as astrocytic dysfunction and energy metabolism impairment may synergistically interact, playing a role in the development of HE. (
  • There is increasing evidence that essential components of myocardial energy metabolism are among the highly sensitive and early targets of doxorubicin-induced damage. (
  • Like all obligate intracellular pathogens, influenza A virus (IAV) reprograms host cell's glucose and lipid metabolism to promote its own replication. (
  • Energy supply is an important prerequisite for maintaining exercise, in which fat, carbohydrate (glucose) and protein are converted into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to provide energy for the body. (
  • Lactic acidosis, on the other hand, is associated with major metabolic dysregulation, tissue hypoperfusion, the effects of certain drugs or toxins, and congenital abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • However, we are not very clear about the choice of different substrates , the specific mechanism of energy metabolism participating in the course of cardiovascular disease , and how to develop appropriate drugs to regulate energy metabolism to treat cardiovascular disease . (
  • Eating a balanced diet also helps regulate blood sugar levels, which can help optimize metabolism and energy levels. (
  • This is because it helps regulate blood sugar levels, which in turn helps regulate metabolism. (
  • However, the impact of influenza infection on white adipose tissue (WAT), a key tissue in the control of systemic energy homeostasis, has not been yet characterized. (
  • Sex differences exist in the regulation of energy homeostasis. (
  • Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) promotes cell death yet also controls mitochondrial homeostasis and energy metabolism. (
  • ATP-CP participates in energy supply directly, which is the fastest but also shortest way to maintain the duration of the energy supply. (
  • Therefore, this paper reviews how energy metabolism participates in cardiovascular pathophysiological processes and potential drugs aimed at interfering energy metabolism .It is expected to provide good suggestions for promoting the clinical prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases from the perspective of energy metabolism . (
  • The consequences of metabolic dysfunction in HF are poorly understood, but there is strong evidence that energy metabolism can effect contractile function and progressive left ventricular remodeling. (
  • This program also supports studies that explore mathematical models contributing to the understanding of whole-body energy balance and metabolism as well as the metabolic pathways in cells, tissues, and organs. (
  • By promoting ketosis, Keto Fusion Sugar-Free Gummies can help provide your brain with a consistent source of energy, which may help you think more clearly and feel more focused. (
  • The increase in brain energy metabolism caused by astrocytic reactivity resulted in augmented levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1) and a decreased activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). (
  • The results of a new clinical trial, published in the peer-reviewed journal Cell Metabolism, show that oral intake of nicotinamide riboside (NR) enhances NAD-metabolism in the brain of individuals with Parkinson's disease, and shows promise as a potential therapy. (
  • Overall, our findings shed light on the role that the white adipose tissue, which lies at the crossroads of nutrition, metabolism and immunity, may play in influenza infection. (
  • The energy trap : work, nutrition and child malnutrition in Northern Nigeria / by Richard Longhurst. (
  • Protein and energy : a study of changing ideas in nutrition / Kenneth J. Carpenter. (
  • As L-BHB is not metabolized significantly into energy intermediates and is slowly excreted in the urine ( 9 , 15 ), D+L-BHB would be anticipated to be less ketogenic than pure D-BHB. (
  • Truthentics METABOLISM NITE Energy and Rejuvenation Formula is an amino acid rich complex, designed to help naturally burn fat (even belly fat), stabilize blood sugars, boost exercise recovery, and repair lean muscle while you sleep. (
  • Building lean muscle mass is one of the most effective ways to maximize metabolism. (
  • Strength training exercises such as weightlifting, resistance band workouts, and bodyweight exercises can help build lean muscle mass and boost metabolism. (
  • Congenital lactic acidosis is secondary to inborn errors of metabolism, such as defects in gluconeogenesis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, or the respiratory chain. (
  • A web-based implementation of the published dynamic model has been created to allow users to perform simulations for planning weight loss interventions in adults and accounts for individual differences in metabolism and body composition. (
  • The energy supply substrates of the phosphagen system are ATP and creatine phosphate (CP or phosphocreatine [PCr]), also called the ATP-CP system. (
  • Basic and clinical studies related to energy balance and physiological mechanisms modulating weight gain, loss and maintenance. (
  • In this study, cerebral energy metabolism was assessed in vivo in rapidly frozen cortex and brainstem of rats with coma induced by administration of SCFA. (
  • Effects of ACE inhibition and beta-receptor blockade on energy metabolism in rats postmyocardial infarction. (
  • However, all tissues can use lactate as an energy source, as it can be converted quickly back to pyruvate and enter into the Krebs cycle. (
  • L-lactate is the most commonly measured level, as it is the only form produced in human metabolism. (
  • D-lactate is a byproduct of bacterial metabolism and may accumulate in patients with short-gut syndrome or in those with a history of gastric bypass or small-bowel resection. (
  • The metabolove is a cutting-edge nutritional supplement that promotes healthy metabolism and supports overall well-being. (
  • By following a ketogenic diet and entering a state of ketosis, the body can more efficiently burn fat for energy, which can lead to weight loss. (
  • When the body does not have enough carbohydrates to burn for energy, it begins to break down fat into ketones, which are then used as fuel. (
  • It's an essential component of human health and vitality, as a well-functioning metabolism helps burn fat, build energy, and maintain overall wellness. (
  • Metabolism: The set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living organisms to sustain life. (
  • Water is essential for many of the chemical reactions that occur in the body, including metabolism. (
  • Measuring energy metabolism in cultured cells, including human pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells. (
  • Energy output from human movement is divided between anaerobic and aerobic energy supply systems. (
  • The invention provides a Java applet for modeling of human metabolism to improve the weight change predictions. (
  • To maximize metabolism, it's important to limit your intake of processed foods and added sugars and focus on whole, nutrient-dense foods instead. (
  • When your body is in ketosis, it uses fat as its primary source of fuel, which can provide a more sustained energy boost than carbohydrates. (
  • Ketosis is a metabolic state where the body uses ketones, which are produced from the breakdown of fat in the liver, for energy instead of glucose from carbohydrates. (
  • To further assess fitness status, EPNL researchers can collect blood samples to measure changes in markers of energy metabolism and can also attach electrodes to the participants' chest to assess their heart function. (
  • Studies investigating the mechanism by which interventions, including drugs, devices, and surgery, affect food consumption or food preferences, physical activity, body composition, or other aspects of energy regulation are also supported by this program. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Energy metabolism. (
  • Energy is required by and transformed in biological systems. (
  • Students should be able to explain and apply core concepts of matter and energy transformation, including thermodynamics, catalysis, the coupling of exergonic and endergonic processes, and the nature of biological energy. (
  • Structure and behavior of organic and biological compounds, metabolism, and regulation. (
  • The effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) on anaerobic and aerobic capacity are commonly acknowledged as unclear due to the contrasting evidence thus, the present study analyzes the contribution of NaHCO 3 to energy metabolism during exercise. (
  • To study how different diets affect a person s health and metabolism. (
  • kg − 1 body mass of NaHCO 3 90 min before the exercise in which energy is supplied by the glycolytic system. (
  • The goal of the ketogenic diet is to enter a state of ketosis, where the body burns fat for energy instead of carbohydrates. (
  • BHB is a natural energy source that can help to reduce the symptoms of the keto flu and provide a sustainable source of energy for the body. (
  • Metabolism is the process by which the body converts food into energy. (
  • The same is true for studies of energy metabolism, genetic variation influencing our dietary preferences, and the effects of aging. (
  • Many studies have shown that abnormal energy metabolism plays a key role in the occurrence and development of acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases . (
  • Avoiding carbohydrates and restricting calories later in the day can have an adverse effect on your thyroid hormones, which play a major role in metabolism. (
  • Bioenergetics is the subject of a field of biochemistry that concerns energy flow through living systems. (
  • The enzymatic activity of apoptosis-inducing factor supports energy metabolism benefiting the growth and invasiveness of advanced prostate cancer cells. (
  • Tumor cells typically alter their energy metabolism and increase glucose uptake to support their rapid division and spread. (
  • Increase Metabolism and Energy! (
  • By promoting ketosis, Keto Fusion Sugar-Free Gummies can help you experience this increase in energy. (
  • Drinking enough water can help increase metabolism, improve energy levels, and promote overall health. (
  • When the thyroid fails to secrete enough of the hormones that control metabolism, this can trigger symptoms like fatigue, depression, weight gain, thinning hair, and dry skin. (
  • Sleep deprivation can disrupt the body's natural hormonal balance, which can lead to increased appetite, weight gain, and decreased energy levels. (
  • Stress triggers the release of the hormone cortisol, which can lead to increased appetite, weight gain, and decreased energy levels. (
  • While metabolism can be influenced by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, and gender, there are many strategies that can help maximize metabolism and optimize health. (
  • A balanced diet is essential for maximizing metabolism and overall health. (
  • Getting enough sleep is critical for optimizing metabolism and overall health. (
  • Processed foods and added sugars can have a negative impact on metabolism and overall health. (