Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The consumption of edible substances.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
The selection of one food over another.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
The consumption of liquids.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The meal taken at midday.
A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
Glucose in blood.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
The first meal of the day.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
Abstaining from all food.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.
Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.

Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population. (1/6589)

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

Prior protein intake may affect phenylalanine kinetics measured in healthy adult volunteers consuming 1 g protein. kg-1. d-1. (2/6589)

Study of the amino acid metabolism of vulnerable groups, such as pregnant women, children and patients, is needed. Our existing protocol is preceded by 2 d of adaptation to a low 13C formula diet at a protein intake of 1 g. kg-1. d-1 to minimize variations in breath 13CO2 enrichment and protein metabolism. To expand on our potential study populations, a less invasive protocol needs to be developed. We have already established that a stable background 13CO2 enrichment can be achieved on the study day without prior adaptation to the low 13C formula. Therefore, this study investigates phenylalanine kinetics in response to variations in prior protein intake. Healthy adult subjects were each fed nutritionally adequate mixed diets containing 0.8, 1.4 and 2.0 g protein. kg-1. d-1 for 2 d. On d 3, subjects consumed an amino acid-based formula diet containing the equivalent of 1 g protein. kg-1. d-1 hourly for 10 h and primed hourly oral doses of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine for the final 6 h. Phenylalanine kinetics were calculated from plasma-free phenylalanine enrichment and breath 13CO2 excretion. A significant quadratic response of prior protein intake on phenylalanine flux (P = 0.012) and oxidation (P = 0.009) was identified, such that both variables were lower following adaptation to a protein intake of 1.4 g. kg-1. d-1. We conclude that variations in protein intake, between 0.8 and 2.0 g. kg-1. d-1, prior to the study day may affect amino acid kinetics and; therefore, it is prudent to continue to control protein intake prior to an amino acid kinetics study.  (+info)

Thiamine deficiency is prevalent in a selected group of urban Indonesian elderly people. (3/6589)

This cross-sectional study involved 204 elderly individuals (93 males and 111 females). Subjects were randomly recruited using a list on which all 60-75 y-old-people living in seven sub-villages in Jakarta were included. The usual food intake was estimated using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Hemoglobin, plasma retinol, vitamin B-12, red blood cell folate and the percentage stimulation of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), as an indicator of thiamine status, were analyzed. Median energy intake was below the assessed requirement. More than 75% of the subjects had iron and thiamine intakes of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake, and 20.2% of the study population had folate intake of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake. Intakes of vitamins A and B-12 were adequate. Biochemical assessments demonstrated that 36.6% of the subjects had low thiamine levels (ETK stimulation > 25%). The elderly men tended to have lower thiamine levels than the elderly women. The overall prevalence of anemia was 28.9%, and the elderly women were affected more than the elderly men. Low biochemical status of vitamins A, B-12 and RBC folate was found in 5.4%, 8.8 % and 2.9% of the subjects, respectively. Dietary intakes of thiamine and folate were associated with ETK stimulation and plasma vitamin B-12 concentration (r = 0.176, P = 0.012 and r = 0.77, P = 0.001), respectively. Results of this study suggest that anemia, thiamine and possibly vitamin B-12 deficiency are prevalent in the elderly living in Indonesia. Clearly, micronutrient supplementation may be beneficial for the Indonesian elderly population living in underprivileged areas.  (+info)

The sodium concentration of enteral diets does not influence absorption of nutrients but induces intestinal secretion of water in miniature pigs. (4/6589)

Contradictory opinions exist as to whether the sodium concentration of enteral diets influences absorption of macronutrients and transepithelial movement of sodium and water. Therefore, we investigated the effects of various sodium concentrations of enteral diets on absorption of macronutrients and on net fluxes of sodium and water. In unanesthetized miniature pigs, a 150-cm jejunal segment was perfused with an oligopeptide (Peptisorb), an oligomeric and a polymeric diet. The polymeric diet was supplemented with pancreatic enzymes. The sodium concentrations varied between 30 and 150 mmol/L. The energy density was 3.4 MJ/L. The sodium concentration of the diets did not influence absorption of macronutrients and of total energy. However, increasing sodium concentrations of the diets were associated with increasing osmolality of the solutions, resulting in a linear increase in net secretion of water and flow rate of chyme. With all diets and sodium concentrations net secretion of sodium occurred. The sodium secretion was independent of the initial sodium concentration of the diets. It was linearly correlated with net flux of water and was largest in miniature pigs infused with the oligomeric diet. The sodium concentration of the jejunal effluent did not correspond to the initial sodium concentration of the diets. The present results indicate that enteral feeding of diets with high energy density inevitably increases net secretion of water and sodium as sodium concentration increases. Therefore, the sodium concentration of diets should be as low as possible to meet only the minimal daily requirement of sodium. Low sodium concentrations of diets have no negative effects on absorption of macronutrients.  (+info)

Descriptive analysis of eating regulation in obese and nonobese children. (5/6589)

Bite rate, sip rate, and concurrent activities of six 7-yr-old children, three obese and three nonobese, were observed at lunchtime over a six-month period. A procedure for decreasing bite rate, putting eating utensils down between bites, was implemented in a multiple-baseline across-subjects design. Sip rates and concurrent activities were observed to assess behavioral covariations. In addition, bite rate and amount of food completed were computed over six food categories to analyze food preferences. Results indicated the control of bite rate acorss all subjects, with a significant reduction in amount of food consumed. Correlations between the response classes indicated they were at least partially independent. Differences in eating behavior of obese and nonobese subjects were observed for breadstuffs and milk drinking.  (+info)

Regulation of fatty acid homeostasis in cells: novel role of leptin. (6/6589)

It is proposed that an important function of leptin is to confine the storage of triglycerides (TG) to the adipocytes, while limiting TG storage in nonadipocytes, thus protecting them from lipotoxicity. The fact that TG content in nonadipocytes normally remains within a narrow range, while that of adipocytes varies enormously with food intake, is consistent with a system of TG homeostasis in normal nonadipocytes. The facts that when leptin receptors are dysfunctional, TG content in nonadipocytes such as islets can increase 100-fold, and that constitutively expressed ectopic hyperleptinemia depletes TG, suggest that leptin controls the homeostatic system for intracellular TG. The fact that the function and viability of nonadipocytes is compromised when their TG content rises above or falls below the normal range suggests that normal homeostasis of their intracellular TG is critical for optimal function and to prevent lipoapoptosis. Thus far, lipotoxic diabetes of fa/fa Zucker diabetic fatty rats is the only proven lipodegenerative disease, but the possibility of lipotoxic disease of skeletal and/or cardiac muscle may require investigation, as does the possible influence of the intracellular TG content on autoimmune and neoplastic processes.  (+info)

Influences of low intensity exercise on body composition, food intake and aerobic power of sedentary young females. (7/6589)

The present study was designed to investigate the influences of aerobic training on the body composition, aerobic power and food intake of sedentary young females in relation to the initial levels of these variables. Thirty one untrained college females (age = 19.8 +/- 0.2 yr, stature = 154.4 +/- 0.8 cm, body mass = 53.3 +/- 1.2 kg, mean +/- SEM) participated in an exercise regimen consisting of 40% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) for 30 minutes per day on a bicycle ergometer 5 times a week in a training period of 12 weeks. Food consumption was ad libitum but the content of daily food intake was recorded accurately throughout the whole training period and analyzed weekly. The average body mass index (BMI) and fat mass relative to body mass (% FM), estimated from the data of skinfold thickness, decreased significantly after the 12 wk training. There were significant negative correlations between the relative changes (% delta s) and initial levels of both body mass (r = -0.447, p < 0.05) and fat mass (r = -0.638, p < 0.05), but the corresponding correlation for lean body mass (LBM) was not significant (r = 0.186, p > 0.05). While the energy intake during the training period did not differ significantly from that during the control period on the average, the % delta value in energy intake between the two periods was negatively correlated to the energy intake during the control period (r = -0.604, p < 0.05). In addition, there were low but significant negative correlations between both the initial levels of BMI and %FM and % delta in energy intake; r = -0.413 (p < 0.05) for BMI and r = -0.393 (p < 0.05) for %FM. However, no significant correlations were found between % delta in energy intake and those in body composition variables (r = 0.116 to 0.237, p > 0.05). On the average VO2max relative to body mass (VO2max/BM) increased significantly, but VO2max relative to LBM (VO2max/LBM) did not. However, not only VO2max/BM but also VO2max/LBM was negatively correlated to the initial level; r = -0.671 (p < 0.05) for VO2max/BM and r = -0.625 for VO2max/LBM. Thus, the present results indicate that whether the body composition, food intake and aerobic power of sedentary young females can be modified by the exercise regimen eliciting 40% of VO2max depends on their initial levels.  (+info)

Evaluation of life-cycle herd efficiency in cow-calf systems of beef production. (8/6589)

A deterministic beef efficiency model (BEM) was used to evaluate life-cycle herd efficiency (LCHE) in cow-calf beef production systems using four breed groups of beef cattle. The breed groups were Beef Synthetic #1 (SY1), Beef Synthetic #2 (SY2), Dairy Synthetic (DS), and purebred Hereford (HE). The LCHE was defined over the lifetime of the herd as the ratio of total output (lean meat equivalent) to total input (feed equivalent). Breed differences in LCHE were predicted with the larger/slower maturing DS being most efficient at each age of herd disposal and reproductive rate. This was mainly because, at any average age at culling, the dams of DS breed group were less mature and so had been carrying relatively lower maintenance loads for shorter periods and positively influencing LCHE. Higher LCHE was predicted with improvement in reproductive performance if there were no associated extra costs. However, this declined markedly if there was a delay in marketing of offspring. As average age at culling increased from 4 to 6 yr, efficiency declined sharply, but it began to recover beyond this age in most breed groups. We concluded that the slower maturing DS breed group may be more efficient on a herd basis in cow-calf systems and that improvements in reproductive rate not associated with extra costs improve life-cycle efficiency. Culling cows soon after their replacements are produced seems efficient.  (+info)

In order to determine your daily caloric intake you must first understand your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). Your BMR is the minimum number of calories required for your body to sustain daily functions such as: breathing, heart beat, circulation, brain functions, managing hormones, etc. An individuals BMR can be calculated on a body composition machine or by using a BMR calculator or formula ...
In order to determine your daily caloric intake you must first understand your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). Your BMR is the minimum number of calories required for your body to sustain daily functions such as: breathing, heart beat, circulation, brain functions, managing hormones, etc. An individuals BMR can be calculated on a body composition machine or by using a BMR calculator or formula ...
The level of dietary energy intake influences metabolism, reproductive function, the development of age-related diseases, and even cognitive behavior. Because males and females typically play different roles in the acquisition and allocation of energy resources, we reasoned that dietary energy intake might differentially affect the brains of males and females at the molecular level. To test this hypothesis, we performed a gene array analysis of the hippocampus in male and female rats that had been maintained for 6 months on either ad libitum (control), 20% caloric restriction (CR), 40% CR, intermittent fasting (IF) or high fat/high glucose (HFG) diets. These diets resulted in expected changes in body weight, and circulating levels of glucose, insulin and leptin. However, the CR diets significantly increased the size of the hippocampus of females, but not males. Multiple genes were regulated coherently in response to energy restriction diets in females, but not in males. Functional physiological pathway
Prior to the study intervention, the mean ± SD dietary intake for both groups was 2128 ± 993 kcal, 245 ± 136 g of carbohydrate (46% of daily energy intake), 86 ± 33 g of protein (18% of daily energy intake), 88 ± 57 g of fat (36% of daily energy intake). Over the 24-week duration of the intervention, the LCKD group consumed 1550 ± 440 kcal per day, 49 ± 33 g of carbohydrate (13% of daily energy intake), 108 ± 33 g of protein (28% of daily energy intake), 101 ± 35 g of fat (59% of daily energy intake). In comparison, the LGID group consumed 1335 ± 372 kcal per day, 149 ± 46 g of carbohydrate (44% of daily energy intake), 67 ± 20 g of protein (20% of daily energy intake), 55 ± 23 g of fat (36% of daily energy intake). There was no difference in self-reported exercise between the groups: the mean number of exercise sessions per week increased from 2.0 ± 2.0 to 3.0 ± 2.0 for the LCKD group and from 2.2 ± 2.2 to 3.8 ± 2.9 for the LGID group (p = 0.39 for comparison ...
Prior to the study intervention, the mean ± SD dietary intake for both groups was 2128 ± 993 kcal, 245 ± 136 g of carbohydrate (46% of daily energy intake), 86 ± 33 g of protein (18% of daily energy intake), 88 ± 57 g of fat (36% of daily energy intake). Over the 24-week duration of the intervention, the LCKD group consumed 1550 ± 440 kcal per day, 49 ± 33 g of carbohydrate (13% of daily energy intake), 108 ± 33 g of protein (28% of daily energy intake), 101 ± 35 g of fat (59% of daily energy intake). In comparison, the LGID group consumed 1335 ± 372 kcal per day, 149 ± 46 g of carbohydrate (44% of daily energy intake), 67 ± 20 g of protein (20% of daily energy intake), 55 ± 23 g of fat (36% of daily energy intake). There was no difference in self-reported exercise between the groups: the mean number of exercise sessions per week increased from 2.0 ± 2.0 to 3.0 ± 2.0 for the LCKD group and from 2.2 ± 2.2 to 3.8 ± 2.9 for the LGID group (p = 0.39 for comparison ...
The purpose of this study was to validate estimated energy intake from a web-based food recall, designed for children and adolescents. We directly compared energy intake to estimates of total energy expenditure, calculated from accelerometer outputs, combined with data on weight and sex or resting energy expenditure prediction equations. Children (8-9 years) and adolescents (12-14 years) were recruited through schools in Norway in 2013 (N = 253). Results showed that more than one third (36-37%) were identified as under-reporters of energy. In contrast, only 2-4% were defined as over-reporters of energy. The mean energy intake was under-reported with -1.83 MJ/day for the entire study sample. Increased underestimation was observed for overweight and obese participants, the oldest age group (12-14 years), boys, those with parents/legal guardians with low educational level and those living in non-traditional families. In conclusion, energy intake from the web-based food recall is significantly
Energy intake and renal function decrease with age. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), spontaneous food intake decreases in parallel with the loss of renal function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a possible relationship between renal dysfunction and energy intake in elderly community-dwelling men. A cross-sectional study including 1087 men aged 70 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) community-based cohort was carried out. Dietary intake was assessed using 7 d food records, and glomerular filtration rate was estimated from serum cystatin C concentrations. Energy intake was normalised by ideal body weight, and macronutrient intake was energy-adjusted. The median normalised daily energy intake was 105 (interquartile range 88-124) kJ, and directly correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as determined by univariate analysis. Across the decreasing quartiles of eGFR, a significant trend of decreasing normalised energy ...
Background: Physical activity and energy intake are the two most variable components of energy balance and their association with obesity has been studied separately throughout literature. Despite their important role in energy balance, there is limited evidence describing the direct association between physical activity and energy intake. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between energy intake and physical activity levels across categories of BMI in adolescent females from the SuNDiAL project. Design: Adolescent females aged 15-18 y were recruited from eight locations around New Zealand to participate in the SuNDiAL project. Physical activity was measured using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers worn on the right hip 24 hours a day for seven days. Energy intake was measured via two 24-hour dietary recalls and adjusted to represent usual intake using MSM. Height and weight were used to calculate BMI, and WHO growth standards were used to calculate z-scores to ...
Ten men keeping food and activity diaries for 60 days illustrated the relationship between food energy intake and the activity pattern. During the first 30 days the men ate normally. During the second 30 days the men voluntarily ate a restricted diet with an average deficit of 500 kcal/day. The food energy intake deficit was created by prohibiting calorically dense fats and refined sugars and encouraging consumption of high-volume-to-calorie foods such as grains and cereals. The men were unable to adjust to the higher volume of food required to maintain their usual food energy intake. The major activity pattern changes during the restricted-intake phase were: a reduction in standing at leisure of 12 min/day (p | .0001); a reduction in walking of 17.2 min/day (p | .0001); and an increase in sitting at leisure of 18.9 min/day (p | .003). No significant change in studying or sleeping was observed. Thus, the activity pattern was modified. Lower-effort discretionary activities were substituted for higher
TY - JOUR. T1 - Eating rate of commonly consumed foods promotes food and energy intake. AU - Viskaal-van Dongen, M.. AU - Kok, F.J.. AU - de Graaf, C.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - We investigated the eating rate of commonly consumed foods and the associations with food intake and macronutrient composition. Ingestion time (s) of 50 g of 45 foods was measured to assess eating rate (g/min), after which ad libitum food intake (g) was measured. Thirteen men and 24 women (aged 23.3 (SD 3.4) y, BMI 21.7 (SD 1.7) kg/m2) participated, each testing 7 foods in separate sessions. We observed large differences in eating rate between foods, ranging from 4.2 (SD 3.7) to 631 (SD 507) g/min. Eating rate was positively associated with food intake (ß = 0.55) and energy intake (ß = 0.001). Eating rate was inversely associated with energy density (ß = -0.00047) and positively with water content (ß = 0.011). Carbohydrate (ß = -0.012), protein (ß = -0.021) and fiber content (ß = -0.087) were inversely associated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Limits to sustained energy intake IX: a review of hypotheses. AU - Speakman, J R AU - Krol, E PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Several lines of evidence indicate that animals in the wild may be limited in their maximal rates of energy intake by their intrinsic physiology rather than food availability. Understanding the limits to sustained energy intake is important because this defines an envelope within which animals must trade-off competing activities. In the first part of this review, we consider the initial ideas that propelled this area and experimental evidence connected with them. An early conceptual advance in this field was the idea that energy intake could be centrally limited by aspects of the digestive process, or peripherally limited at the sites of energy utilisation. A model system that has been widely employed to explore these ideas is lactation in small rodents. Initial studies in the late 1980s indicated that energy intake might be centrally limited, but work by ...
Feel full on fewer calories? It might sound like another gimmick for weight loss, but its not. The concept of energy density really can help with weight loss.. In fact, well-planned weight-loss diets, such as the Mayo Clinic Diet, use the concept of energy density to help you lose weight and keep it off long term.. Simply put, energy density is the number of calories (energy) in a specific amount of food. High energy density means that there are a lot of calories in a little food. Low energy density means there are few calories in a lot of food.. When youre striving for weight loss, the goal is to eat low-energy-dense foods. That is, you want to eat a greater volume of food thats lower in calories. This helps you feel fuller on fewer calories.. Heres a quick example with raisins and grapes. Raisins have a high energy density - 1 cup of raisins has about 434 calories. Grapes have a low energy density - 1 cup of grapes has about 82 calories.. Three main factors play a role in what makes food ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age. AU - Mallan, Kimberley. AU - Nambiar, Smita. AU - Magarey, Anthea. AU - Daniels, Lynne. PY - 2014/3/1. Y1 - 2014/3/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an eating in the absence of hunger paradigm, childrens energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age. =4.4. years, Inter-quartile range. =3.7-4.5. years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight ...
High calorie dog food comes in all shapes and sizes, and sometimes isnt all it promises to be. When you own a dog requiring a high calorie diet, that doesnt mean junk food, treats and high fat content. High calorie dog foods should provide essential minerals and proteins from high quality sources, and not simply contain loads of carbohydrates and fat. Protein derived from grains is considered incomplete, as it does not provide all the the essential amino acids required by a dogs body. Ingredients should always include protein from a real meat source. Avoid meat byproducts or meat and bone meals. ...
In the past two decades overweight and obesity rates in children (ages 2-19) have risen from 5% to 17%, with toddlers (ages 2-5) at 10%. Among children and adolescents the consumption of low-energy-dense foods, such as fruit and vegetables (F&Vs), remain below current recommendations. Therefore, strategies to increase low-energy-dense F&V intake and decrease high-energy-dense food intake aimed at young children are essential. Antecedents, or cues, can trigger eating. Therefore, manipulating food presentation can be utilized to produce certain behaviors. Dietary variety and course sequence are two examples of this relationship. It has been well established that high dietary variety leads to greater consumption patterns compared to low DV diets in adults. High DV has only been tested with problematic foods, and not with the goal of increasing F&V intake. Additionally, serving a first course meal can act as a preload to decrease intake of the second course entrée. Dietary variety and course ...
Our paper estimated beverage intake using data collected from a food frequency questionnaire.1 We adjusted our findings for energy intake derived from the food frequency questionnaire. Dr Archer questions the validity of this approach and quotes a group of eminent epidemiologists2 to support his stance. The paper cited by Dr Archer explains that the energy intake estimates in question should not be used as an exposure variable. However, these researchers also explicitly state that one should use self-reported energy intake for energy adjustment of other self-reported dietary constituents to improve risk estimation in studies of diet-health associations.2 The improved validity after adjusting nutrient intakes for self-reported energy intake is clearly demonstrated in the OPEN study (Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition) for food frequency questionnaire-derived protein intake.3 Because we used energy intake derived from the food frequency questionnaire as a covariate and not as an exposure, our ...
To explore the gender differences in the relationship between dietary energy and macronutrients intake and body weight outcomes in Chinese adults. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS, 2015) for10,898 participants aged 18-64 years. Three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls was used to assess the dietary intake. Quantile regression models for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were performed separately for each sex. Adult males showed greater absolute intakes of energy and macronutrients as compared to females as per the body weight outcomes. A 10% increase in BMI resulted in an additional intake of 0.002-0.004 kcal/d of dietary energy, 0.032-0.057 g/d of fats, 0.039-0.084 g/d of proteins, and 0.018-0.028 g/d of carbohydrates across all quantiles in males (p | 0.05). A 10% increase in WC lead to an additional intake of 0.004-0.008 kcal/d of dietary energy, 0.051-0.052 g/d of carbohydrates across the entire quantile in males (p | 0.05), and an increased intake of 0.060-0
A growth study (60 barrows averaging 125.4 lb) was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary energy density on growth performance of finishing pigs treated with porcine somatotropin (pST). Barrows were blocked on weight and allotted randomly to pens (2 barrows/pen, 5 pens/treatment). Barrows were injected daily with 4 mg pST and fed six experimental diets with four energy densities (1.37, 1.48, 1.60, or 1.71 Meal ME/lb) and four lysinc:energy ratios (4.0, 3.7, 3.4, or 3.2 g lysine/Mcal ME). Diets were formulated to contain at least 200% of NRC (1988) recommendations for essential nutrients. Increasing dietary energy density and adjusting the lysine:energy ratio to maintain 3.4 g lysine/Mcal ME decreased average daily feed intake and improved feed efficiency, but did not affect average daily gain. Increasing dietary energy density without adjusting the lysine:energy ratio increased average daily gain, decreased average daily feed intake, and improved feed efficiency linearly. These results indicate
During adolescence, a shift from morningness to eveningness occurs, yet school continues to start early in the morning. Hence, adolescents are at risk for social jetlag, i.e. a discrepancy between biological and social timing. It remains to be determined whether chronotype associates with daily and daytime-specific eating patterns during this potentially critical period. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether chronotype is decisive for daily eating patterns [total energy intake (TEI, kcal), total macronutrient intake (% of TEI), eating occasion frequency (n/day), meal frequency (n/day), snack frequency (n/day), duration of nightly fasting], or daytime-specific eating patterns [morning (before 11 am) energy intake (% of TEI), morning macronutrient intake (% of morning energy intake), regular breakfast skipping (no morning energy intake at least on 2 of 3 days, yes/no), evening (after 6 pm) energy intake (% of TEI), evening macronutrient intake (% of evening energy ...
In this analysis of nationally representative data, we found that ultra-processed foods contribute to more than 40% of total daily energy intake of Australians. These foods are predominantly mass-produced packaged breads, ready meals, fast food dishes and pastries, buns and cakes. As ultra-processed food consumption increases, these foods tend to displace unprocessed and minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations, including the five core food groups recommended by the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs).30 The dietary content of free sugars; total, saturated and trans fats; sodium and the dietary energy density, all increased significantly as the energy share of ultra-processed foods increased, while an inverse association was found for the dietary content of fibre and potassium. The prevalence of non-recommended intake levels of all studied nutrients linked to NCDs increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food intake.. In other high-income countries, ...
Daily Calorie Calculator. HotScripts Calculators from Hot Scripts. What is your ideal body weight for your gender and height? Do you have excessive body fat? What is your recommended daily caloric intake according to
Try this recipe for yourself and check out some of our pizza recipes.{@context:,@type:FAQPage,mainEntity:[{@type:Question,name:Is Pizza Pizza keto crust really Keto?,acceptedAnswer:{@type:Answer,text: Yes, Pizza Pizza keto crust is Keto.}},{@type:Question,name:Is Pizza Pizza cauliflower crust Keto friendly?,acceptedAnswer:{@type:Answer,text: Pizza is pizza, and cauliflower crust is cauliflower crust. They are both delicious in their own right. What is the best pizza crust recipe? There are many different pizza crust recipes out there. Some people like to use a pre-made dough, while others prefer to make their own. What is the best cauliflower pizza crust recipe? There are many different cauliflower pizza crust recipes out there. Some people like to use a pre-made dough, while others prefer to make their own.}},{@type:Question,name:What pizza place makes crustless pizza?,acceptedAnswer:{@type:Answer,text: Pizza ...
This study investigated the extent to which the effects of ad libitum consumption of a high-CHO diet vs. a high-MUFA diet on the lipid profile are modulated by concurrent changes in anthropometry and body composition in men. We report that both high-CHO and high-MUFA diets consumed ad libitum were associated with a moderate but significant body weight loss and with beneficial reductions in total plasma cholesterol and LDL-C levels. Because our subjects did not apparently modify their physical activities during the study, the diet-induced weight loss is most likely to have resulted from a reduction in daily energy intake. Surprisingly, energy intakes during the experiment did not differ from usual daily energy intakes measured at baseline. We believe that this apparent inconsistency may be largely explained by underreporting of energy intake measured at baseline (19) , although the limitations of 3-day dietary records as a tool to adequately assess usual energy intake may also be evoked (20) . ...
Laboratory animals fed a high-fat, high-calorie diet showed a rapid increase in body weight, heart rate, blood pressure, and glomerular filtration rate. The rabbits developed tachycardia (fast heart rate) and retained sodium. The changes occurred very quickly after the rabbits were placed on the high-fat diet. A single high-fat meal is capable of impairing vasodilation…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Buying less and wasting less food. Changes in household food energy purchases, energy intakes and energy density between 2007 and 2012 with and without adjustment for food waste. AU - Whybrow, Stephen. AU - Horgan, Graham W.. AU - Macdiarmid, Jennie I.. N1 - Acknowledgements Financial support: This work was supported by the Scottish Governments Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services (RESAS) Division. RESAS had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this article. Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Kantar Worldpanel had no role in study design or data analysis. Authorship: S.W. was responsible for formulating the research question and analysing the data. G.W.H provided statistical advice. S.W., J.I.M. and G.W.H. contributed to the preparation of the manuscript. Ethics of human subject participation: Not applicable.. PY - 2017/5. Y1 - 2017/5. N2 - Consumers in the UK responded to the rapid increases in food ...
Adequate nutritional therapy and research have been crucial for diabetes and obesity. Recent topics include Calorie restriction (CR) and Low Carbohydrate Diet (LCD). It is rather difficult to calculate energy intake in person, and also to calculate the energy of the meal. There are some methods for investigating these factors, such as the total energy expenditure (TEE), physical-activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE), metabolic equivalent (MET) values, and the doubly-labeled water (DLW) method. Multi factors would be involved in the study. Further investigation would be expected for the determination of an appropriate amount of energy intake and meal energy in the future.
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies showed that calorie restriction decreased blood pressure and plasma lipid, and increased longevity. However, impact of total energy intake (EI) on mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) including types of CVD has not been studied. We assessed the hypothesis that lower EI was associated with decreased risk of CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke mortality.. Methods: We studied the association between EI and mortality form all CVD, CHD, and stroke using the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Noncommunicable Disease and Its Trends in the Aged (NIPPON DATA80) database with a 24-year follow-up. We followed a random sample of 8,825 Japanese aged ≥30 years (mean age, 50.0 years at baseline in 1980; 43.3% men) without history of CVD, kidney disease, or diabetes. Those with lack of information about EI or extreme EI (sex-specific intake of highest or lowest 0.5%) were also excluded. EI was calculated from a 3 days weighed food record ...
Artificial photosynthesis could supply the Earth with fuels of high energy density such as hydrogen, methane or methanol while reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere and slowing down climate change.
lipogenesis and hypercaloric diet programs are believed to donate to increased body fat mass, particularly in belly fat depots. (ERK-p), which participates in the CB1-mediated signalling pathway, was markedly within the PrAT of obese rats. ERK-p was significantly repressed by AM251 indicating that CB1 is in fact practical in PrAT of obese pets, though its activation loses the capability to stimulate lipogenesis in PrAT of MLN518 obese rats. However, the remnant manifestation degrees of lipogenic transcription elements within HCHD-fed rats remain reliant on CB1 activity. Therefore, in HCHD-induced weight problems, CB1 blockade can help to help expand potentiate the reduced amount of lipogenesis in PrAT through inducing down-regulation from the and gene manifestation, and therefore in the manifestation of lipogenic enzymes. Intro During the last two decades many reports show that medical risks related to weight problems are particularly from the enlarged extra fat depots that carefully surround ...
Skipping high calorie foods for losing weight? if yes then dont. This video will show you how the high calorie foods will help you to aid weight loss... S
In part 1 of this topic, the levels of daily feed intakes typically achieved by Genesus nursery and finishing animals were covered along with a comparison to feed intake figures expected from other genotypes. Total daily energy consumption was also discussed.. This article will cover how daily energy consumption can be influenced through dietary manipulation to optimise income over feed costs.. Choosing the appropriate energy level is particularly critical for diets fed to pigs from 30 kg to market weight. Feed usage during this phase represents 75 percent of the total operational feed budget, and energy contributes at least 50 percent to the final diet costs. A key component of setting optimum energy specifications is an understanding of how various levels of daily energy intake affect pig performance and carcass characteristics.. Table 1 below provides the performance response of Genesus full programme pigs to a range of dietary energy levels. The diets in this trial were based on using a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of excess gestational and post-weaning energy intake on vascular function of swine offspring. AU - Taheripour, Pardis. AU - DeFord, Mark A.. AU - Arentson-Lantz, Emily J.. AU - Donkin, Shawn S.. AU - Ajuwon, Kolapo M.. AU - Newcomer, Sean C.. PY - 2014/12/12. Y1 - 2014/12/12. N2 - Background: The development of long-term vascular disease can be linked to the intrauterine environment, and maternal nutrition during gestation plays a critical role in the future vascular health of offspring. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that a high-energy (HE) gestational diet, HE post-weaning diet, or their combination will lead to endothelial dysfunction in offspring. Methods: Duroc × Landrace gilts (n = 16) were assigned to either a HE (10,144 Kcal/day, n = 8) or normal energy (NE: 6721 Kcal/day, n = 8) diet throughout pregnancy. Piglets were placed on either a NE or HE diet during the growth phase. At 3 months of age femoral arteries were harvested from ...
Fat percent of total calories - 33.6. Anyone care to read those figures and then explain to me how its too much fat that sparked a rise in obesity? Were we fatter in 1977, when we ate more of the stuff? Amazing … these people can see the evidence right in front of their academic faces, then draw conclusions that have nothing to do with it. Heres an another example of explaining away results they dont like:. One longitudinal study found no association between dietary energy density and adiposity among children who were followed annually from age 2 to 18 years (Alexy, 2005). Participants in this cohort were classified by dietary pattern into clusters based on percent energy from fat, with dietary energy density lowest at 3.7 (0.4) in the low fat cluster; 4.0 (0.4) in the medium fat intake; and highest at 4.1 (0.4) in the high fat cluster. Mean BMI during the study period differed significantly, with the highest BMI in the low fat, low dietary energy density cluster, a result the investigators ...
The intervention was effective in terms of accomplishing lasting dietary change. At baseline, fat accounted for about 38% of total daily energy intake. After 1 year, this figure dropped to 24% in the diet intervention arm. At year 6, fat accounted for 29% of daily energy intake in the diet group compared with 37% in controls, a difference Dr. Santoro called huge in light of the enormous number of participants and the womens diverse ethnicities and backgrounds ...
PubMed journal article: The role of eating frequency on total energy intake and diet quality in a low-income, racially diverse sample of schoolchildren. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Background: Obesity is a multifactorial condition influenced by both genetics and lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the association between a validated genetic profile risk score for obesity (GPRS-obesity) and body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) was modified by macronutrient intake in a large general population study. Methods: This study included cross-sectional data from 48 170 white European adults, aged 37-73 years, participating on the UK Biobank. Interactions between GPRS-obesity, and macronutrient intake (including total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and dietary fibre intake) and its effects on BMI and WC were investigated. Results: The 93-SNPs genetic profile risk score was associated with a higher BMI (β:0.57 kg.m−2 per standard deviation (s.d.) increase in GPRS, [95%CI:0.53-0.60]; P=1.9 × 10−183) independent of major confounding factors. There was a significant interaction between GPRS and total fat intake (P[interaction]=0.007). Among ...
Globally we are seeing a continual increase in the prevalence of obese and overweight dogs. With this comes an increase in the prevalence of associated diseases such as cardiopulmonary disease and osteoarthritis. Getting owners involved and educating them about their pets obesity is key to changing these statistics and getting them to lose weight. Heyrex really is the future of canine weight management. Being able to see the amount of exercise their dog is getting really is enough to give clients a wake-up call on this topic. Furthermore, it is a very good incentive to get their dogs (and also themselves!) moving more frequently and doing more exercise. Future Heyrex developments could potentially lead to the ability of calculating a dogs daily caloric expenditure, such that daily caloric intake can be closely matched to this - watch this space! Right now Heyrex plays a very important role in many canine obesity clinics around the world since the key to weight loss is a relatively simple ...
Chen, S-J, Chuang S-Y, Chang H-Y, Pan W-H. Energy intake at different times of the day: Its association with elevated total and LDL cholesterol levels. Nutr Metab Cardiovas Dis. 2019. Link to Article
The combination of a BMI=26 with a relatively small waist is indicative of more muscle and less body fat. Having more muscle and less body fat has an advantage that is rarely discussed. It allows for a higher total calorie intake, and thus a higher nutrient intake, without an unhealthy increase in body fat. Muscle mass increases ones caloric requirement for weight maintenance, more so than body fat. Body fat also increases that caloric requirement, but it also acts like an organ, secreting a number of hormones into the bloodstream, and becoming pro-inflammatory in an unhealthy way above a certain level ...
Results Over 2 decades, obesity prevalence doubled from 14% to 28% of the participants, with 69% of participants being categorised as overweight or obese. Greater than 70% of participants gained ,5% of their baseline BMI with weight gain occurring across all weight categories. Energy intake and physical activity levels (PALs) did not change during the 2 decades after menopause (p trend=0.06 and 0.11, respectively), but, within the second visit, energy intake increased concomitantly with a decrease in physical activity across increasing quartiles of BMI (p trend ,0.001 for all). ...
Výčet potravin, ke kterým si nejvíce dohledáváte kalorické hodnoty. Pizza Hut Supreme Pizza. Thin Crust Pizza. BBQ Chicken Pizza. Calabrese Pizza. Nutrition Facts. Thick Crust Pizza 1 slice of 12 pizza.. Fast food Helmi Center very high in calories and low in nutrition compared to home-cooked meals!. Caulipower Buffalo-Style Chicken Pizza. Napoli Pizza! Margherita Pizza.. Pelargonia Pakkanen Pokud tu nejsou vmi hledan tabe digs er det vigtigt, at du kender i Tilannrhuone potraviny.. Heavy - Active for much you burn with exercise and. Fast Eläketietosi is very high find how many calories youll pizza i ny og n.. A pizzn mr n is. Hvis du drmmer om at om du tager et stykke and carrying objects. Vet potravin, ke kterm Robbarin Sanoitukset ha megstd.. Weve been helping people achieve their weight management goals since. You may be shocked to srzssel egybektve.. This is how many calories. Gr det virkelig en forskel, potraviny, mon vs bude zajmat nutrition compared to home-cooked ...
As with any fitness goal, the foundation of your program should always be diet. Proper diet accounts for 70% of your fitness, and the results in the gym are entirely dependant on what (and how much) you eat. To build muscle, your body needs to be in a positive caloric balance. In other words, you have to eat just a little more than you can burn for energy in order to build muscle. (Yes, there is a reason Gaston ate 5 dozen eggs every day!). To build lean mass, your daily caloric intake must be 350-700 kcal above your total energy expenditure (TEE). If you are eating about the same amount of calories every day and youre maintaining weight, youd have to consume an extra 350-700 calories each day to build muscle. By doing this, you should put on 1-2 pounds of muscle a week1. If you would like to learn how many calories you need to sustain your current weight, either complete a 3 day diet log (most accurate), or Click Here to get a rough estimate of the calories you need the fuel your body.. ...
Why 30 percent?. No one can say exactly what a healthful fat intake is for a given individual, let alone for everyone. A majority of public health experts have supported the 30-percent guideline because they felt it was lower than what Americans are currently consuming, but not so low as to discourage compliance. Some scientists have proposed that we should strive for fat intakes closer to 25 or even 20 percent of daily caloric intake. Such levels would require greater changes in dietary habits for most Americans. Individuals who are not afraid of changing their eating habits, and are at risk for obesity, heart disease, or breast or colon cancer are often interested in using the 20- percent recommendation for their fat allowances. The 20-percent recommendation translates into 40 grams of fat for a daily intake of 1,800 calories and 44 grams for 2,000 calories.. What kind of fat?. Scientists do not understand all of the reasons why different types of fat behave differently in the body, so they ...
There is some flexibility here - some people prefer slightly higher fat intake - its most important to track your total calories so that your intake matches your daily caloric intake goal. Please note that MFP is calibrated to sedentary people so youll need to adjust the calculations to fit your own caloric and macro requirements. Just be sure that your Fat intake is ,= 20% & ,= 28% and Carb intake is ,= 50 ...
Keep frozen. Not ready to eat. Cook thoroughly. Baking Directions for the Perfect DiGiorno Pizza: Crispier Crust: Preheat & bake at 400 degrees F. Keep pizza frozen while preheating. Remove pizza from box, overwrap and cardboard. Place pizza directly on center oven rack. (6 to 8 inch from bottom of oven) Bake 20 to 23 min. Softer Crust: Preheat & bake at 400 degrees F. Remove pizza from box, overwrap and cardboard. Place pizza on cookie sheet on center rack. (6 to 8 inch from bottom of oven) Bake 25 to 27 min. For high altitude (over 3,500 ft.), preheat & bake at 400 degrees F. Remove pizza from box, overwrap. Place pizza on cookie sheet on center rack. Bake for 24 to 26 minutes. For directions on how to cook 2 pizzas at a time, visit our website at Product must be cooked thoroughly to 160 degrees F for food safety and quality. Do not allow pizza to thaw. Do not eat pizza without cooking. Your oven temperature may vary so adjust baking time & oven temperature as necessary. ...
These third parties may have their separate terms and conditions or privacy policies that you should review and understand before using them. Go freestyle by creating your own flavour combos and recreate your favourite pizza with up to four toppings for free. $17.99. svg twitter icon. Mountain Mikes Pizza: Take advantage of Mountain Mikes Two for Tuesday! Availability Of Fried WingStreet® Products And Flavors Varies By Pizza Hut® Location. $7.99 for a 2-topping pizza online 2. Login / Register or. $7.99. Code • Pizza Guys. If youre a pizza lover or looking to cater to a large group, then Delicioso is your one-stop for all of your pizza catering needs, Italian style. [block:hungryhowies_location=location_search] The Best Pizza Deals Today With our daily local pizza deals, coupons, and specials, every day is pizza day at Hungry Howies® . Bargains. $10 Off Sitewide. Pizza Coupon Codes & Deals Near Me 2020. $2.75 average savings . DELIVERY & CARRYOUT LOCATIONS ARE OPEN! Address Type Street ...
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Interruption of scheduled, automatic feeding and reduction of excess energy intake in toddlers Mario Ciampolini,1 J Thomas Brenna,2 Valerio Giannellini,3 Stefania Bini11Preventive Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 2Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Università di Firenze, Florence, ItalyBackground: Childhood obesity due to the consumption of excess calories is a severe problem in developed countries. In a previous investigation on toddlers, hospital laboratory measurements showed an association of food-demand behavior with constant lower blood glucose before meals than for scheduled meals. We hypothesize that maternal scheduling of meals for toddlers results in excess energy intake compared to feeding only on demand (previously “on request”).Objective: We tested the cross-sectional null hypothesis of no difference in energy intake between scheduled
Interruption of scheduled, automatic feeding and reduction of excess energy intake in toddlers Mario Ciampolini,1 J Thomas Brenna,2 Valerio Giannellini,3 Stefania Bini11Preventive Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 2Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Università di Firenze, Florence, ItalyBackground: Childhood obesity due to the consumption of excess calories is a severe problem in developed countries. In a previous investigation on toddlers, hospital laboratory measurements showed an association of food-demand behavior with constant lower blood glucose before meals than for scheduled meals. We hypothesize that maternal scheduling of meals for toddlers results in excess energy intake compared to feeding only on demand (previously “on request”).Objective: We tested the cross-sectional null hypothesis of no difference in energy intake between scheduled
... most countries today use the SI unit kilojoules as their primary measurement for food energy intake, the with the exception of ... According to the FAO, the average minimum daily energy requirement is about 1,800 kilocalories (7,500 kJ) per person. Although ...
... a range of intake specified as a percentage of total energy intake. Used for sources of energy, such as fats and carbohydrates ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington ... Tolerable upper intake levels (UL), to caution against excessive intake of nutrients (like vitamin A) that can be harmful in ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. NCBI. NIH. 5 March 2019. Retrieved June 1, 2021. Dietary Reference Intakes ...
Similarly, in laying hens, variation in RFI is directly linked to variations in maintenance energy expenditure. Sainz, Roberto ... His research suggested that feed intake could be broken into two parts: The expected feed intake for the animal's level of ... Because feed intake is heritable, knowing the RFI index of an animal is also useful when breeding. By selecting animals with ... Through the use of these two items, animals that deviate from the expected feed intake, either by eating more than or less than ...
p. 1. ISBN 0-86863-418-2. "Poutu Intake". Genesis Energy. "Tongariro River at Turangi". Genesis Energy. Archived from the ... Access 10 is able to be paddled year-round as the minimum flow of 16 cubic metres per second (570 cu ft/s) below Poutu Intake ... The Access 14/13 sections are not able to be paddled without a release from Genesis Energy, due to the fact that the minimum ... "Recreational Releases - Genesis Energy NZ". Retrieved 2 August 2015. "Events & Releases , ...
Most J, Dervis S, Haman F, Adamo KB, Redman LM (August 2019). "Energy Intake Requirements in Pregnancy". Nutrients. 11 (8): ... The fats and carbohydrates in food constitute the majority of energy used by the body. They are measured cumulatively in the ... Body fat percentage guidelines are higher for females, as this may serve as an energy reserve for pregnancy. Males generally ...
She feeds from chi intake; and heals from the absorption of chi and from the energy created by sexual encounters. She can also ...
Rosenbaum, M; Kissileff, HR; Mayer, LE; Hirsch, J; Leibel, RL (2010). "Energy intake in weight-reduced humans". Brain Res. 1350 ... Rosenbaum, M; Leibel, RL (1998). "Leptin: a molecule integrating somatic energy stores, energy expenditure and fertility". ... Hirsch, J; Leibel, RL; Chua, SC (1992). "A clinical perspective on peptides and food intake". Am J Clin Nutr. 55 (1 Suppl): ... Schwartz, MW; Woods, SC; Seeley, RJ; Barsh, GS; Baskin, DG; Leibel, RL (2003). "Is the energy homeostasis system inherently ...
Energy Efficient Unobtrusive 2010 Pervasive Health Best Paper Award for: Automatic Classification of Daily Fluid Intake 2005 ... Pervasive (2011). "SpeakerSense: Energy Efficient Unobtrusive". Pervasive 2011. Jonathan Lester; Desney Tan; Shwetak Patel; A.J ... Bernheim Brush (March 2010). Automatic Classification of Daily Fluid Intake. 4th International Conference on Pervasive ...
Ignoring the non-alcohol contribution of those beverages, the average ethanol contributions to daily food energy intake are 200 ... Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins And Minerals (PDF), European Food Safety Authority, 2006 Dietary Reference Intakes ... Sulfur is essential, but again does not have a recommended intake. Instead, recommended intakes are identified for the sulfur- ... Consumer advisories for dietary nutrient intakes, such as the United States Dietary Reference Intake, are based on deficiency ...
Increases the nutrient intake of plants. Increases yields and gives higher brix. Brix is the measure of dissolved solids in the ... The destruction of our forests must be offset and a sufficient soil forest-energy program must be carried out to stop and ... Campe was invited by the U.S. State Department to speak at the Washington International Renewable Energy Conference 2008. In ... The biosphere and the atmosphere are interlocked in a permanent exchange of matter (carbon in particular) and energy which ... US Department of Energy, Environmental Energy Technologies ... intake fraction can be represented by the mass of pollutant intake divided by the mass of pollutant emitted: Intake Fraction = ... In the form of an equation: Health Impact = Total Mass Emitted * Intake Fraction * Toxicity Policy makers can use the intake ... Mass of Pollutant Intake (summed over all exposed individuals) / Mass of Pollutant Emitted Direct measurement of intake ...
Energy intake is necessary for protists' survival. Aerobic chemoorganotrophic protists produce energy through the use of their ... In some protists, flagella and/or cilia may be present to help with motility and nutrient intake. The flagella/cilia create ... Photosynthetic protists produce energy through the use of their mitochondria and chloroplasts. Finally, anaerobic ... Protists are chemoorganotrophic [organisms which oxidize the chemical bonds in organic compounds as their energy source] and ...
Summary of Project Intake and Turbine Parameters. Knight Piesold Consulting. Hydromax Energy Limited. Hydromax Energy Limited ... The energy within the moving water propels a power generator and thereby creates electricity. Prototypes by commercial ... A plant without pondage is subject to seasonal river flows, thus the plant will operate as an intermittent energy source. ... When developed with care to footprint size and location, run-of-the-river hydro projects can create sustainable energy ...
Liquid intake is often limited as well. Ketogenic diet: A high-fat, low-carb diet, in which dietary and body fat is converted ... In order to preserve "life energy" Rastafarians encourage teetotalism & many Rastafarians interpret I-tal to advocate ... Subpar intake of whole grains, legumes, tree nuts, produce and seafood is the norm. WPDs are distinguished from other ... A diet that aims to restrict the intake of complex carbohydrates such as found in grains and complex sugars. A fad diet is a ...
Control of food intake by energy supply. Nature 1974;251;710‑1. Booth DA, Mather P. Prototype model of human feeding, growth ... Depression of intake of nutrient by association of its odor with effects of insulin. Psychon. Sci. 1968;11:27-8. Booth DA, ... A simulation model of psychobiosocial theory of human food-intake controls. Int. J. Vitamin Nutr. Res. 1988;58:55-69. Booth DA ... and the ventromedial hypothalamus for satiety and began to replace it with a theory of the control of food choice and intake ...
Malaysia portal Water portal Renewable energy portal Tenaga Nasional Cameron Highlands Hydro-Electric Scheme; Central ... Power Intake Structure - 5 bays. Spillway- gated concrete weir with chute and flip bucket. Power Tunnels - 5 tunnels. ...
"Lake Gordon at Intake" (PDF). Hydro Tasmania. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 February 2017. Retrieved ... "Gordon Power Station Fact Sheet: Technical fact sheet" (PDF). Energy: Our power stations. Hydro Tasmania. Archived from the ... ISBN 0-85802-064-5. "Gordon - Pedder Energy". Hydro Tasmania. Retrieved 8 February 2017. Townsend, Clif (14 ... Gramenz, Emilie (31 March 2016). "Tasmanian energy crisis: Lake Gordon dam level fall captured in dramatic video". News. ...
Friedman M. I. (1997). "An energy sensor for control of energy intake". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 56 (1A): 41-50. ...
Thomas, D. W. (1984). "Fruit intake and energy budgets of frugivorous bats". Physiological Zoology. 57 (4): 457-467. doi: ...
"Energy and nutrient intake in the European Union". Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 48 (2 (suppl)): 1-16. doi:10.1159/ ... Because of its low first ionization energy of 418.8 kJ/mol, the potassium atom is much more likely to lose the last electron ... They have a similar first ionization energy, which allows for each atom to give up its sole outer electron. It was suspected in ... Collectively the EARs, RDAs, AIs and ULs are referred to as Dietary Reference Intakes. For both males and females under 9 years ...
Ello-Martin JA, Ledikwe JH, Rolls BJ (July 2005). "The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: ... Resistant starch dilutes energy density of food intake, has a bulking effect similar to non-fermentable fiber, and increases ... Rolls BJ, Morris EL, Roe LS (December 2002). "Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal-weight and overweight men ... Studies have demonstrated that when compared to solid foods, soup ingestion decreases the amount of energy intake. When soup is ...
The mice also display altered levels of plasma glucose and rhythms in food intake. These mutants develop metabolic syndrome ... Yoshino J, Klein S (Jul 2013). "A Novel Link Between Circadian Clocks and Adipose Tissue Energy Metabolism". Diabetes. 62 (7): ... Johnston J (Jun 2014). "Physiological responses to food intake throughout the day". Nutrition Research Reviews. 27 (1): 107-118 ... with quantitative physical responses to circadian food intake as potential inputs to the clock system. BMAL1 gene Cycle gene ...
Powdered guar gum, a soluble fibre, was shown to be associated with a significantly lower energy intake in obese subjects who ... 2005). "Dietary Reference Intakes for energy, carbohydrates, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and animo acids". ... A similar reduction of energy intake through fibre supplementation was observed in another study. A dose of guar gum was ... 1994 Jul 2;344(8914):39-40 Heaton KW (December 1973). "Food fibre as an obstacle to energy intake". Lancet. 2 (7843): 1418-21. ...
The energy retail business of Northpower was sold to ECNZ with effect from 1 November 1998, and renamed Northpower Energy. The ... The water canal intake was upgraded in 2009. New weir flap gates have also been installed. The power station's aging control ... The typical annual energy output from the station is 22 GWh. Northpower Contracting Northpower Fibre Electricity sector in New ... name was later changed to Meridian Energy (1999). Northpower owns and operates the Wairua power station owned near Titoki. This ...
However, changes in body composition, organ functions, adequate energy intake and ability to eat or access food are associated ... Among malnourished people who are hospitalized, nutritional support improves protein intake, calorie intake, and weight. In ... This condition involves both micronutrient deficiencies and an imbalance of protein intake and energy expenditure. It differs ... Excessive consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks and limited physical activity causes overnutrition. It causes overweight ...
Trumbo, Paula (2003). "Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and ... "Dietary Reference Intakes: Macronutrients" (PDF). Retrieved 9 November 2017. "Nutrition Facts Help". Nutritiondata. ... Bilsborough, Shane; Mann, Neil (2006). "A Review of Issues of Dietary Protein Intake in Humans". International Journal of Sport ...
Each unit has two intakes. The Ear Falls GS powerhouse is connected to the 185-metre long Lac Seul Conservation Dam which is ... This water will now be used to generate clean, renewable energy. The combined nameplate capacity of the two facilities is 29.3 ... It is estimated these facilities will generate approximately 185,000 megawatt-hours of renewable energy per year. During the ...
Food and Nutrition Board (2002/2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol ... "Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)" (PDF). National Academy of Medicine. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2015. ... Inadequate carbohydrate intake during athletic training causes metabolic acidosis, which may be responsible for the impaired ... The UK National Health Service recommend that "carbohydrates should be the body's main source of energy in a healthy, balanced ...
"Antenatal dietary education and supplementation to increase energy and protein intake". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ... Adequate Intake †Not established. EU has not identified an AI for sodium or chloride, and does not consider chromium to be an ... Maternal intake of vitamin D, vitamin E, and zinc have all been associated with a lower likelihood of wheezing in childhood, ... During lactation, water intake may need to be increased. Human milk is made of 88% water, and the IOM recommends that ...
These RIs are based on the requirements for an average woman with no special dietary requirements and assume an energy intake ... It is a means of communicating recommended nutrient intake to the public. Reference Intakes replaced the term Guideline Daily ... Reference Intake (RI) is a food labelling system in the European Union and the United Kingdom. ... "Adoption of Children's Reference Intakes for food labelling purposes" (PDF). Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. ...
By doing this, the engine acts as an air compressor, with the energy coming from the transmission used to compress the air, ... The engine braking generated by creating partial vacuum with a closed throttle at each intake stroke in petrol/gasoline engines ... While this has the drawback of not re-utilizing the energy created while traveling downhill, it does create a powerful and safe ... A hybrid vehicle drivetrain uses electrical retardation to assist the mechanical brakes, while recycling the energy. The ...
Engine cooling removes energy fast enough to keep temperatures low so the engine can survive. Some high-efficiency engines run ... Most liquid-cooled engines use some air cooling, with the intake stroke of air cooling the combustion chamber. An exception is ... The viscosity of oil can be ten times greater than water, increasing the energy required to pump oil for cooling, and reducing ... This has the advantage that it absorbs a great deal of energy with very little rise in temperature (called heat of vaporization ...
This would reduce the wastage of energy normally emitted as heat from the brakes. By using less fuel, the car would thus be ... The unusual look, including a large bulging intake in the center of the nose, earned the car the nickname "Batmobile" due to ...
... functions to conserve energy when sufficient food is not available. To achieve this energy saving, an endothermic ... Despite long-term inactivity and lack of food intake, hibernating bears are believed to maintain their bone mass and do not ... Larger species become hyperphagic, eating a large amount of food and storing the energy in fat deposits. In many small species ... Humphries, M. M.; Thomas, D.W.; Kramer, D.L. (2003). "The role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation: A cost-benefit ...
Two long air intake vents run along the front, and heat exhaust vents dominate the rear. The wings are removable to access ... Sony developed the PlayStation 5 to consume less energy than the PlayStation 4 for suspended gameplay states. The console has a ... The cooling system includes a double-sided cooling fan for air intake that is 120 mm in diameter and 45 mm thick, and a large ... Yin-Poole, Wesley (September 25, 2019). "PS5 won't waste as much energy as PS4, Sony says". Eurogamer. Archived from the ...
The company had begun selling the extra energy produced by the Kenney Dam to BC Hydro, a publicly owned company. By 1968, Alcan ... On the west side of the reservoir, a 16-kilometre (9.9 mi) long intake tunnel running through the Coast Mountain range brings ... Because the BC Hydro grid is linked to the North American grid, Alcan began selling energy to Alberta and the United States.: ... Canada portal Water portal Renewable energy portal Nechako River Nechako Reservoir Nechako Canyon Protected Area Kemano, ...
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering. 3 (14). Kersten, B (2011). "The energy performance of an airflow ... In cold climates the window is used for intake of ventilation air. Cold air enters the bottom of the cavity, from the outside, ... The general idea is to improve the energy efficiency of a cavity window by heating or cooling the cavity with ventilation air. ... Whether the air flow is free or forced can affect energy efficiency of the window. Demerara window Brandle, K. "Airflow Windows ...
Many women are known to experience what has been termed the "nesting instinct". Women report a spurt of energy shortly before ... Tranmer JE, Hodnett ED, Hannah ME, Stevens BJ (2005). "The effect of unrestricted oral carbohydrate intake on labor progress". ... "Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8 (8): CD003930. doi: ... and improves mood and boosts energy. The CDC advises against this practice, saying it has not been shown to promote health but ...
At the same time, HIV lowers the body's ability to intake essential nutrients. HIV infection can affect the production of ... It damages the intestines, bladder, and other organs and can lead to anemia and protein-energy deficiency. Along with malaria, ... Similarly, malnutrition of both macronutrients (such as protein and energy) and micronutrients (such as iron, zinc, and ...
As topical fluoride lowers the pH, bacteria have to consume more energy to maintain a neutral environment, leaving less energy ... Excess intake of fluoride leads to overabundance of structurally-weak fluorapatite formed inside the enamel, resulting in ... most research suggested that excessive fluoride intake may result in formation of aluminium fluoride (AlF3 or AlF4). Aluminium ...
Liners are applied on the internal walls of the engine nacelle, both in the intake and by-pass ducts, and use Helmholtz ... resonance principle for the dissipation of incident acoustic energy. An acoustic liner is a sandwich panel made by: a porous ...
The intake airflow is either at the level where fuel is added, or below it. The exhaust (smoke) from the stove is usually ... Net efficiency is defined as the amount of heat energy transferred to the room compared to the amount contained in the wood, ... Today, according to the US Energy Information Administration, 35% of American households use gas stoves. They are chosen as ... "corn pellet stove". The Encyclopedia of Alternative Energy and Sustainable Living. Archived from the original on October 20, ...
Protein, a good source of vitamin B and lasting energy, can be found in both plant and animal products. The USDA also suggests ... Regardless of daily caloric intake, those who do not eat foods that are rich in vitamins and nutrients are susceptible to ... to be shaped by their eating behaviors when the future chronic disease risk was affected by the history of dietary intake. ... also found that supermarket and grocery store availability did not generally correlate with diet quality and fresh food intake ...
Flying shards of plexiglas from the canopy entered the jet engine intake, causing both engines to flame out. A report concluded ... Before departing from Pitsunda to Moscow, he met, as scheduled, France's Energy Minister, Gaston Palewski, in what would be his ... Atomic Energy Commission employee placed a humorous sign near the instruments over the blast site, with the words "The South ... shall rise again". The test was the "Salmon" phase of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Project Dribble, part of the Vela ...
Greenwell, Bonnie (2002). Energies of Transformation - A Guide to Kundalini Process. Energies of Transformation - A Guide to ... His food intake for the last 15 years had been 2 glasses of milk a day. That's it. His feces are like two small marbles each ... Practices and theories of yoga added to that impact while researchers focused on energies of the subtle body that in yoga terms ... I was mauna," or, "Silence brought me great energy of clarity. As Hari Dass wrote, 'Nothing is better than something.'" In 1968 ...
... the intake of non-permanent immigrants, had overtaken the intake of permanent immigrants (247,243). The contributions that ... put the Filipinos to work on an oil production platform owned by Black Elk Energy, a U.S. company that, according to federal ... offshore since 2010.The problems at Black Elk Energy were amplified following an explosion in November on a platform in the ...
This food intake has a direct effect on the female's egg production. When these spiders were on an adequate diet, regardless of ... Communal females must therefore be utilizing more energy in egg production than their solitary comrades. Experimentally, ...
DKA also is characterized by ketosis due to the breakdown of fat for energy. Both DKA and HHS may show symptoms of dehydration ... Other risk factors: Lack of sufficient insulin (but enough to prevent ketosis) Poor kidney function Poor fluid intake ( ...
These hormonal changes often cause an increase in caloric intake and decrease the energy for many physical activities which ... increases during times of stress and can often lead to a feeling of a jolt of energy. If people are feeling highly stressed ...
... a small wing at the rear and quadruple air intakes on the grille. Also the 1.2-, 1.6- and 1.9-litre engines were discontinued ... but by the time the first production TE2800s were completed in 1973 the energy crisis had struck and the management of both ...
KERS (kinetic energy recovery system) A device which recovers energy when brakes are applied and stores it until required to ... May also happen if a motor ingests water through the air intake. IHRA An acronym referring to the International Hot Rod ... ERS (energy recovery system) Part of the hybrid powertrain systems used in Formula One since 2014, that recovers energy from ... It combines both a kinetic energy recovery system (KERS), known officially as the motor generator unit - kinetic (MGU-K), and a ...
The Precipice Sandstone is one of the primary intake beds for the Great Artesian Basin, giving the area where it lies exposed ... Department of Minerals and Energy, Queensland. Duffy, Helen (ed). (2007). Explore Australia's National Parks. Prahran, Victoria ...
... energy homeostasis). A deficit can be created by decreasing calories consumed by lower food intake, such as by swapping high- ... As the calories required for energy homeostasis decreases as the organism's mass decreases, if a moderate deficit is maintained ... influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers". The American Journal of ...
It doubles as both sixth form area and classroom to teach about renewable energy with the power coming from a wind turbine and ... this was intended to ease overcrowding as the school intake is expected to continue to increase in the coming years. In the ...
Due to a recessionary period in the United States beginning with the energy crisis in late 1979, sales began to decline at the ... nutritional information that complied with the Federal Government's guidelines for the maximum daily recommended intake of fat ...
The body energy expenditure of ectothermic animals is about 1/13 of that of endotherms but the energy expenditure of the brains ... in terms of O2 intake) are a few primates (11-13%) and humans. However, research published in 1996 in The Journal of ... crows and sparrows but these due to their endothermy also have high body energy metabolism. The unusual high brain energy ... The actual energy consumption per unit mass of its brain is not in fact particularly high and indeed lower (2.02 mg g1 h1) than ...
It is present in every type of cell in the brain as the brain itself has a very high energy requirement and by extension a very ... Yamori M, Njelekela M, Mtabaji J, Yamori Y, Bessho K (2011-08-04). "Hypertension, periodontal disease, and potassium intake in ... a telltale sign of low potassium intake). Iron is also the most abundant transition metal in the human body and it is used in ...
A spring starter uses potential energy stored in a spring wound up with a crank to start an engine without a battery or ... intake, compression) strokes of the next cycle, as well as powering the engine's external load. To start the first cycle at the ... In a four-stroke engine, the third stroke releases energy from the fuel, powering the fourth (exhaust) stroke and also the ... which used the energy stored in a spring driving through a reduction gear. If the car failed to start, the starter handle could ...
By this time, the landfill's daily intake of garbage was increased to around 1,000 tons of garbage. By comparison, Fresh Kills ... This included waste-to-energy incinerators, one of which would be located at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, which would generate ...
A focus on total energy intake and energy balance (i.e., the balance of energy intake with energy expenditure) is fundamental ... a statistically significant increase in average energy intake occurred (Table). For men, average energy intake increased from ... The increase in energy intake is attributable primarily to an increase in carbohydrate intake, with a 62.4-gram increase among ... include assessment of fat intake in grams in addition to fat intake as a percentage of kcals. The energy- and macronutrient- ...
Energy and protein requirements : report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation [‎held in Rome from 5 to 17 October 1981]‎ ... Tables of food frequency and nutrient intake were created for a r and om sample of 266 lactating women from different areas of ... Information note about intake of sugars recommended in the WHO guideline for adults and children  ... Nutrient intakes and adequacy among preschool children under blockade in Gaza City, Palestine  ...
... suggesting a link to a hyperphagic phenotype or a preference for energy-dense foods. ... The FTO variant that confers a predisposition to obesity does not appear to be involved in the regulation of energy expenditure ... but may have a role in the control of food intake and food choice, ... An obesity-associated FTO gene variant and increased energy intake in children N Engl J Med. 2008 Dec 11;359(24):2558-66. doi: ...
Energy Outreach Colorado has been recognized nationally and locally for its efforts to help Coloradans afford home energy. ... Energy Outreach Colorado was established in 1989 and we believe that everyone deserves affordable access to the vital resources ... Every day, we respond to the urgent energy needs of our neighbors and work with our partners to provide efficient and ...
We previously observed increased energy intake (EI) at the meal before planned afternoon exercise, but the proximity of the ... relative energy intake (energy intake on day 1 minus energy expended during exercise/rest) was less in EX (t = − 3.451; df = 13 ... Energy and macronutrient intake. On day 1, energy intake at breakfast (Z = − 0.345; P = 0.761) and lunch (t = 1.964; df = 13; P ... Total energy intake and Relative energy intake values for both trials. Values are mean ± SD. Lines that intersect the EX and ...
Effect of the pattern of food intake on human energy metabolism - Volume 70 Issue 1 ... F´bry, P. (1973). Food intake pattern and energy balance. In Energy Balance in Man, pp. 297-303 [Apfelbaum, M., editor]. Paris ... distribution of energy intake with isoenergetically dense foods given as snacks does not affect total daily energy intake in ... Energy expenditure and substrate metabolism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver: effects of the pattern of food intake.. ...
... Lima, Steven L. ... Lima, Steven L.; (1983). "Downy woodpecker foraging behavior: foraging by expectation and energy intake rate." Oecologia 58(2 ... the birds could be made to experience differing rates of energy intake while foraging. ...
Despite having had the same energy intake, CD-G and HFD-G mice exhibited increased body weight and fat deposits compared with ... In the present study, we investigated the effects of gluten intake on fat metabolism, thermogenesis and energy expenditure in ... In HFD mice, daily energy expenditure was reduced with gluten intake. Gluten also reduced adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator- ... gluten intake increased interleukin-6 expression and tended to increase that of tumor necrosis factor. Wheat gluten promotes ...
However, rats with free access to sugar solutions maintained a similar amount of energy intake compared with control. Of the ... Changes in the expression of these neuropeptides do not disrupt the total energy intake immediately but may contribute to the ... To evaluate the effects of sugar intake on different regions of the hypothalamus (the brains control center for energy ... Long term use of sugars can induce excess caloric intake and/or obesity. ...
... on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in ... Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional ... Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or ... Conclusions We found no consistent evidence that increased physical activity or exercise effects energy or macronutrient intake ...
2. Sustained energy Unlike some carb-heavy breakfasts, a hearty serving of protein in the morning wont lead to blood sugar ...
Energy intake was reduced at an ad libitum lunch meal 4 hours after a breakfast meal containing eggs. The findings suggest that ... Energy intake following the egg breakfast was significantly reduced compared with the cereal breakfast (4518 vs. 5283 kJ, p = ... The aim of the study was to investigate the energy intake and subjective sensations of hunger using a visual analogue scale ( ... Determining which foods may help overweight and obese individuals manage their food intake is important for diet planning. ...
Vestas Achieves Record Order Intake of More Than 1.5 GW from Polish Auctions ... Wind Energy: Poland Oil & Gas news in Europe, ... Vestas Achieves Record Order Intake of More Than 1.5 GW from ... Vestas has secured a 36 MW order with ELAWAN Energy for four projects awarded at the Polish wind-solar-energy auction in ... It is fantastic to reach this milestone and help our partners to drive the energy transformation. We`re looking forward to ...
... or residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between actual energy intake, is predicted on the basis of ... Genetic variation of REI and its relationships with dry matter intake, milk yield, fat corrected milk yield and milk fat, and ... might reveal that selection against REI improves feed efficiency by reducing feed intake and increasing yield traits a little. ... and a positive correlation with dry matter intake (0.61). Moderate heritability estimate for REI, along with negligible genetic ...
Appleton K. Behavioural determinants of daily energy intake during a 28-day outdoor expedition in Arctic Norway. Scandanavian ... Appleton, K. (2006). Behavioural determinants of daily energy intake during a 28-day outdoor expedition in Arctic Norway. ... Appleton, K 2006, Behavioural determinants of daily energy intake during a 28-day outdoor expedition in Arctic Norway., ... Behavioural determinants of daily energy intake during a 28-day outdoor expedition in Arctic Norway. In: Scandanavian Journal ...
The energy and protein intakes were lower by -29.34% and protein intake was higher by 42.65% compared with American Dietetic ... Deficient Intakes of Energy and Macronutrients in Pakistani Female Students Assessed by Composite Samples Method. Asian Journal ... Deficient Intakes of Energy and Macronutrients in Pakistani Female Students Assessed by Composite Samples Method. ... Abstract: The main purpose of the study was to compare the energy and macronutrients intakes by composite sample method. ...
We investigated the net effect of tomato juice intake on several health parameters in women in this age group. An open-label, ... At the same times, body composition; blood pressure; heart rate; resting energy expenditures (REEs); and serum levels of ... Tomato juice intake alleviated menopausal symptoms, including anxiety, increased REEs and heart rate, and lowered high baseline ... From: Tomato juice intake increases resting energy expenditure and improves hypertriglyceridemia in middle-aged women: an open- ...
Decreasing intake rate (intake per unit foraging effort) can be expected to increase daily energy expenditure (DEE), due to ... Recent studies indicate that the relationship between intake rate (energy gain per unit foraging effort) and energy expenditure ... Effects of intake rate on energy expenditure, somatic repair and reproduction of zebra finches Popko Wiersma, Popko Wiersma * ... Popko Wiersma, Simon Verhulst; Effects of intake rate on energy expenditure, somatic repair and reproduction of zebra finches. ...
The effects of swimming and running on energy intake during 2 hours of recovery - The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical ... The effects of swimming and running on energy intake during 2 hours of recovery. Lambert C. P., Flynn M. G., Braun W. A., ...
... and energy intake: (1) the effects of low/no calorie sweeteners compared with sugar (i.e., when there is a difference in energy ... The effects of low-calorie sweeteners on energy intake and body weight: a systematic review and meta-analyses of sustained ... BMI and/or energy intake (EI) outcomes. Studies were analysed according to whether they compared (1) LCS with sugar, (2) LCS ... BMI and energy intake were reduced by consumption of low/no calorie sweeteners compared with sugar, which is consistent with ...
Total energy intake from foods, by dietary reference intake age-sex group, household population aged 1 and over, Canadian ...
Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurant Consumption Among Children and AdolescentsEffect on Energy, Beverage, and Nutrient Intake ... Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurant Consumption Among Children and Adolescents: Effect on Energy, Beverage, and Nutrient ... Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurant Consumption Among Children and Adolescents: Effect on Energy, Beverage, and Nutrient ... Effect on Energy, Beverage, and Nutrient Intake ...
The food energy intake deficit was created by prohibiting calorically dense fats and refined sugars and encouraging consumption ... The men were unable to adjust to the higher volume of food required to maintain their usual food energy intake. The major ... activity pattern changes during the restricted-intake phase were: a reduction in standing at leisure of 12 min/day (p , .0001 ... Ten men keeping food and activity diaries for 60 days illustrated the relationship between food energy intake and the activity ...
Ad libitum energy intake did not differ among the 3 interventions. A significant intervention effect and a time x intervention ... In conclusion, the usually consumed amount of caffeinated coffee does not have short-term effects on appetite, energy intake, ... Caffeinated coffee does not acutely affect energy intake, appetite, or inflammation but prevents serum cortisol concentrations ... energy intake, and appetite-, inflammation-, stress-, and glucose-metabolism related markers. Sixteen healthy men, aged between ...
Profitability of grazing crop stubbles may be overestimated by using the metabolisable energy intake from the stubble. In: ... Profitability of grazing crop stubbles may be overestimated by using the metabolisable energy intake from the stubble. / Thomas ... Profitability of grazing crop stubbles may be overestimated by using the metabolisable energy intake from the stubble. ... title = "Profitability of grazing crop stubbles may be overestimated by using the metabolisable energy intake from the stubble ...
Effects of excessive energy intake and supplementation with chromium propionate on insulin resistance parameters, milk ... Effects of excessive energy intake and supplementation with chromium propionate on insulin resistance parameters, milk ... Effects of excessive energy intake and supplementation with chromium propionate on insulin resistance parameters, milk ... chromium, dairy cows, Energy Intake, Insulin, Insulin Resistance. URL. ...
... sports nutrition knowledge and energy availability in female Australian rules football players ... Nutritional intake, sports nutrition knowledge and energy availability in female Australian rules football players. ... This study aimed to assess nutritional intake, sports nutrition knowledge and risk of Low Energy Availability (LEA) in female ... or energy (p = 0.971) intakes between players at risk of LEA and those not at risk. The results suggest that female Australian ...
Results indicate an inverse relationship of total energy intake and calories from all meats. Total fat intakes had a small, ... Vitamin B6 intakes were below the RDA in all clusters but were adequate relative to protein intakes. Iron intakes of women ... Attempting to reduce total fat and SFA intakes by reducing meat intake, especially red meat, may have a deleterious effect on ... Total fat and SFA intakes exceeded National Research Council (NRC) goals regardless of meat intake level. ...
title = "Limits to sustained energy intake",. abstract = "During late lactation maternal food intake reaches a plateau, ... Limits to sustained energy intake. / Speakman, John R.. In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & ... Limits to sustained energy intake. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 2009 Jun ... Speakman, John R. / Limits to sustained energy intake. In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & ...
  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of gluten intake on fat metabolism, thermogenesis and energy expenditure in mice fed a standard or high-fat diet. (
  • The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the acute effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption on appetite feelings, energy intake, and appetite-, inflammation-, stress-, and glucose-metabolism related markers. (
  • MDCs act on fat tissue and liver, may regulate gut functions (influencing absorption), but they may also alter the hypothalamic peptidergic circuits that control food intake and energy metabolism. (
  • Here, we discuss data showing how the exposure to some MDCs can alter the expression of neuropeptides within the hypothalamic circuits involved in food intake and energy metabolism. (
  • It is evident that early lactation demands for energy cannot be met due to inadequate NEI, thus the cow's metabolism and hormonal control liberates body condition and adipose tissue to meet the demand to close the gap on NEBAL. (
  • Failure to thrive can be secondary to inadequate intake of calories, inefficient utilization of ingested calories (emesis, malabsorption), or an increased basal metabolism (usually seen in oncology, infections, cardiopulmonary deficiencies, chronic inflammatory states, and hyperthyroidism ). (
  • As the master regulator of systemic lipid storage and through secretion of a number of these adipokines, adipose tissue has an influence on many processes, including energy metabolism, inflammation, and pathophysiological changes such as cancer and infectious disease ( 4 ). (
  • At the interface of energy metabolism and inflammation, adipose tissue also plays a key role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. (
  • Fit and Trim™ will add vitality and energy to help you through your day with a proper working metabolism. (
  • Leptin is made in the fat tissue and plays a key role in regulating energy intake and expenditure, including appetite and hunger, metabolism, and behavior. (
  • The fewer calories you have, the more this can actually slow down your metabolism, and your energy levels will dwindle. (
  • Energy recommendations were calculated according to the Dietary Reference Intakes. (
  • Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate. (
  • A subsample of 97 children was examined for possible association of the FTO variant with adiposity, energy expenditure, and food intake. (
  • Although total and resting energy expenditures were increased in children with the A allele (P=0.009 and P=0.03, respectively), resting energy expenditure was identical to that predicted for the age and weight of the child, indicating that there is no defect in metabolic adaptation to obesity in persons bearing the risk-associated allele. (
  • The FTO variant that confers a predisposition to obesity does not appear to be involved in the regulation of energy expenditure but may have a role in the control of food intake and food choice, suggesting a link to a hyperphagic phenotype or a preference for energy-dense foods. (
  • In basic terms, energy balance is determined as energy intake (in consumed food and drink) minus energy expenditure (through metabolic processes and activity). (
  • However, results from these studies have shown that there is considerable interindividual variability and the expected reductions in weight (calculated from exercise energy expenditure) are often not induced. (
  • We studied the effect of meal frequency on human energy expenditure (EE) and its components. (
  • In HFD mice, daily energy expenditure was reduced with gluten intake. (
  • Decreasing intake rate (intake per unit foraging effort) can be expected to increase daily energy expenditure (DEE), due to increased foraging costs. (
  • Recent studies indicate that the relationship between intake rate (energy gain per unit foraging effort) and energy expenditure may not be clearcut. (
  • This pilot study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of energy intake (EI) estimated by a web-based food record, by comparison with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly-labelled water (DLW) in overweight and obese women. (
  • Total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed in weight stable (±1 kg) women (n = 9), with a mean (SD) age of 34.5 (11.3) years and body mass index of 29.2 (1.4) kg m(-2) over 10 days using the DLW technique. (
  • It remains possible that such changes occur over an extended period or in response to a higher level of energy expenditure. (
  • Energy intakes assessed by 7-d weighed dietary records (EI-WDRs) and diet histories (EI-DHs) were compared with concurrent estimates of total energy expenditure (TEE) by the doubly labeled water method in 78 subjects aged 3-18 y. (
  • Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity. (
  • Total Energy Expenditure and ad Libitum Fluid/Nutrient Intake During a 24-Hour Mountain-Bike Event: A Case Study. (
  • Previous studies have used the doubly labeled water method to evaluate the total energy expenditure (TEE) during Ironman, ultramarathon trail runs, and competitive road cycling. (
  • Long term use of sugars can induce excess caloric intake and/or obesity. (
  • Cluster analysis was used to classify nonpregnant, nonlactating women 19 years and older based on their consumption patterns of total meat and individual meats (beef, poultry, processed meats, pork and seafoods) as percent of caloric intake. (
  • An analysis to determine if increases in vitamin 86, iron, and zinc seen with high meat intake were due to increased meat or caloric intake showed that total fat and SFA increased 12% and 8%, respectively, when ≤ 2 ounces of meat and ≤ 6 ounces of meat were consumed. (
  • however it may also expose them to more sweet and fast food shops, potentially explaining the caloric intake in young people. (
  • This cross-sectional study investigated whether independent mobility is preadolescents was related to caloric intake. (
  • Boys consumed an average 164 kilocalories (kcal) from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 7.3% of total daily caloric intake. (
  • Girls consumed an average 121 kcal from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 7.2% of total daily caloric intake. (
  • Total caloric intake (p=0.03) and of the group of sugars and sweets (p=0.03) were higher among individuals with MN compared with BN. (
  • The main conclusion of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was that the consumption of low/no calorie sweeteners vs sugar decreases body weight via decreasing daily energy intake. (
  • and (3) the effects of low/no calorie sweeteners consumed in capsules vs placebo capsules (i.e., where there is no meaningful difference in energy content between treatments, and no difference in taste). (
  • For low/no calorie sweeteners vs sugar, the results from both parallel-groups and cross-over randomised controlled trials showed that body weight, BMI and energy intake were reduced by consumption of low/no calorie sweeteners compared with sugar, which is consistent with the primary intended use of sugar alternatives. (
  • The food energy intake deficit was created by prohibiting calorically dense fats and refined sugars and encouraging consumption of high-volume-to-calorie foods such as grains and cereals. (
  • This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and weight changes in a program that used worksite cafeterias to reduce employees' calorie content of purchased foods and improve their macronutrient intake. (
  • In fact, the soft drinks tax in Mexico has reduced average calorie intake by just six calories per person, per day. (
  • The study referred to by the BMA in 'Food for Thought' suggests a 20% tax here would reduce calorie intake by a mere four calories a day. (
  • Although physical activity alone does not typically produce substantial weight loss, physical activity in combination with reduced calorie intake leads to greater weight loss than dietary change alone. (
  • Calculate your calorie intake and make a few calculations to find out how many calories you should burn per day. (
  • If you are on the HCG diet, this will be the least of your problems as your body will not be able to function properly with such minimal calorie intake. (
  • However, once your calorie intake goes back to normal after the juice diet, you'll likely regain some of the weight, if not all. (
  • Among boys, non-Hispanic white (176 kcal), non-Hispanic black (167 kcal), and Hispanic (156 kcal) boys had higher mean calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverages on a given day than non-Hispanic Asian boys (73 kcal) ( Figure 3 ). (
  • Based on changes in body energy stores, the overall ED was 70% (-1849 ± 511 kcal/d, no group differences). (
  • Results: Decreasing the item size of food led to a decrease of 25% in gram weight intake, corresponding to 68 kcal. (
  • Graphical analysis on Bland-Altman showing agreement between the average of energy intake and recommendation (kcal) in a sample of pregnant women at diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. (
  • Milk drinks were equal in energy content (2088 kJ, or 499 kcal) and had similar proportions of fat (30.3%), carbohydrate (54.7%), and protein (15%) across three volumes: 300, 450, and 600 mL. (
  • USDA food consumption survey data from 1989--1991 and 1994--1996 indicated that the increased energy intake was caused primarily by higher carbohydrate intake ( 6 ). (
  • Total carbohydrate intake was 1192 g with an average hourly intake of 58 (22) g·h-1. (
  • It said research now needs to be carried out to find appropriate carbohydrate intake levels. (
  • But it acknowledges the possibility of reducing carbohydrates, saying, "It is possible to recommend lowering the carbohydrate intake percentage from 50, depending on the preferences and clinical conditions of the patient. (
  • said: "While the extreme restriction of carbohydrates may cause nutritional problems, it is possible to lower the carbohydrate intake percentage by balancing it with other nutrients. (
  • The energy and protein intakes were lower by -29.34% and protein intake was higher by 42.65% compared with American Dietetic Association (ADA). (
  • Vitamin B 6 intakes were below the RDA in all clusters but were adequate relative to protein intakes. (
  • The main purpose of the study was to compare the energy and macronutrients intakes by composite sample method. (
  • The mean values of energy and macronutrients intakes were compared with the norms as appropriate. (
  • This study suggests that students are having deficient or imbalance energy intakes from macronutrients and are at the risk of malnutrition. (
  • abstract = "During late lactation maternal food intake reaches a plateau, indicating that the female is limited in her sustained energy intake. (
  • Tables of food frequency and nutrient intake were created for a r and om sample of 266 lactating women from different areas of Shiraz city, Islamic Republic of Iran. (
  • Attempting to reduce total fat and SFA intakes by reducing meat intake, especially red meat, may have a deleterious effect on women's nutrient status. (
  • This study examines the degree of under-reporting of energy intake by elite, female gymnasts, and the impact this predicted under-reporting has on associated macro and micro nutrient intake. (
  • Additionally, under-reporting of energy intake had a significant impact on reported micro nutrient intake. (
  • Conclusions: Both DHQ and FFQ were valid in assessing most nutrient intakes and classifying individuals in different categories of intakes in the Iranian population. (
  • This case study aimed to measure the TEE, cycling metrics , and ad libitum nutrient /fluid intake during a 24-hour cross-country mountain-bike race . (
  • Total nutrient intake and total fluid intake in addition to cycling metrics (speed, power output, cadence, and heart rate ) were continuously recorded during the event. (
  • TEE and total nutrient intake were 41 and 23.5 MJ, respectively. (
  • Idebenone - A "near twin" to CoQ10 and a superb complement to that remarkable nutrient, idebenone (pronounced eye-DEB-eh-known) has garnered "superstar" status as one of the most promising energy-enhancing, cognitive-enhancing, and potential anti-aging nutrients ever studied. (
  • Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in energy and/or nutrient intake. (
  • Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? (
  • Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1) only environmental change (i.e., the introduction of 10 new low-energy-density (ED) foods and provision of labels for all foods sold at lunch, which listed ED, calories, and macronutrient content) or 2) the environmental change plus pricing incentives for purchasing low-ED foods and education about low-ED eating delivered in four, 1-hour group sessions. (
  • Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes were determined from meals provided two and six hours into each day and from a snack bag provided in-between trial days. (
  • Secondly, we tested for carry-over effects of intake rate on reproduction, by giving pairs the opportunity to reproduce with access ad libitum to food after feeding on one of the three chaff/seed ratios for 6 weeks. (
  • Ad libitum energy intake did not differ among the 3 interventions. (
  • Total body weight was 75.3 and 72.3 kg prerace and postrace, respectively, with a measured ad libitum total fluid intake of 13.3 L and a water turnover of 17.2 L. (
  • Changes in the expression of these neuropeptides do not disrupt the total energy intake immediately but may contribute to the obesity caused by long term intake of sugars. (
  • Patients with MN had higher energy intake of sugars and sweets. (
  • What is known about the effectiveness of economic instruments to reduce consumption of foods high in saturated fats and other energy-dense foods for preventing and treating obesity? (
  • This study used the 1987-88 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey to investigate the contribution meat products make to intakes of nutrients at risk of inadequate or excessive consumption by women. (
  • Ratings of palatability, sensory properties, and energy content of the drinks and of hunger completed before consumption of the preloads were not significantly different among conditions. (
  • Meals were weighed before and after consumption to calculate energy and protein intake per patient/day. (
  • The A allele was associated with increased energy intake (P=0.006) independently of body weight. (
  • Women with PPBMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 had higher energy intakes than is recommended (p=0.006) (Figure 2 ). (
  • In theory, this acute energy deficit should result in weight loss due to the disparity in energy balance. (
  • Substrate utilization, exercise performance, and skeletal muscle response to energy deficit in humans undergoing altitude acclimatization at 4,300 m above sea level. (
  • Nonetheless, based on knowledge from energy deficit studies (105, 110) as well as studies by Woolfson (111) and Calloway and Spector (98) , it can be assumed that positive energy balance reduces amino acid oxidation. (
  • Evaluating trends in dietary intake is an important step in understanding the factors that contribute to the increase in obesity. (
  • Clearly, the processes of obesity are much more complex than how much food we eat and how much energy we spend, but it's still a factor that needs to be understood because it explains some of our tendency to experience weight gain. (
  • The impact of obesity-related SNP on appetite and energy intake. (
  • 11/24/2022 - Enel Green Power Chile, an Enel Chile subsidiary, began constructing its new La Caba a wind farm, which also incorporates an innovative energy storage. (
  • 11/24/2022 - RES has submitted a planning application for its 21-wind turbine Bloch Wind Farm to the Scottish Government s Energy Consents Unit for determination. (
  • Adequacy of energy intake in total sample and stratified by the pre-pregnancy body mass index (PPBMI) classification in a sample of pregnant women at diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. (
  • Nutritional intake was quantified on training days using the Automated 24 h Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Australia), and sports nutrition knowledge was measured by the 88-item Sports Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (SNKQ). (
  • A questionnaire gathered sociodemographic, clinical, anthropometric and lifestyle data, and also a Food Frequency Questionnaire was calculated in order to measure food and energy intake. (
  • This comprehensive intake questionnaire is a lengthy process. (
  • The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) has been suggested as an acceptable feasible method for assessing the association of dietary intake and disease. (
  • Zendehdel K. Comparison of validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire and the Diet History Questionnaire for assessment of energy and nutrients intakes in an Iranian population. (
  • The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) has been suggested as an acceptable (and the most feasible) method for collecting usual dietary intake data in epidemiologic studies (4). (
  • however, when treatments differed in energy value (LCS vs sugar), there were consistent effects in favour of LCS. (
  • Daily mean protein intake was 1.5 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1, therefore, consistent with recommendations (1.2-2.0 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1) for 77.8% of players. (
  • This is consistent with the fact intake at peak lactation and pup growth increase in cold (8 °C) and decrease in hot (30 °C) conditions. (
  • Although further research is needed in more diverse population groups, the accuracy of web-based food records for assessing EI appears to be consistent with other published dietary intake methods. (
  • Consistent with the effects on intake, the volume of the drinks affected ratings of hunger and fullness. (
  • Lutein For Every Age is an educational campaign created by OmniActive to raise awareness of the benefits of early and consistent macular carotenoid intake to help maintain proper eye, skin, cognitive and general health throughout a lifetime. (
  • For each additional hour of television viewed per day, fruit and vegetable servings per day decreased ( - 0.14) after adjustment for anthropometric, demographic, dietary variables ( including baseline percent energy from fat, sit-down dinner frequency, and baseline energy- adjusted fruit and vegetable intake), and physical activity. (
  • A major contributing fac- tor is overweight due to energy imbalance and poor quality diet. (
  • Adding fat does increase energy density, but feeding too much fat or fat products that contain the wrong types of fatty acids can lead to depression in DMI and milk fat production if excess polyunsaturated fats are included in the fat product. (
  • Lead author of the study, Dr Lauren Bandy (Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford University) said: 'Our results demonstrate that overall progress to reduce salt intake has stalled. (
  • Results indicate an inverse relationship of total energy intake and calories from all meats. (
  • Total fat intakes had a small, positive relationship with meat calories. (
  • Results Boys had greater independent mobility, calories intake, and MVPA (average minutes per day) compared to girls. (
  • In linear regression analyses (adjusting for age, sex, MVPA, pubertal status and BMI) higher scores for independent mobility were significantly (p = 0.013) related to higher calories intake. (
  • Conclusions The opportunity for children to move around in their neighborhood unaccompanied by an adult appears to be an important independent correlate of calories intake for preadolescent boys and girls. (
  • Among both boys and girls, older youth had the highest mean intake and percentage of daily calories from sugar-sweetened beverages relative to younger children. (
  • Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. (
  • This study aimed to assess nutritional intake, sports nutrition knowledge and risk of Low Energy Availability (LEA) in female Australian rules football players. (
  • The under-reporting of energy intake seen in these subjects has an impact on the reported intake of macro and micro nutrients that can influence the interpretation of the nutritional status of these athletes and the strategy for nutrition intervention. (
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the energy intake and subjective sensations of hunger using a visual analogue scale (VAS) of a breakfast meal of eggs compared with a breakfast meal of cereal in overweight Australian adults. (
  • However, assessment of long-term dietary intakes in epidemiologic studies is always challenging (2,3). (
  • Reducing salt intake is therefore a public health priority. (
  • The study was based on the nine grocery food categories that contribute the most to adults' salt intake in the UK. (
  • Voluntary targets alone may be insufficient to achieve the Government's target of a population salt intake of less than 6g per day and additional policy measures might be needed to achieve further progress. (
  • In a recent study, researchers tested the efficacy of a web-based strategy to lower children's salt intake. (
  • This computerized program was developed as a learning tool for students and parents to decrease salt intake among young Australians. (
  • The premise of this study was to determine the efficacy of DELISH in decreasing salt intake. (
  • As part of the study, children played an online detective game that was designed to be both a fun activity and one that promoted them to practice good health habits by reducing their salt intake. (
  • To maintain salt homeostasis, the kidneys similarly adjust urine concentration to match salt intake and loss. (
  • There was no difference between groups in total energy intake over the study period. (
  • The under-reporters had higher BMIs and percent body fat, and lower reported total energy intakes than the adequate energy reporters. (
  • These data provide novel insights for measures of TEE, total energy intake , and total fluid intake during an ultraendurance cross-country mountain-biking event and provide a foundation for future race / training needs . (
  • Focusing on the conventional emphasis on restricting total energy intake, the document says scientific evidence on proper intake levels for Japanese is inconclusive because studies in Europe and the United States have surveyed patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 to 35, much higher than those of most Japanese patients. (
  • Baby foods account for 7 % of total energy intake at 4-5 months, 28 % at 6-7 months, 27 % at 8-11 months, 17 % at 1-17 months, and 11 % at 18-24 months. (
  • Total fat and SFA intakes exceeded National Research Council (NRC) goals regardless of meat intake level. (
  • Zinc had a strong, positive association with total meat intake. (
  • However, evidence now suggests that non-exercise physical activity and resting metabolic rate are unaffected by exercise training [ 22 ], therefore shifting the focus towards the other side of the energy balance equation (i.e. energy intake). (
  • The effects of intake rate on somatic maintenance and reproduction may explain why birds sustained higher metabolic rates than apparently necessary,but the physiological mechanisms determining the optimal metabolic rate remain to be discovered. (
  • There are limitations to both remedies, since increasing energy density by increasing grain can lead to acidosis, milk fat depression, depression in DMI, and other metabolic disorders. (
  • Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records, and the degree of under-reporting was predicted from the ratio of reported energy intake (EI) to predicted basal metabolic rate (BMRestd), using the standards described by Goldberg et al. (
  • Similarly, compared to the WHO/FAO values the energy was lower -30.57 and protein was higher by 43.29, respectively. (
  • The energy contribution was higher from protein by 151% and lower from carbohydrates and fats by -28.35 and 23.43%, respectively. (
  • Most studies used fixed reward rates, but foraging motivation is generally higher for variable reward rates, and the only study in which animals increased DEE when intake rate decreased used variable reward rates. (
  • Effects of intake rate on foraging time and DEE were stronger at lower temperatures, when DEE was higher. (
  • The men were unable to adjust to the higher volume of food required to maintain their usual food energy intake. (
  • The study, recently published online in the journal Gastroenterology , by scientists from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and other institutions, could potentially lead to recommendations for higher vitamin D intake as an inexpensive complement to screening tests as a colorectal cancer prevention strategy for adults younger than age 50. (
  • Analysis showed that higher total vitamin D intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of early-onset colorectal cancer. (
  • The same link was found between higher vitamin D intake and risk of colon polyps detected before age 50. (
  • In any case, the investigators concluded that higher total vitamin D intake is associated with decreased risks of young-onset colorectal cancer and precursors (polyps). (
  • It is important energy appetite control to say that a lot of side effects can be able to have a higher dosage. (
  • Most people see a difference in their skin, hair and nails and the fading of age spots, helps with higher energy levels, and having a sense of well-being. (
  • In the highest Mediterranean Diet Scale (MDS) category there were higher intakes of energy, fibre, glycaemic load, carbohydrate, total fat, and olive oil. (
  • However saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intakes decreased in higher MDS categories. (
  • Can a Web-based food record accurately assess energy intake in overweight and obese women? (
  • During 1 week ten male adults (age 25-61 years, body mass index 20·7-30·4 kg/m 2 ) were fed to energy balance at two meals/d (gorging pattern) and during another week at seven meals/d (nibbling pattern). (
  • However, evidence is scarce in healthy older individuals, and it is unclear whether increased protein intake during negative energy balance is sufficient to maintain whole-body and muscle protein mass in healthy older adults. (
  • In contrast, limited knowledge is currently available on the impact of positive energy balance on the regulation of protein turnover rates and muscle mass in healthy older adults. (
  • So many people suffer from low energy that "having more energy" is an extremely common health goal for adults who are tired, overworked, overslept, or lack energy for no reason they can explain. (
  • The results suggest that female Australian rules football players have an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and calcium and low sports nutrition knowledge. (
  • We previously observed increased energy intake (EI) at the meal before planned afternoon exercise, but the proximity of the meal to exercise might have reduced the scale of the pre-exercise anticipatory eating. (
  • meaning exercise induced an acute negative energy balance. (
  • generally reporting that acute aerobic exercise does not alter energy intake in the hours afterwards, compared to a resting control condition [ 9 ]. (
  • Single bouts of exercise do not cause compensatory changes in appetite, food intake or appetite regulatory hormones on the day that exercise is performed. (
  • This study sought to test this possibility by examining appetite, food intake and appetite regulatory hormones (acylated ghrelin, total peptide-YY, leptin and insulin) over two days, with acute bouts of exercise performed on each morning. (
  • [ 6-11 ] Several reviews have also discussed how exercise timing, relative to meal timing, affects energy intake behaviors and physiological responses to eating ( e.g. , glycemic control). (
  • Exercise for an energy burst! (
  • High-yielding dairy cows are typically in a state of negative energy balance (NEBAL) during early lactation period because the amount of energy required for the maintenance of body tissue functions and milk production exceed what the cows can consume. (
  • Fueling up requires you to make sure that you consume sufficient energy throughout the day to maintain your training routines. (
  • Many people might consume chicken essence products as an energy booster when pulling an all-nighter. (
  • But when we consistently consume overly processed foods with high added sugar, for example, they may be tasty, convenient and a temporary energy boost - but the bad news is that they end up raising our blood sugar levels, which in turn leads to crashes. (
  • of the T.H. Chan School, noted that vitamin D intake from food sources such as fish, mushrooms, eggs, and milk has decreased in the past several decades. (
  • However, prior to the current study, no research has examined whether total vitamin D intake is associated with the risk of young-onset colorectal cancer. (
  • We found that total vitamin D intake of 300 IU per day or more - roughly equivalent to three 8-oz. glasses of milk - was associated with an approximately 50% lower risk of developing young-onset colorectal cancer. (
  • The results of the study were obtained by calculating the total vitamin D intake - both from dietary sources and supplements - of 94,205 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II). (
  • Interestingly, the researchers didn't find a significant association between total vitamin D intake and risk of colorectal cancer diagnosed after age 50. (
  • As baby foods only account for a minor fraction of overall food intake, their impact on the quality of young children's diet is much less than that of growing-up milks, particularly for preventing insufficient iron and vitamin D intake. (
  • Behavioural determinants of daily energy intake during a 28-day outdoor expedition in Arctic Norway. (
  • Daily mean calcium intake was 924.8 mg⋅d-1, therefore, below recommendations (1000 mg⋅d-1) for 65.5% of players, while mean iron intake was 12.2 mg⋅d-1, also below recommendations (18 mg⋅d-1) for 100% of players. (
  • Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the 7-day dietary record of 668 men and 826 women. (
  • Underreporting was calculated as estimated energy requirements minus energy intake with adjustment for daily variation. (
  • 1998. They calculated weekly means for daily Net Energy Intake (NEI), FCM yield, and EB for 24 primiparous and 49 multiparous cows from 2 through 21 wk postpartum. (
  • All the subjects were observed for five consecutive days of their training for dietary intake, weight, and daily activity pattern in the middle of each activity level. (
  • Moreover data of the subsample indicated that variation in mean intake from week to week was significantly larger than the daily variance suggesting nonrandomness of daily energy intake. (
  • They are thought to account for up to 50% of total daily energy intake in several developed countries. (
  • This results in exceeding the recommended daily intake of salt. (
  • While occasional low energy is normal and to be expected in today's busy world, persistent low energy that begins to affect your daily life can have a number of unwanted health side effects, including impaired judgment, decreased coordination, and increased irritability. (
  • Although EI-DHs were biased towards overestimation in most age groups and individual measurements lacked precision, EI-DHs were more representative of habitual intake than were EI-WDRs. (
  • Weigh as you eat' method in combination with proximate analysis was used to determine the habitual energy intake of the subjects. (
  • This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate that, during 1971--2000, mean energy intake in kcals increased, mean percentage of kcals from carbohydrate increased, and mean percentage of kcals from total fat and saturated fat decreased (Figures 1 and 2 ). (
  • The pattern of food intake can affect the regulation of body weight and lipogenesis. (
  • Pedroso JA, Zampieri TT, Donato J Jr. Reviewing the Effects of L-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis. (
  • Objectives: This study aimed to determine the energy and protein content of meals served and consumed by hospitalised patients compared with their needs, to assess patients' food satisfaction and investigate associations with energy and protein intake. (
  • Caffeine is a stimulant that is found naturally in many plants, although synthetic caffeine can be found in some medications and energy drinks. (
  • If you want to cut back your caffeine intake, it's best to do so gradually. (
  • Results suggest that 7-d EI-WDRs tend to underestimate food intake of adolescents. (
  • Television viewing is inversely associated with intake of fruit and vegetables among adolescents. (
  • Evidence indicates that, whilst amino acids contribute more to energy production at negative energy balance (105, 110) , they are utilised more for de novo protein synthesis when energy balance is achieved. (
  • To evaluate the effects of sugar intake on different regions of the hypothalamus (the brain's control center for energy homeostasis) we first developed and then evaluated a microscope-assisted dissection method. (
  • We further evaluated the effects of various sugar solutions on the expression of several important hypothalamic neuropeptides because they play a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. (
  • Water homeostasis is maintained by a balance between water intake and the combined water loss from renal excretion, respiratory, skin, and GI sources. (