Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Jatropha: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Stramenopiles: A common name (but used formally) for a group of organisms that are mostly kinds of algae including BACILLARIOPHYTA; OOMYCETES; PHAEOPHYCEAE; and CHRYSOPHYCEAE. They all contain CHLOROPLASTS that are thought to have been derived from the endosymbiosis of ancient RED ALGAE.Clostridium beijerinckii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Thermoanaerobacter: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. Cultures consist of rods interspersed with coccoid cells.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Kerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier Protein) Reductase (NADPH, B-Specific): An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. It has a preference for acyl derivatives with carbon chain length from 4 to 16.Setaria Plant: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The small pointed seeds are grown for hay in North America and western Europe and important as food in China and other Asian countries.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Scenedesmus: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.HydrocarbonsCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Millettia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain ISOFLAVONES, some of which show molluscicidal and schistosomicidal activity. Some species of Pongamia have been reclassified to this genus and some to DERRIS.DextrinsChlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Brachypodium: A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Ganoderma: A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.SmokeFatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)XyloseTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.FiresHydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Nuclear Energy: Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Glycoside HydrolasesCell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Gas, Natural: A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.GlycogenKetone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Household Articles: Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.PropaneExercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Entropy: The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
"Novozymes and Ceres Partner on Biofuel Crops". Domestic Fuel. Retrieved 2013-04-26. "Energy crop company Ceres receives ... It has tested biofuels production from switchgrass and miscanthus. In 2010, Ceres started to cooperate with Novozymes to ... The company develops and produces seeds of genetically modified crops used for biofuels production. In addition to the ... Herndon, Andrew (2012-02-22). "Ceres Rises on First Trading Day for Biofuels Crop Company". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2013-04-26. ...
Biofuel: Biodiesel can be produced from the oil in the seeds. But the main interest to produce renewable fuels is to produce ... Consumptive-use and root yield of buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima HBK)". Fuel and Energy Abstracts. 38 (5): 325. doi: ... The carbohydrates that are formed in the tap root have led to the idea of growing the plant for biofuel. The fruit is consumed ... Blume, David (2007). Alcohol Can Be a Gas! Fueling an Ethanol Revolution for the 21st Century. The International Institute For ...
Herndon, Andrew (2013-05-01). "Biofuel Pioneer Forsakes Renewables to Make Gas-Fed Fuels". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2017-12-14. ... Methanotrophs are prokaryotes, organisms that metabolize methane as their only source of energy and cellular material like ... and is led by CEO Alan Shaw, a chemist who previously worked to turn waste from crop production into biofuels. By June 2013, ... Bullis, Kevin (2012-10-30). "Biofuels Companies Drop Biomass and Turn to Natural Gas". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2017-12 ...
... and Fuel Technology". "United Airlines is flying on biofuels. Here's why that's a really big deal". "NextGen Update 2017 Fuel ... The Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions, and Noise (CLEEN) program is a public-private partnership under NextGen to accelerate ... TASAR suggests a new route or altitude change to save time or fuel, and ADS-B In can assist by enabling the software to ... ADS-B-equipped aircraft with ITP software can fly more often at more fuel-efficient or less-turbulent flight levels. The FAA is ...
... or that uses renewable energy sources throughout its working life. Using biofuels instead of petroleum fuels. Proper ... Energy portal Renewable energy portal Cars portal Alternative fuel vehicle Alternatives to the automobile Better Place Emerging ... Hybrid cars may be partly fossil fuel (or biofuel) powered and partly electric or hydrogen-powered. Most combine an internal ... This additional capacity would normally not be based on the same ratios of energy sources ("clean" versus fossil fuels) than ...
"Farmer planning diesel tree biofuel". Sydney Morning Herald. 2006-09-19. Retrieved 2006-10-14. "New fuel source from trees". ... dead link] Duke, James A. (1982). "Copaifera langsdorfii Desf.". Handbook of Energy Crops. Purdue Center for New Crops. Almeida ...
It also promotes biofuel as an alternative to fossil fuels. ZERO worked to establish an electricity certificate scheme to ... The primary working areas include CO2 disposal, renewable energy, especially wind power, and new transportation fuels, ... promote renewable energy in Norway and Sweden. The organisation also supported Hynor-A chain of hydrogen fuel stations that ... Important issues are electric cars and chargers, carbon capture and storage (CCS), renewable energy, electrification of ...
However, microalgal biofuels are still far from being competitive with fossil fuels, regarding their high production costs and ... doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.06.032 Demirbas, M. F. (2011). Biofuels from algae for sustainable development. Applied Energy, 88 ... It may be a good alternative to the current biofuel crops, like soybean, corn or rapeseed, as it is more productive and do not ... doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.016 Singh, A., Nigam, P. S., & Murphy, J. D. (2011). Renewable fuels from algae: An answer to ...
"Torrefaction - A New Process In Biomass and Biofuels". New Energy and Fuel. November 19, 2008. Retrieved February 29, 2012. ... This energy (the volatiles) can be used as a heating fuel for the torrefaction process. After the biomass is torrefied it can ... Torrefaction combined with densification leads to a very energy-dense fuel carrier of 20 to 21 GJ/ton lower heating value (LHV ... Higher energy density: An energy density of 18-20 GJ/m³ - compared to the 26 to 33 gigajoules per tonne heat content of natural ...
"Camelina-derived jet fuel and diesel: Sustainable advanced biofuels". Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 29: 382-392 ... Camelina Biofuel Biofuels Digest PR Newswire Sustainable Oils website Navy Tests Biofuel-Powered 'Green Hornet' Biofuels Digest ... Only fuels produced from approved pathways can be used to meet the EPA mandated minimums for advanced biofuels blending under ... in exchange for common stock in Global Clean Energy Holdings and a promissory note. Biofuels Digest Shonnard, David R. (2010 ...
Destined for use in bio-fuel, mulch and animal bedding. Flaxseed oil is high in alpha linoleic fatty acid (ALA) of which is ... Productions of composites require less energy than fiberglass to process and manufacture which results in a lighter vehicle ... Lastly, deforestation for fuel use is an ongoing issue in Nepal. Considering that by-products of flax harvest are already used ... There is world market demand for flax straw and fibre use in environmentally friendly products, textiles and biofuel. Farmers ...
"Sapphire Energy: Biofuels Digest's 2014 5-Minute Guide : Biofuels Digest". www.biofuelsdigest.com. Retrieved 2016-03-09. ... algae-derived transportation fuels that are 100% compliant with the existing energy infrastructure. In 2010, the company began ... In 2007, while still serving as Chief Science Officer at Kythera, David co-founded Sapphire Energy, a company with a mission to ... Hsu, Tiffany (2009-10-04). "Using algae to make fuels, he's thinking beyond pond scum". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. ...
Handbook of Energy Crops Asian Journal: 2 wild plants eyed for bio-diesel Social network paves way for interest in fuel- ... Its fruit is also highly suitable for use in producing biofuel. This use has been encouraged by the Philippines Department of ... The petroleum nut derives its name from the resemblance of the fruit's odor to petroleum-based fuels. The fruits of the tree ... Duke Energy Handbook www.hort.purdue.edu. Accessed May 17, 2007 Bengwayan, Michael (First published November 15, 2010). " ...
D1 Williamson Magor Bio Fuel Limited was a joint venture company between D1 Oils plc, UK and Williamson Magor group. This ... Renewable energy in India Solar power in India Wind power in India Hydroelectric power in India Biofuels by region Food vs. ... However, in recent times the bio-fuel policy has come under critical review, on the way it has been promoted. Large plots of ... "Chhattisgarh Bio-fuel Development Authority". Archived from the original on 19 February 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2007. Barta, ...
It has minor renewable energy activities in the form of biofuels. It has operations in over 40 countries worldwide, it has ... In 2004, MOL entered the Austrian market by purchasing a fuel storage facility in Korneuburg, and a year later acquired the ... In the field of renewable energy MOL develops geothermal power production through the, CEGE Central European Geothermal Energy ... and Cairn Energy (30%). In June 2014, the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change gave final approval for the £1 billion ...
... applications as fuels for internal combustion engines". Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 33 (3): 233-271. doi:10.1016 ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Avinash Kumar Agarwal (2007). "Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) ... Agarwal is the Editor-in-chief of Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability (JEES) and is Associate Editor of two ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Vegetable oil Diesel fuel India portal Engineering portal Long link - please ...
Biofuels, Solar and Wind as Renewable Energy Systems: Benefits and Risks. Springer. Perlman, David (14 October 2006). "Kiss ... "Spent Nuclear Fuel: A Trash Heap Deadly for 250,000 Years or a Renewable Energy Source?". Scientific American. Ongena, J; G. ... "Energy for future centuries - Will fusion be an inexhaustible, safe and clean energy source?" (PDF). Fusion Science and ... Stars will eventually exhaust their supply of hydrogen fuel and burn out. Close encounters gravitationally fling planets from ...
Savage, Neil (2011). "Fuel Options: The Ideal Biofuel". Nature. 474 (7352): S11. doi:10.1038/474S09a. Horváth, I. T.; Mehdi, H ... of the energy of glucose and can be blended by itself in gasoline where it performs comparably to ethanol/gasoline mixtures. ... targeted for gasoline and other fuel applications. One of the main advantages that allows GVL to be a practical biofuel is that ... It is readily obtained from cellulosic biomass and is a potential fuel and green solvent. GVL behaves as a prodrug to γ- ...
"Impact of Algae Biofuel on In-Use Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from a Marine Vessel". Energy & Fuels. 26 (10): 6137-6143. ... Energy companies Solazyme (CA) and Dynamic Fuels (LA) are working towards numerous fuels and competing for the contracts ... One of the goals of the Navy in its biofuels program is "not to have to sail to the Middle East every time we re-fuel." The ... Studies have also shown a decrease in particulate emissions from the use of algal biofuels versus naval diesel fuel. Crossover ...
Energy Korea (Feb 4, 2013). "Changhae Ethanol Files International Patent Application for Its Bio-fuel Manufacturing Techniques ... In February 2013, Changhae Ethanol (formerly Bohae) filed a patent application for its 'techniques of manufacturing bio-fuel ...
Root causes may be the increasing use of biofuels in developed countries (see also food vs fuel), and an increasing demand for ... Rising meat consumption due to changes in lifestyle can in turn lead to higher energy consumption due to the higher energy- ... Report available in pdf Oxfam (26 June 2008). "Another Inconvenient Truth: Biofuels are not the answer to climate or fuel ... Oxfam (25 June 2008). "Another Inconvenient Truth: Biofuels are not the answer to climate or fuel crisis" (PDF). Oxfam. ...
... including biofuels), cogeneration and distributed generation; adoption of Euro 4 fuel qualities and introduction of vapour ... Chairman of the Energy for Environment Foundation, a non-profit organization undertaking renewable energy and energy efficiency ... During his term as energy minister he implemented wide-ranging reforms in the energy sector, for instance, the end of oil price ... The most important law passed during his term as energy minister was the Energy Industry Act to establish an independent ...
The biofuel is a contender in the race to find an energy alternative to fossil fuels. Proponents of Treethanol claim that its ... Approximately 85% of US energy consumption is produced from fossil fuels such as natural gas, coal, and oil. With China, India ... "Ethanol". Texas State Energy Conservation Office. Retrieved 2013-01-28. Sachs, Ignacy (2007). The Biofuels Controversy (pdf). ... Also, compared to corn ethanol, cellulosic biofuel does not require the same quantity of fertilizers, pesticides, energy, or ...
On the downstream the synthetic fuel, biogas, biofuel and electric energy are generated. The device allows the increasing of ...
Indian companies have also expressed interest in bio fuel, energy, minerals and pharmaceuticals. Total trade turn over remains ...
The Energy Policy Act of 2005, which calls for 7.5 billion gallons of biofuels to be used annually by 2012, will also help to ... Flex-fuel vehicles are assisting in this transition because they allow drivers to choose different fuels based on price and ... World Energy Assessment (2001). Renewable energy technologies, p. 221. *↑ What Solar Power Needs Now Renewable Energy Access, ... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Economic Drivers for the 21st Century [online]. American Solar Energy Society, [cit. ...
... a hydrocarbon produced by trees that could potentially replace high-energy fuels, such as JP-10, in missiles and other ... Engineered bacteria produce biofuel alternative for high-energy rocket fuel. Georgia Institute of Technology ... Fuels with high energy densities are important in applications where minimizing fuel weight is important. The gasoline used to ... that could open the door for lighter and more powerful engines fueled by increased supplies of high-energy fuels. Pinene dimers ...
The Biofuels Digest newsletter. The most widely-read biofuels daily - 14,000+ organizations subscribe - why not you too?. Your ... Methanol is a mature energy source, an efficient and clean burning fuel, which has been around for a long time. Methanol is low ... Not only will methanols use as a fuel open up and stimulate the fuel sector by creating jobs but it will also save consumers ... adjusting for methanols lower energy content that requires 1.74 gallons of M-85 to provide the same energy content or range as ...
Eco Green Fuels, World Health Energy sign algal biofuels deal. July 22, 2011 , admin ... The Biofuels Digest newsletter. The most widely-read biofuels daily - 14,000+ organizations subscribe - why not you too?. Your ... In India, Eco Green Fuels and World Health Energy has signed a LOI for a comprehensive joint venture to provide 1 million ... Today we are joined by Joanne Ivancic with Advanced Biofuels USA, Graham Noyes of the Low Carbon Fuels Coalition, and Jeremy ...
... and industry partner Lanzatech recently achieved a significant milestone in the production of renewable jet fuel. Funded by the ... The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy success stories highlight the positive impact of its work with businesses ... Sustainably produced advanced biofuels have the potential to deliver large quantities of cleaner fuel for aviation. Through ... EERE Success Story-Aviation Biofuel Milestone Reached: 5 Gallons of Jet Fuel Produced from Industrial Waste Gasses. August 22, ...
Global Green will have earned the exclusive world rights to a bio-fuel oil technology from Valcent on completing the pilot ... has announced that it will fund a demonstration pilot plant of the Vertigro bio-fuel oil/C02 sequestration system developed by ... which is very suitable for blending with diesel to create a bio-diesel fuel. The... ... Vertigro Algae Bio-Fuel Oil/C02 Sequestration System. Global Green Solutions Inc (OTC BB: GGRN.OB) has announced that it will ...
For Fuel Freedom uses organisms to convert organic waste and carbon dioxide into carbon-negative alternative fuels, averting ... For Fuel Freedom s process is believed to be the biggie ? the most significant cellulosic ethanol process in bio-fuel history ... For Fuel Freedom, Inc., a newly formed alternative energy and renewable fuels provider, can produce more ethanol fuel from corn ... Rush claimed, For Fuel Freedom can produce cheap fuel and alternative energy from renewable sources like trash, while promoting ...
Researchers are using e. coli bacteria to make renewable energy by having the bacteria feed upon switchgrass. Normally, e. coli ... latest in biofuel, make bacteria into biofuel, make renewable energy, produce biofuel, producing biofuel, renewable fuels, ... solar energy, switchgrass, turn ecoli bacteria into biofuel, us alternative energy, us dept of energy, wind energy Post ... The Department of Energy believes that biofuels will play a major role in the energy system of the U.S. in the near future. ...
... alternative energy news alternative energy research alternative fuels biofarms biofuel biofuel news biofuel research biofuels ... CategoryAlternative Energy Environmental Featured News Research United States. Tagsalgae alternative energy Algae biofuel algae ... Algae biofuel is a relatively new concept that is gaining more attention in the world of alternative energy. Biofuels are ... nasa alternative energy nasa alternative energy research nasa biofuels nasa research plastic bag algae farm producing biofuel ...
Fuel Cells & Batteries Expo. Group Exhibit Hydrogen + Fuel Cells + Batteries is Europes largest exhibition for these ... Electric & Hybrid Vehicles Biofuels - Hydrogen Clean Energies - Renewable Energies Environmental Protection Audience. Trade ... GROUP EXHIBIT HYDROGEN + FUEL CELLS + BATTERIES 2020 auf deutsch Description. Hydrogen & Fuel Cells & Batteries Expo. Group ... Contact info for GROUP EXHIBIT HYDROGEN + FUEL CELLS + BATTERIES. Official Web Site ...
Moreover, some of these fuels can potentially reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector and hence, ... Alternative transportation fuels are projected to grow substantially due to energy security concerns especially in the US and ... Biofuels and synthetic fuels. in the US and China: A review of Well-to-Wheel energy use and greenhouse gas emissions with the ... Biofuels and synthetic fuels. in the US and China: A review of Well-to-Wheel energy use and greenhouse gas emissions with the ...
Bio-fuel tech en-ters Aus-tralian mar-ket. The Australian Energy Review - 2017-12-01. - NEWS - A MO-BILE biomass-to-bioen-ergy ... De-vel-oped by Nether-lands re-new-able en-ergy tech-nol-ogy man-u-fac-turer Net-ten-ergy BV and dis-trib-uted by Py-rotech En-ergy ... to gen-er-ate bio-fu-els and bio-chem-i-cals and elec-tric-ity. ...
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands ... "Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: A review, ... Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: A review. Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of ... Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: A review. Goyal, H.B.; Seal, Diptendu; Saxena, R.C. ...
South Africas government sees much to be excited about in the emerging biofuels industry. They are planning to outline their ... by 2013 biofuels would constitute 4.5 percent of motor fuel sold, because this fuel would contain either an 8 percent ethanol ... Food or Fuel?. South Africas government sees much to be excited about in the emerging biofuels industry. They are planning to ... The key challenges the strategy would need to address were the costs of the technology to develop the biofuels and the ...
The oils, carbohydrates or fats generated by the microbes or plants are refined to produce biofuel. This is a ... Currently biofuel is produced from plants as well as microbes. ... Synthetic Fuel from CO2 and Solar Energy?. Really amazing are ... The New Role of Microbes in Bio-Fuel Production. Posted in Biofuels , Energy Inventions , Future Technology ... Fertilizing with bio-ammonia would also save energy and could be as important as the bio-fuels they are working on. ...
EDGI reports a change in the emphasis of renewable fuels or energy sources as a replacement for fossil fuels. On the Vehicle ... Changes to Energy Dept. websites downplay renewables as a replacement for fossil fuels. Source: By Chelsea Harvey, Washington ... The Energy Department is changing its website to cut down on Obama-era language touting renewable energy sources as a climate- ... Home » News » Changes to Energy Dept. websites downplay renewables as a replacement for fossil fuels ...
Plunging price of renewable energy makes end of fossil fuels inevitable, says report. Source: By Ian Johnston, The Independent ... The transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy "now appears irreversible" as the cost of green power plunges, according ... Home » News » Plunging price of renewable energy makes end of fossil fuels inevitable, says report ... "But the clean energy transition now appears irreversible.". She said three major electricity markets - China, India and the US ...
Its just not very efficient at converting liquid fuels into mechanical motion (most of the energy is lost as heat). ... Syntec Biofuel: Closer to Fuel from Waste. TreeHugger readers made some good points in the comments of a recent post about ... But what about other types of biofuels made from waste? Theres some news on that front from Syntec Biofuel. Read on for more. ... Syntec Biofuel Press Release, via ::Syntec Catalytic Synthesis Process Yields 105 Gallons of Alcohols Per Ton of Biomass ...
... and Biofuel Catalysts Products Is $4.6 Billion Anticipated to Reach $8.5 Billion by 2022 ... Energy & Natural Resources Energy & Natural Resources Back Energy & Natural Resources View all Energy & Natural Resources ... The study is designed to give a comprehensive overview of the Refinery, Re-refinery, and Bio Fuel Catalysts market segment. ... Refinery, Re-refinery, and Bio Fuel Catalysts: Market Strategies and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2016-2022. * ID: 3633971 ...
Other systems that use energy, water and CO2 to make a fuel. Joules quest for fuels from CO2, sunlight and water ... That fuel is then used in a Microbial fuel cell that is loaded on your vehicle, which translates the fuel back into an electric ... Solar Fuels: Making hydrocarbon fuels directly from CO2 and sunlight. In this review, we looked at companies such as Algenol ... Liquid fuels have much less efficiency in the motor, but very dense energy storage. The longer you wish to travel or the bigger ...
Strobel does not know when the myco-fuel will be commercially available, since there are many steps to go through before ... Green energy dropping out of mix in developing world 08/04/16 ... fuel) production.. Strobel does not know when the myco-fuel ... Scientists find biofuel-making fungus. By Paula Leighton. [SANTIAGO] A fungus found in a Patagonian rainforest could provide ... SANTIAGO] A fungus found in a Patagonian rainforest could provide an alternative source of biofuel, according to new research. ...
p,A study finds that some developing countries may face significant food security impacts by 2020 if their ambitious biofuels ... More than 40 countries have made commitments to meet at least ten per cent of their transportation fuel needs with biofuel by ... But José Goldemberg of the Institute of Electrotechnic and Energy at the University of São Paulo, Brazil, told SciDev.Net that ... More than 40 countries have made commitments to meet at least ten per cent of their transportation fuel needs with biofuel by ...
In contrast to previous empirical analyses of biofuels that have relied on highly aggregated data, our analysis is ... The empirical analysis illustrates how ethanol and gasoline prices affect ethanol usage, controlling for fuel specifications, ... have resulted in discretionary blending at wholesale terminals of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels---a practice ... disaggregated to the level of individual wholesale fuel terminals or racks (of which there are about 350 in the US). We ...
Sustainable Energy. Kior Biocrude Plant a Step toward Advanced Biofuels. A Kior plant in Mississippi will start shipping fuel ... Sustainable Energy. A Novel Way to Cut the Cost of Advanced Biofuels. Modifying a gene in plants makes it far easier to process ... Sustainable Energy. Why the Promise of Cheap Fuel from Super Bugs Fell Short. The sell-off of synthetic biology pioneer LS9 ... Sustainable Energy. A New Source of Hydrogen for Fuel-Cell Vehicles. The prospects for carbon-neutral vehicles could get a ...
... of US grain is used for energy due to the Renewable Fuel Mandate (RFS). There are no studies of the global distributional ... "The Global Impacts of Biofuel Mandates," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), ... "Food for Fuel: The Effect of the U.S. Biofuel Mandate on Poverty in India," Working Papers 2012-17, University of Alberta, ... "Food for Fuel: The Effect of the US Biofuel Mandate on Poverty in India," CESifo Working Paper Series 3910, CESifo. * Ujjayant ...
"Alternative & Advanced Fuels". US Department of Energy. Retrieved 7 March 2012.. *^ a b c Knothe, Gerhard (2010). "Biodiesel ... Second-generation biofuels[edit]. Main article: Second-generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are fuels manufactured ... This class of biofuels includes electrofuels[7] and photobiological solar fuels.[22] Some of these fuels are carbon-neutral. ... "Biofuels - Second Generation Biofuels". biofuel.org.uk. Retrieved 2018-01-18.. *^ Ramirez, Jerome; Brown, Richard; Rainey, ...
  • But José Goldemberg of the Institute of Electrotechnic and Energy at the University of São Paulo, Brazil, told SciDev.Net that the study's findings are 'technically controversial', given the substantial evidence that the hike in food prices in 2008 was mainly due to the increase in cost of crude oil, and that increased biofuel production does not lead to shortage of food supply and soaring food prices. (scidev.net)
  • One major advantage of this will be increased biofuel production - potentially helping biofuels become more widespread as a result. (azocleantech.com)
  • Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Joint BioEnergy Institute have engineered a bacterium to synthesize pinene, a hydrocarbon produced by trees that could potentially replace high-energy fuels, such as JP-10, in missiles and other aerospace applications. (eurekalert.org)
  • In June 2015, United Airlines announced a partnership with biofuel company Fulcrum BioEnergy, to invest in future commercial scale aviation biofuel plants. (energy.gov)
  • The reports, compiled by the EDGI's website tracking team , describe changes made during the past few months to Web pages for the Energy Department's Bioenergy Technologies Office, Wind Energy Technologies Office and Vehicle Technologies Office, all of which fall under the agency's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - an office that has been targeted for deep cuts by proposed administration budgets. (governorsbiofuelscoalition.org)
  • A team of scientists at West Palm Beach, Florida-based Alliance BioEnergy Plus Inc.'s subsidiary Ek Laboratories havedeveloped a pathway to produce JP-8, an advanced military grade aviation biofuel. (renewableenergymagazine.com)
  • In this webinar, three prominent U.S. researchers were featured who are addressing research challenges to make bioenergy a more significant part of our nation's energy portfolio. (energy.gov)
  • The International Energy Agency Bioenergy Technology Collaboration Program (IEA Bioenergy TCP) hosted the international webinar entitled, "Perception and Positions of Stakeholders Towards Bioenergy" presented by Thuy Mai-Moulin and Uwe Fritsche, and moderated by Prof. Dr. Martin Junginger. (energy.gov)
  • Their results were much better than earlier efforts, but the researchers were puzzled because for a different hydrocarbon, similar enzymes produced more fuel per liter. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy have begun experimenting with an infamous strain of bacteria that has, thus far, shown prowess in producing biofuel. (hydrogenfuelnews.com)
  • Researchers are using e. coli bacteria to make renewable energy by having the bacteria feed upon switchgrass. (hydrogenfuelnews.com)
  • NASA researchers demonstrated the system this week in California, and believe that if it were situated near a waste processing facility it would be capable of producing more than 2,000 gallons of biofuel per year. (hydrogenfuelnews.com)
  • We reported last October that researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory have come up with a highly-efficient process to make liquid fuels directly from carbon dioxide and water, with a yield of 63 percent. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Sweden's Chalmers University researchers have developed new technologies that can be used to convert industrial plants to produce fossil-free heat, electricity, fuel, chemicals and other materials. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • Washington State University (WSU) researchers have found a way to make jet fuel from a common black fungus. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • By changing the way certain organisms process sugar, UCLA researchers have shown how to produce more biofuel. (technologyreview.com)
  • It is critical to the stability of the climate that we prevent biofuels from expanding at the expense of rainforests and other valuable ecosystems that store carbon and provide other ecological services," says Suzanne Hunt, who directed the team of 15 researchers from four countries. (worldwatch.org)
  • However, researchers at MIT say the industry may want to make sure it has examined biofuels' complete carbon footprint before making an all-out push. (eurekalert.org)
  • Imperial researchers have improved the process of using biology to create products such as fuels, medicines, plastics, and cosmetics. (azocleantech.com)
  • With support from ARPA-E, the researchers hope to develop pine trees that can produce and store vastly more turpentine, to the point where less than 25,000 acres (10,117 hectares) of forest could supply turpentine for 100 million gallons (378 million liters) of fuel per year. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Researchers have devised a single-atom alloy catalyst that requires significantly less energy to turn shale-gas methane into hydrocarbon fuels. (aiche.org)
  • Featuring investigative exercises that deepen understanding and inspire further research, Alternative Energy Technologies: An Introduction with Computer Simulations makes an ideal introductory textbook for undergraduate students and a valuable professional reference for experimental researchers. (routledge.com)
  • reducing uncertainty in catalyst cost can inform researchers as they identify new biofuel pathways that may be commercially viable. (energy.gov)
  • With improvements in process efficiency, the biofuel could supplement limited supplies of petroleum-based JP-10, and might also facilitate development of a new generation of more powerful engines. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy success stories highlight the positive impact of its work with businesses, industry partners, universities, research labs, and other entities. (energy.gov)
  • Among many who who are calling on the South African government to set fuel efficiency standards. (treehugger.com)
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison scientists have found a way to nearly double the efficiency that a commonly used industrial yeast strain converts plant sugars to biofuel. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • The group has long been focused on how to increase the efficiency of oil-fired and gas-fired heating systems, and particularly the issue of idle loss- the energy these systems use when they are inactive. (bnl.gov)
  • They have developed performance maps for many different systems and matched them with building energy-use profiles for different cities to look at the effect of steady-state efficiency and the effect of idle loss, among other things, on annual fuel use. (bnl.gov)
  • They are currently studying fuel-fired heat pumps - absorption heat pumps which offer the potential to go to efficiency levels in the range of 160 percent. (bnl.gov)
  • The project team has extracted an impressive 18 percent efficiency with the nanocrystals, higher than most experimental energy sources. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • Published in the journal Nature Energy, the study shows that dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of everyday activities can raise living standards in the global South. (indiatimes.com)
  • Thus, the thermal brake efficiency (BTE) of the engine fueled by WCOSD was higher at all engine speeds. (mdpi.com)
  • There are several different types of subsidies which include direct financial transfers like loans, depletion allowances and preferential tax treatments like the farm credit subsidy and the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Refueling Property Credit. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • However, over time, subsidies can undermine the private and public investment in the energy sector by impeding innovation. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Methanol as a fuel has the ability to reduce our dependence on foreign oil and improve our environment without the backing of any type of subsidies. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • those of the second indicate that the aggregate demand for biofuel has shifted upwards by around 15 % and that substitution has increased by around 18 % due to biofuel subsidies being offered. (springer.com)
  • The use of biogas as a transport fuel is also an option, which is being trialled and deployed across the UK. (nnfcc.co.uk)
  • Both Chinese government and Renewable Energy Law of China have taken great efforts to popularize rural household biogas digesters. (euec.com)
  • The literature suggests that biofuels expansion will raise the number of people at risk of hunger or in poverty in developing countries. (epa.gov)
  • Practical applications of biofuels include using vegetable oil for running cars and burning methane for heat. (ehow.co.uk)
  • In order to turn this alcohol into fuel that is chemically equivalent to petroleum-based jet fuels, the oxygen must first be removed and the remaining molecules must be combined into a larger, more energy-dense hydrocarbon. (energy.gov)
  • Ethylene then undergoes oligomerization to form a hydrocarbon that is similar in size to the molecules in petroleum-based jet fuels, yet does not lead to sooting when burned. (energy.gov)
  • It's been just over two year ago that Georges Monbiot warned us of the dark side of an apparently good idea: replacing petroleum based fuels with others based on bio-mass. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Hileman and his team performed a life-cycle analysis of 14 fuel sources, including conventional petroleum-based jet fuel and "drop-in" biofuels: alternatives that can directly replace conventional fuels with little or no change to existing infrastructure or vehicles. (eurekalert.org)
  • Together, the changes collectively downplay the climate benefits of each form of technology and distance the agency from the idea that they might be used to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, instead emphasizing their economic advantages. (governorsbiofuelscoalition.org)
  • With each passing day, scientists are coming out with unique solutions to lessen our dependence on fossil fuels. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • O ur current dependence on fossil fuels is on a collision course with the need of future generations for a habitable environment. (the-scientist.com)
  • This process not only provides a viable source of sustainable jet fuel but also offers an innovative solution to industrial waste management. (energy.gov)
  • But what about other types of biofuels made from waste? (treehugger.com)
  • But fuel from waste material? (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • So far, converting organic waste to fuel has not been economically viable. (newenergyandfuel.com)
  • It might prove a simple, efficient method to recycle waste energy . (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • The modification could be applied to a wide range of enzymes, for numerous applications, such as producing fuels from waste and recycling plastics, and can make bioprocessing more efficient. (azocleantech.com)
  • This study aims to evaluate and compare the influence of waste cooking oil synthetic diesel (WCOSD) with that of commercial diesel (CD) fuel on an engine's operating characteristics. (mdpi.com)
  • The second goal of this study is to compare the engine performance and temperature characteristics of cooling water and lubricant oil under various engine operating conditions of a test engine fueled by waste cooking oil and CD. (mdpi.com)
  • 22 Presently, 39.5% of the plastic waste is being used for energy recovery, 29.7% of the waste is recycled and 30.8% is sent to landfill. (rsc.org)
  • 35 Waste plastics recycling technology helps to avoid wastage of natural resources by utilizing waste plastics to get valuable energy rather than it being dumped elsewhere. (rsc.org)
  • To acquire a comprehensive understanding of the waste plastic, pyrolysis-catalytic cracking technique, special analytical techniques were used to analyze the liquid hydrocarbon fuel and the raw plastics. (rsc.org)
  • Second generation biofuels focus on the processing of agricultural, industrial, and municipal solid waste so that no further crops need to be grown and harvested. (envirolink.org)
  • The technology to process the cellulose in plant waste is still in development but its success or otherwise will determine whether biofuels have a future. (envirolink.org)
  • Does your proposed alternate fuel meet the non-waste designation? (euec.com)
  • Most waste-to-energy gasifier systems pelletize the solid fuel waste prior to processing in the gasifier to minimize problems associated with materials handling. (euec.com)
  • Lead author Govinda R. Timilsina, a senior economist with the World Bank, told SciDev.Net that the impacts of biofuels depend on a country's economy, energy, and agricultural sectors. (scidev.net)
  • Biofuels can be derived directly from plants (i.e. energy crops ), or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decades of declining agricultural prices have been reversed thanks to the growing use of biofuels," says Christopher Flavin, president of the Institute. (worldwatch.org)
  • The bill, titled the Agricultural Improvement Act, or H.R. 2, reauthorizes several Energy Title programs, including REAP and BCAP. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • In Brazil alone, the potential markets for this technology were valued last year at R$1300M ($400M) for biofuels and R$61M for forage cattle," says Hugo Molinari, Principal Investigator of the Laboratory of Genetics and Biotechnology at Embrapa Agroenergy, part of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) and the team's other co-leader. (phys.org)
  • The share of biofuels should reach 2% by 2005 and 5.75% by 2010. (europa.eu)
  • For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/share-of-biofuels-in-transport-fuels or scan the QR code. (europa.eu)
  • Because of the challenges of strain optimization, many second-generation biofuel projects have languished in the recesses of university campuses and federal laboratories-until recently. (labmanager.com)
  • Using automation, scientists working there more accurately and efficiently screened yeast strains that could be used in second-generation biofuel refineries. (labmanager.com)
  • In The Transition Takes Hold, Clean Energy Canada said some 6.7 million people were working in the sector worldwide with one out of every 50 new jobs in the US being created by the solar industry alone. (governorsbiofuelscoalition.org)
  • In the US, the renewable energy sector has become a major job creator: since 2009, the solar industry created one out of every 80 new jobs, and the country's fastest-growing occupation is wind turbine technician. (governorsbiofuelscoalition.org)
  • Domestically, there are limitations for the use of solar energy and wind energy as alternatives for petroleum products. (biofuelkarnataka.in)
  • In addition to the more conventional alternatives such as solar, wind and tidal power, there are promising developments on fuelless technologies that tap the energy potential provided by magnets as well as unconventional chemical and nuclear reactions. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Climate and Energy 2003-2006, Solar energy: Thermal and PV. (vedur.is)
  • During today's E&ETV Event Coverage of a George Washington University panel discussion, "Renewables: Boom or Bust," industry experts address the financial hurdles facing the solar and wind energy industries. (eenews.net)
  • Solar panels installed on private or public property use the sun's light energy to provide an endless and natural power source. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Power for the electrolysis would be provided by carbon-free energy sources, such as solar, wind or nuclear power. (phys.org)
  • Optical antennas could help solar cells produce more energy. (technologyreview.com)
  • Second-generation biofuels eliminate the foods versus fuels land-use controversies of the first generation because they are produced from agriculture and forestry residue or inedible by-products. (labmanager.com)