Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion: A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Deuterium Exchange Measurement: A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Analytic Sample Preparation Methods: Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.Mice, Inbred C57BLMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)PolysaccharidesCyclotrons: Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Forensic Toxicology: The application of TOXICOLOGY knowledge to questions of law.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-gamma: A winged-helix transcription factor that regulates GENE expression in metabolic tissues. It plays a role in HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE and controls expression of GLUT2 PROTEIN.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Mice, Inbred BALB CSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Solid Phase Microextraction: A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Genes, T-Cell Receptor gamma: DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organized similarly to the TcR beta-chain locus.Glycomics: The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.PhosphopeptidesProtein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Fetal Hemoglobin: The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Motor Neurons, Gamma: Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the MUSCLE SPINDLES to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Class Ib Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase: A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase subclass that includes enzymes formed through the association of a p110gamma catalytic subunit and one of the three regulatory subunits of 84, 87, and 101 kDa in size. This subclass of enzymes is a downstream target of G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.EstersT-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. 26 (2): 406. doi:10.1039/c0ja00181c. ... Gamma spectroscopy is a less sensitive method due to low detector efficiency and high background. However, gamma spectroscopy ... A focused beam of energetic electrons is scanned over the sample and electrons that a backscattered or emitted from the sample ... The most common gamma-ray detector is a semiconductor germanium detector which allow for a greater energy resolution than alpha ...
In atomic mass spectrometry, these ions are detected. Their mass identifies the type of atoms and their quantity reveals the ... Electrons near the cathode are less energetic than the rest of the tube. Surrounding the cathode is a negative field, which ... such as thermal collisions between atoms or by gamma rays. The positive ions are driven towards the cathode by the electric ... Instead, atomic emission and mass spectrometry are usually used. Collisions between the gas-phase sample atoms and the plasma ...
... the properties of specific isotopic nuclei in different atomic environments by analyzing the resonant absorption of gamma-rays ... Mass spectroscopy is an historical term used to refer to mass spectrometry. Current recommendations are to use the latter term ... The combination of atoms or molecules into crystals or other extended forms leads to the creation of additional energetic ... Atomic spectroscopy was the first application of spectroscopy developed. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and atomic ...
This finding was a crucial step in the development of the atomic bomb. That summer, Ney and Robert Thompson prepared a larger ... A few weeks later, Winckler and Peterson observed a brief burst of gamma rays from a Solar Flare. During the balloon project, ... Similarly, Frank McDonald joined Goddard in 1959 as head of the Energetic Particles Branch in the Space Science Division, where ... who was an expert in mass spectrometry. Soon, Nier recruited him to work in the spectroscopy laboratory for 35 cents per hour. ...
... using mass spectrometry or infrared spectrometry. Deuterium can be detected by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy, since the ... Atomic weight: 2.0141017926 u.. *Mean abundance in ocean water (from VSMOW) 155.76 ± 0.1 ppm (a ratio of 1 part per ... Gamma radiation from ordinary nuclear fusion dissociates deuterium into protons and neutrons, and there are no known natural ... Free neutrons and protons are less stable than helium nuclei, and the protons and neutrons had a strong energetic reason to ...
The isotopes of actinium range in atomic weight from 206 u (206 Ac) to 236 u (236 Ac). Actinium is found only in traces in ... gamma } } The 227AcBe neutron sources can be applied in a neutron probe - a standard device for measuring the quantity of water ... so it can readily be identified through alpha spectrometry. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been identified, the most stable ... which originates from the surrounding air ionized by the emitted energetic particles. Actinium has similar chemical properties ...
The atomic mass, on the other hand, is measured using the atomic mass unit based on the mass of the carbon-12 atom. It is ... Budzikiewicz H, Grigsby RD (2006). "Mass spectrometry and isotopes: a century of research and discussion". Mass spectrometry ... A transition from one isomer to another is accompanied by emission or absorption of a gamma ray, or the process of internal ... and in interactions between energetic particles such as cosmic rays, and previously produced nuclides. (See nucleosynthesis for ...
For gamma rays (uncharged), their energy is converted to an energetic electron via either the photoelectric effect, Compton ... and are preferred where feasible for gamma-ray spectrometry. In the case of neutron detectors, high efficiency is gained ... The chemistry of atomic de-excitation in the scintillator produces a multitude of low-energy photons, typically near the blue ... A monochromatic gamma radiation produces a photopeak at its energy. The detector also shows response at the lower energies, ...
For example, the atomic mass unit (1 u) is defined as 1/12 of the mass of a 12C atom-but the atomic mass of a 1H atom (which is ... When a large nucleus splits into pieces, excess energy is emitted as photons (gamma rays) and as the kinetic energy of a number ... Mass defect (not to be confused with mass excess in nuclear physics or mass defect in mass spectrometry) is the difference ... This energetic maximum should also hold for ambient conditions, say T = 298 K and p = 1 atm, for neutral condensed matter ...
... s serve as energetic sources of ions and radicals, which are desirable for activating chemical reactions. ... They consist of chemically reactive species such as hydroxyl (OH) and atomic oxygen (O) that can kill harmful bacteria through ... gamma }}))}}} where pd is the product of pressure and distance, and A {\displaystyle A} and B {\displaystyle B} are the gas ... International Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 248 (3): 87-102. doi:10.1016/j.ijms.2005.11.010. Eden, Gary; Sung-Jin Park (July ...
... also called atomic mass number or nucleon number. Mass spectrometry - Material properties - Materials science - Mathematical ... Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also References External links Gamma ray - ... Superposition principle - Superhard material - Supernova - A stellar explosion that is more energetic than a nova. Supernovae ... Atomic packing factor - Atomic physics - Atomic structure - Atomic weight - Atomic weight is the sum number of proton (or ...
Nuclear fusion occurs when multiple atomic particles join to form a heavier nucleus, such as through the energetic collision of ... Gamma decay: this process results from a change in the energy level of the nucleus to a lower state, resulting in the emission ... vaporize atoms include inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ... Until these experiments, atomic number was not known to be a physical and experimental quantity. That it is equal to the atomic ...
Nuclear fusion occurs when multiple atomic particles join to form a heavier nucleus, such as through the energetic collision of ... Gamma decay: this process results from a change in the energy level of the nucleus to a lower state, resulting in the emission ... vaporize atoms include inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ... has an atomic weight of 1.007825 u.[64] The value of this number is called the atomic mass. A given atom has an atomic mass ...
This means low atomic mass elements are favoured. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) and oxygen (LOX, or LO2), are the most effective ... Low energetic efficiency Variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket Microwave heated plasma with magnetic throat/nozzle ... This issue is traditionally described in terms of the ratio, gamma, of the specific heat of the gas at constant volume to that ... Rocket Engine performance analysis with Plume Spectrometry. *Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber technical article ...
See Flashes in the Sky: Earth's Gamma-Ray Bursts Triggered by Lightning Archived 7 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine ... Positive charges in ions are achieved by stripping away electrons orbiting the atomic nuclei, where the total number of ... Inductively coupled plasmas (ICP), formed typically in argon gas for optical emission spectroscopy or mass spectrometry ... energetic particles, or strong electric fields. Because of the large difference in mass, the electrons come to thermodynamic ...
See Flashes in the Sky: Earth's Gamma-Ray Bursts Triggered by Lightning Archived 7 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine ... Positive charges in ions are achieved by stripping away electrons orbiting the atomic nuclei, where the total number of ... Inductively coupled plasmas (ICP), formed typically in argon gas for optical emission spectroscopy or mass spectrometry ... energetic particles, or strong electric fields. Because of the large difference in mass, the electrons come to thermodynamic ...
The energetic electrons generated in the plasma and accelerated to energies higher than 5 keV (in our case) reached the sample ... Note that our PIXE diagnostics used a detector only able to detect elements with an atomic mass heavier than Na. The error bars ... and particle-induced gamma emission (PIGE) techniques, either driven by a conventional (6) or laser-based accelerator (7). ... time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (4, 5), Raman, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and ...
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. 26 (2): 406. doi:10.1039/c0ja00181c. ... Gamma spectroscopy is a less sensitive method due to low detector efficiency and high background. However, gamma spectroscopy ... A focused beam of energetic electrons is scanned over the sample and electrons that a backscattered or emitted from the sample ... The most common gamma-ray detector is a semiconductor germanium detector which allow for a greater energy resolution than alpha ...
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the surface morphology of thermo-responsive coatings in the dry state, as well ... Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is another extremely surface-selective tool used to investigate the ... simultaneous cross-linking and immobilization can be achieved by energetic radiation or plasma. This was utilized to prepare ... gamma irradiation. ˗. electron irradiation. plasma polymerization. Grafting to and grafting from are techniques that work ...
Jeynes C, Grime GW (2012) Atomic Excitation Exploited by Energetic-Beam Characterization Methods, In: Kaufmann EN (eds.), ... nuclear reactions with gamma rays in the exit channel, which are used in the particle induced. gamma ray emission technique. ... Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 33 pp. 1003-1013 Royal Society of Chemistry ... This excitation is defined by the energy levels of the atomic electrons, determined primarily by the atomic number of the atom ...
Gamma detection may be carried out with a separate portable gamma camera or with a non-imaging probe. Visualisation of NIR ... Its essential element is the tynode: an ultra thin membrane, which emits, at the impact of an energetic electron on one side, a ... The system has been used in hard X-ray experiments studying the atomic-scale structure of samples under extreme pressure in ... The scintillation is observed by a CCD camera that will permit high resolution imaging and spectrometry by secondary ion track ...
To emphasize the fact that these standard atomic weights are not constants of nature, each atomic-weight value is expressed as ... The standard atomic weights of 10 elements having two or more stable isotopes have been changed to reflect this variability of ... Many atomic weights are not constants of nature, but depend upon the physical, chemical, and nuclear history of the material. ... The interval is used together with the symbol [a; b] to denote the set of atomic-weight values, Ar(E), of element E in normal ...
In atomic mass spectrometry, these ions are detected. Their mass identifies the type of atoms and their quantity reveals the ... Electrons near the cathode are less energetic than the rest of the tube. Surrounding the cathode is a negative field, which ... such as thermal collisions between atoms or by gamma rays. The positive ions are driven towards the cathode by the electric ... Instead, atomic emission and mass spectrometry are usually used. Collisions between the gas-phase sample atoms and the plasma ...
Measure altitude distribution and width of atomic oxygen line in airglow and aurora ... Small astronomy satellite to study gamma rays; San Marco Launch. 1972. ESRO-4 ... Solar hard x-ray imaging spectrometry. 1983. IRAS. NLa-USb-GB ... Measure three-dimensional plasma and energetic particle ...
The most energetic electromagnetic phenomena in the Universe are believed to be powered by the collision of two neutron stars, ... Structure determination at atomic resolution of such assemblies by standard techniques such as X-ray crystallography or ... However, a definitive identification of neutron star mergers as central engines for short-gamma-ray bursts and kilonovae ... mass spectrometry for detecting relevant protein modifications, biophysical techniques, mutational analyses and RNA- ...
The mass of an atomic nucleus can be determined using mass spectrometry: https://www.livescience.com/20581-weigh-atom.html. ... An Energetic Interpretation ( Demo ?) of an Awful Lot of Science -. And ALL (well, nearly all) of it done in a century NOT too ... These are great for demonstrating photon and gamma ray phenomena like X-rays, visible and invisible light skin penetration, ... If the atomic nucleus contains neutrons, this is not a problem. If, however, there is a proton and electron in the nucleus ...
Broad interest in the NRLs work led to support by the Atomic Energy Commission and the Army. This work is believed by most ... The method, devised by the NRLs R.F. Mehl in the 1920s, entailed the use of gamma-ray radiation as a shadow-graphic technique ... In addition, the biennial Birks Award in X-Ray Spectrometry is given by the Denver X-Ray Conference. FRACTURE-TEST TECHNOLOGY. ... Their research continues to play a large part in the Navys energetic materials program, which focuses on making safer and/or ...
Consequently, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry is useful for examining atomic nuclei and the transitions between their ... Emissions of alpha particles, electrons (negatrons and positrons), neutrons, protons, and gamma rays (gamma ray) can be useful ... Often the bombardment is sufficiently energetic to cause the inner orbital electron to be completely removed from the atom, ... In a manner that is similar to that described for nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, electron spin resonance spectrometry ...
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 47, 025003.. * Helminiak*, H. M., Knauf*, R. R., Danforth*, S. J., ... Knauf*, R. R., Helminiak*, H. M., Wrass*, J. P., Gallert*, T. M., and Phillips, J. A. (2012) Structural and energetic ... mass spectrometry and chemical evidence reveal a different chemical structure for methanobactin that contains oxazolone rings. ... Spectral and thermodynamic properties of methanobactin from gamma-proteobacterial methane oxidizing bacteria: a case for copper ...
Intensive gamma radiation is another possibly deadly danger in space travel [29], as well as exposure to highly energetic ... This has been extensively studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry [14, 25]. This is the key instrumentation for cosmic dust ... This effect, combined with atomic oxygen (Atox), which is also present due to the last traces of the earths atmosphere in this ... Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS): the key instrumentation for cosmic dust analysis. An excellent and short introduction ...
... using mass spectrometry or infrared spectrometry. Deuterium can be detected by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy, since the ... Atomic weight: 2.0141017926 u.. *Mean abundance in ocean water (from VSMOW) 155.76 ± 0.1 ppm (a ratio of 1 part per ... Gamma radiation from ordinary nuclear fusion dissociates deuterium into protons and neutrons, and there are no known natural ... Free neutrons and protons are less stable than helium nuclei, and the protons and neutrons had a strong energetic reason to ...
When Boron content was measured using direct coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (Coderre et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol ... and gamma, beta radiation or X-rays. The use of clean neutrons free from such contaminants ensures a superior biological ... are able to capture thermal neutrons and produce energetic particles and energy having a limited range. Examples of suitable ... and implanted tumours were measured using direct coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (Coderre et al, supra). ...
Gilmore, G., and Hemmingway, J.: "Practical Gamma Ray Spectrometry", page 13. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1995 ... Notation: let the symbol Z stand for atomic number. let the symbol PeV stand for 1015 electron volts.. "The most dominant group ... Solar energetic particles[edit]. Mean Fe charge states as a function of energy for the same event (in red) with overall mean ... displaystyle \eta \rightarrow \gamma +\gamma ,}. *η : η. →. π. 0. +. π. 0. +. π. 0. ,. o. r. {\displaystyle \eta \rightarrow \ ...
Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled to different types of mass spectrometry (MS), which create a powerful analytical tool ... As many fission products have high rates of gamma emissions, the presence of fission products obfuscate the gamma spectrum and ... with the selected energetic molecules and energetic processes at molecular level, for mitigation applications. We have ... The attraction to harnessing atomic energy in nuclear power plants has been gaining attention as an alternative clean and ...
Table 2. Standard runing conditions for the analysis of heavy metals utilizing Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ... Dry fruits prevent different type of diseases and maintain a individual energetic and active all through his life even up to ... Pistachio nut can significantly promote plasma degrees of xanthophyll, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol ( ... samples were transferred to cleaned dried plastic bottles for chemical analysis by utilizing Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ( ...
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 31 (8), pp. 1566-1573. [7] DellAglio, M., Alrifai, R., De Giacomo, A. Nanoparticle ... Gamma-ray diagnostics are some of the most important tools for the fast-ion studies in fusion devices. Intense gamma-ray ... In the case of mono-energetic proton beams, the full Bragg curves were reconstructed by taking into account finite proton ... Integrated gamma-ray measurements along the 19 LOSs are used as input signals to determine the two-dimensional (2-D) spatial ...
This is achieved by atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide on Ag NCs and addition of a tetra-topic porphyrin-based linker, 4 ... The central node and the position of cholesterol pendants in the backbone of ε-CL blocks (alpha and gamma series) affect the ... These polymer-brush-based ligands introduce new energetic contributions to the interparticle potential that stabilizes various ... Furthermore, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that proline residues of the ...
solar wind A flow of charged particles (including atomic nuclei) that have been ejected from the surface of the star, such as ... aurora A light display in the sky caused when incoming energetic particles from the sun collide with gas molecules in a ... The collection of data using this instrument, a process is known as spectrometry, can help identify the elements or molecules ... in light and energy) The range of electromagnetic radiation types; they span from gamma rays to X rays, ultraviolet light, ...
Wilson IH, Xu JB, Devine RAB, Webb RP (1996) Energetic ion impacts on quartz surfaces: A study by atomic force microscopy, ... Plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) is known as mass spectrometry for large organic molecule. In PDMS, fission fragments ... Particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) maps of a particles from HMF cartridges allowed identification of Boron and Sodium ... For the first time, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, high-energy secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X-ray ...
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. 26 450-455.. 106. Aquino, Adélia J. A., Tunega, Daniel, Pasalic, Hasan, Schaumann, ... FT-IR study of gamma-radiation induced degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and PVA/humic acids blends. Journal of ... Thermal analysis to derive energetic quality parameters of soil organic matter?. Geophysical Research Abstracts. 16 EGU2014- ... NMR spectrometry to study aging processes in soil organic matter. Geophysical Research Abstracts. 11 EGU2009-5928. Download ...
... equi-energetic state or ES). First Victoria Equation applications serve to make an initial approximation to atomic radius, to ... Here it is shown that the orbital frequency experienced by the Muon is multiplied by a factor Gamma compared to that seen by a ... Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Isotopic Abundance of 13C, 2H, or 15N in Biofield Energy Treated Aminopyridine Derivatives. ... John S. Bell was Right: "How to Teach Special Relativity" and atomic pear shaped contraction Category: Nuclear and Atomic ...
  • A more sophisticated and costly method for a comprehensive chemical analysis of bulk material is the use of nuclear physics techniques such as particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma emission (PIGE) techniques, either driven by a conventional ( 6 ) or laser-based accelerator ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Also, its large mass difference with protium ( 1 H) (deuterium has a mass of 2.014 102 u , compared to the mean hydrogen atomic weight of 1.007 947 u , and protium's mass of 1.007 825 u ) confers non-negligible chemical dissimilarities with protium-containing compounds, whereas the isotope weight ratios within other chemical elements are largely insignificant in this regard. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the hydrogen atom , the role of reduced mass is most simply seen in the Bohr model of the atom, where the reduced mass appears in a simple calculation of the Rydberg constant and Rydberg equation, but the reduced mass also appears in the Schrödinger equation , and the Dirac equation for calculating atomic energy levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reduced mass of the system in these equations is close to the mass of a single electron, but differs from it by a small amount about equal to the ratio of mass of the electron to the atomic nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMMS) provides rapid separation and detection of complex mixtures. (worldcat.org)
  • The work describe herein evaluates the capability of hadamard transform ion mobility mass spectrometry (HT-IMMS) for comprehensive metabolomics analysis with high throughput and high resolving power. (worldcat.org)
  • Good agreement was found between the model and ICCD images, with plume temperatures indicated by the model to be typically between 10,000 K and 30,000 K. Molecular beam mass spectrometry has also been used for real- time, in situ species identification and velocity distribution determinations. (spie.org)
  • A photon of gamma radiation of a sufficiently high energy penetrating inside the atom close to the intense fields immediately surrounding the nucleus can be spontaneously converted into the mass of an electron-positron pair. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Mineral element analysis of hair was performed using an atomic emission spectrophotometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results . (hindawi.com)
  • Mass spectrometry involves the interaction of charged species with magnetic and/or electric fields, giving rise to a mass spectrum. (askdefine.com)
  • 3 36 Chapter 2 Atoms and the Atomic Theory EXAMPLE 2-1 Applying the Law of Conservation of Mass A g sample of magnesium is allowed to burn in g of oxygen gas. (docplayer.net)
  • J. Mass Spectrometry 223/4, 107 (2003). (nersc.gov)
  • Recent fission cross-section calculations for the reaction 238U(n, f ), based on an extended statistical model, predict a significant change of fission fragment properties, such as the mean mass by A = 1.5 and a notable increase in total kinetic energy in the region of the vibrational resonance at an incident neutron energy En = 0.9 MeV. (diva-portal.org)
  • We describe how these imaging modalities can be combined with mass spectrometry and quantitative immunochemistry to obtain more complete picture of cancer metabolism. (biomolther.org)
  • For example, the mass absorption coefficient of water for 1.0 MeV gamma rays is 0.0707 cm 2 /g. (utoronto.ca)
  • Thermochemical Studies of Small Fluorocarbons by Photoionization Mass Spectrometry. (caltech.edu)
  • Since protons and neutrons behave similarly within the nucleus, and each has a mass of approximately one atomic mass unit , they are both referred to as nucleons . (cfapps.io)
  • Neutrons do not affect the electron configuration, but the sum of atomic number and the number of neutrons, or neutron number , is the mass of the nucleus. (cfapps.io)
  • The atomic mass number , A , is equal to the sum of atomic and neutron numbers. (cfapps.io)
  • The method, devised by the NRL 's R.F. Mehl in the 1920s, entailed the use of gamma-ray radiation as a shadow-graphic technique to detect flaws in cast or welded steels. (tms.org)
  • Spectroscopic studies were central to the development of quantum mechanics and included Max Planck 's explanation of blackbody radiation , Albert Einstein 's explanation of the photoelectric effect and Niels Bohr 's explanation of atomic structure and spectra. (thereaderwiki.com)
  • This describes the case in which a photon of gamma radiation interacts with and transfers its energy to an atomic electron giving that electron enough of an energy boost for it to escape from the atom. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • K.Siemon, R.A.Esterlund, M.Knaack, J.VanAarle, W.Westmeier and P. Patzelt, „Messung der Gamma-Intensität des 234m Pa als Zerfallsprodukt des 238U", Progress in Radiation Protection FS-91-55-T (1991) 1094, Editors : H. Jacobs and H. Bonka, ISSN 1013-4506. (westmeier.com)
  • K. Siemon, R.A. Esterlund, J. van Aarle, M. Knaack, W. Westmeier and P. Patzelt, „A New Measurement of the Gamma-ray Intensities of 234mPa Accompanying the Decay of 238U", International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation, Part A: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 43 No. 7 (1992) 873-880. (westmeier.com)
  • J. VanAarle, W. Westmeier, R.A. Esterlund and P. Patzelt, „227Ac: A Suggested Long-lived Multiple-line Gamma-ray calibration standard", International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation, Part A: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 45 No. 4 (1994) 419-427. (westmeier.com)
  • Some substances produce light when they are illuminated by more energetic radiation, a process known as fluorescence . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Some substances emit light slowly after excitation by more energetic radiation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Esmaeel Bayat, Hossein Afarideh, Fereydoon Abbasi Davani, Nima Ghal-eh, "A quality survey on different shielding configurations of gamma ray detector used with a portable PGNAA system," Radiation Physics And Chemistry, Vol. 120, No. 2016, PP. 7 - 11, 02 April 2016. (ac.ir)
  • The fractional decrease in the intensity of a beam of gamma or X-radiation as it passes through an absorbing medium. (utoronto.ca)
  • W. Westmeier, „Background Subtraction in Ge(Li) Gamma-Ray Spectra", Nuclear Instruments and Methods 180 (1981) 205-210. (westmeier.com)
  • Vahid Doost Mohammadi, Hossein Afarideh, Gholam Reza Etaati, "Simulation of beta-gamma coincidence spectra of radioxenondetector using gate 7.0 and comparison with experimental results," Journal Of Radioanalytical And Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 309, No. 3, PP. 1105 - 1112, 08 September 2016. (ac.ir)
  • The photoelectric effect is the dominant energy transfer mechanism for X-ray and gamma-ray photons with energies below 50 keV (thousand electron volts), but it is much less important at higher energies. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In another embodiment of the invention, the invention is used to provide a high sensitivity, high spatial resolution and electronically collimated single photon emission computed tomography system which is sensitive from 81 keV to 511 keV gamma ray photons. (patents.com)
  • The energy level separations are very large so the photon is very energetic, with a typical energy on the order of 1 MeV or so compared to a few ev for visible photons. (docplayer.net)
  • Normally, the various scintillation photons from one gamma ray photon arrive at the phosphor within such a short time that they appear as part of one pulse. (docplayer.net)
  • Many atomic weights are not constants of nature, but depend upon the physical, chemical, and nuclear history of the material. (degruyter.com)
  • B. Jäckel, W. Westmeier and P. Patzelt, „On the Photopeak Efficiency of Germanium Gamma-Ray Detectors", Nuclear Instruments and Methods A261 (1987) 543. (westmeier.com)
  • W. Westmeier and J. Van Aarle, „PC-Based High Precision Nuclear Spectrometry", Nuclear Instruments and Methods A286 (1990) 439-442. (westmeier.com)
  • In view of highly demanded new and accurate data on prompt gamma-ray emission in nuclear fission a major part of investigations is directed towards the selection of suitable detector systems. (diva-portal.org)
  • When the head of the Atomic Energy Commission at the time, Lewis Strauss, infamously quipped in 1954 that electricity would become "too cheap to meter," he was likely referring to nuclear fusion, not nuclear fission, the atom-splitting reaction that powers conventional nuclear power plants today. (fusion4freedom.com)
  • In this phenomenon an incident gamma photon carries such an excess of the amount of energy required to induce the escape of an electron as a photoelectron, that the gamma photon's interaction induces release of the electron while the remainder of the photon's energy is emitted as a new, lower energy gamma photon with an emission direction different from that of the incident gamma photon. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In the gamma ray energy range, the probability of interaction per unit length is orders of magnitude lower than in the visible range, and the detection is done through three major processes: the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect and pair production. (docplayer.net)
  • YAP:Ce detectors are used for gamma and X-ray counting, electron microscopy, electron and X-ray imaging screens, and tomography systems. (mkt-intl.com)
  • BGO detectors are preferred for medium and high-energy gamma counting and high-energy physics applications. (mkt-intl.com)
  • A new thermal diffusion process was also developed to separate some of the U-235 isotope used to produce the first atomic bombs. (tms.org)
  • This interdisciplinary forum will be completed by the participation of renowned experts in theoretical modelling and simulation of NPs structure and properties, which is of paramount importance both for understanding atomic and electronic structure and to predict non- trivial unexpected behaviors and new phenomena. (european-mrs.com)
  • These topics include, but are not limited to, quantum information science, quantum many-body physics in condensed matter and atomic gas systems, topological states of matter, quantum optics and light-matter interactions at the quantum level, quantum cavity-optomechanics, and quantum metrology. (caltech.edu)
  • This material will scintillate when one of the interactions mentioned above occurs in it releasing an energetic electron. (docplayer.net)
  • The specific value of the linear absorption coefficient depends on the type of absorbing material, the energy of the gamma or X-ray and the density of the absorbing medium. (utoronto.ca)
  • Cadmium tungstate CdWO4 (CWO), due to its low intrinsic background and afterglow together with sufficiently high light yield, is the most promising for spectrometry and radiometry of radio nuclides under extremely low activities, and also for computer tomography. (mkt-intl.com)
  • This fundamental change in the presentation of the atomic weights represents an important advance in our knowledge of the natural world and underscores the significance and contributions of chemistry to the well-being of humankind in the International Year of Chemistry 2011. (degruyter.com)
  • Although a reasonable understanding of the energetic foundations for marine and terrestrial subsurface sedimentary ecosystems to a depth of 500 m has been achieved ( 20 , 55 ), mechanisms for the energetic support of igneous and metamorphic rock systems remain incompletely addressed. (asm.org)
  • Recent advances in the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) and in atomic-scale characterization, coupled with insights from theoretical modelling, have opened exciting possibilities to tailor knowledge-based NPs for many applications, such as catalysis, plasmonics, sensors, magnetism, nanomedicine. (european-mrs.com)
  • He did his PhD work in the Electronic & Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Salford, on the Mathematical Modelling of Atomic Collisions in Solids. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • This reserve should be sufficient to power significantly higher sustainable swimming speeds, presumably at lower energetic cost than if intrinsically less efficient fast fibres were recruited. (pianolarge.ml)
  • This has been confirmed by a detailed demonstration of the robustness of the method: J.L.Colaux & C.Jeynes, High accuracy traceable Rutherford backscattering spectrometry of ion implanted samples, Analytical Methods 6 , 2014, 120-129 . (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Leong*, C. H., Porras, I., and King, F. W. (2016) Analysis of atomic integrals involving explicit correlation factors for the three-electron case. (uwec.edu)
  • Compton scattering is relatively independent of the atomic number of the absorbing material. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Due to its high effective atomic number and high density, BGO is a very efficient gamma absorber with high photo effect fraction which results in a very good photo peak to Compton ratio. (mkt-intl.com)
  • This has been followed up by a "Round Robin" between Surrey (C.Jeynes), Lisbon (N.P.Barradas) and Budapest (E.Szilágyi) (" Accurate determination of Quantity of Material in thin films by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry ") demonstrating that three labs can independently measure an implant fluence with an absolute accuracy of 1% , Analytical Chemistry 84, 2012, 6061-6069 . (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Cesium Iodide activated by thallium is a scintillation material with high absorption power and can be used as an efficient gamma ray absorber. (mkt-intl.com)
  • This originates from the fact that material forces are energetic quantities, as the energy-momentum tensor is computed from strain energy, stresses and strains. (binaryoptionsforex625.com)
  • Mehl's work on the Navy 's cruiser sternpost castings established gamma-ray radiography as an NDT technique. (tms.org)
  • 2-1 Early Chemical Discoveries and the Atomic Theory Early Chemical Discoveries and the Atomic Theory Chemistry has been practiced for a very long time, even if its practitioners were much more interested in its applications than in its underlying principles. (docplayer.net)
  • This impressive worldwide interest stems from the striking scientific appeal of nanoparticles (NPs), which constitute a bridge over the troubled waters between the atomic and bulk worlds, as well as from their actual or potential applications in fields as diverse as catalysis, optics, magnetism, drug delivery. (european-mrs.com)
  • In another embodiment, a high sensitivity three-dimensional scintimammography system is provided which utilizes gamma ray imaging. (patents.com)