Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Mononuclear Phagocyte System
Air Pollutants, Occupational
Toll-Like Receptor 4
Lymphocyte Antigen 96
Lethal Dose 50
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica in California agriculture. (1/4158)AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to measure inhalable and respirable dust levels during various operations. The samples were analysed for endotoxin using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay and crystalline silica content using X-ray diffraction. In total 142 inhalable samples and 144 respirable samples were collected. RESULTS: The measurements showed considerable difference in exposure levels between various operations, in particular for the inhalable fraction of the dust and the endotoxin. Machine harvesting of tree crops (Geometric mean (GM) = 45.1 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 7.9 mg/m3), and cleaning of poultry houses (GM = 6.7 mg/m3) showed the highest inhalable dust levels. Cleaning of poultry houses also showed the highest inhalable endotoxin levels (GM = 1861 EU/m3). Respirable dust levels were generally low, except for machine harvesting of tree crops (GM = 2.8 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 0.9 mg/m3). Respirable endotoxin levels were also low. For the inhalable dust fraction, levels were reduced considerably when an enclosed cabin was present. The percentage of crystalline silica was overall higher in the respirable dust samples than the inhalable dust samples. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist in personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California agriculture with some operations showing very high levels. (+info)
Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (2/4158)The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis. (+info)
5'-Nucleotidase activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages. I. Synthesis and degradation in resident and inflammatory populations. (3/4158)Mouse resident peritoneal macrophages display sufficient 5'-nucleotidase activity to hydrolyze 58 nm AMP/min per cell protein. This activity increases approximately 163 nm AMP/min per mg after 72 h in culture. The enzyme is renewed in unstimulated cells with a half-time of 13.9 h. The activity is not reduced by treatment of intact cells with a variety of proteolytic enzymes, including trypsin, pronase, urokinase, and plasmin. Cells obtained from an inflammatory exudate have diminished or absent levels of enzyme activity. Endotoxin-elicited cells display enzyme activitiy of 20.9 nm AMP/min per mg, while thioglycollate-stimulated macrophages have no detectable activity. The reduced level of activity in endotoxin-stimulated cells is due to their elevated rate of enzyme degradation, with a half-time of 6.9 h. Their rate of enzyme synthesis is essentially normal. No evidence for latent enzyme activity could be obtained in thioglycollate-stimulated cells, nor do these cells produce any inhibition of normal cell enzyme activity. Serum deprivation reduces the enzyme activity of resident cells to about 45% of control activity. These conditions do not significantly affect the rate of enzyme synthesis, but again are explainable by an increase in the rate of enzyme degradation. Pinocytic rate is elevated in endotoxin-stimulated cells which show a more rapid rate of enzyme degradation than unstimulated cells do. However, in serum-free conditions, the rate of enzyme degradation is doubled with no change in the pinocytic rate of the cells. (+info)
Effect of sodium butyrate on lymphocyte activation. (4/4158)Butyrate, in relatively low concentrations, has been shown to induce synthesis of enzymes, cause changes in cell morphology, and inhibit growth of a variety of mammalian cells in tissue culture (reviewed in ). In this communication, we report our observations on the effect of butyrate on lymphocyte activation. Butyrate completely and reversibly inhibits mitogen-induced blast formation. We present evidence that it does not interfere with the binding of mitogens, that it does not inhibit a number of the "early" reactions involved in activation, and that it does not affect ongoing DNA synthesis for an extended period of time. However, butyrate rapidly inhibits any increase in the rate of DNA synthesis. (+info)
Macrophage plasminogen activator: induction by asbestos is blocked by anti-inflammatory steroids. (5/4158)Intraperitoneal injection of asbestos fibres into mice induces the formation of exudates containing macrophages that produce plasminogen activator. Like-wise, in vitro addition of asbestos to macrophage cultures stimulates plasminogen activator secretion; the synthesis and secretion of lysozyme and lysosomal enzymes are not changed under these conditions. The enhanced secretion of plasminogen activator by macrophages exposed to asbestos is suppressed by low concentrations of anti-inflammatory steroids. (+info)
Clindamycin suppresses endotoxin released by ceftazidime-treated Escherichia coli O55:B5 and subsequent production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta. (6/4158)Treatment of septicemia caused by Escherichia coli with ceftazidime (CAZ) may be associated with the development of septic shock due to the release of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. We examined the suppressive effect of clindamycin (CLDM) on CAZ-induced release of endotoxin by cultured E. coli and the subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-1 beta [IL-1 beta]). E. coli ATCC 12014 was incubated in inactivated horse serum with or without CLDM for 1, 4, or 18 h, followed by the addition of CAZ and collection of the culture supernatant at 0, 1, and 2 h. The concentration of endotoxin in each sample was measured by a chromogenic Limulus test. Another portion of the culture supernatant was added to THP-1 cell culture and incubated for 4 h, and the concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta in the supernatant were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the control group (no CLDM), CAZ administration resulted in significant increases in endotoxin, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta concentrations. Pretreatment of E. coli with CLDM for 4 or 18 h before the addition of CAZ significantly suppressed the concentrations of endotoxin, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta in a time-dependent manner. In addition, CAZ treatment transformed E. coli from rodshaped bacteria to filament-like structures, as determined by electron microscopy, while pretreatment with CLDM prevented these morphological changes. Our in vitro studies showed that CAZ-induced release of large quantities of endotoxin by E. coli could be suppressed by prior administration of CLDM. (+info)
Fosfomycin alters lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production in mice. (7/4158)To determine the mechanisms of immunomodulating action of fosfomycin (FOF), we examined its effect on the production of inflammatory cytokines in mice injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with FOF significantly lowered the peak serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta, indicating that FOF alters inflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation. (+info)
Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects. (8/4158)Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field. (+info)
Endotoxemia can occur in individuals who have a severe bacterial infection, such as pneumonia or meningitis, or those who have a prosthetic device or other foreign body that becomes infected with gram-negative bacteria. Treatment of endotoxemia typically involves antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further complications. In severe cases, medications such as corticosteroids and vasopressors may be used to help reduce inflammation and improve blood flow.
Endotoxemia is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients.
Shock refers to a severe and sudden drop in blood pressure, which can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. There are several types of shock, including hypovolemic shock (caused by bleeding or dehydration), septic shock (caused by an overwhelming bacterial infection), and cardiogenic shock (caused by a heart attack or other cardiac condition).
Septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream, which can cause a range of symptoms including fever, chills, and confusion. Sepsis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.
Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, which is the body's systemic inflammatory response to an infection. Septic shock is characterized by severe vasopressor (a medication used to increase blood pressure) and hypotension (low blood pressure), and it can lead to multiple organ failure and death if not treated promptly and effectively.
In summary, shock refers to a drop in blood pressure, while septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream. Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, and it can be a life-threatening condition if not treated promptly and effectively.
The exact mechanism of the Shwartzman Phenomenon is not fully understood, but it is thought that the cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body may be less susceptible to treatment because they are more aggressive and faster-growing than the original tumor. Additionally, these cells may have developed resistance mechanisms that make them less sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation.
The Shwartzman Phenomenon can make it more difficult to treat certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma. It is particularly common in cases where the cancer has spread to the liver or lymph nodes.
To overcome the Shwartzman Phenomenon, doctors may use higher doses of chemotherapy and radiation, or they may use different combinations of treatments. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove tumors that have spread to other parts of the body.
Overall, the Shwartzman Phenomenon is an important consideration for doctors treating cancer patients, as it can affect the success of treatment and the patient's prognosis.
The patient was admitted to the hospital with toxemia caused by a severe allergic reaction to a new medication.
There are different types of fever, including:
1. Pyrexia: This is the medical term for fever. It is used to describe a body temperature that is above normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F).
2. Hyperthermia: This is a more severe form of fever, where the body temperature rises significantly above normal levels.
3. Febrile seizure: This is a seizure that occurs in children who have a high fever.
4. Remittent fever: This is a type of fever that comes and goes over a period of time.
5. Intermittent fever: This is a type of fever that recurs at regular intervals.
6. Chronic fever: This is a type of fever that persists for an extended period of time, often more than 3 weeks.
The symptoms of fever can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:
* Elevated body temperature
* Muscle aches
* Loss of appetite
In some cases, fever can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone in your care has a fever, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, confusion, or chest pain.
Treatment for fever depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen may be prescribed to help reduce the fever. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions carefully and to consult with a healthcare professional before giving medication to children.
In addition to medication, there are other ways to help manage fever symptoms at home. These include:
* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Taking cool baths or using a cool compress to reduce body temperature
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities
* Using over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen, to help manage headache and muscle aches.
Preventive measures for fever include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying up to date on vaccinations, which can help prevent certain infections that can cause fever.
Here are some key points to define sepsis:
1. Inflammatory response: Sepsis is characterized by an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response to an infection. This can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.
2. Systemic symptoms: Patients with sepsis often have systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and confusion. They may also experience nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Organ dysfunction: Sepsis can cause dysfunction in multiple organs, including the lungs, kidneys, liver, and heart. This can lead to organ failure and death if not treated promptly.
4. Infection source: Sepsis is usually caused by a bacterial infection, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections. The infection can be localized or widespread, and it can affect different parts of the body.
5. Severe sepsis: Severe sepsis is a more severe form of sepsis that is characterized by severe organ dysfunction and a higher risk of death. Patients with severe sepsis may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation.
6. Septic shock: Septic shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is severe circulatory dysfunction due to sepsis. It is characterized by hypotension, vasopressor use, and organ failure.
Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are critical to preventing serious complications and improving outcomes. The Sepsis-3 definition is widely used in clinical practice to diagnose sepsis and severe sepsis.
There are several key features of inflammation:
1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.
There are several types of inflammation, including:
1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.
There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:
1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.
It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:
3. Heart disease
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.
In DIC, the body's normal blood coagulation mechanisms become overactive and begin to form clots throughout the circulatory system, including in small blood vessels and organs. This can cause a range of symptoms, including bleeding, fever, and organ failure.
DIC is often seen in sepsis, which is a severe infection that has spread throughout the body. It can also be caused by other conditions such as trauma, cancer, and autoimmune disorders.
Treatment of DIC typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as treating an infection or injury, as well as supporting the body's natural clotting mechanisms and preventing further bleeding. In severe cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.
In summary, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) is a serious medical condition that can cause widespread clotting and damage to the body's organs and tissues. It is often seen in sepsis and other severe conditions, and treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and supporting the body's natural clotting mechanisms.
The term "byssinosis" comes from the Greek word "byssus," meaning "linen thread," as these diseases were initially observed in workers involved in the production of linen and other natural fibers. The most common forms of byssinosis include:
1. Byssinosis (cotton dust disease): Caused by inhalation of cotton dust, this condition can lead to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
2. Flaxseed dust disease: Similar to byssinosis, this condition is caused by inhalation of flaxseed dust and can cause respiratory problems.
3. Hemp dust disease: Similarly, inhalation of hemp dust can lead to respiratory issues and inflammation.
The diagnosis of byssinosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and lung function tests. Treatment options may include medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the lungs, as well as respiratory therapy and avoidance of exposure to dusty environments. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be necessary.
Christian R. H. Raetz
Bacterial outer membrane
KDO)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Limulus amebocyte lysate
Endothelial protein C receptor
Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway
Dennis Wallace Watson
Toll-like receptor 2
Stefan D. Anker
Endotoxin-Like Reactions Associated with Intravenous Gentamicin -- California, 1998
Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins - PubMed
Bacterial Endotoxins - Office of NIH History and Stetten Museum
Endotoxin and Immunity Research Group - University of Plymouth
JCI - Residual endotoxin induces primary graft dysfunction through ischemia/reperfusion-primed alveolar macrophages
BIOCELL | Bacterial endotoxins in periodontal health and diseases
Predictors of endotoxin levels in U.S. housing - PubMed
Neisseria meningitidis Endotoxin and Capsule Transmission by Transplantation - Volume 11, Number 8-August 2005 - Emerging...
Removal of endotoxins from purified plasmid DNA using the EndoFree Plasmid Maxi Kit - QIAGEN
Whitepaper Assists Medical Device Manufacturers with Changes to FDA Endotoxin Testing Guidelines
Endotoxin levels in follicular fluid and in circulation.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine - Keyword endotoxin
Differentiation and classification of bacterial endotoxins based on surface enhanced Raman scattering and advanced machine...
How different endotoxin testing platforms work
Correlation of |i|Limulus |/i|amebocyte lysate assay with accepted endotoxin assays
Design, syntheses, and evaluation of lipopolyamines as anti-endotoxin agents
INTERACTION OF AMBIENT AMMONIA AND ENDOTOXINS WITH AIRBORNE AND HUMAN NASAL MICROBIOME DIVERSITY IN COMMUNITIES NEAR LARGE...
Low Endotoxin/Azide Free Anti-Human IFN-g, B27 | SouthernBiotech
WHO international standard for endotoxin: report of an international collaborative study to evaluate three preparations of...
Thank you page: Performing an endotoxin test (ENDOZYME® II GO) | INTEGRA
WHO EMRO | Household characteristics and allergen and endotoxin levels in Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic | Volume 16, issue 7 |...
Anti-Hu CD13 Purified Low Endotoxin - EXBIO Antibodies
Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins can inhibit the detection of bacterial endotoxin In Vitro
Effects of Bacterial Endotoxin (LPS) on Cardiac and Synaptic Function in Various Animal Models: Larval Drosophila, Crayfish,...
Prenatal Immune Stimulation Alters the Postnatal Acute Phase and Metabolic Responses to an Endotoxin Challenge in Weaned Beef...
InVivoMAb Rat, anti-Mouse CD326 (EpCAM), Clone - G8.8, IgG2a, kappa, Endotoxin
Unique genome-wide transcriptome profiles of chicken macrophages exposed to Salmonella-derived endotoxin | BMC Genomics | Full...
BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies...
Targeting of microRNA-142-3p in dendritic cells regulates endotoxin-induced mortality<...
- The LAL became the standard worldwide test for bacterial endotoxins. (nih.gov)
- Bacterial endotoxins are a major concern in periodontal health and diseases owing to their structure and biological activity. (techscience.com)
- Here, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of eleven bacterial endotoxins with an average detection amount of 8.75 pg per measurement have been obtained based on silver nanorod array substrates, and the characteristic SERS peaks have been identified. (rsc.org)
- Bacterial endotoxin, a major component of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane leaflet, is a lipopolysaccharide shed from bacteria during their growth and infection and can be utilized as a biomarker for bacterial detection. (rsc.org)
- Bacteria require endotoxin, a complex lipopolysaccharide, for outer membrane permeability and the host interprets endotoxin as a signal to initiate an innate immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
- Endotoxin is a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that is responsible for membrane organization and stability [ 1 ] and differs from LPS in that it is a butanol/water extract rather than a phenol/water extract [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Production of cytokines by the dendritic cells (DCs) plays a critical role in response to endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (houstonmethodist.org)
- This project has mainly focused on indoor allergen and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) exposures, which are important asthma risk factors. (nih.gov)
- Pyrogens are endotoxins that cause fevers. (nih.gov)
- Revised edition of: Pyrogens : endotoxins and LAL testing and depyrogenation / by F. C. Pearson. (who.int)
- If so, is the test qualified for detection of both endotoxin and non-endotoxin pyrogens? (nih.gov)
- Does a test qualified for detection of non-endotoxin pyrogens detect both MMPs and microbial components other than endotoxin? (nih.gov)
- What are the appropriate positive controls for demonstrating the ability to detect non- endotoxin pyrogens? (nih.gov)
- Testing for endotoxins (a toxin present in a bacteria cell that is released when the cell disintegrates) in injectable biologics was revolutionized in Building 29A by Drs. Edward Seligmann and H. Donald Hochstein. (nih.gov)
- Endotoxins are part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and had been discovered to be the cause of fevers in some patients receiving injections. (nih.gov)
- Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria establishes a nexus between cytokine stimulation and proinflammatory reactions, therefore plays a critical role in decaying dental pulp and modulating periodontal diseases. (techscience.com)
- Endotoxins, or Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) present on the surface of Gram negative bacteria play a key role in the pathogenesis of septic shock, a common clinical problem and a leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients, for which no specific modalities are available at the present time. (ku.edu)
- Lipid A is structurally highly conserved in Gram negative bacteria, and is therefore an attractive target for developing anti-endotoxin molecules designed to sequester, and thereby neutralize, the deleterious effects of endotoxin. (ku.edu)
- Gram-negative bacteria produce endotoxins in the form of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). (scialert.net)
- As above using an in vitro model of chicken response to endotoxin, our data revealed the kinetics of gene networks involved in host response to endotoxin and extend the known complexity of networks in chicken immune response to Gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella . (biomedcentral.com)
- Gram-negative bacteria not only have different factors of virulence and generate products and sub-products that are toxic to apical and periapical tissues, but also contain endotoxin in the outer membrane of their cell wall. (bvsalud.org)
- In dentistry, many studies using different methodologies in vivo and in vitro have emphasized the importance of Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria and endotoxin in the etiology of chronic periapical lesions. (bvsalud.org)
- during the first procedure, endotoxin, a molecule found in bacteria is squirted into a small portion of the lung. (nih.gov)
- ABSTRACT Few data are available from Eastern Mediterranean countries about levels of domestic allergens and endotoxins. (who.int)
- From traditional LAL assays to cartridge-based systems, robotics and microfluidic BET automation, learn how different endotoxin testing systems work in this infographic. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
- Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) typically consist of a hydrophobic domain known as lipid A (or endotoxin), a nonrepeating "core" oligosaccharide, and a distal polysaccharide (or O-antigen). (nih.gov)
- With up-to-date knowledge of endotoxins and the recent findings about the influence of endotoxins in dental health, their probable mode of pathogenesis, and standard detection methods, this review analyzes the potential efficacy and benefits of probiotics in combination with conventional and contemporary treatment measures. (techscience.com)
- In this review, a discussion regarding the progression of endotoxin detection techniques, from crude to refined are presented. (authorea.com)
- We assayed 2,552 house dust samples in a nationwide study to understand the predictors of household endotoxin in bedroom floors, family room floors, beds, kitchen floors, and family room sofas. (nih.gov)
- Reservoir house dust from five locations within homes was assayed for endotoxin and demographic and housing information was assessed through questionnaire and onsite evaluation of 2,456 residents of 831 homes selected to represent national demographics. (nih.gov)
- We investigated the relationship between house dust endotoxin concentration and peripheral leukocyte counts in human subjects. (nih.gov)
- This is, to our knowledge, the first report of an association between house dust endotoxin and leukocyte count in a national survey. (nih.gov)
- Weighted penalized B-spline of white blood cell (WBC) count through the full range of household dust endotoxin concentration in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 study population. (nih.gov)
- Linear regression of the change in white blood cells and serum C-reactive protein associated with a 10-fold increase in house dust endotoxin concentration, in the overall NHANES 2005-2006 study population and within disease/symptom strata. (nih.gov)
- Linear regression of the change in absolute count of WBC subtypes associated with a 10-fold increase in house dust endotoxin concentration in the NHANES 2005-2006 study population. (nih.gov)
- Gene by environment interaction analysis of WBC count and log10 house dust endotoxin. (nih.gov)
- Medical devices that contact circulating blood or cerebrospinal fluid, or are used with intraocular products or in vitro fertilization procedures, are required to be endotoxin-free. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The focus of this study is kinetic and global transcriptional analysis of the chicken macrophage response to in vitro stimulation with endotoxin from Salmonella typhimurium -798. (biomedcentral.com)
- Determining the effects of endotoxin from Salmonella typhimurium in chicken macrophages is an in vitro model to characterize the transcription profiles of one important cell type in the chickens' immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
- Endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein A-I: effect on macrophage proliferation--a cautionary tale. (nih.gov)
- This report summarizes the results of this investigation at hospital A, which found that gentamicin with endotoxin levels within the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) standards may deliver endotoxin amounts above the threshold for pyrogenic reactions with once-daily dosing. (cdc.gov)
- Endotoxins are considered as the major contributors to the pyrogenic response observed with contaminated pharmaceutical products. (authorea.com)
- NLRC5 (CARD domain containing, NOD-like receptor family, RCJMB04_18i2), an intracellular receptor, was induced in HD11 cells treated with endotoxin. (biomedcentral.com)
- We make the first report of induction of a NOD-like receptor family member in response to Salmonella endotoxin in chicken macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the ALHS, we tested for a gene [Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), encoding the endotoxin receptor]-by-environment interaction in the endotoxin-leukocyte relationship using regression models with an interaction term. (nih.gov)
- BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products. (biovendor.com)
- However, few studies have evaluated predictors of household endotoxin, and none have done so for multiple locations within homes and on a national scale. (nih.gov)
- We performed repeated-measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) for 37 candidate variables to identify independent predictors of endotoxin. (nih.gov)
- Meteorologic data were obtained for each primary sampling unit and tested as predictors of indoor endotoxin to determine if wetter or warmer microclimates were associated with higher endotoxin levels. (nih.gov)
- Bivariate analyses and rANOVA demonstrated that major predictors of endotoxin concentration were sampling location in the home, census division, educational attainment, presence of children, current dog ownership, resident-described problems with cockroaches, food debris, cockroach stains, and evidence of smoking observed by field staff. (nih.gov)
- This information is important because endotoxin is released during multiplication or bacterial death, causing a series of biological effects that lead to an inflammatory reaction and resorption of mineralized tissues. (bvsalud.org)
- The relationship of domestic endotoxin exposure to allergy and asthma has been widely investigated. (nih.gov)
- QPCR demonstrated that endotoxin exposure significantly affected the mRNA expression of IL1B , IL6 , IL8 , and TLR15 , but not IL10 and IFNG in HD 11 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Peripheral leukocyte count may be influenced by residential endotoxin exposure in diverse settings. (nih.gov)
- However, endotoxemia in liver transplant recipients has been associated with graft failure and a high mortality rate ( 4 , 5 ), and in gram-negative bacterial infections, the physiologic effects of endotoxin may persist after adequate antimicrobial drug treatment. (cdc.gov)
- The antimicrobial effectivity and on endotoxin content were analyzed by culture procedure (CFU/mL) and LAL assay (EU/mL), respectively. (bvsalud.org)
- We use novel cell lines and 3D cell cultures to investigate the inflammatory response to endotoxin and other bacterial molecules. (plymouth.ac.uk)
- Three, 9.7, 96.8, and 11.8% of the total DE inflammatory response genes were significantly differentially expressed with endotoxin stimulation at 1, 2, 4 and 8 hps, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- MET: This single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, full-factorial study was conducted in healthy males aged 18 to 55 years with pyrexia induced by intravenous administration of reference standard endotoxin (RSE). (listlabs.com)
- Finally, we investigate the effectiveness of endotoxin purification processes, both from a perspective of precision as well as cost-effectiveness. (authorea.com)
- Can this test be qualified for varying regulatory "endotoxin units (EU) per device" limits? (nih.gov)
- However, few studies have specifically examined the response to the more complex and more relevant immune stimulant, endotoxin, as a model for in vivo responses. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, the aim of this work is to carry out a review of the literature on the role of bacterial endotoxin in the etiology of periapical lesions, its mechanism of action, and to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in endotoxin's recognition by the immune system and cell activation. (bvsalud.org)
- Therefore, the objective of this study is to carry out a review of the literature on the role of bacterial endotoxin in the etiology of periapical lesions, as well as to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in its recognition by the immune system and in cell activation. (bvsalud.org)
- Weighted geometric mean endotoxin concentration ranged from 18.7 to 80.5 endotoxin units (EU)/mg for the five sampling locations, and endotoxin load ranged from 4,160 to 19,500 EU/m(2). (nih.gov)
- Endotoxin levels in follicular fluid and in circulation. (figshare.com)
- A) Endotoxin levels in follicular fluid were higher in NOV cows compared with OV cows (n = 43, * = P (figshare.com)
- B) Plasma endotoxin levels were not different between NOV and OV cows but were higher (*, P (figshare.com)
- Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in wool/cotton mattresses and older houses. (who.int)
- Endotoxin-free DNA is essential for gene therapy research and will improve transfection into sensitive eukaryotic cells. (qiagen.com)
- A new whitepaper is available to assist medical device manufacturers with understanding recent changes to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s thinking regarding endotoxin testing. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The paper is available to download from the Web at http://www.microtestlabs.com/medical-device-endotoxin-testing-paper . (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Titled FDA Updates Medical Device Endotoxin Testing Program (New Guidance), the new white paper is authored by Steven G. Richter, PhD, a former FDA official and president and chief scientific officer of Microtest Laboratories, Inc., a leading contract testing laboratory. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The 38535-probeset Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome array was used to profile transcriptional response to endotoxin 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours post stimulation (hps). (biomedcentral.com)
- The induction of NFKBIA, IL1B, IL8, CCL4 genes is a consistent signature of host response to endotoxin over time. (biomedcentral.com)
- After 6 to 48 hours, bronchoscopy with with bronchoalveolar lavage will be done to look at the lung s response to endotoxin. (nih.gov)
- Endotoxin used in the present study is between 10 and 20% protein and reproducible, hence its complexity better mimics the cell membrane in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
- The Endotoxin Test at LEAF is held on a monthly basis scheduled on the 3rd Tuesday of every month. (edu.lb)
- 2 Units of measure for endotoxin in endotoxin units or EU/mL. (cdc.gov)
- Using a maximum FDR (False Discovery Rate) of 0.05 to declare genes as differentially expressed (DE), we found 13, 33, 1761 and 61 DE genes between endotoxin-stimulated versus non-stimulated cells at 1, 2, 4 and 8 hps, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- Airborne endotoxin in different background environments and seasons. (aaem.pl)
- InÂ the new whitepaper, Richter reviews the FDAs updated guidelines on endotoxin testing and explains how they relate to medical devices. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- A potential benefit of a combination of probiotics as a complementary treatment along with the conventional treatment warrant more empirical evidence to elucidate its role and mechanism in resolving the clinical manifestations associated with endotoxins in the periodontal region. (techscience.com)
- The NFKBIA, IL1B, IL8 and CCL4 genes were consistently induced at all times after endotoxin treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
- Importantly, treatment of only WT but not the IL-6-deficient (IL-6 -/- ) mice with locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified phosphorothioate oligonucleotide complementary to miR 142-3p reduced endotoxin-induced mortality. (houstonmethodist.org)
- Effect of EDTA and QMIX Ultrasonic Activation on the Reduction of Microorganisms and Endotoxins in Ex Vivo Human Root Canals. (bvsalud.org)
- Meet the endotoxin and immunity research team and our collaborators. (plymouth.ac.uk)
- In the paper, Richter discusses the FDAs recently published document, Guidance of Industry Pyrogen and Endotoxin Testing: Questions and Answers. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- It presents the agencys current position regarding pyrogen and bacterial endotoxin testing requirements for pharmaceuticals, biologics and medical devices. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The manufacturing process is therefore in critical need to reduce and remove endotoxins by monitoring raw materials and in-process intermediates at critical steps, in addition to final drug product release testing. (authorea.com)