Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Sensitive method for detection of bacterial endotoxins and endotoxin-like substances that depends on the in vitro gelation of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), prepared from the circulating blood (amebocytes) of the horseshoe crab, by the endotoxin or related compound. Used for detection of endotoxin in body fluids and parenteral pharmaceuticals.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Hemorrhagic necrosis that was first demonstrated in rabbits with a two-step reaction, an initial local (intradermal) or general (intravenous) injection of a priming endotoxin (ENDOTOXINS) followed by a second intravenous endotoxin injection (provoking agent) 24 h later. The acute inflammation damages the small blood vessels. The following intravascular coagulation leads to capillary and venous THROMBOSIS and NECROSIS. Shwartzman phenomenon can also occur in other species with a single injection of a provoking agent, and during infections or pregnancy. Its susceptibility depends on the status of IMMUNE SYSTEM, coagulation, FIBRINOLYSIS, and blood flow.
Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.
A condition produced by the presence of toxins or other harmful substances in the BLOOD.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A secreted protein that associates with TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 and is essential for receptor recognition of LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES.
The contamination of indoor air.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
Living facilities for humans.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Thorium oxide (ThO2). A radiographic contrast agent that was used in the early 1930s through about 1954. High rates of mortality have been linked to its use and it has been shown to cause liver cancer.
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A condition of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION resulting from hypersensitive reaction to inhaled dust during the initial processing of cotton, flax, or hemp in the textile industry. Symptoms include wheezing and tightness in the chest.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.

Personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica in California agriculture. (1/4158)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to measure inhalable and respirable dust levels during various operations. The samples were analysed for endotoxin using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay and crystalline silica content using X-ray diffraction. In total 142 inhalable samples and 144 respirable samples were collected. RESULTS: The measurements showed considerable difference in exposure levels between various operations, in particular for the inhalable fraction of the dust and the endotoxin. Machine harvesting of tree crops (Geometric mean (GM) = 45.1 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 7.9 mg/m3), and cleaning of poultry houses (GM = 6.7 mg/m3) showed the highest inhalable dust levels. Cleaning of poultry houses also showed the highest inhalable endotoxin levels (GM = 1861 EU/m3). Respirable dust levels were generally low, except for machine harvesting of tree crops (GM = 2.8 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 0.9 mg/m3). Respirable endotoxin levels were also low. For the inhalable dust fraction, levels were reduced considerably when an enclosed cabin was present. The percentage of crystalline silica was overall higher in the respirable dust samples than the inhalable dust samples. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist in personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California agriculture with some operations showing very high levels.  (+info)

Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (2/4158)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

5'-Nucleotidase activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages. I. Synthesis and degradation in resident and inflammatory populations. (3/4158)

Mouse resident peritoneal macrophages display sufficient 5'-nucleotidase activity to hydrolyze 58 nm AMP/min per cell protein. This activity increases approximately 163 nm AMP/min per mg after 72 h in culture. The enzyme is renewed in unstimulated cells with a half-time of 13.9 h. The activity is not reduced by treatment of intact cells with a variety of proteolytic enzymes, including trypsin, pronase, urokinase, and plasmin. Cells obtained from an inflammatory exudate have diminished or absent levels of enzyme activity. Endotoxin-elicited cells display enzyme activitiy of 20.9 nm AMP/min per mg, while thioglycollate-stimulated macrophages have no detectable activity. The reduced level of activity in endotoxin-stimulated cells is due to their elevated rate of enzyme degradation, with a half-time of 6.9 h. Their rate of enzyme synthesis is essentially normal. No evidence for latent enzyme activity could be obtained in thioglycollate-stimulated cells, nor do these cells produce any inhibition of normal cell enzyme activity. Serum deprivation reduces the enzyme activity of resident cells to about 45% of control activity. These conditions do not significantly affect the rate of enzyme synthesis, but again are explainable by an increase in the rate of enzyme degradation. Pinocytic rate is elevated in endotoxin-stimulated cells which show a more rapid rate of enzyme degradation than unstimulated cells do. However, in serum-free conditions, the rate of enzyme degradation is doubled with no change in the pinocytic rate of the cells.  (+info)

Effect of sodium butyrate on lymphocyte activation. (4/4158)

Butyrate, in relatively low concentrations, has been shown to induce synthesis of enzymes, cause changes in cell morphology, and inhibit growth of a variety of mammalian cells in tissue culture (reviewed in [1]). In this communication, we report our observations on the effect of butyrate on lymphocyte activation. Butyrate completely and reversibly inhibits mitogen-induced blast formation. We present evidence that it does not interfere with the binding of mitogens, that it does not inhibit a number of the "early" reactions involved in activation, and that it does not affect ongoing DNA synthesis for an extended period of time. However, butyrate rapidly inhibits any increase in the rate of DNA synthesis.  (+info)

Macrophage plasminogen activator: induction by asbestos is blocked by anti-inflammatory steroids. (5/4158)

Intraperitoneal injection of asbestos fibres into mice induces the formation of exudates containing macrophages that produce plasminogen activator. Like-wise, in vitro addition of asbestos to macrophage cultures stimulates plasminogen activator secretion; the synthesis and secretion of lysozyme and lysosomal enzymes are not changed under these conditions. The enhanced secretion of plasminogen activator by macrophages exposed to asbestos is suppressed by low concentrations of anti-inflammatory steroids.  (+info)

Clindamycin suppresses endotoxin released by ceftazidime-treated Escherichia coli O55:B5 and subsequent production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta. (6/4158)

Treatment of septicemia caused by Escherichia coli with ceftazidime (CAZ) may be associated with the development of septic shock due to the release of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. We examined the suppressive effect of clindamycin (CLDM) on CAZ-induced release of endotoxin by cultured E. coli and the subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-1 beta [IL-1 beta]). E. coli ATCC 12014 was incubated in inactivated horse serum with or without CLDM for 1, 4, or 18 h, followed by the addition of CAZ and collection of the culture supernatant at 0, 1, and 2 h. The concentration of endotoxin in each sample was measured by a chromogenic Limulus test. Another portion of the culture supernatant was added to THP-1 cell culture and incubated for 4 h, and the concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta in the supernatant were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the control group (no CLDM), CAZ administration resulted in significant increases in endotoxin, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta concentrations. Pretreatment of E. coli with CLDM for 4 or 18 h before the addition of CAZ significantly suppressed the concentrations of endotoxin, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta in a time-dependent manner. In addition, CAZ treatment transformed E. coli from rodshaped bacteria to filament-like structures, as determined by electron microscopy, while pretreatment with CLDM prevented these morphological changes. Our in vitro studies showed that CAZ-induced release of large quantities of endotoxin by E. coli could be suppressed by prior administration of CLDM.  (+info)

Fosfomycin alters lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production in mice. (7/4158)

To determine the mechanisms of immunomodulating action of fosfomycin (FOF), we examined its effect on the production of inflammatory cytokines in mice injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with FOF significantly lowered the peak serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta, indicating that FOF alters inflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation.  (+info)

Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects. (8/4158)

Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field.  (+info)

Changes of myocardial substrate utilization have been studied in dogs under pentobarbital anesthesia following the administration of E. coli endotoxin. Mycocardial substrate utilization under control conditions at two hours, and again at three to four hours following endotoxin mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial pH were decreased while myocardial blood flow did not change. Arterial lactate increased greatly, free fatty acids did not change, glucose and O2 decreased. Myocardial uptake and oxidation of free fatty acids were greatly diminished and lactate uptake markedly elevated both periods following endotoxin. While under control conditions more than 70 of the energy utilization of the myocardium was derived from FFA, and about 30 lactate, following the administration of endotoxin the contribution of FFA to myocardial energy following the administration of endotoxin the contribution of FFA to myocardial energy utilization was greatly diminished and that of lactate was elevated. Thus a
Endotoxin is a potent mediator of a broad range of patho-physiological effects in humans. It is present in all Gram negative (GN) bacteria. It would be expected that anti-endotoxin therapies, whether antibody based or not, would have an important adjuvant therapeutic role along with antibiotics and other supportive therapies for GN infections. Indeed there is an extensive literature relating to both pre-clinical and clinical studies of anti-endotoxin antibodies. However, the extent of disconnect between the generally successful pre-clinical studies versus the failures of the numerous large clinical trials of antibody based and other anti-endotoxin therapies is under-appreciated and unexplained. Seeking a reconciliation of this disconnect is not an abstract academic question as clinical trials of interventions to reduce levels of endotoxemia levels are ongoing. The aim of this review is to examine new insights into the complex relationship between endotoxemia and sepsis in an attempt to bridge this
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The long-term consequences of neonatal endotoxin exposure on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) function were assessed in adult female and male Long-Evans rats. At 3 and 5 d of age, pups were administered endotoxin (Salmonella enteritidis, 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) at a dose that provokes a rapid and sustained physiological response, but with no mortality. As adults, neonatally endotoxin-treated animals exhibited significantly greater adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to restraint stress than controls. In addition, dexamethasone pretreatment was less effective in suppressing ACTH responses to restraint stress in endotoxin-treated animals than in controls, suggesting decreased negative-feedback sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Neonatal endotoxin treatment elevated resting-state median eminence levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin in adult male animals, and arginine vasopressin in both adult males and females. Neonatal exposure to ...
The indoor environment in animal husbandry is inevitably contaminated with endotoxin. Endotoxin exposure associates with various inflammatory illnesses in animals. The present cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between the degree of endotoxin exposure and the cellular and humoral immune profiles of fattening pigs. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 47 pigs from ten different pig farms in Korea. Whole blood cell counts and plasma immunoglobulin classes were measured. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with Concanavalin A for 48 hours and the cytokines released into the culture supernatants were measured. The barns in which the pigs lived were assessed for endotoxin levels in the total or respirable dust by using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic QCL method. Low and high endotoxin exposure were defined as ≤30 and ,30 EU/m3, respectively. Compared to pigs with low endotoxin exposure (n=19), highly exposed pigs (n=28) had higher ...
Skopinska, E, Some effects of escherichia coli endotoxin on the graft-versus-host reaction in mice. (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 2753 ...
First paragraph: Lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins produced by Gramnegative bacteria) are present on the surface of cigarettes and have been implicated in a number of diseases. Active smoking predisposes to periodontal disease which, in turn, facilitates gastrointestinal absorption of endotoxins. Serum endotoxin concentrations are higher among active smokers and are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition to being present on the surface of cigarettes, endotoxins are present in both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke. Inhaled airborne endotoxins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease. In a guinea pig model, endotoxins have been shown to penetrate the lung barrier and be detectable in the blood. Similarly, non-smokers with occupational exposure to organic dust containing high levels of endotoxin have been shown to have increased plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharide. However, no previous study has examined whether exposure to environmental ...
Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides or LPS, are cell membrane components of Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., |em>E. coli|/em>). The lipid portion of the outer layer of the outer membrane is completely composed of endotoxin molecules (see figure |a href=/cn/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/removal of bacterial endotoxins/images/schematic diagram of the envelope of e coli/>Schematic diagram of the envelope of |/a>|a href=/cn/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/removal of bacterial endotoxins/images/schematic diagram of the envelope of e coli/>|em>E. coli|/em>|/a>). A single |em>E. coli|/em> cell contains about 2 million LPS molecules, each consisting of a hydrophobic lipid A moiety, a complex array of sugar residues and negatively charged phosphate groups (see figure |a href=/cn/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/removal of bacterial endotoxins/images/schematic diagram of the endotoxin molecule/>Schematic diagram of the endotoxin molecule|/a>). Therefore,
Hoffman, J S. and Benditt, E P., Changes in high density lipoprotein content following endotoxin administration in the mouse. Formation of serum amyloid protein-rich subfractions. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3343 ...
Human Plasma Proteome Analysis Following Endotoxin Challenge Identifies New Proteins that Contribute to Molecular Phenotype of Innate Immunity
Author: Weatherman Kara D, Augustine Samuel, Christoff Jeffrey, Galbraith Wendy, Year: 2013, Abstract: The objective of this study was to establish benchmark rates for microbial and bacterial endotoxin contamination rates for radiopharmaceutical preparations compounded in commercial nuclear pharmacies. Radiopharmaceutical samples were obtained between November 2006 and June 2010 from seven commercial nuclear pharmacies. Preparations were compounded per the compounding protocols of each radiopharmacy, and each kit was used for unit-dose dispensing of patient-specific doses. Samples for testing wer
Inflammation and coagulation are closely linked, and both can be triggered by endotoxin. Thrombelastometry and impedance aggregometry are of diagnostic and predictive value in critically ill patients. In this observational study we investigated the correlation of endotoxin activity with thrombelasometric and aggregometric variables in patients with systemic inflammation. Based on a daily screening on a tertiary academic surgical ICU, patients, as soon as they fulfilled two or more criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), were included. In whole blood we performed endotoxin activity (EA) assay, thrombelastometry (ROTEM®) and impendance aggregometry (Multiplate®). In total, 49 patients were included with a broad spread of EA levels of (median (minimum to maximum)) 0.27 (0.01 to 0.72), allowing expedient correlative analysis. Clot formation time (CFT) (263 s (60 to 1,438 s)) and clotting time (CT) (1,008 s (53 to 1,481 s)) showed a significant negative correlation with EA level (r =
The letter from Hansen et al. (1) raises an interesting question regarding the complexity of metabolic endotoxinemia and inflammation in vivo. Hansen et al. suggest endotoxin activity should induce an inflammatory response in our cohorts, as noted in a previous in vivo study, where healthy patients were inoculated with endotoxin (1,2). This has two elements to consider: firstly, the impact of endotoxin on inflammation in subjects, and secondly, the measurement of circulating endotoxin.. Firstly, in understanding the inflammatory response, it is often tempting to directly compare in vivo situations, but the context is key (1-3). Our article (3) examined circulating endotoxin derived from the gastrointestinal tract, which induced a physiological meal-related response, whereas Taudorf et al. (2) inoculated endotoxin, which bypasses such gut-related processes. From this, direct comparison of endotoxin levels, across the two studies, examining the two healthy groups showed a differential response ...
Endotoxin detection in human patients has been a difficult challenge, in part due to the fact that the conserved active portion of the molecule (lipid A) is a relatively small epitope only amenable to binding by a single ligand at any one instance and low levels (pg/ml) are capable of stimulating the immune system. The endotoxin activity assay, a bioassay based on neutrophil activation by complement opsonized immune complexes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has allowed the specific detection of the lipid A epitope of LPS in a rapid whole blood assay format. This review summarizes diagnostic studies utilizing the endotoxin activity assay in a variety of hospital patient populations in whom endotoxin is postulated to play a significant role in disease etiology. These include ICU patients at risk of developing sepsis syndrome, abdominal and cardiovascular surgery patients and patients with serious traumatic injury. Significant features of these studies include the high negative predictive value of the assay
Intravenous injection of endotoxin from Escherichia coli in dogs is characterized by an immediate and precipitous decline in blood pressure with a simultaneous elevation of portal vein pressure. This reaction is abolished by hepatectomy or exclusion of the liver from the circulation and is believed due to trapping of blood in the liver. The reactions observed suggest that the profound biological effects of endotoxin are at least partially the result of anaphylaxis. The lethal effects of endotoxin are enhanced by removal of the liver.. ...
en] OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of the endotoxin level in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and to propose to the clinician a guide in the diagnosis of gram-negative bacterial (GNB) pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective and prospective studies to investigate the relation between endotoxin level and quantitative bacterial culture of BAL and to test the predictive value of a defined threshold. SETTING: University hospital general intensive care unit. PATIENTS: In the first part of the study, 77 consecutive ventilated patients with clinical suspicion of nosocomial pneumonia between January 1995 and January 1996. In the second part of the study, 93 consecutive ventilated patients studied prospectively between February 1996 and April 1997. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Quantitative cultures for aerobic bacteria were performed directly from the fluid. Bacterial species were determined with standard techniques. The detection of endotoxin in BAL was made using a quantitative chromogenic Limulus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction between syntoxic and catatoxic steroids on endotoxin lethality in relation to liver metabolism in mice. AU - Lazar, G.. AU - Sekiya, S.. AU - Agarwal, M. K.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017402889&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017402889&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 330853. AN - SCOPUS:0017402889. VL - 22. SP - 13. EP - 20. JO - Journal of Leukocyte Biology. JF - Journal of Leukocyte Biology. SN - 0741-5400. IS - 1. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insights into endotoxin-mediated lung inflammation and future treatment strategies. AU - Chakraborty, Amlan. AU - Boer, Jennifer C.. AU - Selomulya, Cordelia. AU - Plebanski, Magdalena. AU - Royce, Simon G.. PY - 2018/11/2. Y1 - 2018/11/2. N2 - Introduction: Airway inflammatory disorders are prevalent diseases in need of better management and new therapeutics. Immunotherapies offer a solution to the problem of corticosteroid resistance. Areas covered: The current review focuses on lipopolysaccharide (Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin)-mediated inflammation in the lung and the animal models used to study related diseases. Endotoxin-induced lung pathology is usually initiated by antigen presenting cells (APC). We will discuss different subsets of APC including lung dendritic cells and macrophages, and their role in responding to endotoxin and environmental challenges. Expert commentary: The pharmacotherapeutic considerations to combat airway inflammation should cost-effectively ...
Myocardial circulation during septic shock is often characterized by an inappropriately high coronary flow.14 15 NO plays an important role in the regulation of myocardial flow.9 10 11 12 13 Therefore, we investigated the role of NO in the hyperdynamic changes of coronary flow in hearts of endotoxin-treated rats. The data in the present study indicate that these vascular changes are predominantly due to the vasodilatory action of NO. However, inhibition of the NO pathway can result in focal areas of ischemia in endotoxin-treated hearts, suggesting an imbalance of local oxygen supply to demand.. A rat model of endotoxemia using a sublethal low dose of endotoxin was selected; this model produced a hyperdynamic coronary circulation36 that is also seen in human sepsis.14 15 Comparable to human sepsis, the model resulted in raised temperature,36 reduced blood pressure, and increased levels of plasma lactate37 and nitrate plus nitrite. The 12 hours needed to establish this model provides sufficient ...
Endotoxins are derived from the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, and are very heat resistant. It is possible to have something that is microbiologically sterile but which contains endotoxin, example, an autoclaved suspension of E. coli will be sterile but will be packed with endotoxin. When carrying out endotoxin tests, tubes and pipettes are generally made from glass which can be sterilised in a hot air oven at 200C. This is capable of destroying endotoxin, preventing false positives. Pipette tips etc are normally purchased from manufacturers specifying their products are endotoxin free. If you use water for making dilutions or for controls it is imporatnt to use water guaranteed to be free of endotoxin, autoclaving and filtersterilising cannot be relied on to produce endotoxin free water. Hope this helps Derek Law Company Microbiologist LAB M R Burgess ,rburgess_1997 at yahoo.com, wrote in message news:20010131012105.14992.qmail at web1105.mail.yahoo.com... , I am new to the medical ...
Bacterial endotoxin take a look at is often known as LAL take a look at, the Bacterial Endotoxin take a look at is taken into account probably the most delicate, in addition to a selected technique out there for the detection and measuring of bacterial endorphins (fever). It really works by producing Pyrogen - a byproduct of gram-negative micro organism. This micro organism end in blood coagulation in Limulus Polyphemus. The clotting idea is attributed to the enzyme mediated response to Endotoxin by parts current within the intercellular fluid of the circulating cells; amebocyte. LAL take a look at is permitted by the Meals and Drug Administration for the detection of Endotoxin in medication. The phenomenon is used in the course of the estimation of the focus degree of Bacterial Endotoxin that could be in or on a pattern. The response charge is generally depending on the Endotoxins focus, the temperature, and the PH. For the response to happen, explicit bivalent cations (clot in a position ...
The typical febrile response of normal rabbits given bacterial endotoxin intravenously may be modified by prior administration of plasma or, less effectively, serum of endotoxin-tolerant donors. This altered response is characterized by disappearance of the second rise in fever and by a striking reduction in fever index. It thus resembles the course of fever shown by rabbits made tolerant to endotoxin by one or more previous daily doses. This transfer of tolerance by plasma or serum depends critically upon the manner in which tolerance is induced in the donors.. The plasma of donor rabbits made tolerant, then given an RES-blocking dose of carbon, still confers tolerance upon normal recipient rabbits. Such donors have lost their tolerance and are highly sensitive to endotoxin at the time their blood is taken.. The implications of these findings for endotoxin tolerance and for transfer of this phenomenon are discussed. The evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that both tolerance and its ...
Three main projects are included in this dissertation. Though seemingly broad in scope, this research afforded a unique opportunity for comprehensive study of urban and rural environmental inhalation exposures to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide - LPS) and the associated immune response. In the LA PM10 Endotoxin Study, ambient concentration of LPS in PM (particulate matter) was quantified through analysis of air samples collected in Southern California. Endotoxin concentrations measured were lower than recognized thresholds for adverse health effects in occupational exposures, but in the same range as for indoor effects. This study provides the first extensive characterization of endotoxin concentration across a large metropolitan area in relation to PM10 and other pollutant monitoring, and supports the need for studies of the role of endotoxin in childhood asthma in urban settings. The Mouse Whole Blood Assay (WBA) Study replicated LPS-induced airway inflammation in a laboratory model. Presently, ...
Endotoxin tolerance reprograms cell responses to LPS by repressing expression of proinflammatory cytokines, while not inhibiting production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial effectors. Molecular mechanisms of induction and maintenance of endotoxin tolerance are incompletely understood, particularly with regard to the impact of endotoxin tolerization on signalosome assembly, activation of adaptor-kinase modules, and expression of negative regulators of TLR signaling in human cells. In this study, we examined LPS-mediated activation of MyD88-dependent and Toll-IL-1R-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent pathways emanating from TLR4 and expression of negative regulators of TLR signaling in control and endotoxin-tolerant human monocytes. Endotoxin tolerization suppressed LPS-inducible TLR4-TRIF and TRIF-TANK binding kinase (TBK)1 associations, induction of TBK1 kinase activity, activation of IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-3, and expression of RANTES and IFN-beta. Tolerance
Endotoxin neutralization in human plasma is an excellent indicator of chronic immune activation, which is the most accurate predictor of mortality in HIV. Recen...
The objective of the present longitudinal study was to investigate the effects of occupational endotoxin exposure on respiratory health and atopic sensitization in adults. Health outcomes and personal endotoxin exposure estimates were determined for 234 farmers and agricultural workers both at baseline and 5 years later. A questionnaire was used to assess respiratory symptoms, spirometry tests were performed and total and specific IgE levels were measured in serum. A twofold increase in personal endotoxin exposure was associated with less hay fever (OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.54-0.87) and grass IgE positivity (OR 0.81, 95%CI 0.68-0.97) at both time points (
Kaori Maeda, Luke O. Schoeniger, Masahiko Shimada, Richard A. Winchurch, Timothy G. Buchman, James L. Robotham; Regulation of Acute Phase Gene Expression Following Surgery and Endotoxin Administration in the Anesthetized Pig. Anesthesiology 1993;79(6):1324-1337. Download citation file:. ...
Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins play a key role in respiratory disease affecting more than one million U.S. agricultural workers. This project uses a novel Recombinant Factor C (rFC) assay and GC/MS to evaluate the role of endotoxin exposures and genetis in respiratory outcomes among agricultural workers. Pre-work shift measurements included spirometry, symptoms, and blood collection for TLR4 g
HyClone™ Water, Cell Culture Grade (Endotoxin-Free) 1000mL; Cell Culture Grade Water HyClone™ Water, Cell Culture Grade (Endotoxin-Free) Cell Culture Grade...
Endotoxin-induced and vaccine-induced systemic inflammation both impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but not pulse wave reflection Lars Lind,1 Johannes Hulthe,2,3 Annika Johansson,3 Ewa Hedner31Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala, 2Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg, 3AstraZeneca Research and Development, Mölndal, SwedenBackground: Inflammation induced by either endotoxin or vaccination has previously been shown to impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) in healthy young individuals. However, the vascular effects of these two mechanisms of inducing inflammation have not been compared in the same individuals.Methods: Twelve young healthy males were studied at the same time of the day on three occasions in a random order; on one occasion 4 hours following an endotoxin injection (Escherichia coli endotoxin, 20 IU/kg), on another occasion 8 hours following vaccination against Salmonella typhi, and on a third occasion 4 hours following a saline control injection. EDV and
Administration of sublethal doses of endotoxin (LPS) renders animals resistant to supralethal doses. This phenomenon is known as endotoxin tolerance. Macrophages from endotoxin tolerant animals exhibit reduced LPSstimulated cytokine production and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. Previous studies demonstrated that pertussis toxin inhibited LPS-stimulated AA metabolism in macrophages, suggesting that LPS stimulation of macrophages requires the activation of Cui proteins. Additionally, the reduced AA metabolism in tolerant macrophages is temporally correlated with reduced membrane GTPase activity and GTPyS binding. Collectively, these observations suggest the possibility that LPS tolerance leads to reduced macrophage membrane Gui protein content and that this reduction contributes to the development of LPS tolerance. Pretreatment of rats with sublethal doses of LPS or human recombinant tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa) rendered them resistant to supralethal doses of endotoxin. Macrophages from ...
It was shown that although intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin caused extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of four different syngeneic murine tumors, only two of these tumors subsequently underwent complete regression: the two that were shown to be immunogeneic as classically defined. An immunologic basis for endotoxin-induced regression was further indicated by the additional findings that regression, but not hemorrhagic necrosis, of the two immunogenic tumors failed to occur in mice that were immunodepressed by whole-body gamma-irradiation, or that were made T-cell deficient by thymectomy and irradiation. That endotoxin-induced regression is T-cell mediated was suggested by the findings that tumor regression was followed by a state of long-lived immunity to a tumor cell challenge implant, and with the possession by the host of T cells that were capable of passively transferring this state of immunity to normal recipients. It is concluded that although parenteral injection of endotoxin ...
EndoTrap HD® manufactured by Hyglos GmbH (former Profos AG) is a new revolutionary tool especially designed to meet the needs of pharma and biotech industry for the efficient removal of endotoxins in biomanufacturing processes. EndoTrap® HD fulfils all requirements for industrial applications, and it can easily be integrated in/at early or late-stage purification processes of biological substances such as proteins, drugs, antibodies, or vaccines.. Background. Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) are major contaminants found in commercially available proteins or biologically active substances. LPS are highly potent immune stimulators able to cause side effects in host organisms such as endotoxin shock, tissue injury, and even death. Due to these reactions, it is essential to remove LPS from injectable drugs and other biological as well as pharmaceutical products (1, 2).. Purification very often represents the most time consuming and cost intensive step of the whole production process. ...
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the physiologic and inflammatory response following inhalation of corn dust extract (CDE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) solutions in normal subjects. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind crossover design. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen healthy, nonatopic, nonasthmatic, never-smoking volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: On separate visits, subjects underwent a series of four inhalation challenges to LPS or CDE, each containing either a high (6 micrograms/mL) or low (0.9 microgram/mL) endotoxin concentration, and administered at equal Xolumes. RESULTS: Chest tightness, cough, dyspnea, and sputum production were experienced following both LPS and CDE exposures and with similar frequency at both high and low endotoxin concentrations. LPS and CDE inhalations caused acute declines in FEV1, and the changes in FEV1 from baseline following exposure to both inhalants were not significantly different at both high and low endotoxin concentrations. Following exposure to the high-endotoxin LPS and CDE, no
OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal (HFHC) with that of a high-fiber and fruit meal on the concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), LPS-binding protein (LBP), the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), and the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) in mononuclear cells.. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Healthy lean subjects were given 910 calories of either an HFHC meal (n = 10) or an American Heart Association (AHA)-recommended meal rich in fiber and fruit (n = 10) after an overnight fast. Blood was collected before and at 1, 2, and 3 h after the meal. Cellular indexes of oxidative and inflammatory stress; the expression of SOCS-3, TLR2, and TLR4 in mononuclear cells; and plasma concentrations of LPS and LBP were measured.. RESULTS HFHC meal intake induced an increase in plasma LPS concentration and the expression of SOCS-3, TLR2, and TLR4 protein, reactive oxygen species generation, and nuclear factor-κB binding activity (P , 0.05 for all). ...
BACKGROUND Inhalation of endotoxin (LPS) induces a predominantly neutrophilic airway inflammation and has been used as model to test the anti-inflammatory activity of novel drugs. In the past, a dose exceeding 15-50 μg was generally needed to induce a sufficient inflammatory response. For human studies, regulatory authorities in some countries now request the use of GMP-grade LPS, which is of limited availability. It was therefore the aim of this study to test the effect and reproducibility of a low-dose LPS challenge (20,000 E.U.; 2 μg) using a flow- and volume-controlled inhalation technique to increase LPS deposition. METHODS Two to four weeks after a baseline sputum induction, 12 non-smoking healthy volunteers inhaled LPS on three occasions, separated by at least 4 weeks. To modulate the inflammatory effect of LPS, a 5-day PDE4 inhibitor (Roflumilast) treatment preceded the last challenge. Six hours after each LPS inhalation, sputum induction was performed. RESULTS The low-dose LPS inhalation
This study clearly demonstrates significant relationships between household endotoxin and diagnosed asthma, recent asthma symptoms, current use of asthma medications, and wheezing, said Dr. Thorne. No effect was observed of allergy status on the relationship between endotoxin and asthma outcomes. This suggests that current endotoxin exposure may have little impact on allergy status and that airway inflammation is the most significant effect of endotoxin exposure in a cross-section of the population ...
OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the changes in circulating endotoxin after a high-saturated fat meal to determine whether these effects depend on metabolic disease state.. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Subjects (n = 54) were given a high-fat meal (75 g fat, 5 g carbohydrate, 6 g protein) after an overnight fast (nonobese control [NOC]: age 39.9 +/- 11.8 years [mean +/- SD], BMI 24.9 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2), n = 9; obese: age 43.8 +/- 9.5 years, BMI 33.3 +/- 2.5 kg/m(2), n = 15; impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]: age 41.7 +/- 11.3 years, BMI 32.0 +/- 4.5 kg/m(2), n = 12; type 2 diabetic: age 45.4 +/- 10.1 years, BMI 30.3 +/- 4.5 kg/m(2), n = 18). Blood was collected before (0 h) and after the meal (1-4 h) for analysis.. RESULTS-Baseline endotoxin was significantly higher in the type 2 diabetic and IGT subjects than in NOC subjects, with baseline circulating endotoxin levels 60.6% higher in type 2 diabetic subjects than in NOC subjects (P , 0.05). Ingestion of a high-fat meal led to a significant rise in endotoxin ...
Endotoxins are released during the replication or lysis of bacteria. In healthy animals, the gut acts as a barrier to endotoxins entering the blood. Yet in times of environmental, nutritional or metabolic stress, gut permeability can increase, allowing endotoxins to enter the blood stream, weakening the immune system and impairing animal performance. Mycofix® included in the diet can combat the negative impact of endotoxins.
While studies have clearly shown a link between antibiotics and the release of endotoxins and the effect of endotoxins and cytokines in precipitating an inflammatory response as well as septic shock, it has remained to be seen if this correlates with clinical outcome. There have been few prospective human studies into the administration of different antibiotics in the treatment of gram negative sepsis. One pertinent randomized study by Prins and colleagues of urosepsis patients treated with imipenem compared to ceftazidime found a more rapid defervescence with the administration of imipenem. Endotoxin and cytokine release also increased after administration of ceftazidime compared to no increase in the imipenem group. However in other physiological measures and mortality, there were no differences between the two study groups. Another study by Byl and colleagues examined again the difference between imipenem and ceftazidime in human septic patients. While both antibiotics did appear to induce ...
Trade-offs between immune function and other physiological and behavioural processes are central in ecoimmunology, but one important problem is how to distinguish a reallocation of resources away from the immune system from a reallocation or redistribution within the immune system. While variation in baseline values of individual immune parameters is well established, studies in wild animals on multiple parameters during an immune response are lacking. It also remains to be tested whether and how immune responses correlate with baseline values that vary, for example, over the course of an annual cycle. We studied immunological responses to an endotoxin challenge in skylarks (Alauda arvensis), a partial migrant bird breeding in temperate zones. We compared birds injected with the endotoxin LPS with un-injected controls, characterizing immunological responses with leukocyte profiles, titres of lytic enzymes and natural antibodies, and concentrations of haptoglobin and heat shock proteins. We did ...
Endotoxin is part of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall and can start some of the processes that lead in the end to organ failure and death. Higher levels during critical illness, surgery and...
In the US cotton industry, airborne cotton dust levels are regulated, and other countries are moving to specify safety limits for airborne endotoxins. There is concern about potential respiratory health hazards associated with agricultural and other organic dusts. In laboratories, ranking which samples have high and low levels of endotoxin is usually in good agreement between laboratories. When di
Abstract: Immunomodulation has become a focal point in the treatment of critically ill patients, as clinicians seek to manage the delicate balance between the necessity and potential hazards of inflammation in infection containment and healing. Modeling of inflammation is emerging as a desirable approach in designing effective immunomodulatory strategies, with most computational work focused on modeling molecular and systemic mechanisms of inflammation with increasing biological fidelity. Yet, there is still much to be done in the area of identifying successful strategies to combat excessive and pervasive inflammation. In the first part of the talk, a four dimensional differential equation model of the acute inflammatory response is presented in the context of repeated endotoxin administrations. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin can induce an acute inflammatory response comparable to a bacterial infection. In experiments with repeated endotoxin administration the observation that a ...
Injection of endotoxin into animals or humans causes systemic arterial15 and venous27 dilation and a fall in blood pressure. These effects are similar to the changes seen in patients with septic shock. The results of the present study provide direct evidence for a local vascular action of endotoxin in human veins in vivo and demonstrate that this effect is suppressed by a glucocorticoid. Using a system in which drugs are given into a single superficial vein in very low doses sufficient only to produce changes in the study vessel, we found that endotoxin attenuates the constrictor response to norepinephrine, causing a shift in the dose-response curve and suppressing the maximal constriction achieved. This effect was greatest 1 hour after exposure to the endotoxin and had waned by 4 hours, by which time the norepinephrine response had fully returned. Pretreatment with oral hydrocortisone abolished the endotoxin-induced hyporesponsiveness to norepinephrine; however, the local vasoactive mediators ...
In article ,9812169138.AA913859109 at stratagene.com,, scott_basehore at stratagene.com wrote: , Hello, , I am looking for Mammalian Cell lines that exhibit inhibition to , transfection in the presence of endotoxins, namely, E.coli cell wall , Lipopolysaccharides. I will be studying the transfection efficiency , of plasmids with and without endotoxins. Are there particular cell , lines that you know of that are difficult to transfect? Please E-mail , me at ,Scott_Basehore at Stratagene.com,. I will compile answers and post , the results here. Hi, surely the problem with endotoxins is not that they inhibit transfection per se, but rather that they kill the transfected cells, thereby reducing apparent transfection efficiency? So any cell line will exhibit this effect if theres enough LPS knocking around? So Stratagene is working on an endotoxin-free maxi-prep kit, now? :) What are you using? -- Richard P. Grant MA DPhil , rgrant at cmtech.co.uk Senior R&D Scientist , work: www.cmtech.co.uk ...
The EndoCab ELISA was originally devised to screen blood donor plasma for high titre antibodies to endotoxin core which are cross reactive with endotoxins of a number of Gram negative bacterial species and strains. The initial aim was to recruit a panel of EndoCab high titre donors for plasmapheresis for hyperimmune antiendotoxin gammaglobulin preparation, used in passive immunotherapy of Gram negative sepsis. The final form of the EndoCab ELISA was comprised of an equimolar cocktail of an incomplete core rough LPS (R-LPS) from each of four species (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenes, andSalmonella typhimurium). Each R-LPS preserved an intact inner core but did not express complete outer core. Complexing each R-LPS with polymyxin B increased the sensitivity of the ELISA considerably.17 IgG EndoCab is present at birth, and is probably maternal (transplacental). This gradually diminishes over the first three months; endogenous IgG EndoCab then begins to increase. The ...
Septic shock is the bodys inflammatory response to an infection, and is usually associated with gram negative bacteria. It is characterized by hypotension and hypoperfusion, despite adequate fluid resuscitation, and can lead to multiple organ failure. At these advanced stages there is a high morbidity and mortality rate associated with it. One mediator of this inflammatory response is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or endotoxin, found in the gram negative bacterial cell wall. Besides having effects on the body as a whole, there are many cellular processes affected by endotoxin. In the body, there is a family of enzymes, the cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are the bodys drug metabolizing enzymes. Although found in all tissue types, the P450 enzymes are mainly located in the liver. There are many families and isoforms of these enzymes, of which several are inhibited by endotoxin. The regulation of the P450 enzymes is very complex. During the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin, many cytokine
1 Dogs treated with lidocaine (1 mg kg-1 h-1) or indomethacin (1.5 mg/kg) before and after an LD60 dose (1 mg/kg) of E. coli endotoxin survived for at least 72 h. 2 Although all dogs in both treated groups survived, only those treated with indomethacin were significantly protected again...read more ...
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Emerging data indicate that gut-derived endotoxin may contribute to low-grade systemic inflammation in insulin resistant states. This study aimed to examine the importance of serum endotoxin and inflammatory markers in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore the effect of treatment with a lipase inhibitor, Orlistat, on their inflammatory status. Fasted serum from 155 patients with biopsy proven NAFLD and 23 control subjects were analysed for endotoxin, soluble CD14 (sCD14), soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor II (sTNFRII) and various metabolic parameters. A subgroup of NAFLD patients were re-assessed 6 and 12 months after treatment with diet alone (n = 6) or diet plus Orlistat (n = 8). Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD compared with controls (NAFLD: 10.6(7.8, 14.8) EU/mL; controls: 3.9(3.2, 5.2) EU/mL, p | 0.001); NAFLD alone produced comparable endotoxin levels to T2DM (NAFLD: T2DM: 10.6(5.6
Horton, R A, Knowles, R G and Titheradge, M A (1993) Does nitric oxide mediate the inhibitory effects of bacterial endotoxin on hepatic gluconeogenesis? In: Biochemical Society Transactions. Full text not available from this repository ...
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Endotoxin stimulates leukocytes to release cytokines that initiate septic shock in humans and animals. CD14, a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane glycoprotein, is an endotoxin receptor on leukocytes, and endotoxin binding to CD14 induces cytokine production. Here we show that glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored or integral membrane CD14 mediates identical cellular responses to endotoxin, including NF-kappa B activation and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We also show that an anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody that does not block endotoxin binding to CD14 nonetheless inhibits cell activation by endotoxin. These findings suggest that binding of endotoxin to cell-surface CD14 is followed by subsequent interactions of the endotoxin-CD14 complex with additional membrane component(s) that enable transmembrane signaling. This function of CD14 may be prototypic for other members of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored family of proteins that do not play a primary role in signal ...
Cell culture. HT-29 cells obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD) were maintained in McCoys medium with l-glutamine (Mediatech, Washington, DC), supplemented with 10% FCS. Cells were kept at subconfluence in a humidified incubator at 37°C with 5% CO2.. Reagents and antibodies. The monoclonal antibody (Ab) to Fas, CH-11, was purchased from Kamiya Biomedical (Thousand Oaks, CA), and subsequently CH-11 was purchased from Upstate Biotechnology (Lake Placid, NY). The level of endotoxin contamination for CH-11 is 0.048 EU/μg as determined by the limulus amebocyte lysate test. IFN-γ was purchased from R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN). For Fas surface staining, biotin-conjugated anti-human CD95 (Fas/Apo-1), biotin-conjugated anti-human Fas ligand, and streptavidin-phycoerythrin (PE) were purchased from Pharmingen. The ApoBrDU apoptosis detection kit was purchased from Pharmingen and was used as per the manufacturers directions. For Jun, Fos, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ...
Lot specific results are available in the Certificate of Analysis, which is available at www.atcc.org or by contacting ATCC technical service. SPECIFICATION CERTIFICATE Test Specification pH 1 7.1 to 7.4 Osmolality 2 256 to 286 mOsm/kg Endotoxin 3 ≤ 0.25 EU/mL Mycoplasma 4 Tested Negative Sterility 5 Pass *Please consult the Certificate of Analysis for lot-specific test results. Measured with a standard pH meter.  Meters are calibrated daily using standards traceable to the National Institute of Standards Technology using guidelines outlined in the current edition of USP. Measured with a standardized osmometer, i.e. freezing point depression.   Meters are calibrated daily using standards traceable to the National Institute of Standards Technology using guidelines outlined in the current edition of USP. Chromogenic LAL Assay using guidelines outlined by the manufacturer & FDA (December 1987), “Validation of the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Test as an End Product Endotoxin Test for
Lot specific results are available in the Certificate of Analysis, which is available at www.atcc.org or by contacting ATCC technical service. SPECIFICATION CERTIFICATE Test Specification pH 1 7.1 to 7.4 Osmolality 2 256 to 286 mOsm/kg Endotoxin 3 ≤ 0.25 EU/mL Mycoplasma 4 Tested Negative Sterility 5 Pass *Please consult the Certificate of Analysis for lot-specific test results. Measured with a standard pH meter.  Meters are calibrated daily using standards traceable to the National Institute of Standards Technology using guidelines outlined in the current edition of USP. Measured with a standardized osmometer, i.e. freezing point depression.   Meters are calibrated daily using standards traceable to the National Institute of Standards Technology using guidelines outlined in the current edition of USP. Chromogenic LAL Assay using guidelines outlined by the manufacturer & FDA (December 1987), “Validation of the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Test as an End Product Endotoxin Test for
en] The aim of the present study was to determine possible effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin on peripheral vascular compliance and relate them to concomitant central hemodynamic disturbances. Endotoxin was infused at 0.25 micrograms/kg.min during 2 h in six anesthetized dogs, while six additional animals served as controls. Vascular compliance of the systemic circulation was calculated in intact animals from the changes in CVP after known changes in systemic blood volume. In control dogs, vascular compliance averaged 2.3 ml/mm Hg.kg body weight. During slow endotoxin infusion, cardiovascular effects were measurable only after a certain period of time had elapsed from the start of endotoxin insult and consisted of hypotension associated with systemic vasodilation. Systemic BP decreased gradually from 124 to 68 mm Hg while vascular compliance was finally increased by 100%, when compared to control values. This latter rise was responsible for a reduction in the cardiac preloads. Pulmonary wedge ...
We propose to study endotoxin-induced airway conditions in children through three complementary clinical investigations. First, we will capitalize on an ancillary study of a NIH-sponsored multi-center cohort of children with asthma (Childhood Asthma Management Program), which has tracked asthma severity for over a decade, to determine if endotoxin exposure, modified by genetics and environment, is associated with greater disease severity and persistence. Second, we propose a panel study of children with asthma to investigate whether endotoxin exposure, modified by environment, is associated with inflamed airways and elevated TLR expression on airway macrophages. Clinically, these inflammatory responses could drive poor asthma control and exacerbations. Finally, we will take advantage of a HUD-sponsored inner-city home intervention study to determine if a home environment intervention will reduce home endotoxin levels and improve asthma. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endotoxin-induced selective dysfunction of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to endogenous chemotactic factors. AU - Hartiala, K. T.. AU - Langlois, L.. AU - Goldstein, I. M.. AU - Rosenbaum, J. T.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - To assess the mechanism and specificity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) dysfunction induced by endotoxin, rabbits were injected intravenously with 100 μg of Escherichia coli endotoxin, and PMN function was studied 18 to 24 h later. Compared to PMN from normal rabbits, peripheral blood PMN from rabbits injected with endotoxin showed diminished chemotactic responsiveness to two endogenous peptides, C5a (complement) and platelet-derived growth factor, and to two endogenous lipids, leukotriene B4 and platelet-activating factor. The chemotactic response to the synthetic chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), was unimpaired. In contrast to migration, endotoxin injection resulted in inhibition of the secretory ...
Endotoxins are the lipopolysaccharides that are an integral part of the cell membrane of the gram-negative bacteria and become toxin in some conditions. Exotoxins are heat labile, proteinaceous substances or toxoids that are liberated by mostly gram-positive bacteria but sometimes also by gram-negative bacteria into its surrounding. Endotoxins are the associated cell toxins whereas exotoxins are the extracellular diffusible toxins. The molecular weight of endotoxins ranges from 50 to 1000KDa and associated with the lipopolysaccharide complex whereas the molecular weight of the exotoxin is about ten kDa and associated with the protein complex. Endotoxins show stability to heat at about 250°C and do no denature on heating whereas exotoxins are heat labile and get denatured at a minute temperature. Immune reactions get weak when endotoxins attack the cell and have high enzymatic activity but poor antigenicity whereas immune responses get stronger in the case of exotoxins but with no enzymatic ...
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from eight strains of Yersinia pestis, which had been cultured at 28 or 37 degreesC, reacted equally well, in Western blots, with four monoclonal antibodies generated against the LPS from a single strain of Y. pestis cultured at 28 degreesC. LPS was extracted and purified from Y. pestis strain GB, which had been cultured at 28 degreesC. When the LPS was analysed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry it was found to be devoid of an O-antigen. The LPS possessed activity of 2.7 endotoxin units/ng in the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. The LPS stimulated the production of TNF alpha and IL-6 from mouse macrophages, but was less active in these assays than LPS isolated from Escherichia coli strain 0111. Y. pestis LPS, either alone or with cholera toxin B subunit, was used to immunize mice. Either immunization schedule resulted in the development of an antibody response to LPS. However, this response did not provide protection against 100 MLD of Y. pestis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Impact of a 24-h Ultra-Marathon on Circulatory Endotoxin and Cytokine Profile. AU - Gill, S.K.. AU - Hankey, Joanne. AU - Wright, A.. AU - Marczak, S.. AU - Hemming, K.. AU - Allerton, D.M.. AU - Ansley-Robson, P.. AU - Costa, R.J.S.. N1 - The full text of this item is not available from the repository. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - The study aimed to determine circulatory endotoxin concentration, cytokine profile, and gastrointestinal symptoms of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n=17) in response to a 24-h continuous ultra-marathon competition (total distance range: 122-208 km) conducted in temperate ambient conditions (0-20°C) in mountainous terrain. Body mass and body temperature were measured, and venous blood samples were taken before and immediately after competition. Samples were analysed for gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, C-reactive protein, cytokine profile, and plasma osmolality. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also monitored ...
ENDOTOXINE (TOXIKOLOGIE); BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (MIKROBIOLOGIE); IN-VITRO UNTERSUCHUNGEN (TOXIKOLOGIE); ENDOTOXINS (TOXICOLOGY); BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (MICROBIOLOGY); IN VITRO STUDIES (TOXICOLOGY ...
article{399d7139-0514-42c2-9360-ad2e87adf24b, abstract = {Objective: Intrauterine infection is suggested to cause perinatal brain white matter injury. The aim of the present study was to clarify, whether intravenous application of endotoxin results in neuropathological findings and increased blood levels of the S100B protein, which is a consolidated marker of brain injury. Methods: Twenty-one fetal sheep were chronically catheterized at a mean gestational age of 107 +/- 1 days (0.7 of gestation). Three days after surgery fetuses received either 100 (n = 9), 500 (n = 5) or 2500 ng (n = 1) lipopolysaccharide (LPS; E. coli; O127:138, Sigma-Aldrich) or 2 ml 0.9% saline (n = 6) i.v. S100B protein blood levels were assessed before during and after LPS or placebo administration. Brain damage was evaluated by light microscopy. Selected areas of the periventricular white matter were also examined by electron microscopy. Results: Histopathological screening revealed no evidence for cortical neuronal cell ...
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Kevin Williams from bioMerieux discusses the recombinant Factor C assay that has been developed to help alleviate the pressures of a growing demand for the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay
Cachectin (tumor necrosis factor) is a macrophage hormone strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of endotoxin-induced shock. The availability of a DNA probe complementary to the cachectin messenger RNA (mRNA), as well as a specific antibody capable of recognizing the cachectin gene product, has made it possible to analyze the regulation of cachectin gene expression under a variety of conditions. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages obtained from mice contain a pool of cachectin mRNA that is not expressed as protein. When the cells are stimulated with endotoxin, large quantity of additional cachectin mRNA is produced, and immunoreactive cachectin is secreted. Macrophages from mice of the C3H/HeJ strain do not produce cachectin in response to endotoxin. A dual defect appears to prevent cachectin expression. First, a diminished quantity of cachectin mRNA is expressed in response to low concentrations of endotoxin. Second, a post-transcriptional defect prevents the production of cachectin ...
Horton, Robert A, Knowles, Richard G and Titheradge, Michael A (1995) Endotoxin causes reciprocal changes in hepatic nitric oxide synthesis and gluconeogenesis. In: Biochemical Society Transactions. Full text not available from this repository ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is the name given to a serum factor that was derived in 1975 from endotoxin-treated mice and found to be capable of inducing necrosis of a methylcholanthrene-induced murine sarcoma [1]. The molecular characterization of TNFα in the 1980s revealed that it is identical to cachectin, a previously described serum factor that was found to be responsible for weight loss and fever in experimental animal models [2, 3]. The diverse biologic activities of TNFα soon became apparent. Aside from its tumoricidal property, it was recognized that, following injection into animals or humans, TNFα causes signs and symptoms of shock, including multi-organ damage via pro-inflammatory effects on vascular endothelium. The realization that TNFα may play a role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) followed four demonstrations: firstly, its ability to degrade cartilage and bone in vitro; secondly, its arthritogenic properties in animal models; thirdly, its co-localization with TNF ...
Press Release issued May 11, 2017: The gram-negative organisms release endotoxins, the presence or absence of which is determined by the endotoxins tests. Endotoxin testing is carried out at different phases of the manufacture and development of bulk lot release testing, raw material testing and final product release testing. Endotoxin testing is used in various industries such as medical devices, biopharmaceuticals, research, and pharmaceutical to name a few.
The measurement of airborne endotoxins is thus far not standardized. Earlier studies reported higher endotoxin yields when Tween 20 was added to the media used for filter extraction and in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. This study compared four common media and assessed the effects of Tween during extraction and analysis separately. Parallel airborne dust samples from five work environments (n = 250) were used to compare the four media (pyrogen-free water [PFW], PFW-Tween 20, PFW-Tris, and PFW-triethyl-amine- phosphate [TAP]) and an extraction time of 10 or 60 min. A subset of the extracts in PFW or PFW-Tween (n = 40) were analyzed in parallel LAL assays with PFW or PFW-Tween as the assay medium. The results produced by a shorter extraction time or the presence of Tris were similar to the results for the reference procedure (PFW and 60 min of shaking). The use of PFW-TAP showed overall lower yields and a deviant calibration curve. The presence of Tween in the extraction medium ...
Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that manifests during the advanced stage of chronic diseases and is characterized by a progressive loss of body mass sustained by underlying inflammation. The ApcMin/+ mouse is an established model of cachexia that exhibits a gradual loss of body mass correlating with increasing tumor burden and plasma IL - 6 levels. Moreover it also mimics other secondary characteristics observed in cachectic patients like splenomegaly, elevated plasma endotoxin levels, gut barrier dysfunction, hypogonadism and an overall hypermetabolic state. Liver controls the energy metabolism in the body by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, glycogen storage, filtration of toxins from the portal blood, secretion of essential plasma protein like albumin and other acute phase proteins. As cachexia development results from sustained elevated energy demands, it can be speculated that liver might play a role in development of cachexia progression. The purpose of this study thus was to examine
The emission and dispersal of bioaerosols from open-air commercial composting facilities continues to be contentious. A meta-dataset enumerating cultivable microorganism emission and downwind concentrations is not yet available. A dataset derived from repeated and replicated field studies over a period of two years at two commercial composting facilities is presented. The data characterises patterns in Aspergillus fumigatus, actinomycetes, Gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin emission and downwind concentrations. For all bioaerosols, compost agitation activities had a significant impact on concentrations; levels were variable up to 600. m downwind from site. Bioaerosols declined rapidly from source and exhibited a secondary peak 100-150. m from site boundary. All bioaerosols were found downwind from site in elevated concentrations. Compared to those found 100. m upwind, levels were significantly higher at 180. m downwind for A. fumigatus; at 300-400. m for actinomycetes and Gram negative ...
Secondary infections are a major complication of sepsis and associated with a compromised immune state, called sepsis-induced immunoparalysis. Molecular mechanisms causing immunoparalysis remain unclear; however, changes in cellular metabolism of leukocytes have been linked to immunoparalysis. We investigated the relation of metabolic changes to antimicrobial monocyte functions in endotoxin-induced immunotolerance, as a model for sepsis-induced immunoparalysis. In this study, immunotolerance was induced in healthy males by intravenous endotoxin (2 ng/kg, derived from Escherichia coli O:113) administration. Before and after induction of immunotolerance, circulating CD14(+) monocytes were isolated and assessed for antimicrobial functions, including cytokine production, oxidative burst, and microbial (Candida albicans) killing capacity, as well metabolic responses to ex vivo stimulation. Next, the effects of altered cellular metabolism on monocyte functions were validated in vitro. Ex vivo ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of interleukin-6 in endotoxin induced uveitis in wild-type and IL-6 deficient mice. AU - Kievit, P.. AU - Park, J. M.. AU - ORourke, L. M.. AU - Planck, S. R.. AU - Rosenbaum, J. T.. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Purpose: Interleukin-6 is a cytokine that is present in ocular fluids from inflamed eyes and is proposed to serve as a major mediator in eye inflammation. Injection of recombinant human IL-6 in rats (Hoekzema R et al. 1992. Invest. Ophthal. Vis. Sci. 33; 532-539) induced acute uveitis, suggesting that IL-6 is a key cytokine in the pathogenesis. In this study, the requirement for IL-6 in endotoxin induced uveitis (EIU) was examined using IL-6 deficient mice. In addition, the capability of murine IL-6 to induce uveitis was tested. Methods: Endotoxin (250 ng) was injected bilaterally into the posterior segment of the eyes in IL-6 deficient and wild type mice (n=8). After 24 hours, eyes were processed for histology and inflammation was determined by scoring ...
El Departament investiga les bases moleculars i les vies de senyalització que sassocien al dany i la reparació en malalties de base isquèmica i inflamatòria així com nous marcadors proteics associats a la resposta immune. ...
Central nervous system (CNS) infection and inflammation severely reduce the capacity of cytochrome P-450 metabolism in the liver. We developed a mouse model to examine the effects of CNS inflammation on hepatic cytochrome P-450 metabolism. FVB, C57BL/6, and C3H/HeouJ mice were given Escherichia coli LPS (2.5 μg) by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. The CNS inflammatory response was confirmed by the elevation of TNF-α and/or IL-1β proteins in the brain. In all mouse strains, LPS produced a 60-70% loss in hepatic Cyp3a11 expression and activity compared with saline-injected controls. Adrenalectomy did not prevent the loss in Cyp3a11 expression or activity, thereby precluding the involvement of the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis. Endotoxin was detectable (1-10 ng/ml) in serum between 15 and 120 min after ICV dosing of 2.5 μg LPS. Peripheral administration of 2.5 μg LPS by intraperitoneal injection produced similar serum endotoxin levels and a similar loss (60%) in Cyp3a11 expression and
LAL Endotoxin Testing Lab - Accugen Labs is a full Service FDA registered endotoxin / endotoxins testing microbiological laboratory.
Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme which can neutralize endotoxin as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an endogenous danger signal released during brain injury. In this study we assessed a potential therapeutic role for AP in inhibiting neuroinflammation using three complementary approaches. Mice were immunized to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and treated with AP for seven days during different phases of disease. In addition, serological assays to determine AP activity, endotoxin levels and endotoxin-reactive antibodies were performed in a cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls. Finally, the expression of AP and related enzymes CD39 and CD73 was investigated in brain tissue from MS patients and control subjects. AP administration during the priming phase, but not during later stages, of EAE significantly reduced neurological signs. This was accompanied by reduced proliferation of splenocytes to the immunogen, myelin oligodendrocyte
Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme which can neutralize endotoxin as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an endogenous danger signal released during brain injury. In this study we assessed a potential therapeutic role for AP in inhibiting neuroinflammation using three complementary approaches. Mice were immunized to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and treated with AP for seven days during different phases of disease. In addition, serological assays to determine AP activity, endotoxin levels and endotoxin-reactive antibodies were performed in a cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls. Finally, the expression of AP and related enzymes CD39 and CD73 was investigated in brain tissue from MS patients and control subjects. AP administration during the priming phase, but not during later stages, of EAE significantly reduced neurological signs. This was accompanied by reduced proliferation of splenocytes to the immunogen, myelin oligodendrocyte
Aqua-Chem revolutionizes the thermal distillation process by creating the horizontal Spray-Film vapor compression technology. This technology would go on to be the industry benchmark for the generation of Distilled Water and Water-for-Injection through superior bacteria and endotoxin removal and unmatched equipment reliability and performance.. ...
Prices are in US dollars.. These products are for laboratory research purposes only, not for any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.. All site content © 2017 Cell Sciences, Inc.. ...
BACKGROUND:. Cerebral dysfunction frequently complicates septic shock. A marker of cerebral dysfunction could be of significant value in managing sedated septic patients. Plasma S100 (S100B) proteins increase in sepsis. S100B is present not only in the brain but also in other tissues. The source of this protein has not been investigated in sepsis. Our aim in this study was to determine whether the brain is an important source of S100B in an experimental sepsis model.. METHODS:. Twenty-seven pigs were anesthetized and randomized to either infusion of endotoxin at the rate of 1 µg · kg-1 · h-1 (n = 19) or saline (n = 8). Catheters were inserted into a cervical artery and the superior sagittal sinus. Blood samples were collected from both sites and physiologic data were registered before the start of the endotoxin infusion and hourly during the experiment. After 6 h, the animals were killed and brain tissue samples were taken from the left hemisphere. S100B in plasma was measured by ...
The secretions of interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) of low-dose E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytes (M phi) were investigated in an endotoxin (ET)-free milieu (less than 1.6 pg LPS/ml). Human M phi cultures from nine healthy …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endotoxin and sepsis research. T2 - Simplistic approaches have failed. AU - MacArthur, R. D.. AU - Bone, R. C.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - The sepsis syndrome has been revealed to be incredibly complex, involving many mediators that we just now are starting to appreciate. Future clinical trials of new sepsis-related therapeutic products may need to consider other endpoints in addition to mortality. Also, better identification of the subset of patients likely to benefit from these products is necessary, as are rapid diagnostic assays for endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor, and various cytokines.. AB - The sepsis syndrome has been revealed to be incredibly complex, involving many mediators that we just now are starting to appreciate. Future clinical trials of new sepsis-related therapeutic products may need to consider other endpoints in addition to mortality. Also, better identification of the subset of patients likely to benefit from these products is necessary, as are ...
In peripheral tissue, IL-1beta has been shown to induce TNFalpha expression and vice versa, resulting in mixed neutrophil and mononuclear cell recruitment to the site of injury. This has led to the concept of crosstalk in peripheral cytokine signalling pathways. In the brain parenchyma, however, restricted patterns of leukocyte recruitment following the focal injection of pro-inflammatory agents into the brain are observed. This study investigates the expression of the principal pro-inflammatory cytokines--IL-1beta and TNFalpha--in the brain after IL-1beta, TNFalpha, NMDA or endotoxin injection into the brain parenchyma of rats. Each of these agents gives rise to a distinct pattern of acute leukocyte recruitment at 24 h. We found that IL-1beta induces de novo synthesis of additional IL-1beta but not TNFalpha, as determined by RT-PCR and ELISA, and TNFalpha does not induce either itself or IL-1beta. Injection of NMDA results in IL-1beta, but not TNFalpha up-regulation. Injection of IL-1beta or NMDA is
Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
Human and animal studies suggest cyclooxygenase-inhibitors (COX-inhibitors) decrease the production of inflammatory mediators. Studies also suggest that COX inhibitors attenuate increases in corticosterone and eicosanoid levels after endotoxin injection. COX inhibitors also appear to have anticancer effects, inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastatic burden. These results suggest a role for IV ibuprofen in preventing untoward inflammatory responses, shortening post-surgical convalescence, improving patient satisfaction, and reducing the rate of complications occurring during the recovery from surgery. However, there are no studies that have evaluated the relationship between administration of IV ibuprofen, ensuing immunomodulation, and long-term outcomes.. Study Objective. The aim of the proposed study is to examine the effect of intravenous(IV) ibuprofen on the inflammatory response in major surgery. More importantly, the investigators will correlate changes in the concentration of ...
OBJECTIVE: Overfeeding with a high-fat and/or high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet is known to increase plasma concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) that may lead to metabolic disturbances like insulin resistance. The impact of CHO quality (i.e., the glycemic index [GI]) independent of fat intake on metabolic endotoxemia remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of changes in energy balance and GI on plasma endotoxin were studied. METHODS: Fifteen healthy young men overconsumed diets containing 65% CHO and 20% fat for 1 week (OF; +50% of energy requirement) followed by 3 weeks of caloric restriction (CR; -50% of energy requirement) and were then randomized to 2 weeks hypercaloric refeeding (RF, +50% of energy requirement) with either a low- or high-GI (40 vs 74) diet. RESULTS: During OF, subjects gained 1.9 ± 0.7 kg body weight (+0.6 ± 0.8% fat mass) followed by a weight loss of 6.1 ± 0.8 kg (-2.0 ± 0.6% fat mass) and weight regain of 4.0 ± 0.6 kg (0.9 ± 0.8% fat mass). ...
Good moorning, I would appreciate if someone help me with this request: Which will be the acceptance criteria of bacterial endotoxins test of Sodium...
MAB526Ge22, Monoclonal Antibody to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LOS; Lipoglycans; Lipooligosaccharide; Lipo-Oligosaccharide; Endotoxin | Products for research use only!
The investigators want to see if healthy people who are given 2 doses of a medication called anakinra, which is used to treat moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, (RA) and then exposed to a form of air pollution, called Endotoxin, have less inflammation with the medication. Endotoxin is believed to be one of the causes of asthma attacks ...
The highest purity, lowest endotoxin anti-PD-1 antibody, clone RMP1-14 antibody on the market. Anti-PD-1 In Vivo Antibody - Low Endotoxin (RMP1-14). Bulk sizes available.
The typical PyroGeneTM test employs an initial reading immediately (t=0) followed by a second reading after a 1-hour incubation. The t=0 reading provides a baseline that can be subtracted from the result of incubation. We sought to discover how quickly we could distinguish between the various concentrations of endotoxin using EDR on the CLARIOstar Plus. To this end we read the plate at 5-minute intervals over the usual 1-hour time course. The results of this experiment, presented in Figure 2, show that higher concentrations of endotoxin exhibit a robust increase in fluorescence, detectable in as little as 10 minutes EDR allows for a very wide range of fluorescent intensities to be detected in a single plate.. ...
The highest purity & lowest endotoxin Mouse IgM Isotype Control on the market. Bulk sizes in stock. Mouse IgM Isotype Control for In Vivo - Low Endotoxin
Raetz C, Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu Rev Biochem. 71: 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ...
... is a lipid component of an endotoxin held responsible for the toxicity of gram-negative bacteria. It is the innermost ... Beutler, B.; Poltorak, A. (2001-04-01). "The sole gateway to endotoxin response: how LPS was identified as Tlr4, and its role ... Tzeng YL, Datta A, Kolli VK, Carlson RW, Stephens DS (May 2002). "Endotoxin of Neisseria meningitidis composed only of intact ... Raetz C, Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu Rev Biochem. 71 (1): 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ...
Rietschel, Ernst T.; Westphal, Otto (1999). "Endotoxin: Historical Perspectives". In Brade, Helmut (ed.). Endotoxin in Health ...
Czura CJ, Wang H, Tracey KJ (2001). "Dual roles for HMGB1: DNA binding and cytokine". J. Endotoxin Res. 7 (4): 315-21. doi: ...
The gene then codes for delta endotoxins (Cry proteins) which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell ... Specificity of Bacillius thuringiensis delta-endotoxins. Eur J Biochem 186: 239-247. ISAAA. 2009. Executive Summary Global ...
Journal of Endotoxin Research. 9 (4): 264-8. doi:10.1177/09680519030090040801. PMID 12935358. S2CID 208323243. Patel VB, ...
Also, they can remove viruses and some endotoxins. Nanofiltration is also known as "loose" RO and can reject particles smaller ...
... is one of the delta endotoxins produced by this bacterium which act as insecticides. Because of this, the genes for ... Subsequently, Bt cotton has added other delta endotoxins. Products such as Bt cotton, Bt brinjal and genetically modified maize ...
Brade, Helmut (1999). Endotoxin in Health and Disease. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0824719449. Harper, Douglas. "toxin". Online ... or endotoxins, that are released mainly when bacteria are lysed. The term "biotoxin" is sometimes used to explicitly confirm ...
Because endotoxin molecular weight may vary a great deal (10,000 to 1,000,000 Da), endotoxin levels are measured in "endotoxin ... In this method, the target binds to the column instead of the endotoxin. The endotoxin then washes through the column, and a ... Bacterial pyrogens include endotoxins and exotoxins, although many pyrogens are endogenous to the host. Endotoxins include ... Ligands of known affinity to endotoxins can be coupled to an anion exchange system to increase its endotoxin binding strength ...
1999). Endotoxin in Health and Disease. CRC Press. p. 11. ISBN 9780824719449. Retrieved 23 January 2014. Barer, Michael R.; ...
ISBN 978-94-007-0219-6.[permanent dead link] Helmut Brade (1999). Endotoxin in Health and Disease. New York: Taylor & Francis. ... 2007). "Enterosorption as an approach to the elimination of chronic endotoxin aggression". Human Physiology. 33 (3): 373-374. ... hence it is also called endotoxin (endo means "inside", inside the bacteria). The main reservoir of gram-negative microflora ...
Some enterobacteria are important pathogens, e.g. Salmonella, or Shigella e.g. because they produce endotoxins. Endotoxins ... Some members of the Enterobacteriaceae produce endotoxins that, when released into the bloodstream following cell lysis, cause ...
The pertussis endotoxin. Etiologie de la coqueluche. Etat actuel de la question, 1909 - Etiology of pertussis. Current status ...
In 2008 he received honorary life membership of the International Endotoxin and Innate Immunity Society. Elsbach was a member ... "Honorary Life Membership". International Endotoxin and Innate Immunity Society. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. v ...
These macrophages act as decoys that can bind to and neutralize endotoxins. Without neutralizing these endotoxins, an immune ... This increased ratio is important for efficient endotoxin neutralization. ... "Macrophage-like nanoparticles concurrently absorbing endotoxins and proinflammatory cytokines for sepsis management". ...
Kamei, K; Nimura, Y; Nagino, M; Aono, K; Nakashima, I (January 2002). "Surgical stress reduces mortality from endotoxin shock ... However, surgical stress reduced mortality from endotoxin shock. Today, development of new surgical techniques and anaesthetic ...
Park JH, Spiegelman DL, Gold DR, Burge HA, Milton DK (August 2001). "Predictors of airborne endotoxin in the home". ...
Oberbeck R, Kromm A, Exton MS, Schade U, Schedlowski M (February 2003). "Pavlovian conditioning of endotoxin-tolerance in rats ...
Gîză DE, Vasilescu C (Sep-Oct 2010). "[MicroRNA's role in sepsis and endotoxin tolerance. More players on the stage]". ...
By the end of the incubation period, the nearby host cells are poisoned by endotoxins released from the dead salmonellae. The ... and secretes endotoxins (the septic form). This can lead to life-threatening hypovolemic shock and septic shock, and requires ... Endotoxins first act on the vascular and nervous apparatus, resulting in increased permeability and decreased tone of the ... local response to the endotoxins is enteritis and gastrointestinal disorder. About 2,000 serotypes of nontyphoidal Salmonella ...
The bacteria's outer membrane has endotoxin-like lipids. Their axial filaments consists of endoflagella and periplasmic ... which is the response to the body after endotoxins are released by the death of harmful organisms in the human body, starts ...
"Dose-dependent effects of endotoxin on human sleep". American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative ...
Haider, R Endotoxin Fever and Tolerance in Totally Adrenalectomized Rabbits. Proc. Soc. Exp. BioI. & Med. 136, 2, 514, 1971 ... Haider, R. (February 1971). "Endotoxin fever and tolerance in totally adrenalectomized rabbits". Proceedings of the Society for ...
Allergy And Endotoxin Alex Study Team (September 2005). "Opposite effects of CD 14/-260 on serum IgE levels in children raised ...
Yirmiya, R. (1996). "Endotoxin produces a depressive-like episode in rats". Brain Research. 711 (1-2): 163-174. doi:10.1016/ ... Holmes, J. E.; Miller, N. E. (1963). "Effects of Bacterial Endotoxin on Water Intake, Food Intake, and Body Temperature in the ... "Appearance of interleukin-1 in macrophages and in ramified microglia in the brain of endotoxin-treated rats: A pathway for the ... "Dose-dependent effects of endotoxin on human sleep". American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative ...
It is published by SAGE Publications on behalf of the International Endotoxin & Innate Immunity Society and the editor-in-chief ... is Otto Holst (Research Centre Borstel, Germany). The journal was established in 1994 as the Journal of Endotoxin Research and ... Official website International Endotoxin & Innate Immunity Society. ...
Macfadyen worked on endotoxins of certain bacteria, such as Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica. To obtain these endotoxins ... Sydney Donville Rowland assisted him in much of the research on endotoxins. Macfadyen also investigated thermophilic bacteria. ... Macfadyen showed that injecting small doses of bacterial endotoxins into experimental animals made them immune to infection by ...
Endotoxin Heinrichs DE, Yethon JA, Whitfield C (October 1998). "Molecular basis for structural diversity in the core regions of ...
Peng D, Hong W, Choudhury BP, Carlson RW, Gu XX (November 2005). "Moraxella catarrhalis bacterium without endotoxin, a ...
Endotoxins are potentially toxic compounds produced by Gram-negative bacteria including some pathogens. Unlike exotoxins, which ... The first deals with how endotoxins are synthesized and end up on the bacterial surface. The second discussed how endotoxins ... The way endotoxins interact with the host cells is fundamental to understanding the mechanism of sepsis, and recent research on ... Endotoxins can cause a whole-body inflammatory state, sepsis, leading to low blood pressure, multiple organ dysfunction ...
... Derek Law dlaw at idgplc.com Wed Jan 31 08:23:58 EST 2001 *Previous message: Endotoxin Testing ... I am looking for references citing the use , of sterile versus non-sterile medical devices in , endotoxin testing. , I would ... coli will be sterile but will be packed with endotoxin. When carrying out endotoxin tests, tubes and pipettes are generally ... Endotoxins are derived from the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, and are very heat resistant. It is possible to have ...
Endotoxin is part of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall and can start some of the processes that lead in the end to organ ... Endotoxin is part of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall and can start some of the processes that lead in the end to organ ... Christ WJ, Asano O, Robidoux AL, et al (1995) E5531, a pure endotoxin antagonist of high potency. Science 268: 80-83PubMed ... Barclay GR (1990) Antibodies to endotoxin in health and disease. Rev Med Microbiol 1: 133-142Google Scholar ...
I will be studying the transfection efficiency , of plasmids with and without endotoxins. Are there particular cell , lines ... Endotoxin Sensitive Cell Lines. Richard P. Grant see_sig at cmtech.co.delete.uk Thu Dec 17 03:21:24 EST 1998 *Previous message ... Hi, surely the problem with endotoxins is not that they inhibit transfection per se, but rather that they kill the transfected ... transfection in the presence of endotoxins, namely, E.coli cell wall , Lipopolysaccharides. ...
Exposure to household endotoxin levels poses a significant risk for asthma, according to the first nationwide sampling of house ... Endotoxins are toxic substances associated with the outer membrane of certain gram-negative bacteria. These molecules are bound ... "The mean concentration of endotoxin in the kitchen floor dust was 2.3-fold higher than bedroom floor dust and 4.3-fold higher ... This suggests that current endotoxin exposure may have little impact on allergy status and that airway inflammation is the most ...
... tools and resources that will help ensure your success performing the bacterial endotoxins test. ... After clicking on White Paper: Trends in Endotoxin Testing, input your user name and password on the login page. You will then ... Expert Support At Your Fingertips for the Bacterial Endotoxins Test. Become a QC Insider™ Expert and Register Now. ... Our White Paper, "Trends in Endotoxin Testing - Exploring the Hottest Topics of 2017 and Beyond" available in our QC Insider™ ...
Endotoxins are small, stable, bacterially-derived hydrophobic molecules which can easily contaminate labware and whose presence ... Endotoxin is measured in Endotoxin Units per milliliter (EU/mL). One EU equals approximately 0.1 to 0.2 ng endotoxin/mL of ... of endotoxin.3 In vivo, endotoxins elicit an inflammatory response in animal studies. The presence of endotoxin in products for ... Consequences of endotoxin contamination Endotoxins affect both in vitro and in vivo cell growth and function and are a source ...
before saline or endotoxin; •, 1 hour after saline or endotoxin; ▪, 2 hours after saline or endotoxin. ... before endotoxin, 88±11%; after endotoxin, 30±10%; after endotoxin and in the presence of L-NMMA for 10 minutes, 31±10%; P,.05 ... before endotoxin, 90±5%; 1 hour after endotoxin, 33±5%; 1 hour after endotoxin and in the presence of aspirin and L-NMMA, 27±5 ... Effects of Endotoxin: Time Course (Study 1). In 12 subjects, the time course of the response to endotoxin was explored. Dose- ...
... and endotoxin-free purification are gravity columns based on a patented anion exchange technology. The plasmid DNA obtained is ... Midiprep Plasmid DNA Purification Endotoxin-Free-NucleoBond Xtra Midi EF/Midi Plus EF. Minimizing the level of endotoxin ... Unlike competitor kits, there is no need for a time-consuming incubation step to remove the endotoxins (see procedure). The ... NucleoBond Xtra EF features up to 68% reduced prep times and up to 100% increased yields of endotoxin-free plasmid DNA, ...
... validation for endotoxin reduction should include a knowledge of the endotoxin burden and a satisfactory endotoxin challenge. ... The effects of endotoxin are related to the amount of endotoxin in the product dose administered to a patient. Because the dose ... Endotoxin Tolerance Limit = 5.0 EU/kg - non-intrathecal drug. Endotoxin Limit = K 5.0 EU/kg - = --------- = 0.35 EU/mcg M 14.3 ... This value (0.35 EU/mcg) is expressed in Endotoxin Units per mcg of product. In order to convert this value to a endotoxin unit ...
Biochemistry of endotoxins.. Raetz CR1.. Author information. 1. Department of Biochemistry, Merck Sharp and Dohme Research ...
The effects of endotoxins include fever, hemorrhage and shock. See also:. *toxemia *exotoxin ...
Meningitis bacterium is viable without endotoxin.. Steeghs L, den Hartog R, den Boer A, Zomer B, Roholl P, van der Ley P. ...
endotoxin synonyms, endotoxin pronunciation, endotoxin translation, English dictionary definition of endotoxin. n. A toxin ... endotoxin. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to endotoxin: endotoxin shock ... 2.2 Endotoxin and non-endotoxin mechanisms of pyrogenicity. Material-Mediated Pyrogens in Medical Devices: Applicability of the ... Endotoxin - definition of endotoxin by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/endotoxin ...
... sg/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/removal of bacterial endotoxins/images/schematic diagram of the endotoxin ... Bacteria shed small amounts of endotoxins into their surroundings while they are actively growing and large amounts when they ... During lysis of bacterial cells for plasmid preparations, endotoxin molecules are released from the outer membrane into the ... br /> ,br /> For further information on endotoxins, view the sections below. ...
The same severe effects were not observed with lower doses of the endotoxin or with the endotoxin respectively the pollen by ... Source of endotoxins identified. Related Stories. *Research identifies antigen-specific peripheral T follicular helper cells in ... In the future, we will be able to indirectly use the pollen count to forecast very high levels of airborne endotoxin pollution ... The team also studied the bacterial growth on mugwort plants to narrow down the endotoxin type on the pollen. They discovered ...
Yang, C., and Nowotny, A., 1974, Effect of endotoxin on tumor resistance in mice, Infect. Immun. 9:95.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... I. Relationship of tumor-hemorrhagic agent to endotoxin antigens of gram-negative bacteria, Am. J. Hyg. 36:224.Google Scholar ... Nowotny, A., and Butler, R. C., 1980, Studies on the endotoxin induced tumor resistance, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 121B:455.Google ... Therefore, endotoxin has been extensively studied in animal tumor models to determine the conditions under which it may be used ...
The industry, working through third parties, highlighted endotoxins, … ... Philip Morris undertook an internal endotoxin research project to test the Hasday et al. findings and to determine if endotoxin ... Following confirmation of SHS as an important source of endotoxins, the scientist promoting endotoxins as an important indoor ... Endotoxins in tobacco smoke: shifting tobacco industry positions Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Oct;9(10):995-1004. doi: 10.1080/ ...
Structure of the mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin CytB from Bacillus thuringiensis sp. kyushuensis and implications for membrane ... CytB endotoxin-like CytB endotoxin-like CytB endotoxin-like Mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin CytB Bacillus thuringiensis, strain ...
Get the latest endotoxin testing (monitoring and testing) news , the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... Endotoxin Analysis Environmental Testing and Research Laboratories announce adding enhanced endotoxin analysis to their ... One such area of concern is the potential presence of endotoxins. Endotoxins are a type of bacterial toxin that is located in ... Endotoxin Testing News. * A new OSHwiki article highlights the risks and hazards of process-generated contaminants Process- ...
Luciferin-EF is an endotoxin-free beetle luciferin that can be used for imaging applications where endotoxins may create ... where endotoxin may create problems. Luciferin-EF™ is tested to ensure endotoxin is below detectable levels and packaged in ... Luciferin-EF™ is an endotoxin-free beetle luciferin that can be used for cell-based imaging applications in living systems, ... Produces no potential interference in assay due to the presence of endotoxins ...
High exposure to endotoxin in farming is associated with less new-onset pollen sensitisation Grethe Elholm, Vivi Schlünssen, ... Relations of exhaled nitric oxide and FEV1 to personal endotoxin exposure in schoolchildren with asthma Ralph J Delfino, ... Evidence of a paradoxical relationship between endotoxin and lung cancer after accounting for left truncation in a study of ...
An endotoxin-induced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumors. E A Carswell, L J Old, R L Kassel, S Green, N Fiore, B ... An endotoxin-induced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumors. E A Carswell, L J Old, R L Kassel, S Green, N Fiore, B ... An endotoxin-induced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumors. E A Carswell, L J Old, R L Kassel, S Green, N Fiore, and B ... which mimics the tumor necrotic action of endotoxin itself. TNF-positive serum is as effective as endotoxin itself in causing ...
The relationship between endotoxin contamination of cotton dusts and pulmonary function was studied in humans. Forty three ... Attempts were made to correlate pulmonary function with endotoxin and cotton dust concentrations. Endotoxin concentrations in ... The relationship between endotoxin contamination of cotton dusts and pulmonary function was studied in humans. Forty three ... The authors conclude that the variety of cotton and where it is grown affect the endotoxins of cotton dust. Acute pulmonary ...
Watch the archived webinar and learn the essentials for testing medical devices for endotoxin, including updates released by ... Are you a QC professional responsible for testing medical devices for endotoxin? Do you want to learn more about the updates ... Watch the archived webinar below to help ensure you are testing medical devices for endotoxin according to compendial ... Guidelines for Performing the Bacterial Endotoxins Test (BET). ... Calculating Endotoxin Release Limits (ERL). *Establishing a ...
Z. X. Pan and Q. Song, "Study on ditermination of bacterial endotoxin of omeprazole sodium for injection," Chinese Journal of ... X. Zheng, Y. M. Zhao, and C. Liu, "Bacterial endotoxin test f or puerarin injection," China Pharmacy, vol. 18, pp. 1254-1255, ... Y. Zhang et al., "New method for bacterial endotoxin test of absorptive medical film," Modern Preventive Medicine, vol. 34, pp ... Y. C. Hu, N. Li, and J. P. Zhou, "Study on gelation clot method of bacterial endotoxin test in test orerone undecanoate ...
Endotoxin administration caused a profound transient physiological response with dose-related elevations in body temperature ... Endotoxins Is the Subject Area "Endotoxins" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
... before and after the addition of endotoxin. The left half of the video shows the appearance of the droplets before endotoxin is ... Liquid Crystal Droplets Indicate the Presence of Endotoxin. This material is available primarily for archival purposes. ... added, and the right half of the video shows the appearance of the droplets after endotoxin is added. The schematic ...
... has published draft revisions to its Guidelines for Using the Test for Bacterial Endotoxins. Bacterial endotoxins are ... A recommendation that a risk assessment be performed when using the bacterial endotoxin test as a pyrogenicity test. This is ... A recommendation that a monocyte-activation test or test for bacterial endotoxins is preferred to the rabbit pyrogen test. This ... The EDQM Guidelines explain the justifications for the requirements in the test for bacterial endotoxins. They also provide ...
The control of endotoxins in pharmaceutical products is imperative due to the varying level of immune responses incurred when ... As the processes within quality control evolve, so do the endotoxin control methods and it essential to choose the right ... A holistic approach to microbial impurities, endotoxins and LER. 4th June 2019, San Diego, USA. ... He is Head of Roche-Genentech global Endotoxin Expert Group and Roche-Genentech global SME on microbial impurity contaminations ...
11:30 Impact of sample matrices on endotoxin activity. Holger Grallert, Head of R&D, Hyglos GmbH. • Endotoxin structure and ... This workshop will provide both fundamental knowledge about endotoxins and novel insights into endotoxin detection and removal ... 9:40 Endotoxin detection. Holger Grallert, Head of R&D, Hyglos GmbH. • Rabbit Pyrogen Test. • Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Assay. ... 9:10 Endotoxin. Wolfgang Mutter, General Manager, Hyglos GmbH. • Chemical properties. • Biological activity. • Medical ...
  • Endotoxin is a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in the outer cell membrane of gram-negative bacteria. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Areas covered: The current review focuses on lipopolysaccharide (Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin)-mediated inflammation in the lung and the animal models used to study related diseases. (monash.edu)
  • Delivered to you from the QC experts who face many of the same regulated manufacturing challenges as you do, the QC Insider™ Toolbox is packed with comprehensive support tools that will help you perform the bacterial endotoxins test. (lonza.com)
  • self-directed training resources that will help you build on your bacterial endotoxins test expertise. (lonza.com)
  • technical resources that will help ensure your success with the bacterial endotoxins test. (lonza.com)
  • Our White Paper provides a risk-based approach using FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis), and helps identify risks that may be inherent in your current workflow in the Bacterial Endotoxins Test (BET). (lonza.com)
  • Bacteria shed endotoxin in large amounts upon cell death and when they are actively growing and dividing. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Endotoxins are released during the replication or lysis of bacteria. (biomin.net)
  • 2 Their presence is detected by the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay which can detect down to 0.01 Endotoxin Units (EU)/ml. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Generally, high LPS concentrations can be reduced to about 100 EU/mL without special treatment, but many applications require an even lower-limit value as described within the pharmacopoeia - e.g., 5 endotoxin units (1 EU ≈ 100 pg) per kilogram of body weight per hour for intravenous applications. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • High calorific and high fat diets increase serum endotoxin concentrations and induce acute low-grade inflammation. (biomin.net)
  • As a result, both a 5 mL column and a 780 mL Evolve™ Process Column were packed with EtoxiClear™, using the guidelines in Table 1, to demonstrate high endotoxin clearance at different process scales. (astreabioseparations.com)
  • Inflammation induced by either endotoxin or vaccination has previously been shown to impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) in healthy young individuals. (dovepress.com)
  • Despite the fact that endotoxin induced a more pronounced degree of inflammation than vaccination, both inflammatory challenges impaired EDV to a similar degree, supporting the view that different inflammatory stimuli could induce harmful effects on the vasculature. (dovepress.com)
  • The gut is the first line of defense against endotoxins and, if compromised with anti-nutritional, stress or metabolic factors, e.g. in times of heat stress, mycotoxin contamination or inflammation, endotoxin transport can increase. (biomin.net)
  • 2007. Methods of Endotoxin Removal from Biological Preparations: A Review. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • An important part of TR82 is the comprehensive appendix of case studies considering LER occurrences, encompassing both analyses of root-causes and endotoxin preparations, as well as methodologies for overcoming LER. (biomerieux-industry.com)
  • While the main route for swine LPS exposure is via the gastrointestinal tract, the concentration of endotoxins in the air and dust should not be overlooked: endotoxins are a major component of biological dust. (biomin.net)
  • Due to the serious risks associated with endotoxin contamination, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set limits on concentration of endotoxin for medical devices and parenteral drugs that researchers should be aware of. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Barclay GR (1990) Antibodies to endotoxin in health and disease. (springer.com)
  • Among the effects documented were the stimulation of leukocyte cultures to produce tissue factors, the induced production of IL-6 in equine macrophages, and the inhibition of murine erythroid colony formation by very low levels (less than 1ng/mL) of endotoxin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We will discuss different subsets of APC including lung dendritic cells and macrophages, and their role in responding to endotoxin and environmental challenges. (monash.edu)
  • The presence of endotoxin in products for injection (vaccines and injectable drugs) can result in pyrogenic responses ranging from fever and chills to irreversible and fatal septic shock. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • LER is a temperature- and time-dependent process and defined as loss of detectable endotoxin activity over time when using Factor C-based assays (LAL and rFC) when undiluted products are spiked with known amount of endotoxin standards. (biomerieux-industry.com)
  • This study used a sample known to be affected by LER to evaluate a sample preparation protocol using ENDO-RS reagents prior to detection of endotoxin using the LAL method. (biomerieux-industry.com)
  • Suffredini AF, Fromm RE, Parker MM, et al (1989) The cardiovascular response of normal humans to the administration of endotoxin. (springer.com)
  • While under control conditions more than 70 of the energy utilization of the myocardium was derived from FFA, and about 30 lactate, following the administration of endotoxin the contribution of FFA to myocardial energy following the administration of endotoxin the contribution of FFA to myocardial energy utilization was greatly diminished and that of lactate was elevated. (dtic.mil)
  • on one occasion 4 hours following an endotoxin injection ( Escherichia coli endotoxin, 20 IU/kg), on another occasion 8 hours following vaccination against Salmonella typhi , and on a third occasion 4 hours following a saline control injection. (dovepress.com)
  • Changes of myocardial substrate utilization have been studied in dogs under pentobarbital anesthesia following the administration of E. coli endotoxin. (dtic.mil)
  • 1 Dogs treated with lidocaine (1 mg kg-1 h-1) or indomethacin (1.5 mg/kg) before and after an LD60 dose (1 mg/kg) of E. coli endotoxin survived for at least 72 h. 2 Although all dogs in both treated groups survived, only those treated with indomethacin were significantly protected again. (meta.org)
  • Endotoxins are small, stable, bacterially-derived hydrophobic molecules which can easily contaminate labware and whose presence can significantly impact both in vitro and in vivo experiments. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Baumgartner JD, Glauser MP, McCutchan JA, et al (1985) Prevention of gram-negative shock and death in surgical patients by antibody to endotoxin core glycolipid. (springer.com)
  • LPS are highly potent immune stimulators able to cause side effects in host organisms such as endotoxin shock, tissue injury, and even death. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • 3 In vivo , endotoxins elicit an inflammatory response in animal studies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • There is growing concern that the presence of bacterial endotoxins in media and matrices used in cell culture, cell therapy, and tissue engineering applications may induce aberrant cell function and host immune reactions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Yet in times of environmental, nutritional or metabolic stress, gut permeability can increase, allowing endotoxins to enter the blood stream, weakening the immune system and impairing animal performance. (biomin.net)
  • However, if they do gain entry, endotoxins can elicit strong immune responses, weakening immune systems and impairing performance. (biomin.net)
  • Our White Paper, "Trends in Endotoxin Testing - Exploring the Hottest Topics of 2017 and Beyond" available in our QC Insider™ Library, explores the trends, issues and opportunities discussed at our 2017 Global Endotoxin Testing Summit. (lonza.com)
  • Trautmann M, Zick R, Rukavina T, Cross AS, Marre R (1998) Antibiotic-induced release of endotoxin: in-vitro comparison of meropenem and other antibiotics. (springer.com)
  • To minimize these concerns, it is essential to use reagents and biomaterials which are virtually endotoxin-free for both in vitro and in vivo biomedical research. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Endotoxins affect both in vitro and in vivo cell growth and function and are a source of significant variability. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In vitro, there is increasing evidence that endotoxin cause a variety of problems for cell culture research. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thorough cleanliness in labware, raw materials, and in lab technique is required to substantially reduce endotoxin levels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Regulatory authorities also request hold-time studies to determine the validity of the endotoxin release test methods during the review of BLAs for biotech products, as well as new methods to overcome the issue. (biomerieux-industry.com)
  • In vivo endotoxins elicit a pyrogen-like response in proportion to their concentration. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • EndoTrap HD® manufactured by Hyglos GmbH (former Profos AG) is a new revolutionary tool especially designed to meet the needs of pharma and biotech industry for the efficient removal of endotoxins in biomanufacturing processes. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Verbon A, Dekkers PE, ten Hove T, et al (2001) IC14, an anti-CD14 antibody, inhibits endotoxin-mediated symptoms and inflammatory responses in humans. (springer.com)
  • Endotoxin-induced lung pathology is usually initiated by antigen presenting cells (APC). (monash.edu)
  • As a result, EtoxiClear ™ shows high performance and scalability for endotoxin clearance with low protein binding at both bench and process scale. (astreabioseparations.com)