Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Sensitive method for detection of bacterial endotoxins and endotoxin-like substances that depends on the in vitro gelation of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), prepared from the circulating blood (amebocytes) of the horseshoe crab, by the endotoxin or related compound. Used for detection of endotoxin in body fluids and parenteral pharmaceuticals.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Hemorrhagic necrosis that was first demonstrated in rabbits with a two-step reaction, an initial local (intradermal) or general (intravenous) injection of a priming endotoxin (ENDOTOXINS) followed by a second intravenous endotoxin injection (provoking agent) 24 h later. The acute inflammation damages the small blood vessels. The following intravascular coagulation leads to capillary and venous THROMBOSIS and NECROSIS. Shwartzman phenomenon can also occur in other species with a single injection of a provoking agent, and during infections or pregnancy. Its susceptibility depends on the status of IMMUNE SYSTEM, coagulation, FIBRINOLYSIS, and blood flow.
Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.
A condition produced by the presence of toxins or other harmful substances in the BLOOD.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A secreted protein that associates with TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 and is essential for receptor recognition of LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES.
The contamination of indoor air.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
Living facilities for humans.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Thorium oxide (ThO2). A radiographic contrast agent that was used in the early 1930s through about 1954. High rates of mortality have been linked to its use and it has been shown to cause liver cancer.
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A condition of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION resulting from hypersensitive reaction to inhaled dust during the initial processing of cotton, flax, or hemp in the textile industry. Symptoms include wheezing and tightness in the chest.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.

Personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica in California agriculture. (1/4158)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to measure inhalable and respirable dust levels during various operations. The samples were analysed for endotoxin using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay and crystalline silica content using X-ray diffraction. In total 142 inhalable samples and 144 respirable samples were collected. RESULTS: The measurements showed considerable difference in exposure levels between various operations, in particular for the inhalable fraction of the dust and the endotoxin. Machine harvesting of tree crops (Geometric mean (GM) = 45.1 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 7.9 mg/m3), and cleaning of poultry houses (GM = 6.7 mg/m3) showed the highest inhalable dust levels. Cleaning of poultry houses also showed the highest inhalable endotoxin levels (GM = 1861 EU/m3). Respirable dust levels were generally low, except for machine harvesting of tree crops (GM = 2.8 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 0.9 mg/m3). Respirable endotoxin levels were also low. For the inhalable dust fraction, levels were reduced considerably when an enclosed cabin was present. The percentage of crystalline silica was overall higher in the respirable dust samples than the inhalable dust samples. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist in personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California agriculture with some operations showing very high levels.  (+info)

Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (2/4158)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

5'-Nucleotidase activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages. I. Synthesis and degradation in resident and inflammatory populations. (3/4158)

Mouse resident peritoneal macrophages display sufficient 5'-nucleotidase activity to hydrolyze 58 nm AMP/min per cell protein. This activity increases approximately 163 nm AMP/min per mg after 72 h in culture. The enzyme is renewed in unstimulated cells with a half-time of 13.9 h. The activity is not reduced by treatment of intact cells with a variety of proteolytic enzymes, including trypsin, pronase, urokinase, and plasmin. Cells obtained from an inflammatory exudate have diminished or absent levels of enzyme activity. Endotoxin-elicited cells display enzyme activitiy of 20.9 nm AMP/min per mg, while thioglycollate-stimulated macrophages have no detectable activity. The reduced level of activity in endotoxin-stimulated cells is due to their elevated rate of enzyme degradation, with a half-time of 6.9 h. Their rate of enzyme synthesis is essentially normal. No evidence for latent enzyme activity could be obtained in thioglycollate-stimulated cells, nor do these cells produce any inhibition of normal cell enzyme activity. Serum deprivation reduces the enzyme activity of resident cells to about 45% of control activity. These conditions do not significantly affect the rate of enzyme synthesis, but again are explainable by an increase in the rate of enzyme degradation. Pinocytic rate is elevated in endotoxin-stimulated cells which show a more rapid rate of enzyme degradation than unstimulated cells do. However, in serum-free conditions, the rate of enzyme degradation is doubled with no change in the pinocytic rate of the cells.  (+info)

Effect of sodium butyrate on lymphocyte activation. (4/4158)

Butyrate, in relatively low concentrations, has been shown to induce synthesis of enzymes, cause changes in cell morphology, and inhibit growth of a variety of mammalian cells in tissue culture (reviewed in [1]). In this communication, we report our observations on the effect of butyrate on lymphocyte activation. Butyrate completely and reversibly inhibits mitogen-induced blast formation. We present evidence that it does not interfere with the binding of mitogens, that it does not inhibit a number of the "early" reactions involved in activation, and that it does not affect ongoing DNA synthesis for an extended period of time. However, butyrate rapidly inhibits any increase in the rate of DNA synthesis.  (+info)

Macrophage plasminogen activator: induction by asbestos is blocked by anti-inflammatory steroids. (5/4158)

Intraperitoneal injection of asbestos fibres into mice induces the formation of exudates containing macrophages that produce plasminogen activator. Like-wise, in vitro addition of asbestos to macrophage cultures stimulates plasminogen activator secretion; the synthesis and secretion of lysozyme and lysosomal enzymes are not changed under these conditions. The enhanced secretion of plasminogen activator by macrophages exposed to asbestos is suppressed by low concentrations of anti-inflammatory steroids.  (+info)

Clindamycin suppresses endotoxin released by ceftazidime-treated Escherichia coli O55:B5 and subsequent production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta. (6/4158)

Treatment of septicemia caused by Escherichia coli with ceftazidime (CAZ) may be associated with the development of septic shock due to the release of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. We examined the suppressive effect of clindamycin (CLDM) on CAZ-induced release of endotoxin by cultured E. coli and the subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-1 beta [IL-1 beta]). E. coli ATCC 12014 was incubated in inactivated horse serum with or without CLDM for 1, 4, or 18 h, followed by the addition of CAZ and collection of the culture supernatant at 0, 1, and 2 h. The concentration of endotoxin in each sample was measured by a chromogenic Limulus test. Another portion of the culture supernatant was added to THP-1 cell culture and incubated for 4 h, and the concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta in the supernatant were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the control group (no CLDM), CAZ administration resulted in significant increases in endotoxin, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta concentrations. Pretreatment of E. coli with CLDM for 4 or 18 h before the addition of CAZ significantly suppressed the concentrations of endotoxin, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta in a time-dependent manner. In addition, CAZ treatment transformed E. coli from rodshaped bacteria to filament-like structures, as determined by electron microscopy, while pretreatment with CLDM prevented these morphological changes. Our in vitro studies showed that CAZ-induced release of large quantities of endotoxin by E. coli could be suppressed by prior administration of CLDM.  (+info)

Fosfomycin alters lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production in mice. (7/4158)

To determine the mechanisms of immunomodulating action of fosfomycin (FOF), we examined its effect on the production of inflammatory cytokines in mice injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with FOF significantly lowered the peak serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta, indicating that FOF alters inflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation.  (+info)

Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects. (8/4158)

Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field.  (+info)

Changes of myocardial substrate utilization have been studied in dogs under pentobarbital anesthesia following the administration of E. coli endotoxin. Mycocardial substrate utilization under control conditions at two hours, and again at three to four hours following endotoxin mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial pH were decreased while myocardial blood flow did not change. Arterial lactate increased greatly, free fatty acids did not change, glucose and O2 decreased. Myocardial uptake and oxidation of free fatty acids were greatly diminished and lactate uptake markedly elevated both periods following endotoxin. While under control conditions more than 70 of the energy utilization of the myocardium was derived from FFA, and about 30 lactate, following the administration of endotoxin the contribution of FFA to myocardial energy following the administration of endotoxin the contribution of FFA to myocardial energy utilization was greatly diminished and that of lactate was elevated. Thus a
Creative BioMart offers you endotoxin removal kits. It is convenient for you to carry out the endotoxin removal work independently during the experiment and bring guarantee to your experiment.. Endotoxin removal kits are designed to efficiently remove endotoxin contamination from biological samples. It is suitable for the endotoxin removal of protein samples, monoclonal antibody drugs, therapeutic vaccines, small molecule chemical drugs, other proteins, peptides, antibodies, polysaccharides and other biological samples. The highly efficient endotoxin-specific adsorption substance is used as a ligand to specifically and efficiently remove endotoxin without affecting the activity of most biological samples.. ...
Endotoxin is a potent mediator of a broad range of patho-physiological effects in humans. It is present in all Gram negative (GN) bacteria. It would be expected that anti-endotoxin therapies, whether antibody based or not, would have an important adjuvant therapeutic role along with antibiotics and other supportive therapies for GN infections. Indeed there is an extensive literature relating to both pre-clinical and clinical studies of anti-endotoxin antibodies. However, the extent of disconnect between the generally successful pre-clinical studies versus the failures of the numerous large clinical trials of antibody based and other anti-endotoxin therapies is under-appreciated and unexplained. Seeking a reconciliation of this disconnect is not an abstract academic question as clinical trials of interventions to reduce levels of endotoxemia levels are ongoing. The aim of this review is to examine new insights into the complex relationship between endotoxemia and sepsis in an attempt to bridge this
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The long-term consequences of neonatal endotoxin exposure on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) function were assessed in adult female and male Long-Evans rats. At 3 and 5 d of age, pups were administered endotoxin (Salmonella enteritidis, 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) at a dose that provokes a rapid and sustained physiological response, but with no mortality. As adults, neonatally endotoxin-treated animals exhibited significantly greater adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to restraint stress than controls. In addition, dexamethasone pretreatment was less effective in suppressing ACTH responses to restraint stress in endotoxin-treated animals than in controls, suggesting decreased negative-feedback sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Neonatal endotoxin treatment elevated resting-state median eminence levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin in adult male animals, and arginine vasopressin in both adult males and females. Neonatal exposure to ...
The indoor environment in animal husbandry is inevitably contaminated with endotoxin. Endotoxin exposure associates with various inflammatory illnesses in animals. The present cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between the degree of endotoxin exposure and the cellular and humoral immune profiles of fattening pigs. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 47 pigs from ten different pig farms in Korea. Whole blood cell counts and plasma immunoglobulin classes were measured. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with Concanavalin A for 48 hours and the cytokines released into the culture supernatants were measured. The barns in which the pigs lived were assessed for endotoxin levels in the total or respirable dust by using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic QCL method. Low and high endotoxin exposure were defined as ≤30 and ,30 EU/m3, respectively. Compared to pigs with low endotoxin exposure (n=19), highly exposed pigs (n=28) had higher ...
Skopinska, E, Some effects of escherichia coli endotoxin on the graft-versus-host reaction in mice. (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 2753 ...
First paragraph: Lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins produced by Gramnegative bacteria) are present on the surface of cigarettes and have been implicated in a number of diseases. Active smoking predisposes to periodontal disease which, in turn, facilitates gastrointestinal absorption of endotoxins. Serum endotoxin concentrations are higher among active smokers and are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition to being present on the surface of cigarettes, endotoxins are present in both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke. Inhaled airborne endotoxins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease. In a guinea pig model, endotoxins have been shown to penetrate the lung barrier and be detectable in the blood. Similarly, non-smokers with occupational exposure to organic dust containing high levels of endotoxin have been shown to have increased plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharide. However, no previous study has examined whether exposure to environmental ...
Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides or LPS, are cell membrane components of Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., |em>E. coli|/em>). The lipid portion of the outer layer of the outer membrane is completely composed of endotoxin molecules (see figure |a href=/cn/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/removal of bacterial endotoxins/images/schematic diagram of the envelope of e coli/>Schematic diagram of the envelope of |/a>|a href=/cn/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/removal of bacterial endotoxins/images/schematic diagram of the envelope of e coli/>|em>E. coli|/em>|/a>). A single |em>E. coli|/em> cell contains about 2 million LPS molecules, each consisting of a hydrophobic lipid A moiety, a complex array of sugar residues and negatively charged phosphate groups (see figure |a href=/cn/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/removal of bacterial endotoxins/images/schematic diagram of the endotoxin molecule/>Schematic diagram of the endotoxin molecule|/a>). Therefore,
Hoffman, J S. and Benditt, E P., Changes in high density lipoprotein content following endotoxin administration in the mouse. Formation of serum amyloid protein-rich subfractions. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3343 ...
Human Plasma Proteome Analysis Following Endotoxin Challenge Identifies New Proteins that Contribute to Molecular Phenotype of Innate Immunity
Author: Weatherman Kara D, Augustine Samuel, Christoff Jeffrey, Galbraith Wendy, Year: 2013, Abstract: The objective of this study was to establish benchmark rates for microbial and bacterial endotoxin contamination rates for radiopharmaceutical preparations compounded in commercial nuclear pharmacies. Radiopharmaceutical samples were obtained between November 2006 and June 2010 from seven commercial nuclear pharmacies. Preparations were compounded per the compounding protocols of each radiopharmacy, and each kit was used for unit-dose dispensing of patient-specific doses. Samples for testing wer
Inflammation and coagulation are closely linked, and both can be triggered by endotoxin. Thrombelastometry and impedance aggregometry are of diagnostic and predictive value in critically ill patients. In this observational study we investigated the correlation of endotoxin activity with thrombelasometric and aggregometric variables in patients with systemic inflammation. Based on a daily screening on a tertiary academic surgical ICU, patients, as soon as they fulfilled two or more criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), were included. In whole blood we performed endotoxin activity (EA) assay, thrombelastometry (ROTEM®) and impendance aggregometry (Multiplate®). In total, 49 patients were included with a broad spread of EA levels of (median (minimum to maximum)) 0.27 (0.01 to 0.72), allowing expedient correlative analysis. Clot formation time (CFT) (263 s (60 to 1,438 s)) and clotting time (CT) (1,008 s (53 to 1,481 s)) showed a significant negative correlation with EA level (r =
The letter from Hansen et al. (1) raises an interesting question regarding the complexity of metabolic endotoxinemia and inflammation in vivo. Hansen et al. suggest endotoxin activity should induce an inflammatory response in our cohorts, as noted in a previous in vivo study, where healthy patients were inoculated with endotoxin (1,2). This has two elements to consider: firstly, the impact of endotoxin on inflammation in subjects, and secondly, the measurement of circulating endotoxin.. Firstly, in understanding the inflammatory response, it is often tempting to directly compare in vivo situations, but the context is key (1-3). Our article (3) examined circulating endotoxin derived from the gastrointestinal tract, which induced a physiological meal-related response, whereas Taudorf et al. (2) inoculated endotoxin, which bypasses such gut-related processes. From this, direct comparison of endotoxin levels, across the two studies, examining the two healthy groups showed a differential response ...
Combination of intravenously infused methylene blue and inhaled nitric oxide ameliorates endotoxin-induced lung injury in awake sheep. Crit Care Med. 2003 Jan; 31(1):179-86 ...
Endotoxin detection in human patients has been a difficult challenge, in part due to the fact that the conserved active portion of the molecule (lipid A) is a relatively small epitope only amenable to binding by a single ligand at any one instance and low levels (pg/ml) are capable of stimulating the immune system. The endotoxin activity assay, a bioassay based on neutrophil activation by complement opsonized immune complexes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has allowed the specific detection of the lipid A epitope of LPS in a rapid whole blood assay format. This review summarizes diagnostic studies utilizing the endotoxin activity assay in a variety of hospital patient populations in whom endotoxin is postulated to play a significant role in disease etiology. These include ICU patients at risk of developing sepsis syndrome, abdominal and cardiovascular surgery patients and patients with serious traumatic injury. Significant features of these studies include the high negative predictive value of the assay
Intravenous injection of endotoxin from Escherichia coli in dogs is characterized by an immediate and precipitous decline in blood pressure with a simultaneous elevation of portal vein pressure. This reaction is abolished by hepatectomy or exclusion of the liver from the circulation and is believed due to trapping of blood in the liver. The reactions observed suggest that the profound biological effects of endotoxin are at least partially the result of anaphylaxis. The lethal effects of endotoxin are enhanced by removal of the liver.. ...
en] OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of the endotoxin level in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and to propose to the clinician a guide in the diagnosis of gram-negative bacterial (GNB) pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective and prospective studies to investigate the relation between endotoxin level and quantitative bacterial culture of BAL and to test the predictive value of a defined threshold. SETTING: University hospital general intensive care unit. PATIENTS: In the first part of the study, 77 consecutive ventilated patients with clinical suspicion of nosocomial pneumonia between January 1995 and January 1996. In the second part of the study, 93 consecutive ventilated patients studied prospectively between February 1996 and April 1997. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Quantitative cultures for aerobic bacteria were performed directly from the fluid. Bacterial species were determined with standard techniques. The detection of endotoxin in BAL was made using a quantitative chromogenic Limulus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction between syntoxic and catatoxic steroids on endotoxin lethality in relation to liver metabolism in mice. AU - Lazar, G.. AU - Sekiya, S.. AU - Agarwal, M. K.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 330853. AN - SCOPUS:0017402889. VL - 22. SP - 13. EP - 20. JO - Journal of Leukocyte Biology. JF - Journal of Leukocyte Biology. SN - 0741-5400. IS - 1. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insights into endotoxin-mediated lung inflammation and future treatment strategies. AU - Chakraborty, Amlan. AU - Boer, Jennifer C.. AU - Selomulya, Cordelia. AU - Plebanski, Magdalena. AU - Royce, Simon G.. PY - 2018/11/2. Y1 - 2018/11/2. N2 - Introduction: Airway inflammatory disorders are prevalent diseases in need of better management and new therapeutics. Immunotherapies offer a solution to the problem of corticosteroid resistance. Areas covered: The current review focuses on lipopolysaccharide (Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin)-mediated inflammation in the lung and the animal models used to study related diseases. Endotoxin-induced lung pathology is usually initiated by antigen presenting cells (APC). We will discuss different subsets of APC including lung dendritic cells and macrophages, and their role in responding to endotoxin and environmental challenges. Expert commentary: The pharmacotherapeutic considerations to combat airway inflammation should cost-effectively ...
Myocardial circulation during septic shock is often characterized by an inappropriately high coronary flow.14 15 NO plays an important role in the regulation of myocardial flow.9 10 11 12 13 Therefore, we investigated the role of NO in the hyperdynamic changes of coronary flow in hearts of endotoxin-treated rats. The data in the present study indicate that these vascular changes are predominantly due to the vasodilatory action of NO. However, inhibition of the NO pathway can result in focal areas of ischemia in endotoxin-treated hearts, suggesting an imbalance of local oxygen supply to demand.. A rat model of endotoxemia using a sublethal low dose of endotoxin was selected; this model produced a hyperdynamic coronary circulation36 that is also seen in human sepsis.14 15 Comparable to human sepsis, the model resulted in raised temperature,36 reduced blood pressure, and increased levels of plasma lactate37 and nitrate plus nitrite. The 12 hours needed to establish this model provides sufficient ...
Endotoxins are derived from the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, and are very heat resistant. It is possible to have something that is microbiologically sterile but which contains endotoxin, example, an autoclaved suspension of E. coli will be sterile but will be packed with endotoxin. When carrying out endotoxin tests, tubes and pipettes are generally made from glass which can be sterilised in a hot air oven at 200C. This is capable of destroying endotoxin, preventing false positives. Pipette tips etc are normally purchased from manufacturers specifying their products are endotoxin free. If you use water for making dilutions or for controls it is imporatnt to use water guaranteed to be free of endotoxin, autoclaving and filtersterilising cannot be relied on to produce endotoxin free water. Hope this helps Derek Law Company Microbiologist LAB M R Burgess ,rburgess_1997 at, wrote in message news:20010131012105.14992.qmail at , I am new to the medical ...
Bacterial endotoxin take a look at is often known as LAL take a look at, the Bacterial Endotoxin take a look at is taken into account probably the most delicate, in addition to a selected technique out there for the detection and measuring of bacterial endorphins (fever). It really works by producing Pyrogen - a byproduct of gram-negative micro organism. This micro organism end in blood coagulation in Limulus Polyphemus. The clotting idea is attributed to the enzyme mediated response to Endotoxin by parts current within the intercellular fluid of the circulating cells; amebocyte. LAL take a look at is permitted by the Meals and Drug Administration for the detection of Endotoxin in medication. The phenomenon is used in the course of the estimation of the focus degree of Bacterial Endotoxin that could be in or on a pattern. The response charge is generally depending on the Endotoxins focus, the temperature, and the PH. For the response to happen, explicit bivalent cations (clot in a position ...
The typical febrile response of normal rabbits given bacterial endotoxin intravenously may be modified by prior administration of plasma or, less effectively, serum of endotoxin-tolerant donors. This altered response is characterized by disappearance of the second rise in fever and by a striking reduction in fever index. It thus resembles the course of fever shown by rabbits made tolerant to endotoxin by one or more previous daily doses. This transfer of tolerance by plasma or serum depends critically upon the manner in which tolerance is induced in the donors.. The plasma of donor rabbits made tolerant, then given an RES-blocking dose of carbon, still confers tolerance upon normal recipient rabbits. Such donors have lost their tolerance and are highly sensitive to endotoxin at the time their blood is taken.. The implications of these findings for endotoxin tolerance and for transfer of this phenomenon are discussed. The evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that both tolerance and its ...
Three main projects are included in this dissertation. Though seemingly broad in scope, this research afforded a unique opportunity for comprehensive study of urban and rural environmental inhalation exposures to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide - LPS) and the associated immune response. In the LA PM10 Endotoxin Study, ambient concentration of LPS in PM (particulate matter) was quantified through analysis of air samples collected in Southern California. Endotoxin concentrations measured were lower than recognized thresholds for adverse health effects in occupational exposures, but in the same range as for indoor effects. This study provides the first extensive characterization of endotoxin concentration across a large metropolitan area in relation to PM10 and other pollutant monitoring, and supports the need for studies of the role of endotoxin in childhood asthma in urban settings. The Mouse Whole Blood Assay (WBA) Study replicated LPS-induced airway inflammation in a laboratory model. Presently, ...
Endotoxin tolerance reprograms cell responses to LPS by repressing expression of proinflammatory cytokines, while not inhibiting production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial effectors. Molecular mechanisms of induction and maintenance of endotoxin tolerance are incompletely understood, particularly with regard to the impact of endotoxin tolerization on signalosome assembly, activation of adaptor-kinase modules, and expression of negative regulators of TLR signaling in human cells. In this study, we examined LPS-mediated activation of MyD88-dependent and Toll-IL-1R-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent pathways emanating from TLR4 and expression of negative regulators of TLR signaling in control and endotoxin-tolerant human monocytes. Endotoxin tolerization suppressed LPS-inducible TLR4-TRIF and TRIF-TANK binding kinase (TBK)1 associations, induction of TBK1 kinase activity, activation of IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-3, and expression of RANTES and IFN-beta. Tolerance
Endotoxin neutralization in human plasma is an excellent indicator of chronic immune activation, which is the most accurate predictor of mortality in HIV. Recen...
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BACKGROUND. Orlistat has been shown to increase adiponectin and reduce progression to type 2 diabetes in obese Caucasians. Some effects of orlistat are thought to be independent of weight loss by altering gut flora and the production of endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We studied the effect of dietary treatment with and without orlistat in South Asian individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) on adiponectin and inflammatory markers including LPS.. METHODS. South Asian individuals were randomised to either dietary treatment with orlistat or dietary treatment alone. At the end of 12 months, a comparison was made between the two groups for differences in anthropomorphic measurements and serum markers.. RESULTS. Three hundred and five individuals underwent oral glucose tolerance test of whom 40 had IGT. Complete baseline and 1-year data was available for 31 patients. After 1 year, patients in the orlistat group demonstrated a greater but insignificant decrease in weight (4.5 +/- 0.1 kg), ...
The objective of the present longitudinal study was to investigate the effects of occupational endotoxin exposure on respiratory health and atopic sensitization in adults. Health outcomes and personal endotoxin exposure estimates were determined for 234 farmers and agricultural workers both at baseline and 5 years later. A questionnaire was used to assess respiratory symptoms, spirometry tests were performed and total and specific IgE levels were measured in serum. A twofold increase in personal endotoxin exposure was associated with less hay fever (OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.54-0.87) and grass IgE positivity (OR 0.81, 95%CI 0.68-0.97) at both time points (
Kaori Maeda, Luke O. Schoeniger, Masahiko Shimada, Richard A. Winchurch, Timothy G. Buchman, James L. Robotham; Regulation of Acute Phase Gene Expression Following Surgery and Endotoxin Administration in the Anesthetized Pig. Anesthesiology 1993;79(6):1324-1337. Download citation file:. ...
Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins play a key role in respiratory disease affecting more than one million U.S. agricultural workers. This project uses a novel Recombinant Factor C (rFC) assay and GC/MS to evaluate the role of endotoxin exposures and genetis in respiratory outcomes among agricultural workers. Pre-work shift measurements included spirometry, symptoms, and blood collection for TLR4 g
(HealthDay)-For patients with liver cirrhosis, low-dose rifaximin is comparable to high-dose rifaximin for reducing serum endotoxin levels, according to a study published online Oct. 16 in the Journal of Digestive Diseases.
HyClone™ Water, Cell Culture Grade (Endotoxin-Free) 1000mL; Cell Culture Grade Water HyClone™ Water, Cell Culture Grade (Endotoxin-Free) Cell Culture Grade...
Product Cat No. Pack Size ExtractMe Plasmid Maxi Endotoxin-Free Kit EM19-10 10 preps EM19-25 25 preps The EXTRACTME PLASMID MAXI ENDOTOXIN-FREE kit is designed for the efficient purification of high quality plasmid DNA from 200-1000 ml of cultured bacterial cells. The kit is based on modified anion-exchange resin, allowing extraction of ultrapure, transfection-grade pDNA, which is highly […]
Endotoxin-induced and vaccine-induced systemic inflammation both impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but not pulse wave reflection Lars Lind,1 Johannes Hulthe,2,3 Annika Johansson,3 Ewa Hedner31Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala, 2Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg, 3AstraZeneca Research and Development, Mölndal, SwedenBackground: Inflammation induced by either endotoxin or vaccination has previously been shown to impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) in healthy young individuals. However, the vascular effects of these two mechanisms of inducing inflammation have not been compared in the same individuals.Methods: Twelve young healthy males were studied at the same time of the day on three occasions in a random order; on one occasion 4 hours following an endotoxin injection (Escherichia coli endotoxin, 20 IU/kg), on another occasion 8 hours following vaccination against Salmonella typhi, and on a third occasion 4 hours following a saline control injection. EDV and
Administration of sublethal doses of endotoxin (LPS) renders animals resistant to supralethal doses. This phenomenon is known as endotoxin tolerance. Macrophages from endotoxin tolerant animals exhibit reduced LPSstimulated cytokine production and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. Previous studies demonstrated that pertussis toxin inhibited LPS-stimulated AA metabolism in macrophages, suggesting that LPS stimulation of macrophages requires the activation of Cui proteins. Additionally, the reduced AA metabolism in tolerant macrophages is temporally correlated with reduced membrane GTPase activity and GTPyS binding. Collectively, these observations suggest the possibility that LPS tolerance leads to reduced macrophage membrane Gui protein content and that this reduction contributes to the development of LPS tolerance. Pretreatment of rats with sublethal doses of LPS or human recombinant tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa) rendered them resistant to supralethal doses of endotoxin. Macrophages from ...
It was shown that although intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin caused extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of four different syngeneic murine tumors, only two of these tumors subsequently underwent complete regression: the two that were shown to be immunogeneic as classically defined. An immunologic basis for endotoxin-induced regression was further indicated by the additional findings that regression, but not hemorrhagic necrosis, of the two immunogenic tumors failed to occur in mice that were immunodepressed by whole-body gamma-irradiation, or that were made T-cell deficient by thymectomy and irradiation. That endotoxin-induced regression is T-cell mediated was suggested by the findings that tumor regression was followed by a state of long-lived immunity to a tumor cell challenge implant, and with the possession by the host of T cells that were capable of passively transferring this state of immunity to normal recipients. It is concluded that although parenteral injection of endotoxin ...
EndoTrap HD® manufactured by Hyglos GmbH (former Profos AG) is a new revolutionary tool especially designed to meet the needs of pharma and biotech industry for the efficient removal of endotoxins in biomanufacturing processes. EndoTrap® HD fulfils all requirements for industrial applications, and it can easily be integrated in/at early or late-stage purification processes of biological substances such as proteins, drugs, antibodies, or vaccines.. Background. Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) are major contaminants found in commercially available proteins or biologically active substances. LPS are highly potent immune stimulators able to cause side effects in host organisms such as endotoxin shock, tissue injury, and even death. Due to these reactions, it is essential to remove LPS from injectable drugs and other biological as well as pharmaceutical products (1, 2).. Purification very often represents the most time consuming and cost intensive step of the whole production process. ...
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the physiologic and inflammatory response following inhalation of corn dust extract (CDE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) solutions in normal subjects. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind crossover design. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen healthy, nonatopic, nonasthmatic, never-smoking volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: On separate visits, subjects underwent a series of four inhalation challenges to LPS or CDE, each containing either a high (6 micrograms/mL) or low (0.9 microgram/mL) endotoxin concentration, and administered at equal Xolumes. RESULTS: Chest tightness, cough, dyspnea, and sputum production were experienced following both LPS and CDE exposures and with similar frequency at both high and low endotoxin concentrations. LPS and CDE inhalations caused acute declines in FEV1, and the changes in FEV1 from baseline following exposure to both inhalants were not significantly different at both high and low endotoxin concentrations. Following exposure to the high-endotoxin LPS and CDE, no
OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal (HFHC) with that of a high-fiber and fruit meal on the concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), LPS-binding protein (LBP), the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), and the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) in mononuclear cells.. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Healthy lean subjects were given 910 calories of either an HFHC meal (n = 10) or an American Heart Association (AHA)-recommended meal rich in fiber and fruit (n = 10) after an overnight fast. Blood was collected before and at 1, 2, and 3 h after the meal. Cellular indexes of oxidative and inflammatory stress; the expression of SOCS-3, TLR2, and TLR4 in mononuclear cells; and plasma concentrations of LPS and LBP were measured.. RESULTS HFHC meal intake induced an increase in plasma LPS concentration and the expression of SOCS-3, TLR2, and TLR4 protein, reactive oxygen species generation, and nuclear factor-κB binding activity (P , 0.05 for all). ...
BACKGROUND Inhalation of endotoxin (LPS) induces a predominantly neutrophilic airway inflammation and has been used as model to test the anti-inflammatory activity of novel drugs. In the past, a dose exceeding 15-50 μg was generally needed to induce a sufficient inflammatory response. For human studies, regulatory authorities in some countries now request the use of GMP-grade LPS, which is of limited availability. It was therefore the aim of this study to test the effect and reproducibility of a low-dose LPS challenge (20,000 E.U.; 2 μg) using a flow- and volume-controlled inhalation technique to increase LPS deposition. METHODS Two to four weeks after a baseline sputum induction, 12 non-smoking healthy volunteers inhaled LPS on three occasions, separated by at least 4 weeks. To modulate the inflammatory effect of LPS, a 5-day PDE4 inhibitor (Roflumilast) treatment preceded the last challenge. Six hours after each LPS inhalation, sputum induction was performed. RESULTS The low-dose LPS inhalation
This study clearly demonstrates significant relationships between household endotoxin and diagnosed asthma, recent asthma symptoms, current use of asthma medications, and wheezing, said Dr. Thorne. No effect was observed of allergy status on the relationship between endotoxin and asthma outcomes. This suggests that current endotoxin exposure may have little impact on allergy status and that airway inflammation is the most significant effect of endotoxin exposure in a cross-section of the population ...
OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the changes in circulating endotoxin after a high-saturated fat meal to determine whether these effects depend on metabolic disease state.. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Subjects (n = 54) were given a high-fat meal (75 g fat, 5 g carbohydrate, 6 g protein) after an overnight fast (nonobese control [NOC]: age 39.9 +/- 11.8 years [mean +/- SD], BMI 24.9 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2), n = 9; obese: age 43.8 +/- 9.5 years, BMI 33.3 +/- 2.5 kg/m(2), n = 15; impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]: age 41.7 +/- 11.3 years, BMI 32.0 +/- 4.5 kg/m(2), n = 12; type 2 diabetic: age 45.4 +/- 10.1 years, BMI 30.3 +/- 4.5 kg/m(2), n = 18). Blood was collected before (0 h) and after the meal (1-4 h) for analysis.. RESULTS-Baseline endotoxin was significantly higher in the type 2 diabetic and IGT subjects than in NOC subjects, with baseline circulating endotoxin levels 60.6% higher in type 2 diabetic subjects than in NOC subjects (P , 0.05). Ingestion of a high-fat meal led to a significant rise in endotoxin ...
Endotoxins are released during the replication or lysis of bacteria. In healthy animals, the gut acts as a barrier to endotoxins entering the blood. Yet in times of environmental, nutritional or metabolic stress, gut permeability can increase, allowing endotoxins to enter the blood stream, weakening the immune system and impairing animal performance. Mycofix® included in the diet can combat the negative impact of endotoxins.
While studies have clearly shown a link between antibiotics and the release of endotoxins and the effect of endotoxins and cytokines in precipitating an inflammatory response as well as septic shock, it has remained to be seen if this correlates with clinical outcome. There have been few prospective human studies into the administration of different antibiotics in the treatment of gram negative sepsis. One pertinent randomized study by Prins and colleagues of urosepsis patients treated with imipenem compared to ceftazidime found a more rapid defervescence with the administration of imipenem. Endotoxin and cytokine release also increased after administration of ceftazidime compared to no increase in the imipenem group. However in other physiological measures and mortality, there were no differences between the two study groups. Another study by Byl and colleagues examined again the difference between imipenem and ceftazidime in human septic patients. While both antibiotics did appear to induce ...
Trade-offs between immune function and other physiological and behavioural processes are central in ecoimmunology, but one important problem is how to distinguish a reallocation of resources away from the immune system from a reallocation or redistribution within the immune system. While variation in baseline values of individual immune parameters is well established, studies in wild animals on multiple parameters during an immune response are lacking. It also remains to be tested whether and how immune responses correlate with baseline values that vary, for example, over the course of an annual cycle. We studied immunological responses to an endotoxin challenge in skylarks (Alauda arvensis), a partial migrant bird breeding in temperate zones. We compared birds injected with the endotoxin LPS with un-injected controls, characterizing immunological responses with leukocyte profiles, titres of lytic enzymes and natural antibodies, and concentrations of haptoglobin and heat shock proteins. We did ...
Summary After oral dosage of neonatal piglets with Escherichia coli O138:K81(B) extract, antigen was detected within superficial cells of the small intestine after 1 min. and in the spleen after 5 min. The significance of these findings for E. coli disease of young piglets is discussed.
Endotoxin is part of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall and can start some of the processes that lead in the end to organ failure and death. Higher levels during critical illness, surgery and...
Endotoxin response[edit]. The procoagulant response to lipopolysaccaride (bacterial endotoxin) is reduced in Duffy antigen ... Dawson TC, Lentsch AB, Wang Z, Cowhig JE, Rot A, Maeda N, Peiper SC (2000). "Exaggerated response to endotoxin in mice lacking ... "Racial differences in endotoxin-induced tissue factor-triggered coagulation". J. Thromb. Haemost. 7 (4): 634-40. doi:10.1111/j ...
Raetz C, Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu Rev Biochem. 71: 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ...
Raetz C. Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu Rev Biochem. 71: 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ...
... is a lipid component of an endotoxin held responsible for the toxicity of gram-negative bacteria. It is the innermost ... Beutler, B.; Poltorak, A. (2001-04-01). "The sole gateway to endotoxin response: how LPS was identified as Tlr4, and its role ... Tzeng YL, Datta A, Kolli VK, Carlson RW, Stephens DS (May 2002). "Endotoxin of Neisseria meningitidis composed only of intact ... Raetz C, Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu Rev Biochem. 71 (1): 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ...
Today, the term endotoxin is mostly used synonymously with LPS, although there are a few endotoxins that are not related to LPS ... Opal SM (2010). "Endotoxins and other sepsis triggers". Endotoxemia and Endotoxin Shock. Contrib Nephrol. Contributions to ... Epidemiological studies have shown that increased endotoxin load, which can be a result of increased populations of endotoxin- ... The presumed mechanism for the association of endotoxin with obesity is that endotoxin induces an inflammation-mediated pathway ...
Raetz CR, Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 71: 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ... outer membrane of many gram-negative bacteria includes a complex lipopolysaccharide whose lipid portion acts as an endotoxin - ...
"Biosynthesis of endotoxins. Purification and catalytic properties of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase from ...
Raetz CR (1990). "Biochemistry of endotoxins". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 59: 129-70. doi:10.1146/ PMID ...
Lipid A is an endotoxin. Endotoxins trigger intense inflammation. They bind to receptors on monocytes causing the release of ... These are divided into two groups: endotoxins and exotoxins. Endotoxin is a component (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) of the cell ... As glycolipids (as opposed to peptides), endotoxins are not bound by B or T-cell receptors and do not elicit an adaptive immune ... Some are chromosomally encoded and intrinsic to the bacteria (e.g. capsules and endotoxin), whereas others are obtained from ...
Kagan, Jonathan C. (2013-09-13). "Sensing Endotoxins from Within". Science. 341 (6151): 1184-1185. doi:10.1126/science.1243939 ...
... and endotoxins. The role of the toxins identified in the process of melioidosis symptom development has not been fully ...
To test a sample for endotoxins, it is mixed with lysate and water; endotoxins are present if coagulation occurs. There are ... decided to cancel the proposal to include recombinant technology for endotoxin testing in chapter Bacterial Endotoxins and ... Proper endotoxin recovery must be proven before LAL can be used to release product. The LAL test is a major source of animal ... Proper endotoxin recovery must be proven before LAL can be used to release product. Maloney T, Phelan R, Simmons N (October ...
Exotoxins are generated and actively secreted; endotoxins remain part of the bacteria. Usually, an endotoxin is part of the ... The body's response to an endotoxin can involve severe inflammation. In general, the inflammation process is usually considered ... Bacteria generate toxins which can be classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. ...
Esmon CT (2004). "Coagulation and inflammation". J. Endotoxin Res. 9 (3): 192-8. doi:10.1179/096805103125001603. PMID 12831462 ...
... responses to endotoxin; and the epidemiology of suicide. He co-authored several books on surgery and trauma, including the well ... Total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest modify the metabolic response to endotoxin in humans. Ann Surg 210: 449-456 (PMID ... Total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest modify the metabolic response to endotoxin in humans. Ann Surg 210: 449-456 (PMID ... The acute splanchnic and peripheral tissue metabolic response to endotoxin in humans. J Clin Invest 85: 1896-1904 (PMID 2347917 ...
Rietschel, Ernst T.; Westphal, Otto (1999). "Endotoxin: Historical Perspectives". In Brade, Helmut (ed.). Endotoxin in Health ...
Czura CJ, Wang H, Tracey KJ (2001). "Dual roles for HMGB1: DNA binding and cytokine". J. Endotoxin Res. 7 (4): 315-21. doi: ...
Endotoxin Res. 9 (1): 55-9. doi:10.1179/096805103125001351. PMID 12691620. Georgel P, Naitza S, Kappler C, Ferrandon D, et al ...
Endotoxin. *Lipopolysaccharide *Lipid A. *Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin *Cry1Ac. *Cry3Bb1. *Other B. thuringiensis ...
Endotoxin. *Lipopolysaccharide *Lipid A. *Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin *Cry1Ac. *Cry3Bb1. *Other B. thuringiensis ...
The gene then codes for delta endotoxins (Cry proteins) which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell ... Specificity of Bacillius thuringiensis delta-endotoxins. Eur J Biochem 186: 239-247. ISAAA. 2009. Executive Summary Global ...
... is unrelated to Bt delta-endotoxins. It is an aegerolysin (Pfam PF06355) composed of two beta sheets in a beta- ...
Journal of Endotoxin Research. 7 (4): 310-4. doi:10.1177/09680519010070040201. PMID 11717588. "Icos Psoriasis Treatment Falls ...
Rietschel, Ernst Th; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc (2002). "Endotoxin and anti-endotoxin. The contribution of the schools of Koch and ... Journal of Endotoxin Research. 8 (2): 71-82. doi:10.1179/096805102125000218. PMID 12028747. Leibowitz, D. (1993). "Scientific ...
A prime example of such a foreign ligand is bacterial endotoxin, whose effects have been known for generations. When it enters ... Journal of Endotoxin Research. 6 (5): 401-5. doi:10.1177/09680519000060050101. PMID 11521063. Lien E, Ingalls RR (January 2002 ...
Journal of Endotoxin Research. 9 (4): 264-8. doi:10.1177/09680519030090040801. PMID 12935358. S2CID 208323243. Patel VB, ...
Endotoxins are an up-regulator of the gene coding for ferritin, thus causing the concentration of ferritin to rise. By contrast ... Journal of Endotoxin Research. 11 (5): 267-80. doi:10.1179/096805105X58698. PMID 16262999. Larade K, Storey KB (March 2004). " ... organisms such as Pseudomonas, although possessing endotoxin, cause plasma ferritin levels to drop significantly within the ...
Endotoxin and immune activation in chronic heart failure: proof of concept. 3/1999: 2nd Prize; Young Investigator Award ( ... Cellular endotoxin desensitization in patients with severe chronic heart failure, November 2000. AHA Samuel A Levine Young ... Cellular endotoxin desensitization in patients with severe chronic heart failure. 2/2001: GlaxoSmithKline Respiratory Clinical ... Rauchhaus, M; Coats, AJ; Anker, SD (2000). "The endotoxin-lipoprotein hypothesis". Lancet. 356 (9233): 930-3. doi:10.1016/S0140 ...
Alexander C, Rietschel ET (2001). "Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and innate immunity". Journal of Endotoxin Research. 7 (3): ...
Source for information on endotoxins: A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition dictionary. ... endotoxins Toxins produced by bacteria as an integral part of the cell, so they cannot be separated by filtration; unlike ... endotoxins Toxins produced by bacteria as an integral part of the cell, so they cannot be separated by filtration; unlike ... ...
... validation for endotoxin reduction should include a knowledge of the endotoxin burden and a satisfactory endotoxin challenge. ... The effects of endotoxin are related to the amount of endotoxin in the product dose administered to a patient. Because the dose ... Endotoxin Tolerance Limit = 5.0 EU/kg - non-intrathecal drug. Endotoxin Limit = K 5.0 EU/kg - = --------- = 0.35 EU/mcg M 14.3 ... This value (0.35 EU/mcg) is expressed in Endotoxin Units per mcg of product. In order to convert this value to a endotoxin unit ...
Biochemistry of endotoxins.. Raetz CR1.. Author information. 1. Department of Biochemistry, Merck Sharp and Dohme Research ...
Endotoxins are potentially toxic compounds produced by Gram-negative bacteria including some pathogens. Unlike exotoxins, which ... The first deals with how endotoxins are synthesized and end up on the bacterial surface. The second discussed how endotoxins ... The way endotoxins interact with the host cells is fundamental to understanding the mechanism of sepsis, and recent research on ... Endotoxins can cause a whole-body inflammatory state, sepsis, leading to low blood pressure, multiple organ dysfunction ...
The effects of endotoxins include fever, hemorrhage and shock. See also:. *toxemia *exotoxin ...
... Derek Law dlaw at Wed Jan 31 08:23:58 EST 2001 *Previous message: Endotoxin Testing ... I am looking for references citing the use , of sterile versus non-sterile medical devices in , endotoxin testing. , I would ... coli will be sterile but will be packed with endotoxin. When carrying out endotoxin tests, tubes and pipettes are generally ... Endotoxins are derived from the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, and are very heat resistant. It is possible to have ...
Meningitis bacterium is viable without endotoxin.. Steeghs L, den Hartog R, den Boer A, Zomer B, Roholl P, van der Ley P. ...
endotoxin synonyms, endotoxin pronunciation, endotoxin translation, English dictionary definition of endotoxin. n. A toxin ... endotoxin. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to endotoxin: endotoxin shock ... 2.2 Endotoxin and non-endotoxin mechanisms of pyrogenicity. Material-Mediated Pyrogens in Medical Devices: Applicability of the ... Endotoxin - definition of endotoxin by The Free Dictionary ...
Endotoxin is part of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall and can start some of the processes that lead in the end to organ ... Endotoxin is part of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall and can start some of the processes that lead in the end to organ ... Christ WJ, Asano O, Robidoux AL, et al (1995) E5531, a pure endotoxin antagonist of high potency. Science 268: 80-83PubMed ... Barclay GR (1990) Antibodies to endotoxin in health and disease. Rev Med Microbiol 1: 133-142Google Scholar ...
I will be studying the transfection efficiency , of plasmids with and without endotoxins. Are there particular cell , lines ... Endotoxin Sensitive Cell Lines. Richard P. Grant see_sig at Thu Dec 17 03:21:24 EST 1998 *Previous message ... Hi, surely the problem with endotoxins is not that they inhibit transfection per se, but rather that they kill the transfected ... transfection in the presence of endotoxins, namely, E.coli cell wall , Lipopolysaccharides. ...
... sg/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/removal of bacterial endotoxins/images/schematic diagram of the endotoxin ... Bacteria shed small amounts of endotoxins into their surroundings while they are actively growing and large amounts when they ... During lysis of bacterial cells for plasmid preparations, endotoxin molecules are released from the outer membrane into the ... br /> ,br /> For further information on endotoxins, view the sections below. ...
... and quantification of endotoxins, glucans, or their combination in samples taken from indoor air. ... F. Quantification of Endotoxin in Bulk Air. * *1. Total endotoxins (reported as E. coli units) captured in an air sample can be ... Endotoxin (ET). In at least one embodiment, "endotoxins" describes a family of lipopolysaccharides which together with proteins ... 6. The method of claim 5, whereby the endotoxin rinsing solution comprises distilled water certified as free of endotoxin by a ...
The same severe effects were not observed with lower doses of the endotoxin or with the endotoxin respectively the pollen by ... Source of endotoxins identified. Related Stories. *Research identifies antigen-specific peripheral T follicular helper cells in ... In the future, we will be able to indirectly use the pollen count to forecast very high levels of airborne endotoxin pollution ... The team also studied the bacterial growth on mugwort plants to narrow down the endotoxin type on the pollen. They discovered ...
Yang, C., and Nowotny, A., 1974, Effect of endotoxin on tumor resistance in mice, Infect. Immun. 9:95.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... I. Relationship of tumor-hemorrhagic agent to endotoxin antigens of gram-negative bacteria, Am. J. Hyg. 36:224.Google Scholar ... Nowotny, A., and Butler, R. C., 1980, Studies on the endotoxin induced tumor resistance, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 121B:455.Google ... Therefore, endotoxin has been extensively studied in animal tumor models to determine the conditions under which it may be used ...
The industry, working through third parties, highlighted endotoxins, … ... Philip Morris undertook an internal endotoxin research project to test the Hasday et al. findings and to determine if endotoxin ... Following confirmation of SHS as an important source of endotoxins, the scientist promoting endotoxins as an important indoor ... Endotoxins in tobacco smoke: shifting tobacco industry positions Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Oct;9(10):995-1004. doi: 10.1080/ ...
Structure of the mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin CytB from Bacillus thuringiensis sp. kyushuensis and implications for membrane ... CytB endotoxin-like CytB endotoxin-like CytB endotoxin-like Mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin CytB Bacillus thuringiensis, strain ...
Get the latest endotoxin testing (monitoring and testing) news , the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... Endotoxin Analysis Environmental Testing and Research Laboratories announce adding enhanced endotoxin analysis to their ... One such area of concern is the potential presence of endotoxins. Endotoxins are a type of bacterial toxin that is located in ... Endotoxin Testing News. * A new OSHwiki article highlights the risks and hazards of process-generated contaminants Process- ...
Luciferin-EF is an endotoxin-free beetle luciferin that can be used for imaging applications where endotoxins may create ... where endotoxin may create problems. Luciferin-EF™ is tested to ensure endotoxin is below detectable levels and packaged in ... Luciferin-EF™ is an endotoxin-free beetle luciferin that can be used for cell-based imaging applications in living systems, ... Produces no potential interference in assay due to the presence of endotoxins ...
High exposure to endotoxin in farming is associated with less new-onset pollen sensitisation Grethe Elholm, Vivi Schlünssen, ... Relations of exhaled nitric oxide and FEV1 to personal endotoxin exposure in schoolchildren with asthma Ralph J Delfino, ... Evidence of a paradoxical relationship between endotoxin and lung cancer after accounting for left truncation in a study of ...
An endotoxin-induced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumors. E A Carswell, L J Old, R L Kassel, S Green, N Fiore, B ... An endotoxin-induced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumors. E A Carswell, L J Old, R L Kassel, S Green, N Fiore, B ... An endotoxin-induced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumors. E A Carswell, L J Old, R L Kassel, S Green, N Fiore, and B ... which mimics the tumor necrotic action of endotoxin itself. TNF-positive serum is as effective as endotoxin itself in causing ...
DIMINUTION IN RENAL ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK. Wesley W. Spink and Mary Jean Landeryou Department of Medicine, ...
The relationship between endotoxin contamination of cotton dusts and pulmonary function was studied in humans. Forty three ... Attempts were made to correlate pulmonary function with endotoxin and cotton dust concentrations. Endotoxin concentrations in ... The relationship between endotoxin contamination of cotton dusts and pulmonary function was studied in humans. Forty three ... The authors conclude that the variety of cotton and where it is grown affect the endotoxins of cotton dust. Acute pulmonary ...
Exposure to household endotoxin levels poses a significant risk for asthma, according to the first nationwide sampling of house ... Endotoxins are toxic substances associated with the outer membrane of certain gram-negative bacteria. These molecules are bound ... "The mean concentration of endotoxin in the kitchen floor dust was 2.3-fold higher than bedroom floor dust and 4.3-fold higher ... This suggests that current endotoxin exposure may have little impact on allergy status and that airway inflammation is the most ...
... tools and resources that will help ensure your success performing the bacterial endotoxins test. ... After clicking on White Paper: Trends in Endotoxin Testing, input your user name and password on the login page. You will then ... Expert Support At Your Fingertips for the Bacterial Endotoxins Test. Become a QC Insider™ Expert and Register Now. ... Our White Paper, "Trends in Endotoxin Testing - Exploring the Hottest Topics of 2017 and Beyond" available in our QC Insider™ ...
Endotoxins are small, stable, bacterially-derived hydrophobic molecules which can easily contaminate labware and whose presence ... Endotoxin is measured in Endotoxin Units per milliliter (EU/mL). One EU equals approximately 0.1 to 0.2 ng endotoxin/mL of ... of endotoxin.3 In vivo, endotoxins elicit an inflammatory response in animal studies. The presence of endotoxin in products for ... Consequences of endotoxin contamination Endotoxins affect both in vitro and in vivo cell growth and function and are a source ...
Watch the archived webinar and learn the essentials for testing medical devices for endotoxin, including updates released by ... Are you a QC professional responsible for testing medical devices for endotoxin? Do you want to learn more about the updates ... Watch the archived webinar below to help ensure you are testing medical devices for endotoxin according to compendial ... Guidelines for Performing the Bacterial Endotoxins Test (BET). ... Calculating Endotoxin Release Limits (ERL). *Establishing a ...
Z. X. Pan and Q. Song, "Study on ditermination of bacterial endotoxin of omeprazole sodium for injection," Chinese Journal of ... X. Zheng, Y. M. Zhao, and C. Liu, "Bacterial endotoxin test f or puerarin injection," China Pharmacy, vol. 18, pp. 1254-1255, ... Y. Zhang et al., "New method for bacterial endotoxin test of absorptive medical film," Modern Preventive Medicine, vol. 34, pp ... Y. C. Hu, N. Li, and J. P. Zhou, "Study on gelation clot method of bacterial endotoxin test in test orerone undecanoate ...
Endotoxin administration caused a profound transient physiological response with dose-related elevations in body temperature ... Endotoxins Is the Subject Area "Endotoxins" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
... before and after the addition of endotoxin. The left half of the video shows the appearance of the droplets before endotoxin is ... Liquid Crystal Droplets Indicate the Presence of Endotoxin. This material is available primarily for archival purposes. ... added, and the right half of the video shows the appearance of the droplets after endotoxin is added. The schematic ...
... has published draft revisions to its Guidelines for Using the Test for Bacterial Endotoxins. Bacterial endotoxins are ... A recommendation that a risk assessment be performed when using the bacterial endotoxin test as a pyrogenicity test. This is ... A recommendation that a monocyte-activation test or test for bacterial endotoxins is preferred to the rabbit pyrogen test. This ... The EDQM Guidelines explain the justifications for the requirements in the test for bacterial endotoxins. They also provide ...
  • For example, Elin, in the Annual Review of Medicine, commented that "The repeated administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the chemical name used synonymously with bacterial endotoxins, to experimental animals results in a progressive diminution of some of the biological effects, especially fever. (
  • The two most common endotoxins are lipopolysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide , both of which occur in gram-negative bacteria and are instrumental in helping the bacteria cause infection (Wikipedia). (
  • Endotoxin is a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in the outer cell membrane of gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) is considered an important etiologic agent in the pathophysiology of septic shock 5 and has been administered to animals to produce a model of the human condition. (
  • Endotoxins are small, hydrophobic molecules that are part of the lipopolysaccharide complex that forms most of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria (1). (
  • Genetically obese fatty/fatty rats and obese/obese mice exhibit increased sensitivity to endotoxin hepatotoxicity, quickly developing steatohepatitis after exposure to low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (
  • Experimental evidence suggests that gut-derived products, including bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and endotoxin, are involved in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related steatohepatitis ( 14 ). (
  • Bacterial endotoxins are inflammatory proteins, lipids and lipopolysaccharide associated with Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Circulating endotoxin is recognized by complex formation with lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) followed by binding to CD14 and toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. (
  • Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) induces inflammation by binding to its specific receptor, Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • A highly sensitive endpoint assay that accurately measures and detects endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) in a protein, peptide, nucleic acids or antibody sample using the Amebocyte Lysate Assay. (
  • The Gram-negative endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a ubiquitous contaminant in our environment and a potent inducer of inflammation and cell death. (
  • This is a freeze-dried sample of an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide complex) associated with the outer membrane of E. coli bacteria. (
  • One of the key agents leading to respiratory disease in a variety of occupational and environmental settings is Endotoxin, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Define the terms endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 3 hydroxy fatty acid (3-OHFA). (
  • The USP now recognizes two tests - The Pyrogen Test conducted with rabbits and the Bacterial Endotoxins Test, also termed the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) Test. (
  • The Federal Register, January 18, 1980, proposed guidelines for determining endotoxins with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Test (LAL). (
  • 3. The method of claim 1, whereby the capture solution comprises distilled water certified as free of endotoxin by a Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. (
  • 2 Their presence is detected by the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay which can detect down to 0.01 Endotoxin Units (EU)/ml. (
  • There have been no reported endotoxin outbreaks due to a failure of the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) endotoxin screening test. (
  • EMLab P&K offers endotoxin analysis via the sensitive Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay for reliable detection and quantification of endotoxins in air, dust and liquids. (
  • 14 For this study, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), components on gram-negative bacterial cell-walls, also known as endotoxins, were extracted from filters sampled on-shore and at an inland site, and were evaluated using the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. (
  • The Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test is one of the standard tests for endotoxins. (
  • Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) is the most common reagent used to detect bacterial endotoxin contamination. (
  • Accugen laboratories utilize the LAL endotoxin test (Limulus Amebocyte Lysate) Gel Clot method to test raw materials or end products for the presence of endotoxins . (
  • Endotoxins are potentially toxic compounds produced by Gram-negative bacteria including some pathogens. (
  • Unlike exotoxins, which are secreted in soluble form by live bacteria, endotoxins are comprised of structural components of bacteria. (
  • Endotoxins are derived from the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, and are very heat resistant. (
  • Delta endotoxins (δ-endotoxins) are pore-forming toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis species of bacteria. (
  • Traces of ( endotoxin , a microbial agent found in Gram-negative bacteria, and ( glucan , a molecule found in the cell walls of most fungi, were found in the 75 e-cigarette cartridges (singe-use) and e-liquids (refillable material). (
  • Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides or LPS, are cell membrane components of Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. (
  • Bacteria shed small amounts of endotoxins into their surroundings while they are actively growing and large amounts when they die. (
  • Endotoxins are also released when bacteria die and disintegrate into their component parts. (
  • Endotoxins are toxic substances associated with the outer membrane of certain gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Bacteria shed endotoxin in large amounts upon cell death and when they are actively growing and dividing. (
  • Bacterial endotoxins are contaminants from gram-negative bacteria and are the most common cause of pyrogenicity in pharmaceutical products. (
  • The purpose of this observational study is to determine whether endotoxin levels and/or their trends can be considered predictive of morbility or mortality in septic shock caused by gram-negative bacteria, searching also for a possible correlation with Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Platelets (PLT). (
  • Medical literature states that Endotoxin (a structural molecule of the Gram-negative bacteria extracellular membrane) is able to activate target cells such as macrophages and neutrophils, inducing them to produce and release cytokine, nitric oxide and other mediators that cause a systemic inflammatory response that can evolve until to endothelial damage, shock and multi-organ failure (MOF). (
  • If these bacteria are destroyed during the sterilization process, however, endotoxin will be released and will remain undetected. (
  • When bacteria and endotoxin enter the bloodstream, they trigger an immune response, usually inflammation, the release of cytokines such as interleukin 1, and the production of tumor necrosis factor. (
  • Endotoxins are part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of all Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. (
  • en·do·tox·in/ ( en´do-tok″sin ) a heat-stable toxin present in the intact bacterial cell but not in cell-free filtrates of cultures of intact bacteria. (
  • Endotoxin is now recognized as a class of compounds found in the outer membrane of certain (``gram-negative") bacteria. (
  • Since these gram-negative bacteria are widespread in the environment, so are endotoxins. (
  • Since endotoxin levels may be significant in outside air, the latter may not be suitable for background levels, especially in environments known to have high levels of gram-negative bacteria (see above, 1st paragraph). (
  • Endotoxin testing of MWFs is a sensitive and efficient method to monitor the sump and air of occupational environments where metal machining or treatment takes place as it correlates directly with the level of Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Endotoxins are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and are present ubiquitously in the environment. (
  • Endotoxin levels are related to the occurrence of Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Animal faeces and bacteria contaminated plant materials contribute most to organic dust related endotoxin exposure. (
  • Endotoxin testing of biologicals manufactured in bacteria is a necessity to ensure that the therapeutic product is endotoxin free. (
  • is the test performed as this is based in the biology of the horseshoe crab which produces LAL enzymes in blood cells to bind and inactivate endotoxin from invading bacteria. (
  • Endotoxins are an integral component of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, such as E.coli, Salmonella and Pseudomonas. (
  • The blood cells contain an enzyme system that is activated by contact with endotoxins or Gram-negative bacteria which causes a coagulation reaction. (
  • The combination of these two analyses together with others, as detailed elsewhere, 14 can provide a good estimation of the levels of endotoxin and the amount of the source bacteria in the samples. (
  • LPS, a major component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, can induce a variety of biological responses including cytokine production from macrophages, B cell proliferation, and endotoxin shock. (
  • Taken together with the other known inflammatory effects of inhaled bacteria or bacteria containing endotoxin, such inhalation in an occupational setting constitutes an increasingly recognised risk for workers. (
  • Later it was discovered by researchers Levin and Bang that this reaction was triggered by the activation of several enzymes located in the blood cells (amebocytes) of the crab by the endotoxins in the gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Bacterial endotoxins are pyrogens produced in bacteria, which cause fever in humans and other animals. (
  • Endotoxin/LPS is a molecule found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and consists of a hydrophilic polysaccharide domain and a hydrophobic lipid domain. (
  • 3-7 Bacteria or endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides [LPS]) contribute to and initiate a sequence of cellular events that lead to decreased contractile efficiency and left ventricular enlargement and dysfunction. (
  • Frederick Bang in the early 1950's discovered that the horseshoe crab's blood cells, called amoebocytes, contain a clotting agent that attaches to dangerous endotoxins produced by gram negative bacteria. (
  • Endotoxin is an essential lipopolysacchride (LPS) component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria which elicits a pyrogenic response when injected into the human bloodstream. (
  • Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are bacterial endotoxins, and are components of Gram-negative bacterial walls known to cause fevers and diseases. (
  • In an investigation of possible mechanisms of action, a rat model of endotoxin toxicity was designed using intraperitoneal (I/P) injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with or without coinfusion of neutralizing anti-MIF or isotypic-matched antibodies. (
  • We maintain that our data do not show evidence of any significant in vivo tolerance to repeated endotoxin exposure after at least 5 weeks, which in our opinion is an important and novel experimental observation. (
  • Since 2004 it has been possible to better determine the concentration and the activity of endotoxin in plasma, thanks to a reliable and quick to implement method: the EAA (Endotoxin Activity Assay) test, which is an alternative technique for detecting endotoxin in whole blood based on the detection of enhanced respiratory burst activity in neutrophils following their priming by complexes of endotoxin and a specific anti-endotoxin antibody. (
  • This document was developed as a special control to support the classification of the endotoxin assay into class II (special controls). (
  • An endotoxin assay is a device that uses serological techniques in whole blood. (
  • This guidance is issued in conjunction with a Federal Register notice announcing the classification of the endotoxin assay. (
  • This guidance document identifies the classification regulation and product code for the endotoxin assay ( Refer to Section 4 - Scope ). (
  • Laboratory methods Endotoxin will be detected by an adapted limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. (
  • In January 2013, Hyglos extended its endotoxin detection portfolio with the commercial launch of EndoZyme® Recombinant Factor C (rFC) Assay. (
  • When using the LAL Endotoxin Gel Clot method, there are two separate types of tests that can be performed on a particular product, a qualtitative or a quantitative assay. (
  • The quantitative LAL assay endotoxin testing is usually used on liquid products in which a Preliminary Assay and a Validation of a dilution series is performed. (
  • The Preliminary Assay endotoxin tests the pH of the product. (
  • Alternatively, in-vitro tests such as the monocyte activation test (MAT) and methods that use limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) are widely relied on for the detection of bacterial endotoxin. (
  • Walkersville, MD (USA) and Munich, Germany, March 14, 2013 / B3C newswire / - Lonza Walkersville, Inc. and Hyglos GmbH, a German biotech company, announced today that they have reached a mutually beneficial global settlement which includes a license agreement for Hyglos under certain Lonza patents in the area of endotoxin detection. (
  • Thanks to this agreement an important door has opened for a new era in endotoxin detection. (
  • Endotoxin detection using recombinant factor C instead of Limulus amoebocyte lysates has recently been acknowledged by the FDA as an alternative method. (
  • We believe that this sustainable animal-free alternative will be the future of endotoxin detection. (
  • With the 2011 introduction of EndoLISA® - the world's first solid-phase based method for endotoxin detection - Hyglos initiated its contribution to the important evolution of non-animal endotoxin testing. (
  • In addition, Lonza is a leader in cell-based research, endotoxin detection and cell therapy manufacturing. (
  • with the LAL test is for endotoxin detection only with GMP format typically being used for lot release testing of final products for injection in humans. (
  • Two complementary analyses of atmospheric biological particles from air sampled filters are described herein: the extraction and detection of endotoxin, and of DNA. (
  • To ensure the quality of your parenteral drug formulations, medical devices, raw materials, excipients, water, water for injection and APIs, our experts offer testing for the detection and control of endotoxins. (
  • Sterility test, bio burden test, adventitious agent detection test, endotoxin test, cell line authentication and characterization tests are the various types of biological safety tests. (
  • This calls for using appropriate assays with proper controls, because many nanomaterials interfere at various levels with the commercially available endotoxin detection methods. (
  • Creative BioMart offers you a variety of Endotoxin Testing Kits, including multiple detection methods. (
  • In addition to the detection reagents, the endotoxin detection kit also includes azo dyes, buffers, endotoxin standards, endotoxin-free test tubes and other related accessories. (
  • The endotoxin detection kit ensures that you can perform endotoxin detection experiments easily and quickly. (
  • The sensitivity or detection limit of the endotoxin test is 0.06 EU/ml ( Endotoxin Units ). (
  • Lowest detection limit in case of turbidimeteric endotoxin test is 0.005 EU/ml as compared to 0.03 EU/ml in case of gel clot endotoxin test method. (
  • Silica slurry-purified DNA contains significantly higher endotoxin contamination. (
  • 0.1 EU/µg plasmid DNA) (see table Endotoxin contamination and transfection efficiency using various plasmid preparation methods ). (
  • LPS contamination is usually expressed in endotoxin units (EU). (
  • Endotoxin contamination of cotton: area of growth/varieties. (
  • The relationship between endotoxin contamination of cotton dusts and pulmonary function was studied in humans. (
  • Due to the serious risks associated with endotoxin contamination, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set limits on concentration of endotoxin for medical devices and parenteral drugs that researchers should be aware of. (
  • This is due to the potential for contamination by non-endotoxin pyrogens. (
  • Minimizing the level of endotoxin contamination in purified plasmid DNA is critical for many applications. (
  • The guidance notes that national outbreaks of TASS-a localized, inflammatory condition affecting the eye-have been associated with endotoxin contamination of ocular devices. (
  • Two major approaches to the exploration of the vascular effects of endotoxin have been adopted: studies in vitro have focused on functional, biochemical, and molecular changes induced by direct exposure of cells or blood vessels to endotoxin, 9 10 11 12 whereas studies in vivo have assessed vascular changes after initiation of a generalized inflammatory response induced by systemic administration of endotoxin. (
  • 14 15 With repeated administration, tolerance of the effects of endotoxin develops. (
  • The proposed mechanisms that underlie the acute vascular effects of endotoxin include enhanced synthesis of bradykinin, 11 13 NO, 4 8 prostanoids, 12 platelet-aggregating factor, 18 cytokines 19 20 or leukotrienes, 21 and direct effects of endotoxin on the vascular endothelium. (
  • Current research focusses on effects of endotoxin on animal health and on reducing of endotoxin production, concentration and emission in animal production systems. (
  • Explain basic pathophysiology and health effects of endotoxin. (
  • Verbon A, Dekkers PE, ten Hove T, et al (2001) IC14, an anti-CD14 antibody, inhibits endotoxin-mediated symptoms and inflammatory responses in humans. (
  • Baumgartner JD, Glauser MP, McCutchan JA, et al (1985) Prevention of gram-negative shock and death in surgical patients by antibody to endotoxin core glycolipid. (
  • Hamilton-Davies C, Barclay GR, Cardigan RA, et al (1997) Relationship between pre-operative endotoxin core antibody levels, gut perfusion and outcome following cardiac valve surgery. (
  • We developed an endotoxin removal resin that is effective for eliminating endotoxins from protein and antibody samples. (
  • The Pierce High Capacity Endotoxin Removal Resin is effective for eliminating endotoxins from protein and antibody samples. (
  • For these types of experiments, BioLegend has been providing 0.2 micron sterile-filtered, Low Endotoxin, Azide-Free (LEAF™) and Ultra-Low Endotoxin, Azide-Free (Ultra-LEAF™) antibody formulations, which eliminate unwanted effects from endotoxin and sodium azide. (
  • This kit is ideal for measuring the amount of endotoxin in a protein, peptide and antibody samp. (
  • Endotoxins are exogenous pyrogens and tend to induce a rise in body temperature when introduced into blood or cerebrospinal fluid. (
  • Endotoxins and Pyrogens - Which test to be used? (
  • Plants with two kinds of delta endotoxins tend to make resistance happen slower, as the insects have to evolve to overcome both toxins at once. (
  • Endotoxin is a toxin that is released from gram-negative organisms, the tests determines whether these organisms are present (alive or dead) through the presence or lack thereof of those toxins. (
  • The presence of endotoxin in products for injection (vaccines and injectable drugs) can result in pyrogenic responses ranging from fever and chills to irreversible and fatal septic shock. (
  • Therefore, before running immunosafety assays, either in vitro or in vivo , the presence of endotoxin in nanomaterials must be evaluated. (
  • However, many experimental studies that show inflammatory effects triggered by ENM did not properly consider the possible presence of endotoxin. (
  • Hence, when evaluating the toxic and inflammatory effects of ENM to establish their safety, we must be aware that the presence of endotoxin in ENM can lead to inaccurate findings and consequently misleading conclusions ( 8 ). (
  • Endotoxins can cause a whole-body inflammatory state, sepsis, leading to low blood pressure, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. (
  • The second discussed how endotoxins activate TLR4 and, in turn, how TLR4 generates the molecular signals leading to infectious and inflammatory diseases. (
  • The industry, working through "third parties," highlighted endotoxins, naturally occurring substances that cause numerous inflammatory reactions in humans, as an alternative explanation to SHS as causing indoor air problems. (
  • 3 In vivo , endotoxins elicit an inflammatory response in animal studies. (
  • Endotoxin-tolerant cells show a reduced ability to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines for several days, which assumes an impact of epigenetic changes in endotoxin tolerance induction. (
  • Because of the potent inflammatory activity of endotoxin, contaminated nanomaterials can show inflammatory/toxic effects due to endotoxin, which may mask or misidentify the real biological effects (or lack thereof) of nanomaterials. (
  • Suffredini AF, Fromm RE, Parker MM, et al (1989) The cardiovascular response of normal humans to the administration of endotoxin. (
  • Furthermore, it is extremely important to use endotoxin-free plasmid DNA for gene therapy applications, since endotoxins cause fever, endotoxic shock syndrome, and activation of the complement cascade in animals and humans. (
  • The importance of endotoxin testing is clear when looking at how susceptible and sensitive humans are to even minute amounts of endotoxin. (
  • for their interest and points raised with regard to our recent article entitled "Hormone and Cytokine Responses to Repeated Endotoxin Exposures-No Evidence of Endotoxin Tolerance After 5 Weeks in Humans" (1) . (
  • 1. Rittig NF, Thomsen HH, Bach E, Jorgensen JO, Moller N. Hormone and cytokine responses to repeated endotoxin exposures-no evidence of endotoxin tolerance after 5 weeks in humans. (
  • Therefore, even though humans produce antibodies, they are only restricted to the particular polysaccharide chain, leaving them unprotected to a wide variety of endotoxins. (
  • The mechanism of action of endotoxins in humans is complex. (
  • TNF) which mimics the tumor necrotic action of endotoxin itself. (
  • It is unclear whether the mechanisms and action of endotoxin are similar in veins, resistance vessels, and conduit arteries. (
  • This suggests that prostaglandin metabolism may play an important role in the protective action of endotoxin during hyperoxia. (
  • As anaesthesia alone has been reported to be one of the operative procedures that enhance the effect of previous exposure to endotoxin, controls had to include sham anaesthesia with no intravascular injection. (
  • While endotoxin in residential settings can exacerbate asthma, there is recent evidence that exposure to endotoxin (and other factors) in infancy may be protective the hygiene hypothesis. (
  • No effect was observed of allergy status on the relationship between endotoxin and asthma outcomes. (
  • The USP's subcommittee responsible for revisions of compendial test methods and/or product monographs has, in the past few years, made some significant changes in the bacterial endotoxin test and product monograph requirements. (
  • This invention relates to methods, compositions, and kits for the capture, measurement, and quantification of endotoxins, glucans, or their combination in samples taken from indoor air. (
  • As the processes within quality control evolve, so do the endotoxin control methods and it essential to choose the right processes for your company to appropriately deal with the issue. (
  • Methods and Results Endotoxin was instilled into a dorsal hand vein for 1 hour and then removed. (
  • Whether you're new to endotoxin product validations or just need a refresher, this webinar will provide you with information on the steps necessary for LAL product validation, how they're different for gel-clot and kinetic methods, and product validation examples following guidance from the USP and EP. (
  • The bacterial endotoxin testing services performed by Charles River uses customer-requested methods for submitted samples. (
  • This article describes and compares the analytical methods used to detect bacterial endotoxins. (
  • Traditional endotoxin removal methods are lengthy and require significant optimization for every target molecule being purified. (
  • Furthermore, ionic methods for binding endotoxins require pH optimization to avoid binding highly charged proteins, and size-exclusion methods to filter endotoxins are not effective for large proteins. (
  • While there have been advances in understanding exposure-response relationships, adoption of exposure guidelines for endotoxin remains controversial, partly due to limitations of current exposure assessment methods. (
  • This 2-½ hour webinar, presented in August 2006 by Donald K. Milton, MD, DrPH and Stephen J. Reynolds, PhD, CIH provides valuable background information on endotoxins (what are endotoxins, their characteristics and health effects), sampling and analytical methods, exposure reduction/controls, and other related topics. (
  • Describe methods for endotoxin exposure measurement (advantages and disadvantages, limitations, difficulties with interpretation). (
  • The Live Online Endotoxin and Pyrogen Conference at PharmaLab 2020 from November 10-11 will provide information on the current status of these developments, which methods are used when - and the pros and cons. (
  • B. thuringiensis encodes many proteins of the delta endotoxin family (InterPro: IPR038979), with some strains encoding multiple types simultaneously. (
  • Some insects populations have started to develop resistance towards delta endotoxin, with five resistant species found as of 2013. (
  • An example is the delta-endotoxin produced by the BACTERIUM Bacillus thuringiensis, and active against certain insect larvae. (
  • The effect s of endotoxins include fever , hemorrhage and shock . (
  • Participants of this study (all affected by gram-negative septic shock) will show different values of endotoxin in their blood samples during their stay in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and the investigators will try to figure out if these values and their trends can be somehow predictive of morbility and/or mortality, despite the small number of septic patients and the heterogeneity of their clinical picture. (
  • MyD88-deficient mice showed complete resistance to LPS responses including cytokine production from macrophages, B cell proliferation, and endotoxin shock ( 16 , 17 ). (
  • The concentration of gram negative bacterial endotoxins in dust samples was determined. (
  • Universal Endotoxin and Innate Immunity society is recognized by its worldwide global enrolment and remarkable in its coordinated spotlight on the science, science, physiology, and translational science of microorganism (pathogen)- related atomic examples, including however not constrained to Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins, and their collaborations with inborn invulnerable acknowledgment and reaction frameworks. (
  • Trautmann M, Zick R, Rukavina T, Cross AS, Marre R (1998) Antibiotic-induced release of endotoxin: in-vitro comparison of meropenem and other antibiotics. (
  • Endotoxins also interfere with in vitro transfection into immune cells such as macrophages and B cells by causing nonspecific activation of immune responses. (
  • Endotoxins are small, stable, bacterially-derived hydrophobic molecules which can easily contaminate labware and whose presence can significantly impact both in vitro and in vivo experiments. (
  • To minimize these concerns, it is essential to use reagents and biomaterials which are virtually endotoxin-free for both in vitro and in vivo biomedical research. (
  • Endotoxins affect both in vitro and in vivo cell growth and function and are a source of significant variability. (
  • In vitro, there is increasing evidence that endotoxin cause a variety of problems for cell culture research. (
  • We are actively studying a variety of purified and native endotoxin preparations using all available in vitro and in vivo techniques. (
  • The in vitro and in vivo characterizations of the native endotoxin preparations continue to be investigated. (
  • Endotoxins strongly influence transfection of DNA into primary cells and sensitive cultured cells, and increased endotoxin levels lead to sharply reduced transfection efficiencies. (
  • Recently, there has been a lot of interest associated with the potential use of synthetic (non-animal based) reagents for bacterial endotoxin testing. (
  • The kinetic chromogenic endotoxin test is a reaction between bacterial endotoxin present in a test material and synthetic chromogenic LAL reagents. (
  • Water for Injection, Sterile Water for Injection and Sterile Water for Irrigation have an allowable endotoxin limit of 0.25 Endotoxin Units (EU)/ml. (
  • However, Bacteriostatic Water for Injection and Sterile Water for Inhalation have been given a slightly higher bacterial endotoxin limit of 0.5 EU/ml (USP - Supplement 4a - 1984). (
  • It is possible to have something that is microbiologically sterile but which contains endotoxin, example, an autoclaved suspension of E. coli will be sterile but will be packed with endotoxin. (
  • Parenteral products must be sterile and endotoxin (pyrogen) free, in addition to having a number of other characteristics and meeting other requirements. (
  • In summary, endotoxin testing is currently being done by many pharmacists involved in sterile products compounding, especially those doing parenteral nutrition solutions. (
  • Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations, which requires endotoxin testing of high-risk compounded sterile preparations. (
  • Bacterial endotoxin testing occurs at all stages of sterile pharma manufacturing, from raw materials to semifinished and final product. (
  • Our bacterial endotoxin testing technical services laboratory is available to assist with performing critical endotoxin tests to help streamline the process to final product release. (
  • Our bacterial endotoxin testing services laboratory can support you with performing your critical tests to help streamline the process to final product release. (
  • All available rFC assays follow conventional bacterial endotoxin testing (BET) methodology in terms of acceptance criteria, and thereby provide absolute comparability of results. (
  • The USP pyrogen test has additional limitations besides endotoxin tolerance and low reactivity to legionnaires' endotoxin. (
  • Direct vascular tolerance to endotoxin occurs on repeated administration. (
  • In general, we agree with the comments, in particular, the statement that knowledge about the nature of endotoxin tolerance is of major importance when designing and interpreting experimental clinical studies using repeated exposures to endotoxin. (
  • We acknowledge that our data were obtained from two separate randomized crossover trials with various nutritional supplements during human endotoxemia and that these trials were not originally designed to investigate human endotoxin tolerance. (
  • As referred to in our article, we also agree that our data could reflect a minute degree of endotoxin tolerance because proinflammatory cytokines tended to be lower and interleukin-10 to be higher during the second endotoxin exposure, with values of P ranging between 0.12 and 0.78. (
  • Finally, we entirely agree that our study "does not provide definitive evidence (few studies do so) that endotoxin tolerance is absent 5 weeks after endotoxin administration. (
  • Nonetheless, as with all clinical crossover studies, it evidently remains crucial, whenever possible, to conduct future investigations in this field in a randomized fashion to bypass any minute endotoxin tolerance as well as other time-dependent phenomena. (
  • Intergenic regions were highly enriched for repressive histone marks in LPS-tolerant monocytes implying a regulatory function in endotoxin tolerance. (
  • The data indicate that the epigenetic environment of monocytes is highly affected by endotoxin tolerance induction, though not all changes are directly linked to the gene expression pattern observed. (
  • Endotoxin Tolerance as a Key Mechanism for Immunosuppression, Immunosuppression Suman Kapur and Maristela Barbosa Portela, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/27368. (
  • Such donors have lost their tolerance and are highly sensitive to endotoxin at the time their blood is taken. (
  • The implications of these findings for endotoxin tolerance and for transfer of this phenomenon are discussed. (
  • Identification of distinct mutations involving the same gene at the Lps locus in two different hyporesponsive inbred mouse strains strongly supports the hypothesis that altered Tlr4 function is responsible for endotoxin tolerance. (
  • They demonstrated that mugwort pollen together with small amounts of endotoxins from the identified bacterium triggered strong signs of inflammation in the respiratory tract. (
  • The endotoxin removal buffer prevents LPS molecules from binding to the resin in the QIAGEN-tips allowing purification of DNA containing less than 0.1 endotoxin units per µg plasmid DNA. (
  • Endotoxin is measured in Endotoxin Units per milliliter (EU/mL). (
  • The new recommendations call for a limit of no more than 0.2 Endotoxin Units (EU)/mL for all ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD), and 0.5 EU/mL for liquid endotamponades and posterior segment solid devices. (
  • A single E. coli cell contains about 2 million LPS molecules, each consisting of a hydrophobic lipid A moiety, a complex array of sugar residues and negatively charged phosphate groups (see figure Schematic diagram of the endotoxin molecule ). (
  • Therefore, each endotoxin molecule possesses hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and charged regions giving it unique features with respect to possible interactions with other molecules. (
  • and in anion-exchange chromatography, the negative charges present on the endotoxin molecule can interact with anion exchange resins, thus leading to copurification of endotoxins with the plasmid DNA. (
  • Li Y, Zhou L, Qiu J, Liu D, Shi Y. Anti-cytokine and anti-endotoxin therapies for meningococcal disease. (
  • The authors also noted that their national survey demonstrated that U.S. household endotoxin exposure levels were higher than those in Europe. (
  • Recently, a U.S.-wide survey linked household endotoxin exposure to asthma, making it a U.S. public health concern. (
  • The lipid portion of the outer layer of the outer membrane is completely composed of endotoxin molecules (see figure Schematic diagram of the envelope of E. coli ). (
  • We tested each protein at a low and high endotoxin level to simulate levels in protein samples from mammalian cell and E. coli cultures, respectively. (
  • BSA and human IgG (2mL) containing 10,000EU of E. coli strain, 055:B5 were processed with the Pierce High Capacity Endotoxin Removal Spin Columns, 0.5mL. (
  • Because there are numerous strains of E. coli , we tested the Pierce High Capacity Endotoxin Removal Resin for the ability to remove endotoxins from four different E. coli strains. (
  • Endotoxins were effectively removed from different strains of E. coli . (
  • BSA (1mL at 1mg/mL) spiked with 10,000EU from different strains of E. coli was processed with the Pierce High Capacity Endotoxin Removal Spin Columns, 0.5mL. (
  • You could try the new E. coli cells from Lucigen that claim to have genetically removed the endotoxin production. (
  • Escherichia coli endotoxin, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). (
  • A recommendation that a monocyte-activation test or test for bacterial endotoxins is preferred to the rabbit pyrogen test. (
  • the british monograph 'immunosera for human use' only consider pyrogen test but not consider bacterial endotoxins test, so what reference I can consider to determine the limit level of bacterial endotoxins in intravenous form? (
  • LER is the inability to recover known amounts of purified endotoxin from biological formulations. (
  • Effective endotoxin removal from various biological sources. (
  • Heparin binding protein (CAP37) differentially modulates endotoxin-induced cytokine production. (
  • In 1984, five USP water products were given specific bacterial endotoxin limits. (
  • Endotoxin limits are typically established based on formulation, dosage per hour, route of administration and average patient weight, but may also incorporate trending data as well as monograph specifications. (
  • Custom endotoxin limits. (
  • If you use water for making dilutions or for controls it is imporatnt to use water guaranteed to be free of endotoxin, autoclaving and filtersterilising cannot be relied on to produce endotoxin free water. (
  • If no clot is observed, the product is free of endotoxin . (
  • The role of endotoxin in grain dust-induced lung disease. (
  • Since then, this test using the LAL reagent extracted from the crab, is found to be the most accurate and sensitive test for endotoxins. (
  • The test was accepted by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1983 as a standard test for endotoxins. (
  • This suggests that current endotoxin exposure may have little impact on allergy status and that airway inflammation is the most significant effect of endotoxin exposure in a cross-section of the population. (
  • In order to create this state of controlled lung inflammation, the investigators plan to put a small amount of endotoxin into a single small section of the lung using a bronchoscope (a long, flexible, narrow tube that is passed through the nose or the mouth into the airways of the lung). (
  • The control of endotoxins in pharmaceutical products is imperative due to the varying level of immune responses incurred when introduced in to the blood stream. (
  • A dose-response curve to norepinephrine was constructed before and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after endotoxin. (
  • Time Frame: 24 hours after endotoxin instillation. (
  • Among obese animals, females are more sensitive to endotoxin liver injury than males. (
  • This also underlines the need to develop robust and bespoke strategies for endotoxin evaluation in nanomaterials. (
  • The mean concentration of endotoxin in the kitchen floor dust was 2.3-fold higher than bedroom floor dust and 4.3-fold higher than bedding dust," said Dr. Thorne. (
  • We have developed a method to explore the effects and mechanisms of action of administration of endotoxin into a blood vessel in vivo. (
  • 13 14 Two phases in the response to endotoxin have been revealed: an acute phase that occurs over 5 to 90 minutes followed by a delayed phase that begins 3 to 4 hours after administration of endotoxin and lasts for up to 24 hours. (
  • Higher concentrations of endotoxin also appeared to be associated with diminished measures of airflow and enhanced bronchial reactivity. (
  • The purpose of our study was to determine the concentrations of endotoxin and interleukin-1 alpha in the cervical mucus and vaginal fluid of pregnant women who either did or did not have bacterial vaginosis.Samples of cervical mucus and vaginal fluid were collected from women in early pregnancy who had signs of bacterial vaginosis and from healthy control subjects. (
  • The samples were analyzed for the concentrations of endotoxin and interleukin-1 alpha. (
  • An Endotoxin is a toxin that is contained within a cell and only released when the cell membrane is destroyed. (
  • Endotoxins consist of a polysaccharide and lipid complex with cell membrane fragments. (
  • In nanomaterial immunosafety testing strategies, it is important to consider that nanomaterials and nanoparticles are very easy to become contaminated with endotoxin, which is a widespread contaminant coming from the Gram-negative bacterial cell membrane. (
  • The way endotoxins interact with the host cells is fundamental to understanding the mechanism of sepsis, and recent research on these aspects of endotoxins has served to illuminate previously undescribed functions of the innate immune system. (
  • The presence of endotoxins in SHS provides an additional mechanism for the adverse effects of SHS that should be researched further, and the risk of exposure should be assessed. (
  • Central to this mechanism is the zymogen Factor C that functions as a biosensor responding to endotoxin. (
  • Endotoxins consist of a core polysaccharide chain, O-specific polysaccharide side chains (O-antigen) and a lipid component, Lipid A, which is responsible for the toxic effects (see figure). (
  • Here we show that three Cyt-like d-endotoxins from D. dadantii (CytA, CytB and CytC) are toxic to the pathogen of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum in terms of both mortality and growth rate. (
  • Toxic risks from inhalation of bacterial endotoxin. (
  • This combination of studies will provide an understanding of how endotoxin interacts with other potentially toxic exposures in the susceptible host to cause persistent, problematic asthma. (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning manufacturers of intraocular ophthalmic devices that they must do more to reduce the risk of their devices being contaminated with the endotoxins which cause Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS) outbreaks. (
  • A variety of tests indicate that TNF is not residual endotoxin, but a factor released from host cells, probably macrophages, by endotoxin. (
  • We propose that TNF mediates endotoxin-induced tumor necrosis, and that it may be responsible for the suppression of transformed cells by activated macrophages. (
  • Among the effects documented were the stimulation of leukocyte cultures to produce tissue factors, the induced production of IL-6 in equine macrophages, and the inhibition of murine erythroid colony formation by very low levels (less than 1ng/mL) of endotoxin. (
  • Endotoxin inhalation induced significant increases in total number of pulmonary leucocytes, mostly neutrophils, but with a concomitant relative decrease in number of alveolar macrophages. (
  • Second, we propose a panel study of children with asthma to investigate whether endotoxin exposure, modified by environment, is associated with inflamed airways and elevated TLR expression on airway macrophages. (
  • Endotoxin-induced early gene expression in C3H/HeJ (Lpsd) macrophages. (
  • Full potency was restored in C3H/HeJ macrophages when aqueous phase LPS and phenol-phase proteins were co-precipitated, suggesting that LPS and endotoxin proteins interact synergistically. (
  • Endotoxin proteins alone induced TNF-alpha, TNFR-2, and IL-1 beta, but not IP-10, D3, and D8 genes in both Lpsd and Lpsn macrophages. (
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of three 41- to 47-kDa proteins was induced by endotoxin proteins, but not by LPS, in Lpsd macrophages. (
  • During lysis of bacterial cells for plasmid preparations, endotoxin molecules are released from the outer membrane into the lysate. (
  • Endotoxin has been shown to be one of the most potent antitumor components in these bacterial preparations. (
  • They have also defined native endotoxin preparations that approximate the natural endotoxin contaminants found in pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. (
  • Because bioactive preparations contained trace quantities of endotoxin protein(s), a deoxycholate-modified, phenol-water method was used to repurify rough LPS into an aqueous phase, and extract endotoxin proteins into a phenol phase. (
  • In addition, other sections of this guidance document identify the risk to health and describe measures that, if followed by manufacturers and combined with the general controls, will generally address the risk associated with these endotoxin assays and lead to a timely premarket notification [510(k)] review and clearance. (
  • We are convinced that Hyglos' innovative assays, entirely based on recombinant molecules, are addressing important needs of endotoxin testing laboratories worldwide" said Dr. Wolfgang Mutter, General Manager of Hyglos GmbH. (
  • RSSL can provide quantitative endotoxin testing using Kinetic Turbidimetric or Kinetic Chromogenic assays. (
  • In vivo endotoxins elicit a pyrogen-like response in proportion to their concentration. (
  • Additionally, both FDA inspections and FDA testing programs have identified objectionable levels of endotoxin in drugs and devices. (
  • In the future, we will be able to indirectly use the pollen count to forecast very high levels of airborne endotoxin pollution. (
  • Exposure to household endotoxin levels poses a significant risk for asthma, according to the first nationwide sampling of house dust. (
  • The authors found the strongest relationship between asthma, asthma medications, and wheezing came from endotoxin levels in bedroom floor and bedding dust. (
  • Thorough cleanliness in labware, raw materials, and in lab technique is required to substantially reduce endotoxin levels. (
  • A strong association was identified between higher levels of total endotoxin and an increased prevalence of work related respiratory symptoms. (
  • For example, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been linked to varying levels of endotoxin present in the bloodstream (8). (
  • Endotoxin concentrations are particularly high in some occupational settings such as farming and livestock industry, waste and sewage treatment, for scientists handling rodents as well as in many other settings with high levels of organic dust. (
  • In each experiment, we performed the 1-hour spin-column method and measured the resulting endotoxin levels and protein recovery. (
  • High systemic endotoxin levels occur in chronic kidney disease and may be the result of decreased clearance ability of HSA and increased gut permeability in combination with intestinal bacterial overgrowth. (
  • The rate of change is used to determine the endotoxin levels, which are calculated from a reference standard curve (linear regression). (
  • A critique of a study to investigate the links between asthma and sources and levels of endotoxin. (
  • We hypothesize that higher levels of endotoxin exposure cause persistent, problematic asthma and that key environmental (ozone and allergens) and genetic modifiers (endotoxin receptor polymorphisms) contribute to endotoxin susceptibility and pathological asthmatic responses. (
  • Finally, we will take advantage of a HUD-sponsored inner-city home intervention study to determine if a home environment intervention will reduce home endotoxin levels and improve asthma. (
  • These studies will help us to determine the levels of endotoxin exposure that are likely to be problematic for children with asthma, and to develop environmental educational and intervention programs to improve outcomes. (
  • Qualitative endotoxin testing also utilizes the LAL Endotoxin Gel Clot method but rather than trying to detect the quantitative level of endotoxins, it tests the endotoxin levels of the product to be either greater than or less than the sensitivity of the test, which is 0.03 EU/ml. (
  • According to the authors, inhalation exposure to endotoxins is common in homes. (
  • In order to distinguish between the effects of the mechanical stressor and the underlying inflammation we developed a RB model via tracheal banding (TB), and investigated the effects of RB in mice with pre-existing lung inflammationinduced by endotoxin inhalation. (
  • A potential risk for workers exposed to inhalation of endotoxin, as well as the primary tissue changes, is the possibility of subsequent development of adult respiratory distress syndrome. (
  • Attempts were made to correlate pulmonary function with endotoxin and cotton dust concentrations. (
  • The decreases in FEV1 values were strongly correlated with endotoxin content of the dusts, but not with cotton dust concentration. (
  • The authors conclude that the variety of cotton and where it is grown affect the endotoxins of cotton dust. (
  • Moreover, the investigators also noted that the endotoxin concentrations were highest in kitchen and living room floor dust, and lowest for bedding (including mattress and pillow). (
  • An effort was made to identify the contribution of endotoxin to grain dust induced lung disease. (
  • Grain workers were found to be exposed to higher concentrations of total and respirable dust and endotoxin compared with the postal workers. (
  • The authors suggest that endotoxin concentrations in bioaerosols may play an important role in the development of grain dust induced lung disease. (
  • Emissions of inhalable, thoracic and respirable dust and endotoxins in these fractions were investigated for 2 types of pig housing. (
  • Historically, endotoxins were measured in a clotting reaction between the endotoxin and a clottable protein in the amoebocytes of Limulus polyphemus , the horseshoe crab. (
  • In all tests, endotoxin removal was ≥90% (Table 1) and protein recovery was ≥85% (data not shown). (
  • The samples we processed had an average protein concentration of 1mg/mL, which resulted in ≥85% protein recovery after endotoxin removal. (
  • To evaluate protein recovery from dilute samples, we tested two concentrations of BSA and IgG samples (0.25mg/mL and 0.10mg/mL) with the Pierce High Capacity Endotoxin Removal Resin. (
  • The resin removed endotoxins from various protein sources, sizes and charges. (
  • I have a problem about endotoxin removal from recombinant protein with Triton X 114. (
  • Moreover, MIF immunoneutralization increased heart Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio and suppressed endotoxin-induced release of mitochondrial cytochrome-c, as demonstrated by Western blotting. (
  • All volunteers in this study will receive endotoxin in a single segment of the lung to induce mild, self-limited inflammation. (
  • In addition, wet mounts were examined for signs of inflammation indicated by increased numbers of leukocytes.Both endotoxin and interleukin-1 alpha occurred in much higher concentrations (p (
  • To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on acute ocular inflammation in an animal model of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). (
  • Our data indicate that early inactivation of MIF significantly reverses the imbalance of proapoptotic to prosurvival pathways and reduces acute inflammation of the heart thereby improving myocardial dysfunction induced by endotoxin. (
  • Also, some studies have shown that the endotoxin of the Legionnaires' bacillus has a different spectrum of toxicity than the more common gram-negative organisms. (
  • Time Frame: Change in DVR on post-endotoxin scan (Day 2) from baseline (Day 1). (
  • Research areas concern interactions of microbiome and feed, influencing manure and excreta quality and technical designs to reduce airborne endotoxin. (
  • 4. A method according to claim 1 to 3 wherein the compound is able to reduce the available endotoxin in the -patient. (
  • It was later understood that the lysate from horseshoe crab amebocytes would clot due to the presence of very low endotoxin. (
  • Y. C. Hu, N. Li, and J. P. Zhou, "Study on gelation clot method of bacterial endotoxin test in test orerone undecanoate injection," Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis , vol. 30, pp. 2425-2429, 2010. (
  • The gel-clot method is the simplest LAL test and is used to detect the presence or absence of endotoxin in the prepared sample. (
  • This method uses components found in the blood of the Blue Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus, which forms a gel-like clot when incubated in the presence of endotoxins. (
  • One EU equals approximately 0.1 to 0.2 ng endotoxin/mL of solution. (
  • One endotoxin unit (EU) equals approximately 0.1ng of endotoxin. (
  • TNF-positive serum is as effective as endotoxin itself in causing necrosis of the sarcoma Meth A and other transplanted tumors. (
  • Indeed, the lowest serum concentrations of TNF occur in female obese rodents, which exhibit the most endotoxin-induced liver injury. (
  • The product 'monovalent anticrotálico serum' is an antidote administered via intravenous , intramuscular or subcutaneous, I could not find any USP monograph specific to dosage form serum in order to use the level of bacterial endotoxins in the raw material sodium chloride. (
  • The typical febrile response of normal rabbits given bacterial endotoxin intravenously may be modified by prior administration of plasma or, less effectively, serum of endotoxin-tolerant donors. (
  • The LAL test is based on measurements of turbidity formed following the addition of an aqueous extract of amebocytes from the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus , to an aqueous solution containing the endotoxins. (
  • Specifically, the agreement allows Hyglos to use recombinant factor C technology protected by Lonza's patents to produce Hyglos' own endotoxin products. (