Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Bipotential angio-hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to both HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS and ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Paracrine substances produced by the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM with VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation (VASODILATION) activities. Several factors have been identified, including NITRIC OXIDE and PROSTACYCLIN.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.
The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet's membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Diseases of the cornea.
An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A cell surface glycoprotein of endothelial cells that binds thrombin and serves as a cofactor in the activation of protein C and its regulation of blood coagulation.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.
Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.
Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.
Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).

The evolution of early fibromuscular lesions hemodynamically induced in the dog renal artery. I. Light and transmission electron microscopy. (1/3541)

In view of the important roles of arterial intimal fibromuscular lesions as precursors of atherosclerotic plaque and occlusive lesions in arterial reconstructions, a model has been developed for the rapid hemodynamic induction of these lesions by anastomosis of the dog right renal artery to the inferior vena cava. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations were made on the arterial shunt after periods of rapid flow ranging form 10 minutes to 2 hours to identify initial factor(s) and evolutionary mechanisms in the etiology of the lesions. The sequence of events included aberrations in ruthenium red staining of the endothelial luminal membrane at 10 minutes, multilayered thickening of the subendothelial basement membrane (BM) at 15 minutes, and initial reorientation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into the intima along with the appearance of areas of degeneration of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) at 30 minutes. The endothelial cells were still intact in some areas overlying the SMC migration and IEL degeneration, but they were separating from the surface in other such areas. As subendothelium became exposed, some platelet adherence was noted. By 2 hours, the entire wall reaction was fully developed. Initial observations indicate that in the evolution of this hemodynamically induced lesion visible alteration in the endothelial cells is not prerequisite to degeneration of the underlying IEL and reorientation and migration of medial SMC.  (+info)

A strategy for enhancing the transcriptional activity of weak cell type-specific promoters. (2/3541)

Cell type- and tissue-specific promoters play an important role in the development of site-selective vectors for gene therapy. A large number of highly specific promoters has been described, but their applicability is often hampered by their inefficient transcriptional activity. In this study, we describe a new strategy for enhancing the activity of weak promoters without loss of specificity. The basic principle of this strategy is to establish a positive feedback loop which is initiated by transcription from a cell type-specific promoter. This was achieved by using a cell type-specific promoter to drive the simultaneous expression of the desired effector/reporter gene product and a strong artificial transcriptional activator which stimulates transcription through appropriate binding sites in the promoter. Using a VP16-LexA chimeric transcription factor, we show that this approach leads to a 14- to > 100-fold enhancement of both the endothelial cell-specific von Willebrand factor promoter and the gastrointestinal-specific sucrase-isomaltase promoter while maintaining approximately 30- to > 100-fold cell type specificity.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel angiopoietin family protein, angiopoietin-3. (3/3541)

Using homology-based PCR, we have isolated cDNA encoding a novel member (491 amino acids) of the angiopoietin (Ang) family from human adult heart cDNA and have designated it angiopoietin-3 (Ang3). The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal portions of Ang-3 contain the characteristic coiled-coil domain and fibrinogen-like domain that are conserved in other known Angs. Ang3 has a highly hydrophobic region at the N-terminus (approximately 21 amino acids) that is typical of a signal sequence for protein secretion. Ang3 mRNA is most abundant in adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid gland, heart and small intestine in human adult tissues. Additionally, Ang3 is a secretory protein, but is not a mitogen in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Acetylcholine-induced membrane potential changes in endothelial cells of rabbit aortic valve. (4/3541)

1. Using a microelectrode technique, acetylcholine (ACh)-induced membrane potential changes were characterized using various types of inhibitors of K+ and Cl- channels in rabbit aortic valve endothelial cells (RAVEC). 2. ACh produced transient then sustained membrane hyperpolarizations. Withdrawal of ACh evoked a transient depolarization. 3. High K+ blocked and low K+ potentiated the two ACh-induced hyperpolarizations. Charybdotoxin (ChTX) attenuated the ACh-induced transient and sustained hyperpolarizations; apamin inhibited only the sustained hyperpolarization. In the combined presence of ChTX and apamin, ACh produced a depolarization. 4. In Ca2+-free solution or in the presence of Co2+ or Ni2+, ACh produced a transient hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. In BAPTA-AM-treated cells, ACh produced only a depolarization. 5. A low concentration of A23187 attenuated the ACh-induced transient, but not the sustained, hyperpolarization. In the presence of cyclopiazonic acid, the hyperpolarization induced by ACh was maintained after ACh removal; this maintained hyperpolarization was blocked by Co2+. 6. Both NPPB and hypertonic solution inhibited the membrane depolarization seen after ACh washout. Bumetanide also attenuated this depolarization. 7. It is concluded that in RAVEC, ACh produces a two-component hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. It is suggested that ACh-induced Ca2+ release from the storage sites causes a transient hyperpolarization due to activation of ChTX-sensitive K+ channels and that ACh-activated Ca2+ influx causes a sustained hyperpolarization by activating both ChTX- and apamin-sensitive K+ channels. Both volume-sensitive Cl- channels and the Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter probably contribute to the ACh-induced depolarization.  (+info)

The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation. (5/3541)

1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2.  (+info)

Studies of the role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide release in the sustained vasodilator effects of corticotrophin releasing factor and sauvagine. (6/3541)

1. The mechanisms of the sustained vasodilator actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and sauvagine (SVG) were studied using rings of endothelium de-nuded rat thoracic aorta (RTA) and the isolated perfused rat superior mesenteric arterial vasculature (SMA). 2. SVG was approximately 50 fold more potent than CRF on RTA (EC40: 0.9 +/- 0.2 and 44 +/- 9 nM respectively, P < 0.05), and approximately 10 fold more active in the perfused SMA (ED40: 0.05 +/- 0.02 and 0.6 +/- 0.1 nmol respectively, P < 0.05). Single bolus injections of CRF (100 pmol) or SVG (15 pmol) in the perfused SMA caused reductions in perfusion pressure of 23 +/- 1 and 24 +/- 2% that lasted more than 20 min. 3. Removal of the endothelium in the perfused SMA with deoxycholic acid attenuated the vasodilatation and revealed two phases to the response; a short lasting direct action, and a sustained phase which was fully inhibited. 4. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L-NAME (100 microM) L-NMMA (100 microM) or 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea (ETPU, 100 microM) had similar effects on the vasodilator responses to CRF as removal of the endothelium, suggesting a pivotal role for nitric oxide. However the selective guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[l,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) did not affect the response to CRF. 5. High potassium (60 mM) completely inhibited the vasodilator response to CRF in the perfused SMA, indicating a role for K channels in this response. 6. Compared to other vasodilator agents acting via the release of NO, the actions of CRF and SVG are strikingly long-lasting, suggesting a novel mechanism of prolonged activation of nitric oxide synthase.  (+info)

Nicotine increases plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production by human brain endothelial cells via protein kinase C-associated pathway. (7/3541)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Smoking both increases stroke risk and reduces the risk of thrombolysis-associated intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a major regulator of fibrinolysis; elevation of PAI-1 is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic disorders. We studied the effect of nicotine, an important constituent of cigarette smoke, on PAI-1 production by human brain endothelial cells. METHODS: Adult human central nervous system endothelial cells (CNS-EC) were used for tissue culture experiments. We analyzed culture supernatant for PAI-1 protein and measured PAI-1 mRNA (by Northern blot analysis) and protein kinase C (PK-C) activity. RESULTS: Nicotine at 100 nmol/L increased PAI-1 protein production and mRNA expression by CNS-EC. After 72 hours of exposure to nicotine, the concentration of secreted PAI-1 in the cell supernatant was increased 1.90+/-0.2 fold compared with untreated cells. PAI-1 mRNA also increased approximately twofold. Inhibition of PK-C completely abolished this effect. Nicotine had no effect on the concentration of tissue plasminogen activator. CONCLUSIONS: Nicotine increases brain endothelial cell PAI-1 mRNA expression and protein production via PK-C-dependent pathway. These findings provide new insights into why smoking may be associated with predisposition to thrombosis and inversely associated with intracerebral hemorrhage after therapeutic tissue plasminogen activator therapy.  (+info)

Rat liver endothelial cell glutamine transporter and glutaminase expression contrast with parenchymal cells. (8/3541)

Despite the central role of the liver in glutamine homeostasis in health and disease, little is known about the mechanism by which this amino acid is transported into sinusoidal endothelial cells, the second most abundant hepatic cell type. To address this issue, the transport of L-glutamine was functionally characterized in hepatic endothelial cells isolated from male rats. On the basis of functional analyses, including kinetics, cation substitution, and amino acid inhibition, it was determined that a Na+-dependent carrier distinct from system N in parenchymal cells, with properties of system ASC or B0, mediated the majority of glutamine transport in hepatic endothelial cells. These results were supported by Northern blot analyses that showed expression of the ATB0 transporter gene in endothelial but not parenchymal cells. Concurrently, it was determined that, whereas both cell types express glutamine synthetase, hepatic endothelial cells express the kidney-type glutaminase isozyme in contrast to the liver-type isozyme in parenchymal cells. This represents the first report of ATB0 and kidney-type glutaminase isozyme expression in the liver, observations that have implications for roles of specific cell types in hepatic glutamine homeostasis in health and disease.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - E-selectin and very late activation antigen-4 mediate adhesion of hematopoietic progenitor cells to bone marrow endothelium. AU - Rood, P. M L. AU - Dercksen, M. W.. AU - Cazemier, H.. AU - Kerst, J. M.. AU - Von dem Borne, A. E G K. AU - Gerritsen, W. R.. AU - Van der Schoot, C. E.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Adhesion of CD34 + hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) to sinusoidal endothelium probably plays a key role in homing of transplanted CD34+ HPCs to the bone marrow (BM). We have investigated the role of various adhesion molecules in the interaction of purified CD34+ HPCs derived from BM or peripheral blood (PB) and a human BM-derived endothelial cell line. Adhesion of CD34+ HPCs to endothelial cells was measured with the use of a double-color flow microfluorimetric adhesion assay. In this assay, adhesion is measured under stirring conditions, simulating blood flow in sinusoidal marrow vessels. Adhesion of PB CD34+ cells to human BM endothelial cells (HBMECs) was observed ...
Distant metastasis, predominantly to bone, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in prostate cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying prostate cancer metastases remain unknown. Prostate cancer cells exhibited discrete adhesion to bone marrow endothelial cells (BMEC), resulting in osteotropic metastasis. Prior data showed an increased metastatic propensity of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA)-positive prostate cancer cells. The current study sought to characterize the roles of PSCA in the adhesion of prostate cancer cells to BMECs. Cell adhesion was assessed using the adhesion assay and transendothelial migration. The expression and regulation of integrins were evaluated by qRT-PCR, Western blot, promoter-luciferase activity, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Functionally, the potential interacting partners of PSCA in prostate cancer cells were identified by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The association of PSCA expression with bone metastasis was ...
Top 10 tissues for 1005_at (Homo sapiens, Affymetrix Probeset): bone marrow endothelium progenitor cell, blood vessel endothelium cell, bone marrow monocyte, corneal limbus, cornea, band cell, bone marrow polymorphonuclear cell (PMN), peripheral blood transitional stage B-cell (unspecified), blood neutrophil granulocyte, pulmonary (lung) myofibroblast
rolls during the following 0.53 seconds. The white arrow marks the initial site of interaction. Supplemental data of a video depicting the BM intravital microscopy model can be downloaded at Bars in ...
Corneal endothelial cells are found on the inner aspect of the cornea where they secrete a specialized extracellular matrix. They form a very tightly packed monolayer with tight junctions between cells. Our cultured corneal endothelial cells from 2- and 3-day-old calves are cryopreserved passage 3 and have been successfully thawed and subcultured. Type II collagen - a major component of vitreous - can be detected in the culture supernatant. Bovine corneal endothelial cells can be used in studying diseases of the eye. We can provide primary cultures upon request. ...
Dedkova EN, Ji X, Lipsius SL, Blatter LA. Mitochondrial calcium uptake stimulates nitric oxide production in mitochondria of bovine vascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004 Feb; 286(2):C406-15 ...
Human Hepatic Sinusoidal Endothelial Cell Genomic DNA ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Get Human Endothelial Cells from Primacyt. High purity, low passage, HIV1+2, HAV, HBV, HCV tested. Immediate lot information download.
Dynamic factors account for one third of intrahepatic vascular resistance. Stellate cells serve as contractile cells for adjacent hepatic endothelial cells. The nitric oxide produced by the endothelia... more
Dynamic factors account for one third of intrahepatic vascular resistance. Stellate cells serve as contractile cells for adjacent hepatic endothelial cells. The nitric oxide produced by the endothelia... more
A broader appreciation of the numerous functions of the endothelium can be obtained by study of the levels of molecules of endothelial origin in circulating blood. These include direct products of endothelial cells that change when the endothelium is activated, such as measures of NO biology, inflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules, regulators of thrombosis, as well as markers of endothelial damage and repair. Many of these circulating markers are difficult and expensive to measure, and currently are only used in the clinical research setting. In this context, these measures can provide important information regarding mechanisms and severity of endothelial dysfunction in populations, and complement physiological tests of endothelial vascular control.61 As a result of biological and assay availability and variability, these factors currently have only a very limited role in the assessment of individual patients.. Circulating levels of nitrites and nitrosylated proteins in part reflect ...
Many of the segmented polyurethanes currently used in cardiovascular prostheses undergo either modification of their surface structure or are lined with a confluent monolayer of endothelial cells to improve their hemocompatibility. During the establishment of an endothelial cell lining on these biop …
Ease of Ang-2 from endothelia is mediated by Tlr4 [13] and we JI 101 site detected mRNA levels of Tlr4 on HUVECs (Figure 6A). Prior studies have shown that
What is the term applied to white blood cells squeezing between endothelial cells lining the blood vessel to reach the site of an infection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Corneal endothelial cell analysis using two non-contact specular microscopes in healthy subjects. AU - Garza-Leon, Manuel. PY - 2016/8/1. Y1 - 2016/8/1. N2 - To compare specular microscopy values obtained using the Perseus (CSO, Italy) and the Nidek CEM-530 (NIDEK Co., Ltd. Japan) specular microscopes. This prospective study used specular microscopy to examine sixty eyes from thirty healthy subjects (29.83 ± 9.41 years; range 18-79 years). This was done with both the Nidek CEM-530 and the Perseus on three occasions and results were evaluated by one independent observer. Measurement differences between instruments and agreement between devices were determined. The endothelial cell sample was larger with the Perseus than with the CEM-530 (235.92 ± 38.26 vs. 184.38 ± 43.88, respectively) with a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001). Mean endothelial cell density (ECD) with the Perseus and CEM-530 was 2692.75 ± 306.66 and 2556.47 ± 257.38 cells/mm 2 (P = 0.001), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thrombin-induced gap formation in confluent endothelial cell monolayers in vitro. AU - Laposata, Michael. AU - Dovnarsky, D. K.. AU - Shin, H.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - When thrombin is incubated with confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro, there is a change in the shape of the endothelial cells that results in gaps in the monolayer disrupting the integrity of the endothelium and exposing the subendothelium. Using a grid assay to measure this phenomenon, we observed that up to 80% of the surface area once covered by cells was uncovered after a 15-min incubation with 10-2 U/ml (10-10 M) thrombin. The effect was apparent within 2 min and did not remove cells from the surface of the culture dish. The gaps in the monolayer completely disappeared within 2 hr after exposure to thrombin. The effect of thrombin was inhibited by preincubation of thrombin with hirudin or antithrombin III plush heparin or by preincubation of the monolayers with dibutyryl ...
Acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acetyl-LDL), biologically labelled in the cholesterol moiety of cholesteryl oleate, was injected into control and oestrogen-treated rats. The serum clearance, the distribution among the various lipoproteins, the hepatic localization and the biliary secretion of the [3H]cholesterol moiety were determined at various times after injection. In order to monitor the intrahepatic metabolism of the cholesterol esters of acetyl-LDL in vivo, the liver was subdivided into parenchymal, endothelial and Kupffer cells by a low-temperature cell-isolation procedure. In both control and oestrogen-treated rats, acetyl-LDL is rapidly cleared from the circulation, mainly by the liver endothelial cells. Subsequently, the cholesterol esters are hydrolysed, and within 1 h after injection, about 60% of the cell- associated cholesterol is released. The [3H]cholesterol is mainly recovered in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) range of the serum of control rats, while low levels of ...
In the present study, it is noteworthy that only focal or little immunoreactive vWF was found in the endocardium of noncardiac patients with none of the clinical high-risk predictors for thromboembolism, whereas vWF was apparent in the endothelium of intramyocardial vessels of the same cases. We confirmed that immunoreactivity for other endothelial cell markers, CD31, CD34 and eNOS, was maintained in the endocardial endothelium as well as in the vessel endothelium. Our observations suggest that in noncardiac patients, the endocardial endothelium of the atrial appendage is selectively deficient in vWF, which has been used as an endothelial cell marker in human vessels (19,20). However, this is not surprising because Yamamoto et al. (21)have recently reported that vWF is differentially expressed in endothelial cells among different tissues or organs in mice.. On the other hand, increased immunoreactivity for vWF in the endocardium was found particularly in the left, compared with the right, atrial ...
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Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Studies on histochemistry of blood vessel endothelium and the basement membrane of the capillaries]. by Wiebke Hort et al.
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which endothelial cell (EC) activation leads to leukocyte recruitment into artery walls, followed by formation of plaques containing lipid-laden macrophages and smooth muscle cells.1 Plaques can occlude vessels and cause ischemia, or rupture to cause stroke or myocardial infarction. Whereas systemic risk factors such as hypertension, smoking, and obesity play important roles in atherogenesis, plaques show a predilection for vessel branch points and regions of high curvature, where flow is low and shows a variety of complex patterns that are grouped together under the term disturbed flow.2 These areas show increased EC turnover, altered redox regulation, and upregulation of proinflammatory genes that contribute to atherosclerotic progression.3,4 By contrast, areas of high laminar shear show downregulation of proatherogenic genes and upregulation of atheroprotective genes and are resistant to atherosclerosis.5. In vitro, acute application of laminar ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vascular endothelium. AU - Daugherty, M. O.. AU - Rich, G. F.. AU - Johns, R. A.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Our understanding of the vital function of the vascular endothelium in circulatory physiology is rapidly expanding. Endothelium-derived vasoactive substances influence vascular tone, growth, inflammation, and haemostasis. Endothelial dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. New pharmacological therapies are evolving from our understanding of the role of the endothelium.. AB - Our understanding of the vital function of the vascular endothelium in circulatory physiology is rapidly expanding. Endothelium-derived vasoactive substances influence vascular tone, growth, inflammation, and haemostasis. Endothelial dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, ...
Mouse Renal Glomerular Endothelial Cells are isolated from normal mouse renal tissue. The cells are characterized by immunofluorescence with antibodies specific to vWF, CD31. T25 flasks is required for cell adhension to the culture vessels. Grow cells in ECM-coated culture vessels with 5% CO2. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml ...
Fenestra® VC is a refined version of Fenestra® LC in which the surface of the lipid emulsion particles is modified so as to alter the recognition of the particle by the receptors on hepatocytes that are responsible for its uptake into the liver. With Fenestra VC, the delayed uptake by liver cells produces an agent with superior blood pool imaging properties that last for several hours after injection. Moreover, the agent remains truly intravascular so long as the endothelial integrity of the vessel is maintained. Like its liver-selective counterpart, Fenestra VC is eventually metabolized and eliminated through the hepatobiliary system.. Because of their comparatively long and stable in vivo residence times (up to several hours), the Fenestra® products have shown considerable promise for use in microCT imaging procedures. The numerous benefits provided by the Fenestra technology will play an instrumental role in facilitating the implementation of microCT imaging as an increasingly important ...
Summary. Endothelium was »discovered« as a separate organ in the last decades of the previous century. For a long time endothelial cells were considered as a very passive monolayer of cells just covering the inner part of vascular walls. The role of these cells was thought to be only a mechanical barrier between circulating blood and vascular structures. Nowadays, after a series of biochemical and experimental studies, one can name endothelium as an organ, covering approximately 700 sqaure meters, weighing about 1.5 kilos in an average male with weight of 70 kg. Not only its quantity, but also its function is amazing. The most prominent and first well studied function of endothelial cells is vasodilatation and vasoconstriction. Normal cells, which are intact and in function produce regularly one of the most important protecting agent in circulation: NO. Normal endothelial cells produce NO as a result of higher blood pressure or growing demand for oxygen. It is produced from aminoacid ...
David H. Adams is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: A Flow Adhesion Assay to Study Leucocyte Recruitment to Human Hepatic Sinusoidal Endothelium Under Conditions of Shear Stress
Vascular endothelium provides a selective barrier between the blood and tissues, participates in wound healing and angiogenesis, and regulates tissue recruitment of inflammatory cells. Nuclear factor (NF)- \(\kappa\)B transcription factors are pivotal regulators of survival and inflammation, and have been suggested as potential therapeutic targets in cancer and inflammatory diseases. Here we show that mice lacking IKK\(\beta\), the primary kinase mediating NF-\(\kappa\)B activation, are smaller than littermates and born at less than the expected Mendelian frequency in association with hypotrophic and hypovascular placentae. IKK\(\beta\) -deleted endothelium manifests increased vascular permeability and reduced migration. Surprisingly, we find that these defects result from loss of kinase-independent effects of IKK\(\beta\) on activation of the serine-threonine kinase, Akt. Together, these data demonstrate essential roles for IKK\(\beta\) in regulating endothelial permeability and migration, as ...
3D InSight™ Human Liver Toxicology Models Production lead time: 1 week Catalog # Description MT-02-302-04 3D InSight™ Human Liver Microtissues (multi-donor hepatocytes, co-culture with Kupffer cells and liver endothelial cells), 96x Order by Ships on: US Ships on: EU Aug 24 Sep 1 Sep 2 Sep 7 Sep 15 Sep 16 Sep 21 Sep
This competitive renewal continues to explore the general hypothesis (a) that surface expressed proteins control the interactions of endothelial cells with bloo...
The vascular endothelium comprises a dynamic interface with the blood and acts as an integrator and transducer of both biochemical (e.g. inflammatory cytokines)...
Morphogenesis of Endothelium von Gabor M. Rubanyi und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
WAVE2 is necessary for limiting gaps and promoting spread-cell morphology in endothelial-cell monolayers. Images are frames from movies, with control from Suppl
These data suggest that the propensity of prostate cancer cells to establish themselves in bone is due, at least in part, to their preferential adhesion to human bone marrow endothelial cells.
Endothelium differentiates in response to tissue-specific signals; brain endothelium expresses tight junctions and transporters which are absent from other endothelia. The promoter of the tight junction protein occludin exhibited strong activity in a brain endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3 but was inactive in lung endothelial cells. Expression of occludin in brain endothelium corresponded with binding of Sp3 to a minimal promoter segment close to the transcription-start site. However, in lung endothelium Sp-transcription factors did not bind to this site although they are present in the cell nucleus. In contrast, repression of occludin in lung endothelium was associated with the binding of YY1 to a remote site in the promoter region, which was functionally inactive in brain endothelium. The work identified a group of transcription factors including Sp3 and YY1, which differentially interact with the occludin promoter to induce expression of occludin in brain endothelium and repression in other ...
Intracellular pH (pH i) in confluent monolayers of cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells was determined using the pH-dependent absorbance of intracellularly trapped 5(and...
Human liver sinusoidal endothelial cell line with tailored liver endothelial cell culture medium. Cryopreserved liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.
To characterize glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 signaling and its effect on renal endothelial dysfunction and glomerulopathy. We studied the expression and signaling of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) on glomerular endothelial cells and the novel finding of protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of c-Raf at Ser259 and its inhibition of angiotensin II (Ang II) phospho-c-Raf(Ser338) and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Mice overexpressing protein kinase C (PKC)β2 in endothelial cells (EC-PKCβ2Tg) were established. Ang II and GLP-1 actions in glomerular endothelial cells were analyzed with small interfering RNA of GLP-1R. PKCβ isoform activation induced by diabetes decreased GLP-1R expression and protective action on the renal endothelium by increasing its degradation via ubiquitination and enhancing phospho-c-Raf(Ser338) and Ang II activation of phospho-Erk1/2. EC-PKCβ2Tg mice exhibited decreased GLP-1R expression and increased phospho-c-Raf(Ser338), leading to enhanced effects of Ang II. Diabetic ...
Glomerular endothelial cells are uniquely adapted for selective permeability and filtration. Although the glomerular endothelium is continuous, it contains fenestrations, which cover up to 50% of the glomerular surface area (12). On conventional electron microscopy these fenestrations appear as ovoid transcellular holes, 60-70 nm in diameter (12). However, the fenestrations (and the glomerular endothelium itself) are covered by glycocalyx, a carbohydrate-rich, gel-like mesh with important roles in capillary permeability, regulation of the interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells, and transduction of shear stress (12).. In some disease states, endothelial injury leads to altered microvascular permeability and albuminuria. Inflammatory stimuli increase permeability by widening endothelial cell-cell junctions, and in some instances, inducing transcellular holes (13). Endothelial disease is a feature of rapidly progressive forms of GN, including ANCA-associated GN, anti-GBM GN, and ...
Dysfunction of the corneal endothelium reduces the transparency of the cornea and can cause blindness. Because corneal endothelial cells have an extremely limited proliferative ability in vivo, treatment for corneal endothelial dysfunction involves the transplantation of donor corneal tissue. Corneal endothelium can also be restored via intraocular injection of endothelial cells in suspension after their expansion in vitro. Yet, because quality assessment during the expansion of the cells is a destructive process, a substantial number of the cultured cells are lost. Here, we show that the spring constant of the effective interaction potential between endothelial cells in a confluent monolayer serves as a biomarker of the quality of corneal endothelial cells in vitro and of the long-term prognosis of corneal restoration in patients treated with culture-expanded endothelial cells or with transplanted corneas. The biomarker can be measured from phase contrast imaging in vitro and from specular microscopy
The human corneal endothelium regulates the cornea transparency. Its cells, that cannot regenerate after birth, form a tesselated mosaic with almost perfect hexagonal cells during childhood, becoming progressively bigger and less ordered during aging. This study included 50 patients (in 10 decades groups) and 10 specular microscopy observations per patient. Five different criteria were measured on the manually segmented cells: area and perimeter of the cells as well as reduced Minkowski functionals. All these criteria were used to assess the probability of age group membership. We demonstrated that the age evaluation is near the reality, although a high variability was observed for patients between 30 and 70 years old ...
Endothelial cells were isolated from bovine thoracic aorta and cultured. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were incubated with radiolabeled arachidonic acid (3H-AA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (14C-EPA) (1 microM) for 3 hr. Both fatty acids were predominantly incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (57 +/- 2% and 62 +/- 2% respectively) and slightly into phosphatidylethanolamine (11 +/- 0.5% and 12 +/- 0.6% respectively). phosphatidylinositol (26 +/- 1.5% and 10 +/- 0.5% respectively) and neutral lipids (6 +/- 0.5% and 15 +/- 1% respectively). After BAEC incubation with 3H-AA for 24 hr with or without EPA (1 microM), the release of radioactive metabolites of AA induced by thrombin (5.5 U/ml) was strongly reduced by the preliminary treatment with EPA (72 +/- 5%). After BAEC incubation with AA, EPA or vehicle (control), endothelin-1 levels were measured by RIA in the culture medium and we observed that: 1) the basal production of endothelin-1 was not modified after either AA or EPA treatment, 2) the
The major findings described here establish that GATA4 is the molecular master regulator that orchestrates specification of discontinuous sinusoidal endothelium during liver development. This GATA4-dependent transcriptional program determines the functional competence of the hepatic sinusoidal endothelium. As suggested by the fact that the gene expression signatures of fetal LSECs and ectopically GATA4-expressing cultured continuous ECs only partially overlap, organ-specific vascular functions differ in a context-dependent manner: (a) liver endothelial-associated angiokines such as WNT2, HGF, RSPO3, ANG2, and BMP2 do not seem to play a major role in liver development, while they do in establishing metabolic zonation in adult liver (18, 19) or in regulating adult liver regeneration (10, 11); (b) GATA4-expressing LSECs are permissive for transmigration of HSCs during early fetal development, while they become non-permissive during later fetal development despite continued expression of ...
Free radical-induced endothelial membrane dysfunction at the site of the brain barrier: relationship between lipid peroxidation, Na, K-ATPase activity and Cr 51 release
Key Points. Endothelial Bmp6 conditional knockout mice exhibit hemochromatosis, whereas hepatocyte and macrophage Bmp6 conditional knockout mice do not.Our data
The NIDEK CEM-530 is our fastest, easy-to-use specular microscope on the market today. NIDEKs 3D auto-tracking/auto shot - coupled with an analysis time of under two seconds and combined with the solid NIDEK build quality and features - can add up to real value, less downtime, and better patient flow. ...
The short-circuit current (SCC), potential difference (PD), and transendothelial resistance (TER) of confluent monolayers of B4G12 cells were measured with the use of an Ussing chamber as described previously. 17 Before measurements, cell densities were manually counted by microscope (CKX41; Olympus, Tokyo, Japan). The cells cultured on Snapwell inserts (Corning) were held by a specific holder (P2302) with a measurement area of 1.12 cm2. The entire setup was then placed in the Ussing chamber EM-CSYS-2 (Physiologic Instruments, San Diego, CA). The cell surface side was in contact with one chamber, and the Snapwell membrane side or collagen sheet side was in contact with another chamber. The chambers were carefully filled with 4 mL Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (120.7 mM NaCl, 24 mM NaHCO3, 4.6 mM KCl, 0.5 mM MgCl2, 0.7 mM Na2HPO4, 1.5 mM NaH2PO4, and 10 mM glucose bubbled with a mixture of 5% CO2, 7% O2, and 88% N2 to pH 7.4). The chambers were maintained at 37°C by an attached heater. The SCC was ...
Supplementary MaterialsS1 Fig: COL6 does not enhance lung epithelial cell proliferation. pone.0209095.s004.docx (17K) GUID:?95A94D62-D70D-4D93-9A88-360DB426C86A S2 Text: Methods: buy BMS-354825 Human being lung fibroblast culture. (DOCX) pone.0209095.s005.docx (17K) GUID:?EF3D80B0-1A99-4F45-B95B-40D29CA9082E S1 Appendix: Minimal underlying dataset. (ZIP) (14K) GUID:?D1BC5B89-D8C4-4638-9E81-975B89B3496B Data Availability StatementAll relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information documents. Abstract Basement membrane (BM) … [Read more…]. ...
Implanted donor (green) endothelial cells (ECs) form vascular tubes with lumens that must anastomose with host vessels to become part of the functional vasculature. The host vessel in this image is composed of endothelial cells (brown), basement membrane (blue), and pericytes (red) and contains flowing red blood cells. The donor ECs wrap around the host vessel to displace the pericytes and proteolytically attack the basement membrane of the host vessel endothelium via matrix metalloproteinases-9 and -14. Subsequently, the donor ECs may now gain access to the host endothelium and displaces some cells to integrate into the endothelial intima and divert blood into the donor vasculature. See Figure 6 in Cheng et al, page 4740. ...
Embryogenesis of the First Circulating Endothelial Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The endothelium is the inner lining of our blood vessels. Laid end-to-end, endothelial cells from a single human would wrap more than four times around the world. And its not just an inert layer; its highly metabolically active. Ive....... ...
Endothelium. 13 (1): 51-59. doi:10.1080/10623320600669053. PMID 16885067. Lazarovici, Philip; Lahiani, Adi; Gincberg, Galit; ...
Ribatti D (2008). "Napoleone Ferrara and the saga of vascular endothelial growth factor". Endothelium. 15 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1080 ...
Bussolino F, Valdembri D, Caccavari F, Serini G (2006). "Semaphoring vascular morphogenesis". Endothelium. 13 (2): 81-91. doi: ...
Endothelium. 15 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1080/10623320802092377. PMID 18568940. "FDA Approval for Thalidomide". National Cancer ...
Marr HS, Basalamah MA, Edgell CJ (1998). "Endothelial cell expression of testican mRNA". Endothelium. 5 (3): 209-19. doi: ...
2001). "Expression of VACM-1 protein in cultured rat adrenal endothelial cells is linked to the cell cycle". Endothelium. 8 (1 ... 1999). "VACM-1 receptor is specifically expressed in rabbit vascular endothelium and renal collecting tubule". Am J Physiol. ... 1999). "VACM-1 receptor is specifically expressed in rabbit vascular endothelium and renal collecting tubule". Am. J. Physiol. ... and is specifically expressed in vascular endothelium and renal collecting tubules. Cul5 inhibits cellular proliferation, ...
Endothelium. 14 (1): 25-34. doi:10.1080/10623320601177288. PMID 17364894. Zou Y, Kim CH, Chung JH, et al. (2007). "Upregulation ...
Role of endothelium. Endothelium 4: 247 - 272. doi:10.3109/10623329609024701 Jones, E.A.V. (April, 2010). Mechanotransduction ...
The first was on corneal endothelium morphogenesis and they, with Sam Meller, showed that the key constraint on migration was ... Bard, Jonathan; Meller, Sam; Hay, Elizabeth Dexter (1975). "Formation of corneal endothelium; a study of cell movement in vivo ...
... there is no endothelium. In their micro-structure the muscular fibres resemble those of nematodes. Except for the absence of ...
1931 - Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians 1936 - F.R.S. Kettle EH (1918). "Tumours arising from endothelium". ...
With a decline in EPCs the body loses its ability to repair the endothelium. The use of stem cells for treatment has become a ... The endothelium secretes soluble factors to regulate vasodilatation and to preserve homeostasis. When there is any dysfunction ... Not only is VEGF critical for mesoderm cells to become an EC, but also for EPCs to differentiate into mature endothelium. ... Endothelium dysfunction is a prototypical characteristic of vascular disease, which is common in patients with autoimmune ...
Vascular endotheliumEdit. Endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that line the interior of both blood ... The endothelium that lines blood vessels is known as vascular endothelium, which is subject to and must withstand the forces of ... Depolarization in vascular endothelium is essential not only to the structural integrity of endothelial cells, but also to the ... This plasticity in the structural strength of the vascular endothelium is essential to overall function of the cardiovascular ...
Endothelium receptor blockersEdit. Bosentan belongs to a new class of drug and works by blocking the receptors of the hormone ... endothelium. It is specifically indicated only for the treatment of pulmonary artery hypertension in patients with moderate to ...
Atrial myxoma covered by endothelium. H&E stain. The tumor must be surgically removed. Some patients will also need their ...
Various receptors on endothelium[6]. Endothelin production[6] Pathology[edit]. Vasoconstriction can be a contributing factor to ...
"Genes expressed in human tumor endothelium". Science. 289 (5482): 1197-202. doi:10.1126/science.289.5482.1197. PMID 10947988. ...
2005). "Endosialin (TEM1, CD248) is a marker of stromal fibroblasts and is not selectively expressed on tumour endothelium" ( ... a C-type lectin-like cell surface receptor of tumor endothelium". J Biol Chem. 276 (10): 7408-14. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009604200. ... "Genes expressed in human tumor endothelium". Science. 289 (5482): 1197-202. Bibcode:2000Sci...289.1197S. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Ribatti, Domenico (2008). "Napoleone Ferrara and the saga of vascular endothelial growth factor". Endothelium: Journal of ...
2000). "Genes Expressed in Human Tumor Endothelium". Science. 289 (5482): 1197-1202. doi:10.1126/science.289.5482.1197. ISSN ...
"The Vascular Endothelium and Human Diseases". International Journal of Biological Sciences. 9 (10): 1057-1069. doi:10.7150/ijbs ...
"Genes expressed in human tumor endothelium". Science. 289 (5482): 1197-202. Bibcode:2000Sci...289.1197S. doi:10.1126/science. ...
The endothelium appears normal between attacks. The attack can be misdiagnosed and treated as an acute iridocyclitis. Visual ... During the acute symptoms, a slit lamp shows pseudoguttae, dark patches in the corneal endothelium, thought to represent patchy ... patients suffer from periodical transient inflammation of the corneal endothelium and stroma, leading to short term obscuration ...
The endothelium provides a smooth surface for the flow of blood and regulates the movement of water and dissolved materials in ... The endothelium provides a smooth surface for the flow of blood and regulates the movement of water and dissolved materials in ... The endothelium also produces molecules that discourage the blood from clotting unless there is a leak. Pericyte cells can ... The endothelium begins to control muscle tone and arteriolar blood flow tissue. Endothelial function in the circulation ...
Possibly haemorrhagins - affecting the blood vessels (endothelium). Hyaluronidase enzyme - increases the rate of absorption of ...
Atanu Basu, Umesh C. Chaturvedi (June 2008). "Vascular endothelium: the battlefield of dengue viruses". FEMS Immunology and ...
Pasloske, Brittan L.; Howard, Russell J. (February 1994). "Malaria, the red cell, and the endothelium". Annual Review of ...
EDHF: spreading the influence of the endothelium. British Journal of Pharmacology. 164:3, 839-852. (2011). Hua Cai, David G. ...
Frausto RF, Wang C, Aldave AJ (6 Nov 2014). "Transcriptome analysis of the human corneal endothelium". Investigative ... and moon crater-like changes of corneal endothelium. Trait carriers manifest only endothelial alterations resembling moon ...
... and endothelium or skeletal muscle and neutrophils. The lipoxins commonly form as a consequence of stimulating the production ...
"Endothelium" at Dorlands Medical Dictionary *^ Eskin, S.G.; Ives, C.L.; McIntire, L.V.; Navarro, L.T. "Response of cultured ... Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels,[1] forming an interface ... Endothelium is mesodermal in origin. Both blood and lymphatic capillaries are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells ... Barrier function - the endothelium acts as a semi-selective barrier between the vessel lumen and surrounding tissue, ...
endothelium (plural endothelia). *(anatomy) A thin layer of flat epithelial cells that lines the heart, serous cavities, lymph ... Retrieved from "" ...
endothelium (en-doh-*thee*-li-um) n.* the single layer of cells that lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels. It ... Endothelium is derived from the mesoderm. Compare epithelium; mesothelium.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the ... endothelium (en-doh-thee-li-um) n. the single layer of cells that lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels. It is ... endothelium A single layer of thin platelike cells that line the inner surfaces of blood and lymph vessels and the heart. ...
Carlos, T. M., and Harlan, J. M., 1990, Membrane proteins involved in phagocyte adherence to endothelium, Immunol. Rev. 114: 5- ... De Bono, D. P., and Green, C., 1984, The adhesion of different cell types to cultured vascular endothelium: Effects of culture ... Wallis, W. J., Beatty, P. G., Ochs, H. D., and Harlan, J. M., 1985, Human monocyte adherence to cultured vascular endothelium: ... Thornhill M.H., Haskard D.O. (1993) Leukocyte Adhesion to Endothelium. In: Horton M.A. (eds) Macrophages and Related Cells. ...
Endothelium definition, a type of epithelium composed of a single layer of smooth, thin cells that lines the heart, blood ... endothelium. in Science. endothelium. [ĕn′dō-thē′lē-əm]. Plural endothelia. *A thin layer of flat epithelial cells that lines ... endothelium. in Medicine. endothelium. (ĕn′dō-thē′lē-əm). n. pl. en•do•the•li•a (-lē-ə). *A thin layer of flat epithelial cells ... endothelium. noun plural -lia (-lɪə). *a tissue consisting of a single layer of cells that lines the blood and lymph vessels, ...
Lipid Accumulation Platelet Adherence Branch Site Human Smooth Muscle Cell Normal Endothelium These keywords were added by ... Endothelium. In: Chandler A.B., Eurenius K., McMillan G.C., Nelson C.B., Schwartz C.J., Wessler S. (eds) The Thrombotic Process ...
Endothelium function in sepsis. Inflamm Res 2000; 49:185.. *Faure E, Thomas L, Xu H, et al. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide and ... The endothelium and thrombosis. Semin Thromb Hemost 2000; 26:463.. *Wagner DD, Frenette PS. The vessel wall and its ... The endothelium: A primer. Authors. Katherine A Hajjar, MD. Katherine A Hajjar, MD ... The endothelium mediates vasomotor tone, regulates cellular and nutrient trafficking, maintains blood fluidity, contributes to ...
By Maggie Hennessy Roughly 14 million Americans say they have visual impairment, a number thats likely to grow as the population continues to age. But the founder of the Dade City, FL-based Healing The Eye & Wellness Center says one ruby-hued solution to eye disease... ...
The Endothelium. Paracrine Mediator of Aortic Dissection. Francesca Seta, Richard A. Cohen ... The work by Fan et al identifies release from the endothelium of the proinflammatory cytokine cyclophillin A (cypA) on ... For more than 30 years, the endothelium has assumed increasingly greater importance in our understanding of the development of ... Instead, the authors present evidence that, when Nox2 is overexpressed in the endothelium, angiotensin II causes excessive ...
... across the corneal endothelium. The corneal endothelium then transports water from the stromal-facing surface to the aqueous- ... The corneal endothelium is a single layer of endothelial cells on the inner surface of the cornea. It faces the chamber formed ... The corneal endothelium is attached to the rest of the cornea through Descemets membrane, which is an acellular layer composed ... The corneal endothelium governs fluid and solute transport across the posterior surface of the cornea and maintains the cornea ...
Immunotargeting of antioxidant enzyme to the pulmonary endothelium. V R Muzykantov, E N Atochina, H Ischiropoulos, S M Danilov ... Immunotargeting of antioxidant enzyme to the pulmonary endothelium. V R Muzykantov, E N Atochina, H Ischiropoulos, S M Danilov ... Immunotargeting of antioxidant enzyme to the pulmonary endothelium. V R Muzykantov, E N Atochina, H Ischiropoulos, S M Danilov ... Immunotargeting of antioxidant enzyme to the pulmonary endothelium Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from PNAS ...
Expression of the axon-guidance gene Slit2 in endothelium, induced by endothelial sensing of tumour-derived double-stranded RNA ... Thus, cancer cells co-opt innate RNA sensing to induce a chemotactic signalling pathway in endothelium that drives ... Deep sequencing revealed that metastatic tumours induced expression of the axon-guidance gene Slit2 in endothelium, ... Tavora, B., Mederer, T., Wessel, K.J. et al. Tumoural activation of TLR3-SLIT2 axis in endothelium drives metastasis. Nature ...
10) is indispensable for the establishment of this haemogenic endothelium population whereas the core binding factor Runx1 ( ... 11) is critical for generation of definitive haematopoietic cells from haemogenic endothelium. Together our results merge the ... Both are correct: the haemangioblast does generate haematopoietic cells, but via a haemogenic endothelium intermediate. There ... The haemangioblast generates haematopoietic cells through the formation of a haemogenic endothelium intermediate. It has been ...
... We characterize the phenotype and function of skin endothelium in the context of ... They shape the distinct responses of skin endothelium to angiogenic or inflammatory stimuli. ...
Endothelium. Klinisches W rterbuch von Otto Dornbl th. Definition und Bedeutung im historischen Lexikon der medizinischen ... Endothel, Endothelium. Endothel, Endothelium als Gegensatz zu epithelium gebildet, die zellige Auskleidung der Gef e und ser ...
Potassium softens vascular endothelium and increases nitric oxide release. H. Oberleithner, C. Callies, K. Kusche-Vihrog, H. ... Potassium softens vascular endothelium and increases nitric oxide release. H. Oberleithner, C. Callies, K. Kusche-Vihrog, H. ... Potassium softens vascular endothelium and increases nitric oxide release. H. Oberleithner, C. Callies, K. Kusche-Vihrog, H. ... Potassium softens vascular endothelium and increases nitric oxide release Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
Damaged renal endothelium may be regenerated through proliferation of local endothelium and circulation-derived endothelial ... agonism on endothelium make an important contribution to the beneficial actions of PPAR-. -agonists on renal disease. ... Activation in Renal Endothelium. Peter E. Westerweel1,2 and Marianne C. Verhaar1 ...
Endothelium-specific platelet-derived growth factor-B ablation mimics diabetic retinopathy. *Enge M ... We now report that endothelium-restricted ablation of platelet-derived growth factor-B generates viable mice with extensive ...
Matthias S. Leisegang, Christian Fork, Ivana Josipovic, Florian Martin Richter, Jens Preussner, Jiong Hu, Matthew J. Miller, Jeremy Epah, Patrick Hofmann, Stefan Günther, Franziska Moll, Chanil Valasarajan, Juliana Heidler, Yuliya Ponomareva, Thomas M. Freiman, Lars Maegdefessel, Karl H. Plate, Michel Mittelbronn, Shizuka Uchida, Carsten Künne, Konstantinos Stellos, Ralph T. Schermuly, Norbert Weissmann, Kavi Devraj, Ilka Wittig, Reinier A. Boon, Stefanie Dimmeler, Soni Savai Pullamsetti, Mario Looso, Francis J. Miller and Ralf P. Brandes ...
Human Endothelium: Target for Aldosterone. Hans Oberleithner, Thomas Ludwig, Christoph Riethmüller, Uta Hillebrand, Lars ... Human Endothelium: Target for Aldosterone. Hans Oberleithner, Thomas Ludwig, Christoph Riethmüller, Uta Hillebrand, Lars ... Human Endothelium: Target for Aldosterone. Hans Oberleithner, Thomas Ludwig, Christoph Riethmüller, Uta Hillebrand, Lars ...
... of chemokine receptor and viral coreceptor CXCR4 is reported in cultured endothelial cells and in arterial endothelium. A 1.9 ... Chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression in endothelium Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Jan 6;242(1):46-53. doi: 10.1006/bbrc. ... and in the endothelium of normal aorta but not in aortic smooth muscle. The ligand for CXCR4, stromal cell derived factor 1 ( ... of chemokine receptor and viral coreceptor CXCR4 is reported in cultured endothelial cells and in arterial endothelium. A 1.9 ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Effects of enzymatic sterilization detergents on the corneal endothelium.. Parikh C1, Sippy BD, Martin DF, Edelhauser HF. ... Endothelia were perfused either with the sterile irrigating solution BSS Plus (Alcon Laboratories Inc, Ft Worth, Tex) (control ... Human endothelia were perfused using 1.56% detergent. All corneas were fixed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ... The TEM of endothelia exposed to 1.0% solutions demonstrated abnormal vacuolization and dilated extracellular spaces, which ...
During the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi spreads hematogenously from the site of a tick bite to several tissues throughout the body. The specific mechanism of spirochete emigration is presently unknown. Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we found that Borrelia burgdorferi bound to the endothelial cells and to the subendothelial matrix. Low passage isolates adhered 22-30-fold greater than a strain maintained in culture continuously. Spirochete binding to subendothelial matrix was inhibited 48-63% by pretreatment of the matrix with anti-fibronectin antiserum. Spirochete migration across endothelial monolayers cultured on amniotic membrane was increased when the monolayers were damaged by chemical or physical means. Electron microscopic examination of spirochete-endothelial interactions demonstrated the presence of spirochetes in the intercellular junctions between endothelial cells as well as beneath the monolayers. Scanning electron microscopy identified a ...
Vildagliptin and Endothelium-dependent Vasodilatation Official Title ICMJE The Effect of Vildagliptin on Endothelium-dependent ... Vildagliptin and Endothelium-dependent Vasodilatation. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... Forearm vasodilator response to intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) following treatment with ...
Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. In blood vessels Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor or EDHF is proposed to ... increased evidence for the role of another endothelium-derived vasodilator known as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor ... The endothelium maintains vascular homeostasis through the release of active vasodilators. Although Nitric Oxide (NO) is ... Endothelium-derived CNP has been proposed to act as an EDHF via specific C-subtype of natriuretic peptide receptor, however the ...
Evidence for endothelium-dependent vasodilation of resistance vessels by acetylcholine.. Furchgott RF, Carvalho MH, Khan MT, ... an agent which can inactivate endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). These results suggest that a major component of ...
Recent work has linked the developmental origins of the coronary endothelium to the endothelium of the sinus venosus and the ... The relationship between cardiac endothelium and fibroblasts: its complicated. Ravi Karra,1,2 Agoston O. Walter,2 and Sean M. ... Origins and fates of the cardiac endothelium during development. In fetal hearts, the emergence of the coronary vasculature ... Origins of new cardiac endothelium following injury. In light of the apparent plasticity of endothelial cells in contributing ...
Endothelium-derived reactive oxygen species: their relationship to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization and vascular tone ... endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), endothelium, relaxation.. Les points de vue sur le rôle des espèces ... H2O2 itself can mediate endothelium-dependent relaxations in some vascular beds. Although nitric oxide (NO) is well recognized ... endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), is a significant determinant of vasodilatory tone. This review primarily ...
  • The cardiovascular system - (See 'Coronary artery endothelial dysfunction: Clinical aspects' and 'Vascular endothelial function and fundamental mechanisms of fibrinolysis (thrombolysis)', section on 'Vascular endothelium' . (
  • For more than 30 years, the endothelium has assumed increasingly greater importance in our understanding of the development of vascular pathology. (
  • The work by Fan et al identifies release from the endothelium of the proinflammatory cytokine cyclophillin A (cypA) on angiotensin II administration as a potential paracrine culprit mediating early degenerative events in vascular smooth muscle resulting in aortic dissection. (
  • Small physiological changes in extracellular sodium concentration directly stiffen vascular endothelium ( 16 ). (
  • Here, we show that potassium softens vascular endothelium and increases the release of NO. It is suggested that these changes in stiffness, mediated by potassium and sodium, involve principally a dynamic viscous zone at the periphery of the cell. (
  • The endothelium maintains vascular homeostasis through the release of active vasodilators . (
  • Diffusible factors are endothelium-derived substances that are able to pass through internal elastic layer (IEL), reach underlying vascular smooth muscle cells at a concentration sufficient to activate ion channels , and initiate smooth muscle hyperpolarization and relaxation. (
  • In some arteries, eicosanoids and K+ ions may themselves initiate a conducted endothelial hyperpolarization, thus suggesting that electrotonic signalling may represent a general mechanism through which the endothelium participates in the regulation of vascular tone. (
  • Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF) are considered as markers of endothelium dysfunction. (
  • H 2 O 2 itself can mediate endothelium-dependent relaxations in some vascular beds. (
  • Indigo carmine (10 −4 mol/L) also inhibited endothelium-independent vasorelaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (an activator of vascular smooth muscle soluble guanylyl cyclase), although to a lesser extent than vasodilation from acetylcholine, histamine, and Ca 2+ ionophore A23187. (
  • Vascular endothelium plays an important role in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone by releasing vasodilatory and/or vasoconstricting substances. (
  • 5 6 One of the most powerful substances released from endothelium is EDRF, now identified as NO. 7 8 NO plays a major role in maintaining resting vascular tone, and lack of NO production has been implicated as a cause of vasospasm and hypertension. (
  • The goals of the present study were (1) to examine whether IC inhibits endothelium-dependent vasodilation and (2) to determine whether the site of the inhibition is at the endothelium or at the vascular smooth muscle soluble guanylyl cyclase level. (
  • Researchers are especially interested in the vascular (blood vessel) endothelium and its role in the development of such medical conditions as heart disease and diabetic retinopathy (eye disease). (
  • Researchers who study atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries) and heart disease are keenly interested in the function - and dysfunction - of the vascular endothelium. (
  • Researchers are also studying the vascular endothelium in the context of angiogenesis, or the growth of new blood vessels. (
  • Cells within the endothelium tend to promote angiogenesis, with the help of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). (
  • A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (endothelium, vascular), lymph vessels (endothelium, lymphatic), and the serous cavities of the body[MESH]. (
  • This place is very dear to the lovers of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors because it was host to a number of similar symposia in the late-90s and at the beginning of this millennium, which played a seminal role in disseminating knowledge in this then-bourgeoning area of vascular biology. (
  • The role of the vascular endothelium has been identified almost three decades ago, and a number of lines of evidence provide solid support to the role of this tissue in modulating not only vascular tone, but also phenomena such as platelet, red blood cell aggregation and deformability. (
  • The endothelium is a major target of such responses and is the critical regulatory tissue that, when normally functional, determines a state of "vascular health. (
  • CONCLUSIONS--Vascular responses to endothelium dependent and independent stimuli in systemic arteries can be studied non-invasively in man. (
  • Tubular paramyxovirus-like structures in synovial vascular endothelium. (
  • Vascular endothelium responds to fluid shear stress gradients. (
  • In vitro investigations of the responses of vascular endothelium to fluid shear stress have typically been conducted under conditions where the time-mean shear stress is uniform. (
  • There is a need to demonstrate that linagliptin is effective beyond its blood glucose lowering actions and improves vascular endothelium function in the kidney. (
  • The endothelium plays an important role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by synthesizing and releasing several relaxing factors, such as prostacyclin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). (
  • Leukocyte transmigration through the vascular endothelium is a key step in the immune response, and also in progression of the cardiovascular disease atherosclerosis. (
  • A novel in vitro model of the vascular endothelium was created. (
  • Bacterial and mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (NFPs) act as damage-associated molecular patterns and activate the innate immune system through formyl peptide receptors (FPR) located in immune and non-immune cells, including the vascular endothelium. (
  • When combined with traditional cell and molecular technologies, a powerful palette of investigative approaches is available to address shear stress biology of the endothelium at levels extending from nanoscale subcellular detailed mechanistic responses through to higher organizational levels of regional endothelial phenotypes and heterogeneous vascular beds. (
  • OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the administration of metformin exerts any effects on serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and whether supplementation with folate enhances the positive effects of metformin on the structure and function of the vascular endothelium. (
  • CONCLUSIONS Metformin exerts a slight but significant deleterious effect on serum Hcy levels in patients with PCOS, and supplementation with folate is useful to increase the beneficial effect of metformin on the vascular endothelium. (
  • Based on these considerations, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the administration of metformin exerts any effect on serum Hcy levels in patients with PCOS and whether supplementation with folate enhances the positive effects of metformin on the structure and function of the vascular endothelium. (
  • We suggest that inhibition of PP1 and/or PP2A activities by Cant enhances vascular contractility in endothelium-intact rat aorta by increasing the phosphorylation state of endothelial regulatory proteins. (
  • Constriction and enlargement of the blood vessel, called vasoconstriction and vasodilation, and hence the control of blood pressure The endothelium is involved in the formation of new blood vessels, called angiogenesis. (
  • Evidence for endothelium-dependent vasodilation of resistance vessels by acetylcholine. (
  • In the perfused mesenteric arterial vasculature of the rat, vasodilation by ACh was markedly, though not completely, inhibited by hemoglobin (10 microM), an agent which can inactivate endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). (
  • Abstract To investigate the potential mechanisms by which indigo carmine produces hypertension, we tested the hypothesis that indigo carmine inhibits endothelium-dependent vasodilation and determined the possible site of the inhibition (endothelium versus smooth muscle). (
  • 19 Inhibition of any site in this l -arginine-NO-guanylyl cyclase pathway can cause an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation and hypertension. (
  • Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease as well as several of its risk factors. (
  • Apolipoprotein B was inversely associated with both EDV and endothelium-independent vasodilation (EIDV) in healthy subjects aged 20-69 years. (
  • Endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV), LDL particle size, and antibodies against oxidized LDL (oxLDLab) have been shown to be related to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. (
  • Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in type 2 diabetes. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: In summary, patients with type 2 diabetes exhibited impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in vivo, elevated serum triglycerides, decreased LDL size, and normal antioxidant capacity. (
  • 1. Previous investigations have demonstrated an impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in patients with hypertension. (
  • Treatment also prevented the development of impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation. (
  • In cases in which irreversible corneal endothelial failure develops, severe corneal edema ensues, and the only effective remedy is replacement of the diseased corneal endothelium through the surgical approach of corneal transplantation. (
  • Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) allows selective replacement of the diseased corneal endothelium. (
  • For the endothelium of the cornea, see corneal endothelium . (
  • The corneal endothelium is a single layer of endothelial cells on the inner surface of the cornea. (
  • The corneal endothelium are specialized, flattened, mitochondria-rich cells that line the posterior surface of the cornea and face the anterior chamber of the eye. (
  • The corneal endothelium governs fluid and solute transport across the posterior surface of the cornea and maintains the cornea in the slightly dehydrated state that is required for optical transparency. (
  • The corneal endothelium is attached to the rest of the cornea through Descemet's membrane, which is an acellular layer composed mostly of collagen IV. (
  • The principal physiological function of the corneal endothelium is to allow leakage of solutes and nutrients from the aqueous humor to the more superficial layers of the cornea while at the same time pumping water in the opposite direction, from the stroma to the aqueous. (
  • Since the cornea is avascular, which renders it optimally transparent, the nutrition of the corneal epithelium, stromal keratocytes, and corneal endothelium must occur via diffusion of glucose and other solutes from the aqueous humor, across the corneal endothelium. (
  • The cornea is composed of a multilayered epithelium, Bowman's membrane, stroma, Descemet's membrane, and endothelium ( Figure 1 ). (
  • Transparency of the cornea is maintained by regulation of stromal hydration through the barrier and pump functions of the corneal endothelium. (
  • Anterior view of a human cornea and a diagram of the corneal epithelium, stroma and endothelium. (
  • The human corneal endothelium regulates the cornea transparency. (
  • Mild mononuclear anterior uveitis in eyes of guinea pigs infected with Lassa virus (LASV) Josiah by hematoxylin and eosin stain in study of LASV targeting of anterior uvea and endothelium of cornea and conjunctiva in eye. (
  • Diabetes mellitus leads to endothelium dysfunction and an accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. (
  • The Endothelium-Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis was first developed and patented by engineers at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). (
  • JSC and Meridian are currently negotiating a second, novel "umbrella SAA" that will include separate annexes for different technology areas to further speed testing and development.Meridian intends to market the technology as the Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis (EPMTA™) Angioplasty Device for the nonsurgical repair of diseased coronary arteries. (
  • Since hemodynamic factors have been implicated in the localization and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the effect of hemodynamic stress on endothelium was investigated. (
  • Using isolated rat thoracic aortic rings that were precontracted with phenylephrine, we examined vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine, histamine, and Ca 2+ ionophore A23187 (in endothelium-intact rings) and sodium nitroprusside and isoproterenol (in endothelium-denuded rings) in the presence and absence of indigo carmine. (
  • Endothelium-dependent acetylcholine--mediated relaxation was studied in phenylephrine-preconstricted aortic rings in the presence of vehicle, N-G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and/or indomethacin. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive analysis of cardiovascular risk markers and measured blood flow responses to endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine [ACh] and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside [SNP]) vasoactive agents in 30 nonsmoking men with type 2 diabetes (age 51 +/- 1 years, BMI 27.8 +/- 0.4 kg/m2, HbA1c 7.4 +/- 0.3%) and 12 matched normal control men. (
  • Endothelium-dependent relaxation was induced by acetylcholine in precontracted aortic rings. (
  • The goal of this project is to identify transcription factors that drive hemogenic, as opposed to non-hemogenic, endothelium fate in the developing mouse embryo, and to apply that knowledge toward inducing hemogenic ability in human endothelial cells. (
  • We have also demonstrated that hemogenic endothelium is derived from one specific embryonic tissue (lateral plate mesoderm). (
  • Adult-type hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are formed during ontogeny from a specialized subset of endothelium, termed the hemogenic endothelium, via an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT) that occurs in the embryonic aorta and the associated arteries. (
  • Here, we have designed a stromal line-free controlled culture system utilizing the embryonic pre-somitic mesoderm to obtain large numbers of endothelial cells that subsequently commit into hemogenic endothelium before undergoing EHT. (
  • This method will improve our understanding of the precise cellular changes associated with hemogenic endothelium commitment and EHT and, by unfolding these earliest steps of the hematopoietic program, will pave the way for future ex vivo production of blood cells. (
  • In accordance with their expression, loss-of-function studies coupled with in vivo imaging analysis reveal that scl-β acts earlier to specify hemogenic endothelium, which is later transformed by runx1 into HSCs. (
  • Experiments show that when NO and Prostacyclin (Vasodilators) are inhibited there is still another factor causing the vessels to dilate [1] Despite the ongoing debate of its intriguingly variable nature and mechanisms of action, the contribution of EDHF to the endothelium-dependent relaxation is currently appreciated as an important feature of "healthy" endothelium. (
  • These results suggest that indigo carmine, like methylene blue, may inhibit endothelium-dependent relaxation by a mechanism that involves two levels. (
  • Only ACE inhibitor treatment normalised resistance vessel contractility and endothelium-dependent relaxation suggesting that factors other than blood pressure reduction play an important role in restoring resistance artery endothelial function. (
  • The presence of a functional and automatically intact endothelium was confirmed by relaxation to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator bradykinin and by transmission electron microscopy, respectively. (
  • Impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in human basilar artery after subarachnoid hemorrhage. (
  • The endothelium-dependent relaxation responses to thrombin, bradykinin, and calcium ionophore A23187 were less for the subarachnoid hemorrhage group than for the control group. (
  • Possible procoagulant properties of the endothelium are described, such as expression of tissue factor (TF) and von Willebrand factor and interaction with platelets. (
  • Endothelial cells in culture retain many of the functional properties of the endothelium in vivo. (
  • This includes the discoveries that the endothelium releases the powerful vasodilator and antiplatelet mediators prostacyclin and nitric oxide, as well as its role in governing permeability, inflammation, and monocyte/macrophage infiltration of the blood vessel. (
  • Although Nitric Oxide (NO) is recognized as the primary factor at level of arteries, increased evidence for the role of another endothelium-derived vasodilator known as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor ( EDHF ) has accumulated in the last years. (
  • Results: The role of vasodilator prostaglandins in the aorta was increased and the role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor and response of the AT1-R and AT2-R to Ang-II was decreased in pregnant saline infused rats as compared with non-pregnant rats. (
  • Since endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation, we questioned whether PDT impairs the production of EDRF. (
  • We conclude that PDT impairs the production or release of EDRF by the endothelium. (
  • In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry (anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody 12G5) revealed both transcript and protein expression in cultured endothelial cells, and in the endothelium of normal aorta but not in aortic smooth muscle. (
  • Recent studies have shown that nascent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) derive directly from the ventral aortic endothelium (VAE) via endothelial to hematopoietic transition (EHT). (
  • Endothelium-derived CNP has been proposed to act as an EDHF via specific C-subtype of natriuretic peptide receptor, however the evidence in favour of CNP's acting as EDHF has yet to be determined. (
  • Although nitric oxide (NO) is well recognized as an endothelium-derived dilator, it is also well established, particularly in the microvasculature, that another factor, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), is a significant determinant of vasodilatory tone. (
  • Bien que le monoxyde d'azote (NO) soit reconnu en tant que dilatateur dérivé de l'endothélium, il est bien établi aussi, particulièrement dans le système microvasculaire, qu'un autre facteur, le facteur hyperpolarisant dérivé de l'endothélium (EDHF), est un déterminant majeur du tonus vasodilatateur. (
  • Thus, the term "endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor," 5 abbreviated to EDHF, should no longer be used because it masks the real identity of the signal(s) involved. (
  • We have previously demonstrated in animals and humans that endothelium-derived hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is an EDHF that is produced in part by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). (
  • We have demonstrated that endothelium-derived H 2 O 2 is an EDHF in mouse ( 14 ) and human ( 15 ) mesenteric arteries and porcine coronary microvessels ( 16 ). (
  • Damaged renal endothelium may be regenerated through proliferation of local endothelium and circulation-derived endothelial progenitor cells. (
  • This review of clinical and experimental studies aims at analyzing the interplay between graft endothelium and host immune system in renal transplantation, and how it affects the survival of the graft. (
  • Both naturally occurring and induced allo-antibodies directed to the Ag expressed on the membrane of EC are commonly found in renal recipients, and such antibodies, being capable of fixing the complement and damaging the tissues, are detrimental for the correct functioning of the endothelium ( 7 ). (
  • Effects of Linagliptin on Renal Endothelium Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. (
  • In face of the burden that diabetic nephropathy causes, the effect of linagliptin on the renal vasculature and endothelium integrity of the renal circulation (as measured by the availability of nitric oxide), is a key stone in order to claim that linagliptin is an effective antidiabetic agents. (
  • Furthermore, we observed that renal endothelium function is improved by cardiovascular risk factor control (e.g. blood pressure) and may be predictive for the development of diabetic nephropathy (5). (
  • PKCβ isoform activation induced by diabetes decreased GLP-1R expression and protective action on the renal endothelium by increasing its degradation via ubiquitination and enhancing phospho-c-Raf(Ser338) and Ang II activation of phospho-Erk1/2. (
  • [9] A further consequence of damage to the endothelium is the release of pathological quantities of von Willebrand factor , which promote platelet aggregation and adhesion to the subendothelium, and thus the formation of potentially fatal thrombi. (
  • This is a method to visualise leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium in harvested pressurised vessels. (
  • Endothel, Endothelium als Gegensatz zu epithelium gebildet , die zellige Auskleidung der Gef e und ser sen H hlen, einschichtiges Plattenepithel. (
  • Endothelium is the most familiar kind of simple squamous epithelium. (
  • The phenotype of the reconstructed corneal endothelium was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis and noncontact specular microscopy. (
  • Specular microscopy of the corneal endothelium. (
  • The endothelium of the normal corneas of 67 human subjects was studied in vivo with the specular microscope in order to quantify the method as a means of sampling the cell density of the tissue. (
  • Thirty images of corneal endothelium were acquired with a specular endothelial microscope (SP-3000P, Topcon Co., Japan) from both healthy and pathological subjects. (
  • Tie-2 stabilises pericyte/endothelial interactions during angiogenesis and is over expressed on tumor endothelium. (
  • These studies demonstrate that tumor and normal endothelium are distinct at the molecular level, a finding that may have significant implications for the development of anti-angiogenic therapies. (
  • Global analysis of gene expression in tumor and normal endothelium is difficult because (i) the endothelium is enmeshed in a complex tissue consisting of vessel wall components, stromal cells, and epithelial cells, and (ii) only a small fraction of the cells within these tissues are endothelial. (
  • Oxidative injury to the pulmonary endothelium has pathological significance for a spectrum of diseases. (
  • Thus, modification of antioxidant enzymes with biotin and SA-mediated conjugation with b-mAb 9B9 prolongs the circulation of enzymes resulting in selective accumulation in the lung and intracellular delivery of enzymes to the pulmonary endothelium. (
  • These results provide the background for an approach to provide protection of pulmonary endothelium against oxidative insults. (
  • Moreover, the important roles of the endothelium in down-regulating the anticoagulants TF pathway inhibitor, antithrombin, and the protein C (PC) system and inhibition of fibrinolysis are discussed. (
  • HUVEC exposed 18 h to TNF were considerably more susceptible to lysis by PMA-activated EOs and reagent H2O2, demonstrating a direct effect of TNF upon endothelium, perhaps through inhibition of antioxidant defenses. (
  • [4] Many considered the endothelium a specialized epithelial tissue. (
  • Barrier function - the endothelium acts as a semi-selective barrier between the vessel lumen and surrounding tissue, controlling the passage of materials and the transit of white blood cells into and out of the bloodstream. (
  • Excessive or prolonged increases in permeability of the endothelium, as in cases of chronic inflammation, may lead to tissue swelling (edema). (
  • This review presents current knowledge on the tissue engineering of corneal endothelium using cultured HCECs. (
  • For example, is endothelium that lines blood vessels in tumors qualitatively different from endothelium in vessels of normal tissue? (
  • To determine if tumor-specific endothelial markers exist, we compared gene expression profiles in endothelium derived from normal and tumor tissue. (
  • Tissues were collected from i) tissue culture medium (TCM) and ii) transport medium(TM) [TCM+6% Dextran], stripped and preserved with endothelium flap-in for 4 days at RT. (
  • The resulting inflammatory response manifests as capillary leak, tissue hypoperfusion and vasoplegia, partially due to endothelium barrier breakdown. (
  • Endothelium-Dependent Hyperpolarization: No Longer an F-Wor. (
  • Endothelium-Dependent Hyperpolarization: No Longer an F-Word! (
  • From June 27 to June 29, 2012, a meeting was gathered in the mythical "Abbaye des Vaulx-de-Cernay," in the middle of the sumptuous forest of Rambouillet, to discuss the latest knowledge on endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) and related topics of endothelial function. (
  • Both biochemical and physical stimuli are sensed by the endothelium as stimuli for the release of oxygen free radicals and nitric oxide. (
  • Endothelium dysfunction markers in patients with diabetic retinop. (
  • There were no statistically significant differences between studied groups in any of evaluated endothelium dysfunction markers. (
  • In the early stage of diabetic nephropathy, endothelium dysfunction is a key pathogenetic process as indicated by increased leakage of albumin through the glomerular barrier (2). (
  • 11 Then, this supplement brings us back from molecular biology to the best model of disease, humans, and discusses the intricacies of endothelium-dependent control in our species. (
  • Chicago -Intensive dosing with levofloxacin ophthalmic solution 1.5% (Iquix, Vistakon Pharmaceuticals) for 2 weeks did not demonstrate any adverse effects on the integrity and morphology of the corneal endothelium in humans, according to the study presented by Mark Abelson, MD, at the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery annual meeting. (
  • We find that 100 U/ml TNF-alpha/cachectin (TNF), a concentration attainable in the blood of humans with parasitic infestations, stimulates highly purified populations of EOs to damage human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), a model of human endothelium. (
  • The Effect of Vildagliptin on Endothelium-dependent Vasodilatation. (
  • Eight of these underwent evaluation of EDV and endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EIDV) by means of forearm blood flow measurements during local intra-arterial infusions of methacholine (2 and 4 micrograms/min) and sodium nitroprusside (5 and 10 micrograms/min), before and after 1 h of sustained hypertension, induced by noradrenaline given intravenously. (
  • Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels , [1] forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. (
  • The endothelium forms an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. (
  • The donor ECs wrap around the host vessel to displace the pericytes and proteolytically attack the basement membrane of the host vessel endothelium via matrix metalloproteinases-9 and -14. (
  • A vaccine that targets endothelium over-expressing Tie-2 may result in vessel damage and stimulate an inflammatory cascade resulting in disease regression. (
  • Cant (1 and 3 μM) enhanced norepinephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact rat aorta. (
  • In contrast, Cant did not affect norepinephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-denuded rat aorta. (
  • They shape the distinct responses of skin endothelium to angiogenic or inflammatory stimuli. (
  • Les cellules endothéliales expriment les enzymes qui produisent des ROS en réponse à divers stimuli, et le H 2 O 2 est un puissant relaxant du muscle lisse vasculaire. (
  • In the second year of this proposal, we have made significant progress and identified critical factors that are responsible for the generation of hematopoietic stem cells from the endothelium (inner layer of blood vessels). (
  • Functional impairment of the human corneal endothelium can lead to corneal blindness. (
  • Subsequently, the donor ECs may now gain access to the host endothelium and displaces some cells to integrate into the endothelial intima and divert blood into the donor vasculature. (
  • Finally, as the response that follows transplantation has proven to be not necessarily destructive, the factors that foster graft endothelium functioning in spite of rejection, and how they could be therapeutically harnessed to promote long-term graft acceptance, are described: accommodation that is resistance of EC to donor-specific antibodies, and endothelial cell ability to induce Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells, that are crucial mediators of tolerance. (
  • As endothelial cells (EC) express a number of antigens (Ag) that are visible by the immune system of a genetically disparate individual, donor endothelium is invariably recognized by the host immune system, and therefore, it is the first and preferential target of the allo-immune response that follows organ transplantation without an adequate immunosuppression ( 6 ). (
  • Donor rabbit corneal endothelium was pretreated with different doses of ultraviolet (UV-B) irradiation (302 nm) before grafting to test whether allograft survival could be favorably affected in comparison with untreated corneas grafted into the same recipients. (
  • Although exposure of donor endothelium significantly reduced endothelial rejection at all doses tested, it resulted in primary graft failure in a substantial proportion of corneas treated at high doses. (
  • These data suggest that UV-B pretreatment of donor corneal endothelium prolongs graft survival but that toxic side effects must be carefully controlled. (
  • These experiments have investigated how the endothelium modulates resistance artery contractility in hypertension. (
  • Endothelial modulation was similar in both sets of arteries, suggesting that the endothelium does not mask an increased reactivity in 2-K, 1C hypertension. (
  • endothelium A single layer of thin platelike cells that line the inner surfaces of blood and lymph vessels and the heart. (
  • The endothelium grows along the interior surface of the arteries and veins. (
  • CONCLUSIONS--Substance P causes endothelium dependent dilatation in atheromatous coronary arteries, even at sites of overt atheroma. (
  • However, the endothelium-independent response to sodium nitroprusside of the subarachnoid hemorrhage group did not differ from that of the control group. (
  • endothelium (en-doh- th'ee -li-um) n. the single layer of cells that lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels. (
  • The endothelium of the artery is a thin cell layer which lines the innermost layer of cells, known as the tunica intima. (
  • These cells are developed from the Endothelium and mesothelium. (
  • Thus, cancer cells co-opt innate RNA sensing to induce a chemotactic signalling pathway in endothelium that drives intravasation and metastasis. (
  • Here we demonstrate that the haemangioblast generates haematopoietic cells through the formation of a haemogenic endothelium intermediate, providing the first direct link between these two precursor populations. (
  • Endothelium is a single layer of squamous endothelial cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels. (
  • The endothelium is a thin layer of single flat (squamous) cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. (
  • The expression of chemokine receptor and viral coreceptor CXCR4 is reported in cultured endothelial cells and in arterial endothelium. (
  • The normal corneal endothelium is a single layer of uniformly sized cells with a predominantly hexagonal shape. (
  • Wounding of the corneal endothelium, as from trauma or other insults, prompts healing of the endothelial monolayer by sliding and enlargement of adjacent endothelial cells, rather than mitosis. (
  • Moreover, the authors found that in the presence of endothelium, the Notch effector Hes1 (mammalian homologue of the Drosophila protein hairy and enhancer-of-split) was upregulated in stem cells. (
  • The mean percentages of hexagonal cells in the corneal endothelium at baseline were 59.8 ± 10.8 compared with 61.9 ± 11.3 after dosing. (
  • Cell counts revealed that, in the anastomosed vein of the fistula, an initially high frequency of abnormal cells decreased 3-12 weeks postoperatively but rose again within 20-50 weeks to levels significantly higher than those in either normal venous endothelium or sham-operated veins. (
  • The findings demonstrate that hemodynamic factors can cause endothelial injury, increased turnover of endothelial cells, and formation of multinucleated endothelial cells characteristic of regenerating endothelium. (
  • To study this possible effect of PDT, endothelium-dependent relaxations of thoracic aortas obtained from male Wistar rats were determined. (
  • 2 The identities of most diffusible endothelium-derived mediators that can cause EDH is now well established and should be referred to by their proper names (NO, CO, H 2 O 2 , H 2 S, and arachidonic acid derivatives) 3,4 and when they are not involved cell-to-cell contacts explain the phenomenon. (
  • Indigo carmine (10 −6 , 10 −5 , and 10 −4 mol/L) significantly inhibited receptor- and non-receptor-mediated endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. (
  • We speculate that large shear stress gradients can induce morphological and functional changes in the endothelium in regions of disturbed flow in vivo and thus may contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. (
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate if myogenic responses of isolated coronary arterioles were dependent on an intact, functional endothelium. (
  • Graft endothelium is indeed the first barrier between self and non-self that is encountered by host lymphocytes upon reperfusion of vascularized solid transplants. (
  • Allograft endothelium is the first barrier between self and non-self in vascularized solid-organ transplantation, and preservation of its integrity and functions is mandatory to ensure a prolonged survival of the graft ( 5 ). (
  • Endothelium dependent and independent responses in coronary artery disease measured at angioplasty. (
  • Transcriptional and Posttranslational Regulation of eNOS in the Endothelium. (
  • Endothelium is the smooth inner lining of some body structures, including the heart and blood vessels. (
  • The endothelium normally provides a surface on which blood does not clot, because it contains and expresses substances that prevent clotting, including heparan sulfate which acts as a cofactor for activating antithrombin, a protease that inactivates several factors in the coagulation cascade. (
  • Interestingly, we found that a single manipulation was not sufficient, but multiple and specific manipulations resulted in the generation of blood from endothelium. (
  • DMEK tissues can be preserved and pre-loaded using combination c with endothelium flapped-in. (
  • Endothelial function will be assessed by a laser Doppler imager in the presence of hyperthermia and endothelium stimulators. (
  • Human endothelia were perfused using 1.56% detergent. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Human brain endothelium: coexpression and function of vanilloid and endocannabinoid receptors. (
  • Non-invasive measurement of human endothelium dependent arterial responses: accuracy and reproducibility. (
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha/cachectin stimulates eosinophil oxidant production and toxicity towards human endothelium. (
  • Nevertheless, the host immune response that follows recognition of EC allo-Ag is not necessarily destructive, in spite of graft rejection, accommodation, where not active tolerance, may operationally establish, thus fostering the endothelium to fulfill its functions ( 5 ). (