Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Loss of CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM usually following intraocular surgery (e.g., cataract surgery) or due to FUCHS' ENDOTHELIAL DYSTROPHY; ANGLE-CLOSURE GLAUCOMA; IRITIS; or aging.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A cell surface glycoprotein of endothelial cells that binds thrombin and serves as a cofactor in the activation of protein C and its regulation of blood coagulation.
Rod-shaped storage granules for VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR specific to endothelial cells.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.
An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.
A class of oxidized LDL receptors that contain LECTIN-like extracellular domains.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A TIE receptor found predominantly on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is considered essential for vascular development and can form a heterodimer with the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. The TIE-1 receptor may play a role in regulating BLOOD VESSEL stability and maturation.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
A thrombin receptor subtype that couples to HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS resulting in the activation of a variety of signaling mechanisms including decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP, increased TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES and increased PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.
Angiostatic proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of COLLAGEN TYPE XVIII.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A family of proteinase-activated receptors that are specific for THROMBIN. They are found primarily on PLATELETS and on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Activation of thrombin receptors occurs through the proteolytic action of THROMBIN, which cleaves the N-terminal peptide from the receptor to reveal a new N-terminal peptide that is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The receptors signal through HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. Small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal peptide sequence can also activate the receptor in the absence of proteolytic activity.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.

Transgenic mice with overexpression of human scavenger receptor A on endothelial cells. (1/13004)

OBJECTIVES: To establish a new transgenic mouse model for determining the function and role of human scavenger receptor A (SR-A) in atherosclerosis in vivo. METHODS: Human scavenger receptor minigene-driven mouse tie-1 promoter was constructed and confirmed by endonuclease digestion and sequence analysis. Transgenic mice were generated via the microinjection method. PCR and Southern blot were used to screen the positive transgenic mice. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis were used to detect the level and location of human SR-AI expression in transgenic mice. The activity of human SR-AI was determined by morphologic observation of aortic endothelial cells of transgenic mice under transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The electrophoresis assay showed the expected 4 fragments of 0.9 kb, 1.1 kb, 1.2 kb and 4.2 kb in the Sma I digest and 2 fragments of 0.8 kb and 6.7 kb in Bgl II digest of plasmids pTie-1/hSR-A. The fragment sequence of tie-1 promoter and human SR-A cDNA in plasmids pTie-1/hSR-A was correct and no ATG before the translation initiation sites of human SR-A was found by sequence analysis. 561 injected and surviving embryos with the purified human SR-A minigene were implanted into the oviducts of 19 ICR pseudopregnant mice. Among the 54 surviving pups from 13 foster mothers, 7 were identified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. The results of RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis showed human SR-A was specifically expressed on vascular endothelial cells of the aorta and renal artery, as well as hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in transgenic mice. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) of aorta of transgenic mice showed that a large number of vesicles, multivesicle bodies and swollen mitochondria filled the plasma of endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: A transgenic mouse model with overexpression of human SR-A in endothelial cells was successfully established. The transgene was integrated and transmitted into the chromosome of transgenic mice. Tie-1 promoter controlled the transgene to express in endothelial cells in mice. Pinocytic activity of aortic endothelial cells in transgenic mice was higher than that of C57BL/6J mice. Our studies will provide a new transgenic model for investigation of atherosclerosis and functions of human SR-A.  (+info)

Effects of tetrandrine on cardiovascular electrophysiologic properties. (2/13004)

Tetrandrine (Tet) is one of the best characterized Ca2+ channel blocker of plant origin. It can affect cardiovascular electrophysiologic properties in following field: inhibit the contractility, +/-dt/dpmax, and automaticity of myocardium, prolong the FRP, and exert concentration-dependent negative inotropic and chronotropic effects without altering cardiac excitability. Tet directly blocks both T-type and L-type calcium current in ventricular cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, but it does not shift the I-V relationship curve of ICa. All its effects would be beneficial in the treatment of angina, arrhythmias, and other cardiovascular disorders. Tet also directly inhibits the activity of BKCa channel in endothelial cell line and also inhibits Ca2+-release-activated channels in vessel endothelial cells, which might significantly contribute to the change of endothelial cell activity.  (+info)

Effect of Korea red ginseng on cerebral blood flow and superoxide production. (3/13004)

AIM: To investigate the effects of Korea red ginseng (KRG) on the cerebral perfusion rate in the rats and the generation of superoxide anion in the endothelial cells. METHODS: The cerebral perfusion rate was measured using laser-doppler flowmetry before and after the administration of crude saponin (CS) and saponin-free fraction (SFF) of KRG in the anesthetized rats. The superoxide generation was measured by the method based on lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence in the cultured endothelial cells. RESULTS: The relative cerebral perfusion rate (rCBF) was significantly increased by the intraperitoneal injection of CS (100 mg/kg) in the rats, but SFF had no effect on the rCBF. Chronic treatment with CS for 7 d significantly inhibited the decrease of forebrain cerebral blood flow induced by clamping both carotid arteries in the rats. Furthermore, CS (0.1 g/L) significantly suppressed NADPH-induced superoxide generation in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (P <0.01). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that crude saponin fraction of KRG enhanced cerebral blood flow in rats. Furthermore, crude saponin fraction of KRG abrogated the NADPH-driven superoxide generation in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Enhancement of fibrinolytic activity of bovine aortic endothelial cells by ginsenoside Rb2. (4/13004)

AIM: The effect of ginsenoside Rb2 purified from Panax ginseng on fibrinolytic activity of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) was investigated. METHODS: Cellular plasminogen activator (PA) level of the lysates was measured by the chromogenic substrate S-2403. Fibrin underlay technique was carried out to observe fibrinolysis by growing endothelial cells in the culture medium. Cell viability was then determined by measurement of the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase. The ability of Rb2 of potentiating cellular PA activity was investigated by measuring the amounts of PA and PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the culture medium using zymography and reverse zymography. Changes in the expression of urokinase-type PA (uPA), uPA receptor, and PAI-1 mRNA in BAEC after treatment with Rb2 were analyzed by Northern blot. RESULTS: Rb2 enhanced cellular PA activity in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. Treatment of BAEC with Rb2 10 mg/L for 9 h resulted in a 3.5-fold increase of PA activity without a marked cytotoxic effect, as shown by LDH levels in culture. Increased PA levels caused the increase in surface plasmin levels as observed by fibrin underlay technique. Rb2 greatly or moderately increased the amount of urokinase-type PA (uPA) or its inhibitor (PAI-1), present in the culture medium, whereas saponin did not influence mRNA levels of uPA, its surface receptor, and PAI-1, suggesting that Rb2 may stimulate the secretion of uPA without enhancing its gene expression. The enhancement of PA levels by retinoic acid alone, a stimulator of PA synthesis, was potentiated by the simultaneous addition of ginsenoside Rb2 1 mg/L. Therefore, Rb2 might exert a strong synergism in the synthesis of cellular PA in BAEC. CONCLUSION: Ginsenoside Rb2 enhanced the PA activity levels in BAEC as well as the surface plasmin activity of BAEC. Rb2 may stimulate the secretion of uPA without enhancing the gene expression of uPA, uPA receptor (uPAR), and PAI-1.  (+info)

Effect of matrine on cold ischemia and reperfusion injury of sinusoidal endothelial cells in rat orthotopic liver transplantation. (5/13004)

AIM: To study the mechanism and prevention of matrine (Mat) on cold ischemia/reperfusion injury of sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) in rat orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six syngeneic SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=18): untreated group, 40 mg/kg treated group, 80 mg/kg treated group, and pseudo-treated group. After 5 h of preservation in Ringer's (LR) solution, orthotopic implantation of the donor liver was performed. At 1, 2, and 4 h after reperfusion of the portal vein, 6 rats were killed in each group to collect the serum and the median lobe of liver for assay. RESULTS: The level of hylluronic acid (HA) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) decreased significantly in both treated groups at different times post-transplantation, and their pathological changes of SEC were ameliorated, too. CONCLUSION: Matrine can prevent SEC from ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat orthotopic liver transplantation.  (+info)

Endothelial cell proliferation in male reproductive organs of adult rat is high and regulated by testicular factors. (6/13004)

Endothelial cells in the intact adult are, apart from those in the female reproductive organs, believed to be quiescent. Systematic examination of endothelial cell proliferation in male reproductive organs has not been performed and was therefore the aim of the present study. Intact adult rats were either pulse labeled or long-term labeled with bromodeoxyuridine to label proliferating cells. The roles of Leydig cells and testosterone were examined after castration or treatment with the Leydig cell toxin ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) and testosterone substitution. After perfusion fixation, all blood vessels remained open and were easily identified. In all male reproductive organs studied, particularly in the testis and epididymis, endothelial cell proliferation was considerably higher than in other tissues such as the liver, brain, and muscle. Proliferating endothelial cells were observed in all types of blood vessels in male reproductive organs, but other characteristics of new blood vessel formation were not seen. High endothelial cell proliferation may reflect a continuous high turnover of endothelial cells rather than classical angiogenesis. In the epididymis, the ventral and dorsolateral prostate lobes, and the seminal vesicles, endothelial cell proliferation decreased after testosterone withdrawal and increased following testosterone treatment. In the testis, endothelial cell proliferation was decreased after Leydig cell depletion but remained low after testosterone substitution. High, hormonally regulated endothelial cell proliferation is not unique to the female but is also seen in the male reproductive organs.  (+info)

Chemokine receptor expression in human endometrium. (7/13004)

Chemokines play a role in endometrial physiology and pathology and may affect endometrial receptivity and menstrual shedding. Chemokines exert their effect by binding to their relevant receptors, the expression levels of which may modulate their action. In the present study, we examined the expression of chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 (receptors for interleukin-8) and CCR5 (receptor for RANTES [regulated-on-activation, normal-T-cell-expressed and -secreted], macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-1alpha, and MIP-1beta) in human endometrium. Human endometria (n = 35) were grouped according to the menstrual cycle phase and examined by immunohistochemistry for CXCR1, CXCR2, and CCR5. In both epithelial and stromal cells, CXCR1 and CXCR2 immunoreactivity was detected. Staining was most prominent at the apical and basal aspects of epithelial cells. Intense CCR5 immunostaining was observed in epithelial and stromal compartments throughout the menstrual cycle. Epithelial and stromal staining for CXCR1 reached a peak at the midsecretory phase, during which it was significantly higher than the level of staining during the proliferative phase (P < 0.05). Immunostaining for CXCR2 and CCR5 showed no significant variation across the menstrual cycle. Expression of interleukin-8 and RANTES in endometrium, together with the presence of their receptors, suggests that autocrine and paracrine interactions involving these chemokines may participate in endometrial physiology.  (+info)

Differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells from human umbilical cord blood CD 34+ cells in vitro. (8/13004)

AIM: To study the time course of the expression of stem cell marker and endothelial cell markers on human cord blood CD34+ cells during in vitro differentiation process of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). METHODS: CD34+ cells were selected and enriched from human cord blood by magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS), and cultured in dishes coated with or without fibronectin (Fn). Endothelial cells were identified by staining the cells with anti Flk-1 and vWF antibodies. The percentage of AC133+ cells in adherent CD34+ cell population was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). RESULTS: The expression of Flk-1 and vWF on adherent CD34+ cells increased during the culture time, with 27.0 % positive for Flk-1 and negative for vWF at d 3, and 100 % positive for both Flk-1 and vWF at d 7. When cells were cultured in Fn-treated dishes, the percentages of Flk-1 and vWF positive cells increased to 34 % and 47 %, respectively at d 3, and 100 % at d 7. In contrast, the percentages of AC133+ cells among the adherent cell population decreased rapidly, and similar changes occurred in cells cultured in the presence of Fn. CONCLUSION: The gradual appearance of endothelial cell markers and the disappearance of stem cell marker characterized the in vitro differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells. Fibronectin accelerated the differentiation process of EPC.  (+info)

Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from human brain tissue. Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells at passage 3 are detached from flasks and immediately cryopreserved in vails. Each vial contains at least 0.5×10^6 cells per ml. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic beads pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of inducing bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BEPC) to differentiate into corneal endothelial cells (CEC) for the treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction.. Methods: BEPC were isolated from human fetal bone marrow, and expression of Dil-Ac-LDL, UEA-1, CD133 and CD34 were examined to identify the cells. BEPC were co-cultured with CEC for 10 days in a transwell system with conditioned medium from CEC, and then cell transdifferentiation was examined by immunocytofluorescence and electron microscopy. With a porcine corneal acellular matrix as the carrier, the induced BEPC were transplanted onto a cats cornea from which Descemets membrane and the endothelium had been stripped.. Results: The induced BEPC resembled CEC in polygonal shape, expressing aquaporin-1, tightly opposed cell junctions, and neurone-specific enolase. Twenty-eight days after transplantation, the transparency gradually returned to the corneas transplanted with the ...
During acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, the cerebral endothelium is exposed to inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1 and oxidative stress. Exposure of brain microvascular endothelial cells to TNF-α and conditions of H/R models ischemia-reperfusion to the brain endothelium in vitro. In our experiments, we use ICAM-1 as a reporter or read-out of endothelial cell activation. Our studies demonstrate that a NF-κB TFD blocks TNF-α-induced and H/R-induced ICAM-1 upregulation in human brain microvascular cells. This inhibition of upregulation was complete because both the TNF-α-induced ICAM mRNA levels and surface ICAM by ELISA were reduced to unstimulated levels. Similarly, the NF-κB decoy blocked the H/R-induced increase in ICAM mRNA levels. This confirms the importance of NF-κB in the TNF-α-induced and H/R-induced upregulation of ICAM-1 in HBMEC.. The regulatory regions that control cytokine-induced expression of the ICAM-1 gene in endothelial cells have been defined by ...
A stable, in vitro cardiac endothelial cell line could provide high cell numbers as needed for many epigenetic analyses and facilitate the understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in endothelial cell biology. To test their suitability for transcriptomic or epigenetic studies, we compared the transcriptome of cultured immortalized mouse cardiac endothelial cells (MCEC) to primary cardiac endothelial cells (pEC). However, in MCEC we found a broad downregulation of genes that are highly expressed in pEC, including well-described markers of endothelial cell differentiation. Accordingly, systematic analysis revealed a downregulation of genes associated with typical endothelial cell functions in MCEC, while genes related to mitotic cell cycle were upregulated when compared to pEC. In conclusion, the findings from this study suggest that primary cardiac endothelial cells should preferably be used for genome-wide transcriptome or epigenome studies. The suitability of in vitro cell lines for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial colony-forming cell role in neoangiogenesis and tissue repair. AU - Critser, Paul J.. AU - Yoder, Mervin C.. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Purpose of review: Patients suffering from vascular disease often have impaired angiogenic ability contributing to impaired tissue repair. One potential therapy is to deliver cells that can aid in angiogenesis. This review will discuss the ability of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which have been reported to contribute to neoangiogenesis in both physiological and pathological conditions, to contribute to neoangiogenesis in tissue repair. Recent findings: In recent years, various reports have described conflicting roles for EPC in vessel formation. Currently there are three different assays for outgrowth of EPC all resulting in the isolation of different cell populations. This confusion is partially due to limited functional characterization of putative EPC populations. One population, endothelial colony-forming cell ...
Video articles in JoVE about human umbilical vein endothelial cells include High-resolution Time-lapse Imaging and Automated Analysis of Microtubule Dynamics in Living Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells, Study of the Actin Cytoskeleton in Live Endothelial Cells Expressing GFP-Actin, Preparation and In Vitro Characterization of Magnetized miR-modified Endothelial Cells, Microfluidic Assay for the Assessment of Leukocyte Adhesion to Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Endothelial Cells (hiPSC-ECs), Gene Expression Analysis of Endothelial Cells Exposed to Shear Stress Using Multiple Parallel-plate Flow Chambers, Incorporating Pericytes into an Endothelial Cell Bead Sprouting Assay, An In Vitro 3D Model and Computational Pipeline to Quantify the Vasculogenic Potential of iPSC-Derived Endothelial Progenitors, Porphyromonas gingivalis as a Model Organism for Assessing Interaction of Anaerobic Bacteria with Host Cells, A Multi-well Format Polyacrylamide-based Assay for Studying
Adenosine-dependent induction of glutathione peroxidase 1 in human primary endothelial cells and protection against oxidative stress. Circ Res. 2005 Apr 29; 96(8):831-7 ...
The overall goal of this research is to elucidate the effects of stiffness on the activation of pulmonary endothelial cells by inflammatory cytokines. The hypothesis tested is that increasing matrix stiffness in the (patho) physiological range will exacerbate the response of cultured endothelial cells to inflammatory stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we are culturing control and TNF-a stimulated rat lung microvascular endothelial cells (RLMVECs) on hydrogels with tunable stiffnesses of 5, 20, and 45 kPa (measured using compression testing), modeling the stiffness of healthy, intermediate and fibrotic lung tissue respectively. The cellular readout was assessed through RT-qPCR, microscopy, and monocyte adhesion for basal expression and upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in quiescent and TNF-a stimulated cultured endothelial cell. This model of microvascular pulmonary inflammation, mimicking a normal, intermediate, and fibrotic lung, is aimed at establishing a correlation ...
Nonetheless, EPC subpopulations may well display different angiogenic properties. As highlighted in this issue of the Journal, Sieveking et al. (7) provide new insights from a novel human angiogenesis assay, showing that although fresh EPCs can be directly incorporated into the endothelial monolayer, other endothelial-like cells from CFU-ECs, when transplanted into ischemic tissues, they promote angiogenesis and are found around the neovasculature but are not incorporated within it (7). These spindle-like cells appear to possess a relatively low proliferative capacity and a low ability to express mature endothelial proteins (8). The exact mechanisms of their effects on cardiovascular health are still poorly understood, with no evidence that these cells are a major source of mature endothelial cells.. These important observations may make some previous study results difficult to interpret, given that more than 1 kind of cell with angiogenic properties exist. This raises some controversy with ...
Primary Tumor Cell-derived endothelial cells can be used for a variety of purposes (e.g., assays of cell-cell adhesion, migration, vascular tube formation, angiogenesis assays and many other applications) Standard biochemical procedures can be performed using endothelial cell cultures include RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, or immunofluorescent staining or flow cytometry, et al.. Primary Tumor Cell-derived endothelial cells from Cell Biologics are distributed for research purposes only. Our products are not authorized for human use. Transfer or resale of any Cell Biologics cells or products from the purchaser to other markets, organizations, or individuals is prohibited by Cell Biologics without the express written consent of the company. Cell Biologics Terms and Conditions must be accepted before submitting an order.. Question 9: How much does isolation of Tumor Cell-derived endothelial cells cost? ...
Human liver sinusoidal endothelial cell line with tailored liver endothelial cell culture medium. Cryopreserved liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.
Endothelial Cell Growth Kit-BBE (ATCC ® PCS-100-040) and Endothelial Cell Growth Kit-VEGF (ATCC ® PCS-100-041) each contain components that when added to Vascular Cell Basal Medium (ATCC ® PCS-100-030) create a complete ATCC ® Primary Cell Solution™ culture environment for endothelial cells derived from normal human large vessels (e.g., Normal Primary Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC), ATCC ® PCS-100-010 or Primary Aortic Endothelial Cells, ATCC ® PCS-100-011). Your experimental design will dictate which Endothelial Cell Growth Kit should be used. Use of the Endothelial Cell Growth Kit-VEGF (ATCC ® PCS-100-041) will support a faster rate of proliferation because of the presence of several purified human recombinant (rh) growth factors (rh VEGF, rh EGF, rh FGF basic and rh IGF-1) combined with heparin and hydrocortisone. Use of the Endothelial Cell Growth Kit-BBE (ATCC ® PCS-100-040), which contains Bovine Brain Extract (BBE), is recommended if a less
Endothelial Cell Growth Kit-BBE (ATCC ® PCS-100-040) and Endothelial Cell Growth Kit-VEGF (ATCC ® PCS-100-041) each contain components that when added to Vascular Cell Basal Medium (ATCC ® PCS-100-030) create a complete ATCC ® Primary Cell Solution™ culture environment for endothelial cells derived from normal human large vessels (e.g., Normal Primary Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC), ATCC ® PCS-100-010 or Primary Aortic Endothelial Cells, ATCC ® PCS-100-011). Your experimental design will dictate which Endothelial Cell Growth Kit should be used. Use of the Endothelial Cell Growth Kit-VEGF (ATCC ® PCS-100-041) will support a faster rate of proliferation because of the presence of several purified human recombinant (rh) growth factors (rh VEGF, rh EGF, rh FGF basic and rh IGF-1) combined with heparin and hydrocortisone. Use of the Endothelial Cell Growth Kit-BBE (ATCC ® PCS-100-040), which contains Bovine Brain Extract (BBE), is recommended if a less
Bacterial invasion and transcytosis in transfected human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Stins MF, Badger J, Kim SK. 2001. Microbial Pathogenesis. 30:19-28. Presented by Jess Jung. General Rationale. High fatality rate of meningitis Incomplete knowledge of pathogenesis Slideshow...
Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells https://www.sciencepro.com.br/produtos/sc-1000 https://www.sciencepro.com.br/@@site-logo/logo-novo.png ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sinusoidal endothelial cells direct traffic at the intersection of regeneration and fibrosis. AU - Huebert, Robert C.. AU - Shah, Vijay H.. PY - 2014/8. Y1 - 2014/8. N2 - Chemical or traumatic damage to the liver is frequently associated with aberrant healing (fibrosis) that overrides liver regeneration. The mechanism by which hepatic niche cells differentially modulate regeneration and fibrosis during liver repair remains to be defined. Hepatic vascular niche predominantly represented by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells deploys paracrine trophogens, known as angiocrine factors, to stimulate regeneration. Nevertheless, it is not known how pro-regenerative angiocrine signals from liver sinusoidal endothelial cells is subverted to promote fibrosis. Here, by combining an inducible endothelial-cell-specific mouse gene deletion strategy and complementary models of acute and chronic liver injury, we show that divergent angiocrine signals from liver sinusoidal endothelial cells ...
Introduction: Growth factors can stimulate angiogenesis, which describes the sprouting of new capillaries from endothelial cells. So far, the transcriptional regulation of endothelial cell function during this process is only incompletely understood. While high expression of the transcription factor Gata6 was previously reported in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), its importance for angiogenic function and endothelial cell survival remained unknown.. Results: We detected Gata6 mRNA and protein expression in HUVECs, human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAECs), human cardiac microvascular cells (HCMECs) and also in vascular endothelial cells in mouse tissues in vivo. Stimulation of HUVECs with a growth factor cocktail (containing FCS, EGF and bFGF), led to translocation of Gata6 to the nucleus, enhanced chromatin binding at the promoter region of endothelial Gata target genes (Pecam1, EDN-1 and NOS3; ChIP-assay) and enhanced Gata mediated transcriptional activation ...
Evidence is presented that tumor endothelial cells are markedly different from normal endothelial cells in expression of EGF receptors and in their response to EGF family members and to EGFR kinase inhibitors. Comparative analysis of the expression profiles of the four ErbB/EGF receptor family members shows that tumor endothelial cells express EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB4, whereas normal endothelial cells express ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4. Thus, there seems to be a switch in which tumor endothelial cells express EGFR rather than ErbB3; the opposite occurs in normal endothelial cells. EGFR expression was evident in several tumor-derived endothelial cells lines tested, including melanoma, breast carcinoma, and liposarcoma endothelial cells, but not in several normal endothelial cell lines tested, including skin, adipose, HUV, HMV, and MS1 endothelial cells. Several previous studies have reported an absence of EGFR expression in HUVECs consistent with our observation ( 14, 21). However, EGFR expression in ...
Many studies have shown that TRAIL is a potent apoptosis inducer in malignant cells, whereas its role in normal cell physiology is much less well understood.1 We have demonstrated here that both aortic endothelial cells and HUVECs exhibit a similar pattern of surface TRAIL-R expression. Moreover, in vascular endothelial cells, TRAIL stimulates the phosphorylation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt in a manner dependent on PI3K activation.14 The ability of TRAIL to activate the antiapoptotic PI3K/Akt pathway in endothelial cells is a completely new and unexpected finding, also in consideration of the large number of studies underlining the proapoptotic activity of TRAIL, at least in malignant cells.1,4,5 It should be underlined that the PI3K/Akt pathway is of central importance in endothelial cell biology, conferring survival to endothelial cells in response to angiogenic cytokine stimulation, fluid shear stress, and matrix attachment signals. This pathway is essential also for endothelial cell ...
Cerebral endothelial cells interconnected by tight and adherens junctions constitute the structural basis of the blood-brain barrier. Extracellular calcium ions have been reported to play an important role in the formation and maintenance of the junctional complex. However, little is known about the action of calcium depletion on the structural characteristics of cerebral endothelial cells. Using atomic force microscopy we analyzed the effect of calcium depletion and readdition on the shape and size of living brain endothelial cells. It was found that the removal of extracellular calcium from confluent cell cultures induced the dissociation of the cells from each other accompanied by an increase in their height. After readdition of calcium a gradual recovery was observed until total confluency was regained. We have also demonstrated that Rho-kinase plays an important role in the calcium-depletion-induced disassembly of endothelial tight and adherens junctions. The Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blood endothelial cells. T2 - Utility from ambiguity. AU - Hebbel, Robert P.. N1 - Funding Information: The work mentioned herein was funded by: the National Institutes of Health (HL55174, HL62931, DK56326, HL70460, HL71269, HL076540, and HL55552); by Octagen Corporation, COR Therapeutics and Millennium Pharmaceuticals; and by the National Hemophilia Foundation. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. Our subsequent experimental work focused upon practical applications of BOEC: their use for gene ...
Primary endothelial cells can be used for a variety of purposes (e.g., assays of cell-cell adhesion, migration, vascular tube formation, angiogenesis assays and many other applications) Standard biochemical procedures can be performed using endothelial cell cultures include RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, or immunofluorescent staining or flow cytometry, et al.. Primary endothelial cells from Cell Biologics are distributed for research purposes only. Our products are not authorized for human use. Transfer or resale of any Cell Biologics cells or products from the purchaser to other markets, organizations, or individuals is prohibited by Cell Biologics without the express written consent of the company. Cell Biologics Terms and Conditions must be accepted before submitting an order.. Question 10: How much does isolation of endothelial cells cost? ...
The immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor which blocks T cell activation has provided the pharmacologic foundation for organ transplantation. CsA exerts additional effects on non-immune cell populations and may adversely effect microvascular endothelial cells, contributing to chronic rejection, a long-term clinical complication and significant cause of mortality in solid-organ transplants, including patients with small bowel allografts. Growth of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a critical homeostatic mechanism in organs and tissues, and regulates vascular populations in response to physiologic requirements. We hypothesized that CsA would inhibit the angiogenic capacity of human gut microvessels. Primary cultures of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) were used to evaluate CsAs effect on four in vitro measures of angiogenesis, including endothelial stress fiber assembly, migration, proliferation and tube formation, in response to the endothelial
The Neonatal Cardiac Endothelial Cell Isolation Kit, rat has been developed for the two-step isolation of vital cardiac endothelial cells from neonatal rat hearts (P0-P3). Enriched cardiac endothelial cells are fully functional and can be used for various downstream applications. - Lëtzebuerg
Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are detached from the vessel wall endothelium as the result of injury and/or disease. Blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC) have all the characteristics of mature endothelial cells. They seem to be progeny of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC), a marrow-derived progenitor that resides both in blood and within in situ endothelium. The other relevant cell appearing from appropriate culture of blood mononuclear cells was labeled EPC (intended for endothelial progenitor cells). These were later shown to be of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) origin ...
Blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS) are unique in forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which confers high electrical resistance and low permeability properties, thus protecting neural cells from potentially harmful blood components. Endothelial cells, which form the inner cellular lining of all blood vessels, play a critical role in this process by forming tight adhesive interactions between each other. To study the properties of primary brain endothelial cells (BECs), a number of different methods have been described. In this chapter, we present a relatively simple method that produces high numbers of primary mouse BECs that are highly pure (greater than 99 % CD31-positive). In addition, we also describe an immunocytochemical approach to demonstrate the endothelial purity of these cultures ...
VT-producing E. coli infections are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of the epidemic form of HUS, which is characterized by endothelial cell damage. Using morphologic, functional, and molecular criteria, we demonstrated in this study that apoptosis plays a role in VT-mediated endothelial cell death. This involvement was demonstrated in HUVEC and GMVEC that had been preexposed to the inflammatory mediator TNF-α and in unstimulated FMVEC and probably involves the activation of caspase 3.. Endothelial cell damage of predominantly glomerular capillaries is a characteristic feature in the pathogenesis of the epidemic form of HUS (2). From a pathogenetic point of view, it is generally assumed that VT is potentially cytopathic for endothelial cells. Several in vitro observations have indicated that priming of the endothelial cells by inflammatory mediators is required for VT cytotoxicity. These mediators cause an increase in VT susceptibility via enhancement of the number of VT-binding ...
Basement matrices such as Matrigel™ and Geltrex™ are used in a variety of cell culture assays of anchorage-dependent differentiation including endothelial cell tube formation assays. The volumes of matrix recommended for these assays (approximately 150 μl/cm2) are costly, limit working distances for microscopy, and require cell detachment for subsequent molecular analysis. Here we describe the development and validation of a thin-layer angiogenesis (TLA) assay for assessing the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells that overcomes these limitations. Geltrex™ basement matrix at 5 μl/cm2 in 24-well (10 μl) or 96-well (2 μl) plates supports endothelial cell differentiation into tube-like structures in a comparable manner to the standard larger volumes of matrix. Since working distances are reduced, high-resolution single cell microscopy, including DIC and confocal imaging, can be used readily. Using MitoTracker dye we now demonstrate, for the first time, live mitochondrial dynamics and
Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) has been shown to be a major source of myofibroblasts, contributing to kidney fibrosis. However, in vitro study of endothelial cells often relies on culture of isolated primary endothelial cells due to the unavailability of endothelial cell lines. Our recent study suggested that peritubular endothelial cells could contribute to kidney fibrosis through EndoMT. Therefore, successful isolation and culture of mouse peritubular endothelial cells could provide a new platform for studying kidney fibrosis. This study describes an immunomagnetic separation method for the isolation of mouse renal peritubular endothelial cells using anti-CD146 MicroBeads, followed by co-culture with mouse renal proximal tubular epithelial cells to maintain endothelial phenotype. Flow cytometry showed that after isolation and two days of culture, about 95% of cells were positive for endothelial-specific marker CD146. The percentage of other cells, including dendritic cells (CD11c) and
Our results demonstrate that the Efg1p and Tup1p signal transduction pathways are particularly important in the interactions ofC. albicans with endothelial cells in vitro. In contrast, the MAPK pathway is less significant in these interactions.. The Δefg1 mutant did not germinate on endothelial cells, was only weakly endocytosed, and caused virtually no endothelial cell injury. Therefore, one or more factors that are regulated by Efg1p contribute significantly to the ability of C. albicans to invade and damage endothelial cells.. The Δtup1 mutant was also markedly deficient in its ability to invade and injure endothelial cells. However, this mutant formed extensive pseudohyphae on endothelial cells. These findings indicate that the ability to assume an elongated morphology per se is not sufficient for C. albicans to be endocytosed by and cause damage to endothelial cells under the conditions tested. One notable difference between the Δtup1 mutant and SC5314 was that the former strain grew as ...
Our results demonstrate that the Efg1p and Tup1p signal transduction pathways are particularly important in the interactions ofC. albicans with endothelial cells in vitro. In contrast, the MAPK pathway is less significant in these interactions.. The Δefg1 mutant did not germinate on endothelial cells, was only weakly endocytosed, and caused virtually no endothelial cell injury. Therefore, one or more factors that are regulated by Efg1p contribute significantly to the ability of C. albicans to invade and damage endothelial cells.. The Δtup1 mutant was also markedly deficient in its ability to invade and injure endothelial cells. However, this mutant formed extensive pseudohyphae on endothelial cells. These findings indicate that the ability to assume an elongated morphology per se is not sufficient for C. albicans to be endocytosed by and cause damage to endothelial cells under the conditions tested. One notable difference between the Δtup1 mutant and SC5314 was that the former strain grew as ...
SUMOylation of VEGFR2 Regulates Its Intracellular Trafficking and Pathological Angiogenesis Researchers showed that endothelial-specific deletion of the SUMO endopeptidase SENP1 reduced pathological angiogenesis and tissue repair during hindlimb ischemia, and VEGF-induced angiogenesis in the cornea, retina, and ear. SENP1-deficient endothelial cells showed increased SUMOylation of VEGFR2 and impaired VEGFR2 signaling. [Nat Commun] Full Article Targeting the Tie2-αvβ3 Integrin Axis with Bi-Specific Reagents for the Inhibition of Angiogenesis The bi-specific antagonists targeting both Tie2 and αvβ3 integrin inhibited adhesion and proliferation of endothelial cells cultured together with the αvβ3 integrin ligand vitronectin, as well as endothelial cell invasion and tube formation. [BMC Biol] Full Article Phenotypic miRNA Screen Identifies miRNA-26b to Promote the Growth and Survival of Endothelial Cells Scientists revealed that miR-26b enhanced endothelial cell growth and survival through ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo trafficking of endothelial progenitor cells their possible involvement in the tumor neovascularization. AU - Tamura, Michie. AU - Unno, Keiko. AU - Yonezawa, Sei. AU - Hattori, Kenji. AU - Nakashima, Emi. AU - Tsukada, Hideo. AU - Nakajima, Motowo. AU - Oku, Naoto. PY - 2004/6/18. Y1 - 2004/6/18. N2 - Circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPCs) have been reported to contribute to vasculogenesis in adult organisms. To investigate the possible recruitment of EPCs and organization to form tumor vasculature, we investigated the in vivo real-time trafficking of EPCs non-invasively by using positron emission tomography (PET). A conditionally immortalized endothelial cell line derived from rat bone marrow (TR-BME1) was labeled with [2-18F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and chased the accumulation in the rat tumor with PET. TR-BME1 cells were accumulated in the tumor tissues time-dependently. To investigate that the accumulation of the cells is specific or not, rats were ...
Related Transcriptional Enhancer Factor-1 (RTEF-1) has been suggested to induce angiogenesis through regulating target genes. Whether RTEF-1 has a direct role in angiogenesis and what specific genes are involved in RTEF-1 driven angiogenisis have not been elucidated. We found that over-expressing RTEF-1 in Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells-1 (HMEC-1) significantly increased endothelial cell aggregation, growth and migration while the processes were inhibited by siRNA of RTEF-1. In addition, we observed that Endothelial differentiation gene-1 (Edg-1) expression was up-regulated by RTEF-1 at the transcriptional level. RTEF-1 could bind to Edg-1 promoter and subsequently induce its activity. Edg-1 siRNA significantly blocked RTEF-1-driven increases in endothelial cell aggregation in a Matrigel assay and retarded RTEF-1-induced endothelial cell growth and migration. Pertussis Toxin (PTX), a Gi/Go protein sensitive inhibitor, was found to inhibit RTEF-1 driven endothelial cell aggregation ...
From: T.Vink at med.ruu.nl,InterGate,InterGate,InterGate,InterGate,InterGate,Inte rGate Subject: Autofluorescence of endothelial cells Date: Tue, 12 Dec 1995 16:23:56 GMT From: T.Vink at med.ruu.nl,InterGate,InterGate,InterGate,InterGate,InterGate Subject: Autofluorescence of endothelial cells Date: Tue, 12 Dec 1995 16:23:56 GMT From: T.Vink at med.ruu.nl,InterGate,InterGate,InterGate,InterGate Subject: Autofluorescence of endothelial cells Date: Tue, 12 Dec 1995 16:23:56 GMT From: T.Vink at med.ruu.nl,InterGate,InterGate,InterGate Subject: Autofluorescence of endothelial cells Date: Tue, 12 Dec 1995 16:23:56 GMT From: T.Vink at med.ruu.nl,InterGate,InterGate Subject: Autofluorescence of endothelial cells Date: Tue, 12 Dec 1995 16:23:56 GMT From: T.Vink at med.ruu.nl,InterGate Subject: Autofluorescence of endothelial cells Date: Tue, 12 Dec 1995 16:23:56 GMT From: Tom Vink ,T.Vink at med.ruu.nl, Subject: Autofluorescence of endothelial cells Date: 12 Dec 1995 16:23:56 -0000 Dear Netters, Lately ...
Enolase-phosphatase 1 (ENOPH1), a newly discovered enzyme of the methionine salvage pathway, is emerging as an important molecule regulating stress responses. In this study, we investigated the role of ENOPH1 in blood brain barrier (BBB) injury under ischemic conditions. Focal cerebral ischemia induced ENOPH1 mRNA and protein expression in ischemic hemispheric microvessels in rats. Exposure of cultured brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEND3 cells) to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) also induced ENOPH1 upregulation, which was accompanied by increased cell death and apoptosis reflected by increased 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide formation, lactate dehydrogenase release and TUNEL staining. Knockdown of ENOPH1 expression with siRNA or overexpressing ENOPH1 with CRISPR-activated plasmids attenuated or potentiated OGD-induced endothelial cell death, respectively. Moreover, ENOPH1 knockdown or overexpression resulted in a significant reduction or augmentation of ROS
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are highly specialized cells that form the scavenger endothelium within the liver. They exhibit extraordinarily high uptake of soluble waste molecules (, 0.23 µm), thus playing an important role in blood clearance.. The supply of primary LSECs is limited by the low and sporadic availability of human liver tissue and can only be kept for up to 1-2 population doublings in culture. upcyte® LSECs were derived from primary LSECs from a single donor. These cells have an extended lifespan whilst maintaining primary cell characteristics. This means that large batches of up to 3000 vials from a single donor with the same quality can be provided.. ...
The adherence and migration of leukocytes through the endothelium of blood vessels is an important early event which occurs in normal tissues following ionizing irradiation but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD31 are membrane proteins of endothelial cells, mediate this process when the vasculature is exposed to other inflammatory stimuli. In this study, expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD31 on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) at 72 hours post-irradiation using flow cytometry and northern analysis was determined. Dose-dependent increases in the surface expression and mRNA of ICAM-1 and CD31 were observed. In contrast VCAM-1 was practically undetectable on both control and irradiated HDMECs but was strongly expressed in TNF-alpha activated positive control HDMECs. The upregulation in ICAM-1 and CD31 was independent of radiation-induced changes in cell size, number and cell cycle stage. We suggest that ICAM-1 is active over a prolonged ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ceramide 1-phosphate mediates endothelial cell invasion via the annexin a2-p11 heterotetrameric protein complex. AU - Hankins, Jody L.. AU - Ward, Katherine E.. AU - Linton, Sam S.. AU - Barth, Brian M.. AU - Stahelin, Robert V.. AU - Fox, Todd E.. AU - Kester, Mark. PY - 2013/7/5. Y1 - 2013/7/5. N2 - The bioactive sphingolipid, ceramide 1-phosphate (C-1-P), has been implicated as an extracellular chemotactic agent directing cellular migration in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and macrophages. However, interacting proteins that could mediate these actions of C-1-P have, thus far, eluded identification. We have now identified and characterized interactions between ceramide 1-phosphate and the annexin a2-p11 heterotetramer constituents. This C-1-P-receptor complex is capable of facilitating cellular invasion. Herein, we demonstrate in both coronary artery macrovascular endothelial cells and retinal microvascular endothelial cells that C-1-P induces invasion through an ...
Most endothelial cells form the thin layer of tissue at the interior of blood vessels where they provide a nonthrombogenic surface to help prevent inappropriate blood clotting. The endothelium also maintains vascular tone in response to signaling molecules such as nitric oxide, angiotensin, and prostacyclin. Endothelial dysfunction can lead to an imbalance in vasoconstriction and vasodilation. This process allows fats to deposit within blood vessels, leading to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Specialized endothelium in structures such as the blood-brain barrier and glomeruli regulates the exchange of small molecules into and out of circulation. The lymphatic system, another specialized endothelium, removes interstitial fluid from tissues and transports lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells to lymph nodes. Endothelial cells also play a critical role in the progression of disease processes such as inflammation and tumor angiogenesis ...
Mechanical forces have long been known to be potent regulators of vascular endothelial function.3 Endothelial cells have evolved sophisticated sensory and regulatory ability to maintain vascular homeostasis through adaptive remodeling.20 This study addresses the question of how endothelial cells respond to mechanical strain to control the growth of the underlying VSMCs. Previously, it was known that endothelial cells can regulate VSMC proliferation.21 In particular, heparin and endothelial cell HSPGs are potent inhibitors of VSMC proliferation and FGF-2 induced mitogenesis.13,22-24 This regulation is growth state dependent, with subconfluent cultures of endothelial cells stimulating VSMC growth and postconfluent cultures inhibiting VSMC growth.12,25-28 Similarly, perlecan and endothelial-derived HSPGs have been shown to be essential in inhibiting the neointimal response to vascular injury.14,29-31 Our study adds a new dimension to these results, demonstrating that the regulation of perlecan by ...
Porcine Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from skin tissue of porcine. Porcine Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
The outgrowth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, called angiogenesis, is a crucial step in many physiological and pathological mechanisms, including wound healing and tumor growth. Angiogenesis is a topic of intensive experimental investigation so its phenomenology and many of the molecular signals contributing to it have been well characterized. Yet it is poorly understood how the biological components fit together dynamically to drive the outgrowth of blood vessels. Cell-based simulation models help analyze how cells assemble into embryonic structures, and how cell behavior is guided by signals from neighboring cells. With such cell-based simulation models, we have identified dynamic cell behaviors by which endothelial cells can form sprouts from existing blood vessels. In one of these, endothelial cells secrete a chemoattractant that attracts other endothelial cells. By itself this mechanism causes cells to aggregate into isolated clusters. But including experimentally observed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Homeobox D1 regulates angiogenic functions of endothelial cells via integrin β1 expression. AU - Park, Hyojin. AU - Choi, Hyun Jung. AU - Kim, Jihye. AU - Kim, Minhyung. AU - Rho, Seung Sik. AU - Hwang, Daehee. AU - Kim, Young Myeong. AU - Kwon, Young Guen. PY - 2011/4/29. Y1 - 2011/4/29. N2 - Homeobox (HOX) family genes, major transcription factors for embryonic development, have been also implicated in vascular development and angiogenesis, particularly with regulation of genes involved in cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. However, the cellular and molecular functions of HOXD1 in endothelial cells (ECs) are yet to be explored. We here report that HOXD1 is prominently expressed in human ECs and regulates angiogenic activities. Knockdown of HOXD1 in ECs resulted in significant inhibition of migration and adhesion as well as tube like structure formation. These effects were correlated with the reduced expression of integrin β1 (ITGB1), an important ...
We have shown that unstimulated HuGE cells express COX-1 and low levels of COX-2 in vitro. HuGE cells required the presence of 30% fetal calf serum for continued growth and did not tolerate serum free conditions or 0.5% serum so we cannot rule out slight induction of COX-2 by serum factors which has been shown in HUVECs.32Low level COX-2 expression by unstimulated HUVECs has been previously reported using RT-PCR15 but Morita et al were unable to detect COX-2 in HUVECs and bovine aortic endothelial cells grown in the presence of 10% serum by indirect immunofluorescence.16 It has recently been reported that human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells express inducible cytokines such as interleukin 8 constitutively.19 With the caveat discussed above, our data suggest that a similar situation exists for COX-2 as well as for COX-1 in HuGE cells. Currently, there are no published data on endothelial cell COX expression in the gastrointestinal tract except for a report by Mikkelsen et al who ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Notch activation is required for downregulation of HoxA3-dependent endothelial cell phenotype during blood formation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Akt phosphorylation by GDF-15 in endothelial cells. GDF-15 induced Akt phosphorylation at Ser437 in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC). The
In women with preeclampsia (PE), endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction can result in altered secretion of paracrine factors that creates peripheral vasoconstriction and proteinuria. which is in keeping with prior reviews5,25,26 which have described a job for the PKC-nuclear factor-B signaling pathway in this technique. The elevated collagen I by PE sera was abrogated by PLC-1 siRNA appearance, however, not IP3R siRNA, which implies that PKC activity may be necessary for collagen We expression. Because Ang-II-mediated appearance of p21-turned on kinase 1 in VSMCs was reliant on both intracellular Ca2+ PKC and mobilization, 27 additional research will assess the role of nuclear factor-B-mediated gene expression, as well as PKC in this process. Increased type III collagen has been observed in PE umbilical cord veins.20 In addition, the culture of adventitial fibroblasts with conditioned media from tumor growth factor-treated SMCs induced collagen-3 but not collagen-1 expression.28 Therefore, we ...
This study demonstrates that rHDL-mediated suppression of NF-κB activity in activated endothelial cells4,5,11 is achieved via the classical IKK/IκBα/NF-κB signaling pathway, with rHDLs suppressing IKK, increasing IκBα levels, thereby suppressing NF-κB nuclear translocation. Furthermore, suppression of NF-κB activity by rHDLs explains the ability of rHDLs to inhibit VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to activated endothelial cells. The ability of rHDLs to inhibit many NF-κB target genes may also explain both the known antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic properties of rHDLs.. The most striking finding of this study is the ability of both native and reconstituted HDLs to increase endothelial cell expression of DHCR24, an effect that persisted for at least 8 hours after the HDLs had been removed from the culture media. Together, these findings provide an insight into the previously unexplained observation that the response of endothelial cells to an inflammatory insult is markedly ...
Endothelial cell injury[edit]. Any inflammatory process, such as trauma, surgery or infection, can cause damage to the ... The main causes of thrombosis are given in Virchow's triad which lists thrombophilia, endothelial cell injury, and disturbed ... endothelial cells downregulate substances such as thrombomodulin, which is a key modulator of thrombin activity.[24] The end ... Endothelial injury is almost invariably involved in the formation of thrombi in arteries, as high rates of blood flow normally ...
... cardiac and kidney cells, leukocytes, neurons, and endothelial cells. By mediating a small depolarizing K+ current at negative ... The loss of Kir currents in endothelial cells is one of the first known indicators of atherogenesis (the beginning of heart ... endothelial cells. Kir channels are involved in regulation of nitric oxide synthase. ... "Cell. 140 (1): 88-98. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.12.024. PMC 2885139. PMID 20074522.. ...
Endothelial cells in heart sections were prominent. Brain sections were negative for intracellular adhesion molecule-1. ... Within the red blood cells some merozoites develop into trophozoites, which in turn mature into schizonts that rupture to ... The spleen and liver had abundant pigment containing macrophages and parasitized red blood cells. The kidney had evidence of ... Histological examination showed sequestration of pigmented parasitized red blood cells in the vessels of the cerebrum, ...
... squamous cells called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, ... Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries. These cells have ... The foundational model of anatomy makes a distinction between endothelial cells and epithelial cells on the basis of which ... Main article: Endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction, or the loss of proper endothelial function, is a hallmark for ...
Swerlick, RA; Lawley, TJ (January 1993). "Role of microvascular endothelial cells in inflammation". J. Invest. Dermatol. 100 (1 ... about two weeks are needed for a cell to migrate from the basal cell layer to the top of the granular cell layer, and an ... The epidermis contains four cell types: keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel cells. Of these, keratinocytes ... in which differentiating cells slowly displace outwards through the stratum spinosum to the stratum corneum, where cells are ...
"Intermediate-sized filaments of human endothelial cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. 81 (3): 570-80. doi:10.1083/jcb.81.3.570 ... Cytokeratins interact with desmosomes and hemidesmosomes, thus collaborating to cell-cell adhesion and basal cell-underlying ... Cell Biol. 8 (7): 562-73. doi:10.1038/nrm2197. PMID 17551517.. *^ Franke WW, Schmid E, Osborn M, Weber K (June 1979). " ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 174 (2): 169-74. doi:10.1083/jcb.200603161. PMC 2064177 . PMID 16831889.. ...
1 follicles, 2 follicular cells, 3 endothelial cells. At the microscopic level, there are three primary features of the thyroid ... parafollicular cells.[4] These cells secrete calcitonin and so are also called C cells.[16] ... Follicular cells. The core of a follicle is surrounded by a single layer of follicular cells. When stimulated by thyroid ... This is an ion channel on the cell membrane which in the same action transports two sodium ions and an iodide ion into the cell ...
... might regulate the function of PDE2 in endothelial cells and thereby affecting flow of fluid and cells through the endothelial ... barrier function of endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions. (See review articles [3][8]). Several enzyme functions ... PDE2 is expressed in various tissues, for example: adrenal medulla, brain, heart, platelet, macrophages and endothelial cells. ... barrier as in vitro experiments on endothelial cells show up regulation of both PDE2 mRNA and activity. (See review article [3] ...
"Endothelial cell E- and P-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 function as signaling receptors". J. Cell Biol. 142 (5 ... leukocyte cell-cell adhesion. • heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • positive ... P-selectin functions as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) on the surfaces of activated endothelial cells, which line the inner ... calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • leukocyte tethering or rolling. ...
Prostacyclin is synthesized from arachidonic acid in endothelial cells. In vascular smooth muscle cells, prostacyclin binds ... that is produced in endothelial cells. It acts on the endothelin receptors ETA and ETB in various cell types including vascular ... It also acts on ETB receptors in endothelial cells; this leads to the release of both vasoconstrictors and vasodilators from ... This nitric oxide diffuses into neighboring cells (including vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets), where it increases ...
... and the cells are called endothelial cells. This layer functions to mechanically transport fluid and since the basement ... Lymph vessels are lined by endothelial cells, and have a thin layer of smooth muscle, and adventitia that bind the lymph ... In doing this they lose all their coats except their endothelial lining, which is continuous with a layer of similar cells ... The system collaborates with white blood cells in lymph nodes to protect the body from being infected by cancer cells, fungi, ...
a.^ B: B cell. E: erythrocyte. Endo: endothelial cell. D: dendritic cell. FDC: follicular dendritic cell. Mac: macrophage. MC: ... whereas CR2 is expressed only on B cells as a co-receptor. Red blood cells (RBCs) also express CR1, which enables RBCs to carry ... White blood cells, particularly monocytes and macrophages, express complement receptors on their surface. All four complement ... mast cell. M0: monocyte. Pha: phagocyte. PMN: polymorphonuclear leukocyte. Deficits in complement receptor expression can cause ...
... is produced in liver sinusoidal cells and endothelial cells outside the liver throughout the body. This protein ... Transplanting hepatocytes was ineffective, but liver endothelial cells were effective. In the blood, it mainly circulates in a ... and the sinusoidal cells of the liver. Hemophilia A has been corrected by liver transplantation. ...
inhibit cell proliferation of endothelial cells. thrombospondin. inhibit cell migration, cell proliferation, cell adhesion and ... cell proliferation and survival of endothelial cells. vasostatin, calreticulin. inhibit cell proliferation of endothelial cells ... inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of endothelial cells. endostatin. inhibit cell migration, cell proliferation ... inhibit cell migration, cell proliferation, cell adhesion and survival of endothelial cells. ...
Endothelial cells and the Descemets membrane are left in place. This technique is used in cases of anterior corneal ... Stem cells[edit]. There is a bioengineering technique that uses stem cells to create corneas or part of corneas that can be ... Gradual reduction in endothelial cell density over time can lead to loss of clarity and require repeating the procedure. ... However, an Australian study has shown that despite its benefits, the loss of endothelial cells that maintain transparency is ...
... fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Basement membrane that separates epidermis from the dermal layer and endothelial basement ... In addition to the importance of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, all phases of wound healing are controlled by a wide ... Endothelial cell specific nitric oxide synthase (EcNOS) is activated by the pulsatile flow of blood through vessels. Nitric ... Duda, D. G.; Fukumura, D.; Jain, R. K. (2004). "Role of eNOS in neovascularization: NO for endothelial progenitor cells". ...
A G0-G1 cell-cycle blockage can be the consequence of inactivation of mTOR in hypoxia-activated pericytes and endothelial cells ... That leads to late blockage of G1/S cell cycle. Rapamycin has shown to induce cancer cell death by stimulating autophagy or ... rely on interactions between endothelial vascular growth factors which can all activate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR in endothelial cells ... The studies of rapamycin as immunosuppressive agent enabled us to understand its mechanism of action.[5] It inhibits T-cell ...
"The alpha4 laminin subunit regulates endothelial cell survival". Experimental Cell Research. 294 (1): 281-9. doi:10.1016/j. ... regulation of cell adhesion. • cell adhesion. • extracellular matrix organization. • regulation of cell migration. • regulation ... "Complex interactions between the laminin alpha 4 subunit and integrins regulate endothelial cell behavior in vitro and ... Mrowiec T, Melchar C, Górski A (1998). "HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix ...
Kazenwadel J, Michael MZ, Harvey NL (September 2010). "Prox1 expression is negatively regulated by miR-181 in endothelial cells ... "miR-181a is an intrinsic modulator of T cell sensitivity and selection". Cell. 129 (1): 147-61. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.008 ... miR-181a is essential for the survival of Purkinje cells and its absence leads to a slow degeneration of these cells. It has ... The expression of miR-181a correlates with a greater sensitivity of immature T cells in T cells, suggesting that miR-181a acts ...
This changes the phenotype of these cells from epithelial to endothelial. Endovascular cytotrophoblasts, like their ... Once these cells penetrate through the first few layers of cells of the decidua, they lose their ability to proliferate and ... Cell Biology, 37(1), 1-16. Bischof, P., & Irminger-Finger, I. (2005). "The human cytotrophoblastic cell, a mononuclear ... Cytotrophoblastic cells play an important role in the implantation of a newly fertilized egg in the uterus. The formation of ...
NK cells, B lymphocytes, as well as non-haematopoietic cells (smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells).[13 ... B cells[edit]. T cell-dependent B cell activation, showing a TH2-cell (left), B cell (right), and several interaction molecules ... Endothelial cells[edit]. Activation of endothelial cells by CD40L (e.g. from activated platelets) leads to reactive oxygen ... B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ...
Endothelial Cell Tube Formation Assay". Neurotrophic Factors. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1727. pp. 239-250. doi:10.1007/978- ... Vaudry, D.; Stork, PJ; Lazarovici, P; Eiden, LE (31 May 2002). "Signaling Pathways for PC12 Cell Differentiation: Making the ... in PC12 Cells". Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 54 (3): 574-585. doi:10.1007/s12031-014-0388-2. PMID 25078264. S2CID 1620005 ... in PC12 Cells". Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 54 (3): 574-585. doi:10.1007/s12031-014-0388-2. PMID 25078264. S2CID 1620005 ...
Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial (BPAE) cells 3D dual-color super-resolution microscopy with Her2 and Her3 in breast cells, ... Endothelial cells under the microscope. Nuclei are stained blue with DAPI, microtubules are marked green by an antibody bound ... A major example of this class of fluorescent stain is phalloidin, which is used to stain actin fibers in mammalian cells. A new ... The quest for fluorescent probes with a high specificity that also allow live imaging of plant cells is ongoing. There are many ...
In endothelial cells it has also been shown that lactate stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production ... This frees these cells from requiring large quantities of glucose allowing the hypoxic cells to take up the majority of the ... Tumor cells have also shown the remarkable ability to adapt to regional variation of oxygen availability. Cancer cells ... High levels of glycolysis and the production of lactate, as shown in hypoxic tumor cells, is hallmark of cancer cells even in ...
CD34, found on endothelial cells. MadCAM-1, found on endothelial cells of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. PSGL-1, binds with ... 1992). "An endothelial ligand for L-selectin is a novel mucin-like molecule". Cell. 69 (6): 927-38. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92) ... Ligands present on endothelial cells will bind to lymphocytes expressing L-selectin, slowing lymphocyte trafficking through the ... The receptor is commonly found on the cell surfaces of T cells. Naive T-lymphocytes, which have not yet encountered their ...
Philippeos, Christina (2014). Insulin signalling in endothelial cells. ethos.bl.uk (PhD thesis). King's College London. OCLC ... Ridley, Anne J (2015). "Rho GTPase signalling in cell migration". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 36: 103-112. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Transforming growth factors-beta 1 and beta 2 are mitogens for rat Schwann cells". Journal of Cell Biology. 109 (6 Pt 2): 3419- ... "Ras-mediated cell cycle arrest is altered by nuclear oncogenes to induce Schwann cell transformation". The EMBO Journal. 7 (6 ...
Endothelial Cells. I. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-849-34988-1. Ryan, Una S. (1988). Endothelial Cells. II. Boca ... Pulmonary Endothelial Cells in Culture". Environmental Health Perspectives. 35: 171-180. doi:10.1289/ehp.8035171. PMC 1568453. ... Jacobson, Bruce S; Ryan, Una (1982). "Growth of endothelial and HeLa cells on a new multipurpose microcarrier that is positive ... ISBN 978-0-8493-4991-1. Ryan, Una S. (1988). Endothelial Cells. III. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-849-34992-8. ...
However, it shares a common mechanism, which is endothelial cell injury, with other conditions, such as acute kidney injury and ... As a result of endothelial cell injury, a cascade of pathological reactions manifests and become increasingly severe and even ... Roberts JM, Taylor RN, Musci TJ, Rodgers GM, Hubel CA, McLaughlin MK (November 1989). "Preeclampsia: an endothelial cell ... A blood smear will often exhibit abnormalities, such as schistocytes, bur cells, and helmet cells, which indicate erythrocyte ...
Some endothelial cells. COL8A1, COL8A2. Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy 2 IX. FACIT collagen, cartilage, assoc. with ... Collagen is used in laboratory studies for cell culture, studying cell behavior and cellular interactions with the ... Due to its key role in the determination of cell phenotype, cell adhesion, tissue regulation, and infrastructure, many sections ... These later advances are particularly important to better understanding the way in which collagen structure affects cell-cell ...
cell migration. • lymph node development. • anatomical structure regression. • positive regulation of endothelial cell ... a cell surface glycoprotein of vascular endothelial cells in human cancer. (англ.) // Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Opavsky R., Haviernik P., Jurkovicova D., et al. Molecular characterization of the mouse Tem1/endosialin gene regulated by cell ... Brady J., Neal J., Sadakar N., Gasque P. Human endosialin (tumor endothelial marker 1) is abundantly expressed in highly ...
Cell. Biochem. 204 (1-2): 135-55. doi:10.1023/A:1007012622030. PMID 10718634. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). " ... Liu J, Sessa WC (1994). "Identification of covalently bound amino-terminal myristic acid in endothelial nitric oxide synthase ... Wice BM, Gordon JI (1992). "A strategy for isolation of cDNAs encoding proteins affecting human intestinal epithelial cell ... and membrane association in COS cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (2): 728-32. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.2.728. PMC 53339 . ...
1156 patients with a mean of 87 CD4 cell counts and mean viral load of 100,000 copies/ml were randomized to one of the two ... Impairs endothelial function in healthy HIV-negative men and may accelerate atherosclerotic disease.[10] ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... There were higher CD4 cell counts and less viral load in patients assigned to the three-drug group, proving that a three-drug ...
... have vascular endothelium cells deficient in β-catenin showed disrupted adhesion between vascular endothelial cells. Mice ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
... endothelial cells (cells lining the inside of blood vessels), liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as ... Endothelial cells may be infected within three days after exposure to the virus.[49] The breakdown of endothelial cells leading ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ...
celloedd endothelial, sy'n ffurfio'r sinwsoidau. Mae rhein yn deillio o'r bon-gell endothelial, sydd hefyd i'w weld yn y mer ... Gyda bodau dynol, mae Cell goch y gwaed yn cael eu cynhyrchu gan rhan tu mewn i'r mer esgyrn ym mhen esgyrn hir mewn proses a ... macroffabau, sy'n cyfrannu'n sylweddol at gynhyrchiad Cell goch y gwaed, gan eu bod yn mynd a Haearn ar gyfer cynhyrchiad ... Mae'n hysbys fod MSCau yn addasu, yn vitro neu'n vivo, i osteoblastau, chondroctyeau (cell cartilag), have been shown to ...
... binds to alpha-actinin-1 and associates with actin filaments and stress fibers in activated platelets and endothelial cells.". ... cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription. • heart development. • actin cytoskeleton ... cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • actin binding. • muscle alpha-actinin binding. ... Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development.". Cell. 111 (5): 673-85. PMID 12464179. doi: ...
Molecular genetic testing on a blood specimen or cells from a cheek swab is available to identify mutations in the RSK2 gene. ... The protein is involved in cell signaling pathways that are required for learning, the formation of long-term memories, and the ... There is some experimental evidence that RSK2 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity in neuronal cell types.[3] ... RSK2 is highly expressed in the brain, specifically in the neocortex, hippocampus, and Purkinje cells, all of which are ...
These M cells then alert the underlying B cells and T cells in the tonsil that a pathogen is present and an immune response is ... T cells *High endothelial venules. *B cells *Germinal center. *Mantle zone. *Marginal zone ... The tonsils have on their surface specialized antigen capture cells called M cells that allow for the uptake of antigens ... "Tonsils Make T-Cells, Too, Ohio State Study Shows". Ohio State University. Ohio State University, Comprehensive Cancer Center. ...
Where the endothelial glycocalyx overlies an inter endothelial cell cleft, the plasma ultrafiltrate may pass to the ... is the trans endothelial solvent filtration volume per second.. *. [. P. c. −. P. i. ]. −. σ. [. π. p. −. π. i. ]. {\ ... Since the discovery of the endothelial glycocalyx layer it is now helpful to think of σ as indicative of the effectiveness of ... is the trans endothelial solvent filtration volume per second (SI units of m3·s−1). ...
Konradt C, Ueno N, Christian DA, Delong JH, et al «Endothelial cells are a replicative niche for entry of Toxoplasma gondii to ...
If a lumbar puncture is performed, it will show normal cerebral spinal fluid and cell counts but an increase in pressure.[7] In ... It has been hypothesized that vascular endothelial growth factor may cause the vascular permeability at the root of HACE.[16] ... Patients with HACE have an elevated white blood cell count, but otherwise their blood count and biochemistry are normal. ...
57:51-9. Tang PS, Mura M, Seth R, Liu M. (2008) Acute lung injury and cell death: how many ways can cells die? Am J Physiol 294 ... The core pathology is disruption of the capillary-endothelial interface: this actually refers to two separate barriers - the ... There are two types of alveolar epithelial cells - Type 1 pneumocytes represent 90% of the cell surface area, and are easily ... Furthermore, when phosgene hydrolyzes it forms hydrochloric acid, which can damage the cell surface and cause cell death in the ...
"Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells". 》Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences》 99 (7): 4391-4396 ... "NIH Stem Cell Basics. What are embryonic stem cells?". 2016년 8월 31일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2016년 8월 19일에 확인함.. ... "DNA repair by nonhomologous end joining and homologous recombination during cell cycle in human cells". 》Cell Cycle (Georgetown ... "Cell Stem Cell》 2 (1): 10-12. ISSN 1875-9777. PMID 18371415. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.12.001.. ...
... and induce their degranulation that can damage endothelial cells. In theory, this phenomenon could cause extensive damage to ... Mendenhall WM, Olivier KR, Lynch JW, Mendenhall NP (April 2006). "Lethal midline granuloma-nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma ... a type of white blood cell) are associated with GPA.[11] Involvement of the ears, nose, and throat is more common in ... and many giant cells.[16] Bacterial colonization with Staphylococcus aureus has been hypothesized as an initiating factor of ...
"The expression of different superoxide dismutase forms is cell-type dependent in olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves". Plant & Cell ... inhibits endothelial activation. Therefore, such antioxidants may be important new therapies for the treatment of inflammatory ... The cytosols of virtually all eukaryotic cells contain an SOD enzyme with copper and zinc (Cu-Zn-SOD). For example, Cu-Zn-SOD ... Human white blood cells use enzymes such as NADPH oxidase to generate superoxide and other reactive oxygen species to kill ...
... produced by carcinoma cells, acts through paracrine signaling on endothelial cells and through autocrine signaling on carcinoma ... Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, ... These T cells can then go on to perform effector functions such as macrophage activation, B cell activation, and cell-mediated ... When interleukin-1 is produced in response to external stimuli, it can bind to cell-surface receptors on the same cell that ...
... mechanism involving the transdifferentiation of venous endothelial cells in the eye into lymphatic-like endothelial cells.[2][3 ... Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ...
This enlargement of the cleft is caused by contraction of capillary endothelial cells, often by substances such as histamine ... which is important in cell-cell recognition and cell signaling, is more developed. The organization of the endocardial ... This method is especially useful in cell-to-cell propagation of infectious cytosolic protein aggregates. In one study, protein ... Hofmann, J., Denner, P., Naussbaum- Krammer, C., Kuhn, P., Suhre, M., Scheibel, T., ... Vorberg, I. (2013). Cell-to-cell ...
"Endothelial cell "memory" of inflammatory stimulation: human venular endothelial cells store interleukin 8 in Weibel-Palade ... "Rapid secretion of prestored interleukin 8 from Weibel-Palade bodies of microvascular endothelial cells". J. Exp. Med. 188 (9 ... Yuan A, Chen JJ, Yao PL, Yang PC (2006). "The role of interleukin-8 in cancer cells and microenvironment interaction". Front. ... 2003). "Neutrophil gelatinase B and chemokines in leukocytosis and stem cell mobilization". Leuk. Lymphoma 43 (2): 233-41. PMID ...
regulation of cell cycle G1/S phase transition. • endothelial cell activation involved in immune response. • cellular response ...
... nonredundant role in angiogenic switching and pancreatic β cell carcinogenesis. In: Cancer Cell. Band 1, Nr. 2, März 2002, S. ... Anna Dorothea Wagner, Christoph Thomssen, Johannes Haerting, Susanne Unverzagt: Vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF) ... Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer. In: The New England Journal of Medicine. Band ... Erlotinib alone or with bevacizumab as first-line therapy in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer ...
LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone insensitivity, Leydig cell hypoplasia, Male-limited precocious puberty). *FSHR (Follicle-stimulating ... X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy. Neuromuscular. *Becker's muscular dystrophy/Duchenne. *Centronuclear myopathy (MTM1) ... "Defective migration of neuroendocrine GnRH cells in human arrhinencephalic conditions". The Journal of Clinical Investigation ...
endothelial cells (via passive diffusion/ osmosis & active selection). P-glycoprotein (mechanism by which active transportation ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... Mast cells[edit]. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in ... Natural killer cells[edit]. Main article: Natural killer cell. Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a component of the innate ...
... is a pegylated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) aptamer, a single strand of nucleic acid that binds ... Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ...
May JM, Qu ZC, Neel DR, Li X (May 2003). "Recycling of vitamin C from its oxidized forms by human endothelial cells". ... The endothelium is a layer of cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels. Endothelial dysfunction is implicated in ... Vitamin C distributes readily in high concentrations into immune cells, has antimicrobial and natural killer cell activities, ... Cell. 132 (6): 1039-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.042. PMID 18358815. Lay summary - Science Daily (March 21, 2008).. ...
... from endothelial cells toward the extracellular space. An increase in extracellular K+ has been shown to activate an ouabain- ... in particular in endothelial cells. Endothelium-derived CNP has been proposed to act as an EDHF via specific C-subtype of ... its action is to hyperpolarize vascular smooth muscle cells, causing these cells to relax, thus allowing the blood vessel to ... It has been suggested that EDHF is potassium ions (K+), as the activation of endothelial K-Ca+ channels causes an efflux of K+ ...
In 1978, Furchgott discovered a substance in endothelial cells that relaxes blood vessels, calling it endothelium-derived ...
... it is also produced by other cells including smooth muscle cells, activated macrophages, and endothelial cells[5] ... PDGF[1][2] is a potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and glial cells. In ... "Vascular endothelial growth factor B, a novel growth factor for endothelial cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (6): 2567 ... "Cell Death and Control of Cell Survival in the Oligodendrocyte Lineage". Cell. 70 (1): 31-46. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90531-G ...
Moreover, endothelial cells have been described as a potential source for this B1 receptor-CXCL5 pathway.[11] ... Wang G, Sun J, Liu G, Fu Y, Zhang X (December 2017). "Bradykinin Promotes Cell Proliferation, Migration, Invasion, and Tumor ... Bradykinins have been implicated in cell proliferation and migration in gastric cancers,[18] and bradykinin antagonists have ...
Rahmanian M, Heldin P (February 2002). "Testicular hyaluronidase induces tubular structures of endothelial cells grown in three ... "Mouse sperm lacking cell surface hyaluronidase PH-20 can pass through the layer of cumulus cells and fertilize the egg". The ... Alberts B (2008). Molecular biology of the cell. New York: Garland Science. p. 1298. ISBN 0-8153-4105-9. .. ... In most mammalian fertilization, hyaluronidase is released by the acrosome of the sperm cell after it has reached the oocyte, ...
It gives rise to the bodys connective tissues, blood cells, and blood vessels, as well as muscle, kidney, and many other ... This middle layer of cells, sandwiched between ectoderm and endoderm, grows and diversifies to provide a wide range of ... structures and cell types. We begin with blood vessels. ... Endothelial cells form a single cell layer that lines all blood ... Endothelial Cells Line All Blood Vessels. *New Endothelial Cells Are Generated by Simple Duplication of Existing Endothelial ...
Endothelial stem cells (ESCs) are one of three types of stem cells found in bone marrow. They are multipotent, which describes ... red blood cells), megakaryocytes/platelets, mast cells, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, ... For stem cells, this usually occurs through several stages, where a cell proliferates giving rise to daughter cells that are ... These parent stem cells, ESCs, give rise to progenitor cells, which are intermediate stem cells that lose potency. Progenitor ...
Endothelial colony forming cell[edit]. Endothelial colony forming cells are a late outgrowth cell type; that is, they are only ... Not to be confused with Endothelial stem cell.. Endothelial progenitor cell (or EPC) is a term that has been applied to ... Outgrowth endothelial cells are an EPC subtype committed to endothelial cell formation.[1] Despite the history and controversy ... Aird, William C. "Blood Endothelial Cells" in Endothelial Cells In Health and Disease. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis, 2005. ...
The in vivo endothelial cell translatome is highly heterogeneous across vascular beds Audrey C. A. Cleuren, Martijn A. van der ... Endothelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling reduces immune cell infiltration in multiple sclerosis Justin E. Lengfeld, Sarah E. Lutz, ... SENCR stabilizes vascular endothelial cell adherens junctions through interaction with CKAP4 Qing Lyu, Suowen Xu, Yuyan Lyu, ... Targeting pericyte-endothelial cell crosstalk by circular RNA-cPWWP2A inhibition aggravates diabetes-induced microvascular ...
The endothelial cell.. Br Med J 1966; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5512.487 (Published 27 August 1966) Cite this as: Br ...
Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: HUVEC - Duration: 2:26. Cell Applications, Inc. YouTube 21,750 views ... Research on B Cells and Immune Regulation in Human Lupus - Duration: 4:23. Lupus Foundation of America 1,641 views ... Stem Cells and the Future of Medicine - Research on Aging - Duration: 59:01. University of California Television (UCTV) 133,106 ... T-Cells and Autoimmunity with Dr. Walsh [Part 1] - Duration: 5:51. Arthritis National Research Foundation 536 views ...
Endogenous MicroRNAs in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells Regulate mRNAs Encoded by Hypertension-Related GenesNovelty and ... Three-Month Endothelial Human Endothelin-1 Overexpression Causes Blood Pressure Elevation and Vascular and Kidney InjuryNovelty ... TMEM16A Contributes to Endothelial Dysfunction by Facilitating Nox2 NADPH Oxidase-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in ... Endothelial Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Promotes Atherosclerosis and Monocyte Recruitment by Upregulating MicroRNA-19aNovelty ...
Recent experiments even broadened our view of cell-cell interactions between endothelial and endothelial-regenerating cells on ... Presence of endothelial progenitor cells, distinct from mature endothelial cells, within human CD146+ blood cells. Thromb ... cytotoxic T cells, T-memory cells, natural or adaptive T-regulatory cells, natural killer cells, or γδ T cells, each with ... This concert of cells is presumably accomplished by cells with monocytic features often termed "endothelial-like cells," which ...
The cells express endothelial cell markers in a pattern similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, their junctions are ... gelatin-coated plates with endothelial cell growth medium (Clonetics). For analysis of endothelial cell markers, PECAM1+ cells ... Fluorescent-labeled cells were isolated by using a flow cytometry cell sorter. (B) Flow cytometric analysis of endothelial cell ... Endothelial Gene Expression During hEB Differentiation.. To isolate endothelial cells from hES cells, we first characterized ...
... Kunying Zhang, Fang Yin, and Lin Lin ... The identification and quantification of circulating endothelial cells (CEC) have been developed as a novel marker of ... Endothelial dysfunction may play a crucial role in initiation of the pathogenesis of vascular disease and atherosclerosis. ... In summary, CEC have been developed as a novel approach to assess the endothelial damage. Measurement of the CEC level would ...
We will collect endothelial cells by placing an iV in antegrade position in the forearm and a thin wire will be inserted to ... The cells will processed and stained for markers of endothelial function and oxidative stress including enoS, phospho-enoS, ... The cells will processed and stained for markers of endothelial function and oxidative stress including enoS, phospho-enoS, ... Analysis of endothelial cells in rheumatoid arthritis Study ID. STU 012011-034 ...
in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). Truly endothelial, ... In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood ... BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. Our subsequent ... with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. The initial work, published in the JCI ...
These cells exhibit routine endothelial functionality, such as, CD31 expression, AcLDL uptake and angiogenesis. ... ATCC hTERT immortalized aortic endothelial cells have an extended lifespan with a stable karyotype. ... Aortic Endothelial Cells * TeloHAEC (ATCC® CRL-4052™) ATCC® Number: CRL-4052™ Organism: Homo sapiens, human ... Authentication of cell lines via STR profile analysis is becoming a requirement of ... ...
Outgrowth endothelial cells are an EPC subtype committed to endothelial cell formation. Despite the history and controversy, ... Outgrowth endothelial cells are an EPC subtype committed to endothelial cell formation. Despite the history and controversy, ... Outgrowth endothelial cells are an EPC subtype committed to endothelial cell formation. Despite the history and controversy, ... Endothelial progenitor cell (or EPC) is a term that has been applied to multiple different cell types that play roles in the ...
"Cell-cell contacts in the human cell line ECV304 exhibit both endothelial and epithelial characteristics," Cell and Tissue ... K. Elvevold, B. Smedsrød, and I. Martinez, "The liver sinusoidal endothelial cell: a cell type of controversial and confusing ... "Endothelial cells are central orchestrators of cytokine amplification during influenza virus infection," Cell, vol. 146, no. 6 ... "Dengue viruses induce cell proliferation and morphological changes of endothelial cells," Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical ...
... such as endothelial cells. Basal FAK activity in non-stimulated endothelial cells is important in maintaining cell adhesion to ... Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) were incubated in HEPES buffer in the absence (vehicle) or presence of 100 μM ... Panel a: Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) were transfected with wild type FAK (pHA-FAK) or central kinase ... Focal adhesion kinase and endothelial cell apoptosis.. Lu Q1, Rounds S. ...
... express a panel of endothelial cell surface proteins, undergo tubule formation in culture and are karyotypically, ... morphologically, and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. ... ATCC hTERT immortalized dermal microvascular endothelial cells have an extended lifespan, ... Endothelial Cells Immortalized With Htert (1) Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells * TIME (ATCC® CRL-4025™) ATCC® Number: CRL ...
Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction. Cindy J.M. Loomans, Eelco J.P. de Koning, Frank J.T. Staal, Maarten B. Rookmaaker, ... Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction. Cindy J.M. Loomans, Eelco J.P. de Koning, Frank J.T. Staal, Maarten B. Rookmaaker, ... These cells can be cultured from the circulating mononuclear cell (MNC) fraction and are commonly referred to as endothelial ... all three characteristic features of cells in the endothelial lineage. At day 4, 80% of the attached cells already stained ...
... to show that TAK1 is an essential component in ensuring survival of endothelial cells during inflammation and injury, and that ... TNFα-induced cell death is tightly regulated and resisted in endothelial cells. Here, an Osaka University-led research team ... Resist! TAK1 enables endothelial cells to avoid apoptosis Osaka University-led study shows that TAK1 preserves endothelial cell ... Resist! TAK1 enables endothelial cells to avoid apoptosis. Osaka University. Journal. Developmental Cell. Funder. Japan Agency ...
... cells were close to and sometimes attached to endothelial cells, but not exactly colocalized with endothelial cell markers in ... Sox9+ mesenchymal cells do not contribute to endothelial cells. We next traced the fate of mesenchymal cells using independent ... is a specific endothelial cell marker (27). Apln is a specific marker for vascular endothelial cells (30, 31), and Apln-CreER ... number of endothelial cells in the normal heart and that those cells expand to generate more coronary endothelial cells after ...
Both cell types were stained with endothelial cell-specific UEA-1 (green fluorescence). Superimposed light and fluorescent ... Identification and isolation of endothelial cells based on their increased uptake of acetylated-low density lipoprotein. J Cell ... Erythropoietin regulates endothelial progenitor cells. Ferdinand H. Bahlmann, Kirsten de Groot, Jens-Michael Spandau, Aimee L. ... Erythropoietin regulates endothelial progenitor cells. Ferdinand H. Bahlmann, Kirsten de Groot, Jens-Michael Spandau, Aimee L. ...
Among them are growth factors, such as the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF ...
The lung is one of the bodys organs with the highest expression of vascular endothelial growth factor that stimulates small ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease are two prototypes of devastating diseases ... Pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (ECs) line the surface of the lung vasculature and accommodate the various levels of blood ... Endothelial cells in acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited red blood cell ...
Endothelial Cell Biology RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Endothelial Cell Biology RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Endothelial Cell Biology RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Endothelial Cell Biology RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the ... Endothelial Cell Biology RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Endothelial Cell Biology RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the ... expression of 84 genes related to endothelial cell biology. Endothelial cells play a critical role in the progression of... ...
Resuspend the cells in 5 ml of Bovine Endothelial Growth Medium (B211-500) by gently pipetting the cells to break up the clumps ... Count the cells with a hemocytometer or cell counter. Inoculate at 4,000 cells per cm2 for regular subculturing. ... A. Preparing Cell Culture Flasks for Culturing BAOEC. *Take the Bovine Endothelial Growth Medium (B211-500) from the ... Pipette the cell suspension (1ml) from the vial into the T-75 flask (SIAL0641) containing 15 ml of Bovine Endothelial Growth ...
Resuspend the cells in 2 ml of Endothelial Cell Growth Medium (211-500) by gently pipetting the cells to break up the clumps. ... Count the cells with a hemocytometer or cell counter. Inoculate at 10,000 cells per cm2 for rapid growth, or at 5,000 cells per ... A. Preparing Cell Culture Flasks For Culturing HAOEC. *Take the Endothelial Cell Growth Medium (211-500) from the refrigerator ... Pipette the cell suspension (1ml) from the vial into the T-75 flask (SIAL0641) containing 15 ml of Endothelial Cell Growth ...
... including endothelial cells (ECs) and the smooth muscle cells. On the other hand, blood vessel-on-a-chip has become an emerging ... There is evidence that the changes in the blood vessel rigidity may affect the various functions of the cells in the blood ... Cell Culture. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, Sciencell, USA) were cultured in endothelial cell culture medium ... including endothelial cells (ECs) and the smooth muscle cells. On the other hand, blood vessel-on-a-chip has become an emerging ...
Khin-Mar Myint, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Toshio Doi, Ichiro Kato, Ai Harashima, Hideto Yonekura, Takuo Watanabe, Harumichi Shinohara, Masayoshi Takeuchi, Koichi Tsuneyama, Noriyoshi Hashimoto, Masahide Asano, Shin Takasawa, Hiroshi Okamoto, Hiroshi Yamamoto ...
These findings offer new insights into cancer therapies and the crosstalk between tumor and endothelial cells mediated by TMV ... differ from normal endothelial cells (NEC). Our previous reports also showed that TEC were different from NEC. For example, TEC ... Methodology/Principal Findings Here we showed that TMV isolated from tumor cells were taken up by NEC through endocytosis. In ... Recent studies have shown that TMV contain numerous types of bioactive molecules and affect normal stromal cells in the tumor ...
Therefore, enhancing drug transport across the endothelial barrier has to rely on leaky vessels arising from disease states ... This approach provides a physically controlled drug delivery method harnessing the biology of endothelial adherens junction and ... the permeability of vascular endothelium can be increased using an external magnetic field to temporarily disrupt endothelial ... Dejana, E. Endothelial cell-cell junctions: happy together. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 5, 261-270 (2004). ...
  • Atherosclerosis is the most common cause for cardiovascular diseases and is based on endothelial dysfunction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Endothelial dysfunction may play a crucial role in initiation of the pathogenesis of vascular disease and atherosclerosis. (hindawi.com)
  • We describe, in great detail, mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and CEC detachment. (hindawi.com)
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease are two prototypes of devastating diseases caused by pulmonary EC dysfunction. (intechopen.com)
  • Hyperglycemia is associated with endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and reduced neovascularization in response to tissue ischemia, processes that are essential for wound healing and prevention of cardiovascular ischemia ( 1 - 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Consequently, if EPCs are critical to endothelial maintenance and repair, EPC dysfunction could contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic vascular disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Endothelial dysfunction can lead to an imbalance in vasoconstriction and vasodilation. (qiagen.com)
  • These data corroborated that crocetin could restore the dysfunction of diabetic endothelial progenitor cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Understanding how forces affect cell-cell adhesion could provide new opportunities for therapies targeting acute and chronic dysfunction of blood vessels. (manufacturing.net)
  • In this study, we investigated the miRNA expression changes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to different glucose concentrations (5, 10, 25 and 40 mM glucose) and at various time intervals (6, 12, 24 and 48 h). miRNA microarray analyses showed that there is a correlation between hyperglycemia induced endothelial dysfunction and miRNA expression. (mdpi.com)
  • In silico pathways analyses on the altered miRNA expression showed that the majority of the affected biological pathways appeared to be associated to endothelial cell dysfunction and apoptosis. (mdpi.com)
  • These miRNAs were also found to be involved in endothelial dysfunction. (mdpi.com)
  • Aging of ECs and resultant endothelial dysfunction lead to a variety of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellites, hypertension, and ischemic injury. (mdpi.com)
  • Endothelial cells (ECs) are primary targets of immunological attack, and their injury can lead to vasculopathy and organ dysfunction in vascular leak syndrome and in rejection of allografts or xenografts. (jimmunol.org)
  • The endothelium plays an important role in the recruitment and emigration of circulating effector cells into sites of inflammation and immune responses, and endothelial cells can be the primary target of immunologic injury, which results in vasculopathy and organ dysfunction ( 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Various stimuli, such as oxidative stress, endotoxins, and certain cytokines, can cause endothelial cells to dysfunction, by modulating the upregulation of adhesion molecules and chemokines ( 7 - 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Topics include the heterogeneity and specification of endothelial cell subpopulations, molecular control of phenotypes, organ-specific differentiation, novel sources of endothelial cells during development, transdifferentiation processes, vascular niches, and endothelial dysfunction in disease. (grc.org)
  • diabetic subjects with endothelial dysfunction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • diabetic subject with endothelial dysfunction will be scheduled to undergo a peripheral intravenous infusion after meeting all inclusion/exclusion criteria at baseline. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1) is a cell surface receptor protein that is commonly used as a marker for ESCs and EPCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • By method of isolation and cell function, three main populations of putative adult EPCs have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-6 The depiction of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in adults has substantially extended hypotheses about postnatal endothelial biology. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7,8 However, since their first mention by Asahara et al, 7 the definition of circulating endothelial-regenerating EPCs that were supposed to fulfil the great expectations has been incongruent and has come under heavy debate. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this review, we have focused on current definitions of EPCs, highlighted the clinical relevance of endothelial regenerating cells, and provided new insights into cell-cell interactions involved in EC rejuvenation. (ahajournals.org)
  • endothelial progenitor cells, EPCs) sind im Blutstrom zirkulierende Zellen, die aus dem Knochenmark stammen. (dbpedia.org)
  • Circulating bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote vascular reparative processes and neoangiogenesis, and their number in peripheral blood correlates with endothelial function and cardiovascular risk. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Administration of rhEPO increased the number of functionally active EPCs by differentiation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, assessed in cell culture and by tube formation assay. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Current research focuses on bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which promote vascular reparative processes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1 - 3 EPCs are considered to originate from CD34-positive (CD34 + ) stem cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • For this purpose, we assessed circulating CD34 + cells in whole blood using flow cytometry, and the number of functionally active EPCs in an in vitro assay during 8 weeks of treatment with standard rhEPO doses in 11 patients with renal anemia and in 4 healthy subjects. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Recently, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been identified as important regulators of these processes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conditioned media from patient EPCs were significantly reduced in their capacity to support endothelial tube formation in comparison to control EPCs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These cells can be cultured from the circulating mononuclear cell (MNC) fraction and are commonly referred to as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) because they exhibit characteristic endothelial surface markers and properties. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, measurements of flow-mediated brachial-artery reactivity also revealed a significant relation between endothelial function and the number of EPCs, supporting a role for EPCs in the maintenance of endothelial integrity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we compared the capacity of patient and control EPCs to support endothelial tube formation in vitro. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow-derived cells involved in endothelial homeostasis and angiogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CD34 + , CD133 + , and CD34 + CD133 + cells were considered generic circulating progenitor cells, while CD34 + KDR + , CD133 + KDR + , and CD34 + CD133 + KDR + cells were considered endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Researchers from Northeastern University and Harvard Medical School have developed a miniature microfluidic device that is capable of capturing endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bloodstream, in a sample of only 200 microliters of blood. (medgadget.com)
  • The surface of a variable-shear-stress microfluidic device was conjugated with 6 different antibodies [anti-CD34, -CD31, -vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), -CD146, -CD45, and -von Willebrand factor (vWF)] designed to match the surface antigens on ovine peripheral blood-derived EPCs. (medgadget.com)
  • EPCs exhibited increased adhesion to antibodies against CD34, VEGFR-2, CD31, and CD146 compared to CD45, consistent with their endothelial cell-specific surface profile, when exposed to a minimum shear stress of 1.47 dyn/cm(2). (medgadget.com)
  • Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might play a protective role in COPD. (dovepress.com)
  • Isolated mononuclear cells from the bone marrow of C57BL/6J mice were cultured in endothelial cell growth medium-2 for 10 days, yielding EPCs. (dovepress.com)
  • On day 90, EPCs or 30 µL phosphate-buffered saline alone was administered into the trachea, and on day 120, inflammatory cells, antioxidant activity, apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 were measured. (dovepress.com)
  • Moreover, decreased activities of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TUNEL-positive cells in lung tissues were detected in EPCs-treated mice. (dovepress.com)
  • This model, which induces an infarct of predictable size in a pig heart, was used to test the cardioprotective potential of the embryonic cells, since adult endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been used in similar models with success and are utilized in ongoing patient studies. (innovations-report.com)
  • Currently, embryonic EPCs are an experimental tool trying to investigate the pathways utilized by these cells to protect the ischemic heart. (innovations-report.com)
  • The EPCs then differentiate into endothelial cells to create a natural coating just like the inside of the artery in which the stent is positioned. (medgadget.com)
  • Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may play a key role in this repair process. (uni-muenster.de)
  • The animals were treated with a CNI-based or a CNI-free therapy, and EPCs (Sca+cKit+) and CD26+ cells were determined by flow cytometry. (uni-muenster.de)
  • Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been isolated in peripheral blood of adult species. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The progenitor cells that are able to differentiate into functional endothelial cells and sustain vasculogenesis are broadly called endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). (stemcell.com)
  • Since then, distinctly different cell populations have been isolated and called EPCs. (stemcell.com)
  • EPCs have also been studied as biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases and proposed as a potent cell-based therapy for their capacity to stimulate vascular repair in physiological and pathological conditions. (stemcell.com)
  • 5,14-15 A summary of different cell populations often referred to as EPCs is given in Table 1. (stemcell.com)
  • The loss of CD133 expression was proposed as a marker to distinguish EPCs from mature endothelial cells. (stemcell.com)
  • In a new study published in Developmental Cell , a research team led by experts from Osaka University investigated the mechanism underlying endothelial cell resistance to TNFα-induced apoptosis, an important mechanism of cell death in inflammatory conditions. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition to providing a clear understanding of endothelial cell survival during inflammation, this study has revealed a potential pathway for other cell types to avoid the onset of apoptosis, and may be important in future regenerative medicine therapies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Focal adhesion kinase and endothelial cell apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Growing evidence indicates that FAK is important in maintenance of normal cell survival and that disruption of FAK signaling results in loss of substrate adhesion and anoikis (apoptosis) of anchorage-dependent cells, such as endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • This review summarizes the signaling pathways of FAK in prevention of apoptosis and the role of FAK in mediating adenosine and homocysteine-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and in cardiovascular diseases. (nih.gov)
  • At 24h after transfection, cells were incubated in buffer alone (HBS, vehicle) or with 1 mM adenosine (Ado) or 100 μM adenosine plus 100 μM homocysteine (Ado/HC) for additional 16 h and then apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst staining. (nih.gov)
  • Apoptosis was presented as the ratio of apoptotic HA− or CD2 cells to total HA or CD2 expressing cells. (nih.gov)
  • These findings influence how we evaluate MVD data in B-cell lymphomas and possibly also other tumour types, as well as data relating to capillary endothelium-related functional variables of proliferation, apoptosis and maturation when different double-labelling immunohistochemical techniques are used and different tumour types are analysed. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Dramatic changes of pressure in the local circulation flow field would lead to alterations in biorheological characteristics of Endothelial cells(ECs), and futher resulted in the apoptosis induced by loss of anchorage, a form of cell death known as anoikis. (scirp.org)
  • Flusberg, D.A., Numaguchi, Y. and Ingber, D.E. (2001) Cooperative control of Akt phosphorylation, bcl-2 expression, and apoptosis by cytoskeletal microfilaments and microtubules in capillary endothelial cells. (scirp.org)
  • Endothelial cell apoptosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a common pathway for abnormal vascular function and thrombosis propensity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Background and Purpose -Our recent study showed that oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) induces apoptosis in cultured endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of 2 caspase inhibitors, Z-VDVAD-FMK and Z-DEVD-FMK, in the protection of endothelial cells from OxyHb-induced apoptosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 10 11 12 We previously reported that OxyHb induced apoptosis in cultured endothelial cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study we investigated the effect of OxyHb on the activities of caspase-2 and -3 and the prophylaxis effect of caspase inhibitors on OxyHb-induced apoptosis in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • To investigate whether Ox-LDL regulates OX40L expression through an oxidized LDL-1 receptor (LOX-1)-mediated mechanism, we investigated the effect of different concentrations of Ox-LDL (50, 100, 150 µg/mL) on endothelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. (scielo.br)
  • Previous studies have suggested a role for an increased apoptosis of the endothelial cells in the pulmonary capillaries of the alveolar septa in the pathogenesis of human pulmonary emphysema. (bmj.com)
  • A growing body of evidence suggests the contribution of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells, monocytic cells, and mature endothelial cells to vessel formation and endothelial rejuvenation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The goal of this two-year Phase I project is to synthesize and characterize in vitro a novel nanofibrous vascular graft material using our electrospinning and immobi lization technology that would direct rapid adhesion and subsequent growth of circulating progenitor and more mature endothelial cells upon contact with the material. (sbir.gov)
  • The key issue is quality of the cells, which should be well-differentiated, mature endothelial cells. (healio.com)
  • Results: Rapamycin increased the number of circulating mature endothelial cells approximately 2-fold compared to tacrolimus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Induction of autophagy by amino acid deprivation in bovine aortic endothelial cells caused an early and potent increase in the fluorescence of the proposed autophagy dye Cyto-ID. (springer.com)
  • Researchers prepared cultures of aortic endothelial cells drawn from pigs, which are used as a substitute for human endothelial cells. (naturalnews.com)
  • Circulating endothelial progenitor cells CD34+144+CD14- et CD34+VEGF-R2+CD14- have been shown to be inversely correlated to aortic aneurysm size. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Polyacrylamide gels functionalized with A-B(X) heterodimers were evaluated for cell adhesion using bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). (nih.gov)
  • Second or third passage porcine aortic endothelial cells grown to confluence were incubated with the fibers for up to 24 hours. (cdc.gov)
  • This study will assess the safety and efficacy of systemic (IV) administration of escalating doses of allogeneic MSCs in modulating immune cell phenotypes and suppressing aortic inflammati. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Aronia melanocarpa fruit extract exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in human aortic endothelial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were pretreated with various concentrations (primarily 50 μg/mL) of Aronia Melanocarpa fruit extract prior to treatment with TNFα (10 ng/mL) for various periods of time. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effect of grating textures on the alignment of cell shape and intracellular actin cytoskeleton has been investigated in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) cultured on a model cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). (cambridge.org)
  • As the endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules has been recognised as an early step in inflammation and atherogenesis, we examined the effect of walnut methanolic extract and ellagic acid, one of its major polyphenolic components (as shown by HPLC analysis), on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in human aortic endothelial cells. (cambridge.org)
  • Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, the vanguards of human sensory systems, are novel molecular receptors significantly affected by EtOH, and are heavily expressed in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs), one of the cellular constituents of the BBB. (springer.com)
  • Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells support productive replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses: possible involvement in the pathogenesis of human H5N1 virus infection. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • As a result, we showed that pre-aligned myotubes support early network sprouting of microvascular endothelial cells by providing collagen fibers and laminin but require accessory cells such as pericytes to complete the vascularization process in vitro. (rug.nl)
  • Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) are interconnected by specific junctional proteins forming a highly regulated barrier separating blood and the central nervous system (CNS), the so-called blood-brain-barrier (BBB). (jove.com)
  • The isolation of primary murine brain microvascular endothelial cells, as discussed in this protocol, enables detailed in vitro studies of the BBB. (jove.com)
  • The blood-brain-barrier is ultrastructurally assembled by a monolayer of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) interconnected by a junctional complex of tight and adherens junctions. (jove.com)
  • Methods -Cultured bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells (passages 5 to 9) were exposed to OxyHb (10 μmol/L) for 24 to 72 hours with and without caspase inhibitors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells were purchased from Cell Systems Corporation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The wall is lined by an exceedingly thin single sheet of endothelial cells, the endothelium, separated from the surrounding outer layers by a basal lamina. (nih.gov)
  • ESCs will eventually produce endothelial cells (ECs), which create the thin-walled endothelium that lines the inner surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Although bone marrow-derived cells do appear to localize to injured vessels and promote an angiogenic switch, other studies have suggested these cells do not contribute directly to the functional endothelium, instead acting via paracrine methods to provide support for the resident endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, it is believed that mature ECs and circulating endothelial precursor cells contribute to the rejuvenation of the endothelium. (ahajournals.org)
  • To define endothelial-regenerating cells and their role in differentiation into the mature endothelium, ECs have to be characterized first. (ahajournals.org)
  • We show that the isolated embryonic PECAM1+ cells, grown in culture, display characteristics similar to vessel endothelium. (pnas.org)
  • Evidence of vascular damage in dengue disease: demonstration of high levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules and circulating endothelial cells," Endothelium , vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 335-340, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • To study the orchestrating role of the vascular endothelium, the changes in gene expression of isolated liver endothelial cells one day after surgery were analyzed. (dkfz.de)
  • The lung is one of the body's organs with the highest expression of vascular endothelial growth factor that stimulates small vessel formation of the microvascular endothelium. (intechopen.com)
  • The researchers concluded that cucumber can attenuate the inflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharides in the endothelial cells of pigs, making it a potential means of naturally protecting the vascular endothelium. (naturalnews.com)
  • The lymphatic system, another specialized endothelium, removes interstitial fluid from tissues and transports lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells to lymph nodes. (qiagen.com)
  • Here we show that the permeability of vascular endothelium can be increased using an external magnetic field to temporarily disrupt endothelial adherens junctions through internalized iron oxide nanoparticles, activating the paracellular transport pathway and facilitating the local extravasation of circulating substances. (nature.com)
  • Delivery of large drug molecules and drug carriers, including therapeutic proteins, nucleic acids and nanomaterials, occurs either only at the level of the vascular endothelium itself or when the permeability of the endothelial barrier is significantly increased. (nature.com)
  • The endothelium is the thin layer of cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Our results suggest that fractalkine plays an important role not only in the binding of NK cells to endothelial cells, but also in NK cell-mediated endothelium damage, which may result in vascular injury. (jimmunol.org)
  • and the at least one compound stimulates the progenitor endothelial cell to form an endothelium on the surface of the medical device. (google.ca)
  • The term "scavenger endothelial cell", first appearing in the scientific literature in 1999, was coined to distinguish a highly specialized subclass of endothelium in vertebrates that was observed to express a remarkably avid blood clearance activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro studies show that polyhydroxyl compounds (glucose, galactose, galactitol, sorbitol, or xylitol) inhibit Na+, K+-ATPase activity in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells whereas in vivo studies show reduced Na+, K+-ATP-ase activity in the corneal endothelium of diabetic rabbits after only 10 weeks of alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 9,11 These cell populations have subsequently been shown to improve vascular function through two principal mechanisms (i) actual incorporation into injured endothelium with formation of a functional blood vessel (inosculation) 12 and/or (ii) local secretion of proangiogenic factors with a paracrine effect on the cells actually forming the vessel. (stemcell.com)
  • If it were not for endothelial cells extending and remodeling the network of blood vessels, tissue growth and repair would be impossible. (nih.gov)
  • Cancerous tissue is as dependent on a blood supply as is normal tissue, and this has led to a surge of interest in endothelial cell biology. (nih.gov)
  • The largest blood vessels are arteries and veins, which have a thick, tough wall of connective tissue and and many layers of smooth muscle cells ( Figure 22-22 ). (nih.gov)
  • The amounts of connective tissue and smooth muscle in the vessel wall vary according to the vessel's diameter and function, but the endothelial lining is always present. (nih.gov)
  • These are cells of the connective-tissue family, related to vascular smooth muscle cells, that wrap themselves round the small vessels ( Figure 22-24 ). (nih.gov)
  • A study of the embryo reveals, moreover, that arteries and veins develop from small vessels constructed solely of endothelial cells and a basal lamina: pericytes, connective tissue and smooth muscle are added later where required, under the influence of signals from the endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Once a vessel has matured, signals from the endothelial cells to the surrounding connective tissue and smooth muscle continue to play a crucial part in regulating the vessel's function and structure. (nih.gov)
  • ECFCs are now known to be tissue-resident progenitor cells in adults that maintain some vasculogenic ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • During development, endothelial cells (EC) emerge from mesodermal tissue residing in blood islands in the yolk sac or other atypical regions, like the placenta. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (pnas.org)
  • The human embryonic-derived endothelial cells were isolated by using platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) antibodies, their behavior was characterized in vitro and in vivo , and their potential in tissue engineering was examined. (pnas.org)
  • Human vascular endothelial cells are important for developing engineered vessels for treatment of vascular disease ( 1 ) and also may be useful for augmenting vessel growth to areas of ischemic tissue or after implantation ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The vasculogenic potential of the embryonic cells could be of use specifically in tissue engineering for the induction of tissue vascularization. (pnas.org)
  • Our subsequent experimental work focused upon practical applications of BOEC: their use for gene therapy, tissue engineering, assessment of mutant gene effect, and discovery of heterogeneity in endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • But that's only part of the story: Additional experiments revealed that endothelial cell produced Ang2 does not just control hepatocyte proliferation, but also supports the subsequent regeneration of the associated connective tissue. (dkfz.de)
  • Osaka, Japan - Cell death is an important aspect of tissue homeostasis, as well as inflammation and disease pathogenesis related to infection, injury, and tumor growth. (eurekalert.org)
  • They found that TAK1, a known signaling messenger involved in tissue homeostasis, was essential for survival of endothelial cells upon exposure to TNFα. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the study, in vivo experiments with inflammation model mouse revealed that TAK1 was essential for survival of endothelial cells in lung tissue and hind limb muscle, under conditions similar to pneumonia and myositis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Most endothelial cells form the thin layer of tissue at the interior of blood vessels where they provide a nonthrombogenic surface to help prevent inappropriate blood clotting. (qiagen.com)
  • The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. (jci.org)
  • Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. (jci.org)
  • Infusion or superfusion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can increase vascular permeability and promote transvascular transport of macromolecules and nanoparticles into tumour tissue 6 , 7 . (nature.com)
  • The functionalization of hydrogels for receptor-mediated cell adhesion is one approach for targeted cell and tissue engineering applications. (nih.gov)
  • Adherens junctions, the structures that allow cohesion between cells in a tissue, appear to be modulated by endothelial cell-to-cell tugging forces. (manufacturing.net)
  • In many disease states, such as septic shock, diabetes and in tumor vasculature, endothelial cells fail to form the type of tight adhesions with each other that are necessary to prevent the vessels from leaking into the surrounding tissue. (manufacturing.net)
  • In prior research, Chen's team has demonstrated that the push and pull of cellular forces drives the buckling, extension and contraction of cells during tissue development. (manufacturing.net)
  • These processes ultimately shape the architecture of tissues and play an important role in coordinating cell signaling, gene expression and behavior, and they are essential for wound healing and tissue homeostasis in adult organisms. (manufacturing.net)
  • Now researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the University of South Alabama show that the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus, but not seasonal influenza viruses, can target the cells of human lung tissue, where they replicate fast and efficiently, and induce inflammation, which correlates with H5N1-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome that is observed in humans. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The existence of tissue-resident vascular endothelial stem cells (VESCs) and their role in angiogenesis had been under debate -- many. (biocentury.com)
  • The vascular system is a continuous organ reaching to within micrometers of all tissue parenchymal cells. (aappublications.org)
  • Endothelial tissue is a specialized type of epithelium tissue (one of the four types of biological tissue in animals). (medicalxpress.com)
  • The authors suggest that asbestos fibers directly activate vascular endothelial cells to express proteins that facilitate tissue remodeling. (cdc.gov)
  • administering to a subject in need of such treatment a rho GTPase function inhibitor in an amount effective to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in said tissue of the subject, provided that the rho GTPase function inhibitor is not an agent selected from the group consisting of a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, a protein kinase C inhibitor, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and cyclosporin. (google.ca)
  • 12. The method of claims 1 - 9 , further comprising co-administering at least one different rho GTPase function inhibitor in an amount effective to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in said tissue of the subject. (google.ca)
  • This thesis explores the influences of directional topography and topography-aligned differentiated myoblasts in combination with endothelial cells in triggering capillary network formation for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle. (rug.nl)
  • In addition, different coatings were investigated, such as gelatin, fibronectin, and instructive adipose tissue-derived stromal cell (ASC). (rug.nl)
  • Migration from blood to tissue modulates eosinophil function, possibly through interactions with endothelial cells. (ersjournals.com)
  • In order to further clarify the role of endothelial cells in themodulation of eosinophils during their migration to tissue, the effects of eosinophil migration through a human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayer on expression of cell-surface markers and liberation of LTC 4 , a powerful bronchoconstrictor and pro-inflammatory mediator, were evaluated. (ersjournals.com)
  • administering to a nonhypercholesterolemic subject in need of such treatment a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in an amount effective to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in said tissue of the subject. (google.com)
  • This suggests that OX40L serves as a key protein regulating the interaction between different cells in vascular tissue and inflammatory mediators in the development of atherosclerosis. (scielo.br)
  • Lymphatic-specific vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D function as ligands for the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3). (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, Ang2 controls endothelial cells expression of VEGF receptor-2. (dkfz.de)
  • For example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to regulate EPC proliferation and differentiation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Among them are growth factors, such as the 'Fibroblast Growth Factor' (FGF) and the 'Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor' (VEGF). (innovations-report.com)
  • For examples, TEC expressed high levels of the angiogenesis-related genes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cyclooxygenenase-2 [9] , [10] . (plos.org)
  • At the time of blood donation, 10mL of blood will be used to calculate the concentration of circulating endothelial progenitor cells CD34+144+CD14- et CD34+VEGF-R2+CD14- , and the ratio of circulating endothelial progenitor cells CD34+144+CD14- et CD34+VEGF-R2+CD14- / all circulating endothelial progenitor cells in order to determine reference values. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • VEGF-A, the most potent inducer of endothelial responses within the family, binds to both VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. (nature.com)
  • The effect of VEGF on vascular permeability is partly attributed to its regulation of endothelial junctional proteins that control paracellular transport 8 . (nature.com)
  • The Endothelial Cell Growth Kit-VEGF contains components that when added to Vascular Cell Basal Medium ( ATCC PCS-100-030 ) create a complete, low serum culture environment for human large vessel endothelial cells. (atcc.org)
  • To promote angiogenesis, tumors secrete growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) that induce endothelial cell activation in nearby vessels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recently, we found that accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ in tumors renders them refractory to angiogenic blockade by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A is a pivotal regulator of angiogenesis, and loss of a single VEGF-A allele will result in embryonic lethality ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bevacizumab (Avastin), a humanized variant of an anti-VEGF neutralizing monoclonal antibody, is the first antiangiogenic agent to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer ( 6 ) and non-small cell lung cancer ( 7 ) in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Also, various tumor-infiltrating hematopoietic cells such as T- and B- lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages have been suggested to secrete proangiogenic factors including VEGF-A ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 In animal models, circulating endothelial stem cells, characterised by the concomitant expression of CD34+, CD133 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGF-R2), may contribute to the repair of lung damage. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of our study was to investigate by flow cytometry the number of total (CD34+) and endothelial stem (triple positive for CD34+/CD133/VEGF-R2) cells in the peripheral venous blood of current and former smokers of similar age, with or without pulmonary emphysema. (bmj.com)
  • Enumeration of endothelial stem cells was performed as CD34+ cells co-expressing CD133 and VEGF-2. (bmj.com)
  • With further studies, these cells could provide a source of human endothelial cells that could be beneficial for potential applications such as engineering new blood vessels, endothelial cell transplantation into the heart for myocardial regeneration, and induction of angiogenesis for treatment of regional ischemia. (pnas.org)
  • Vasculogenesis is defined as the in situ assembly of capillaries from undifferentiated endothelial cells, as opposed to angiogenesis, the sprouting of capillaries from preexisting blood vessels ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • M. G. Lampugnani and E. Dejana, "Adherens junctions in endothelial cells regulate vessel maintenance and angiogenesis," Thrombosis Research , vol. 120, supplement 2, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • 혈관내피전구세포(영어: en:endothelial progenitor cell )는 태아의 혈관 신생과정(영어: en:vasculogenesis )에서 주로 관여하는 세포로 알려져 있었지만, 성인의 말초혈액이나 골수 등과 같은 곳에서도 발견되고, 허혈성 질환이나 암 형성, 또는 망막병증 등 여러가지 질환에서 혈관형성(영어: en:angiogenesis )에 관여하는 것으로 알려져 있다.이러한 혈관내피전구세포는 여러가지 사이토카인이나 성장인자 또는 호르몬등에 의해서 혈관형성이 이루어지는 곳으로 이동하게 되고, 자체에서 분비되는 인자들에 의해 혈관형성을 촉진하거나, 또는 혈관 내피세포로 분화되면서 혈관형성에 관여하게된다. (dbpedia.org)
  • The treated cultures were evaluated for cell viability, the gene expression of endothelial cell markers, the amount of cytokines released by the cells, and the in vitro formation of new blood vessels from existing ones (angiogenesis). (naturalnews.com)
  • Endothelial cells also play a critical role in the progression of disease processes such as inflammation and tumor angiogenesis. (qiagen.com)
  • Therefore, enhancing drug transport across the endothelial barrier has to rely on leaky vessels arising from disease states such as pathological angiogenesis and inflammatory response. (nature.com)
  • 2 Both quiescent, differentiated, vascular endothelial cells and bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) contribute to angiogenesis to variable degrees. (haematologica.org)
  • Evidence is increasing that endothelial galectins play a critical role in the endothelial adaptations associated with tumor angiogenesis ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have recently shown that endothelial galectin-1 is directly implicated in proper cell function during tumor angiogenesis ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because increased expression of the protein has been reported in different human cancers ( 11 - 13 ), we hypothesized that galectin-1 secreted by tumor cells could also stimulate tumor angiogenesis via activation of endothelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3,4 These processes are driven by the proliferation, migration and remodeling of ECs from pre-existing vessels (angiogenesis and arteriogenesis) or the differentiation of progenitor cells derived from mesodermal precursors (vasculogenesis). (stemcell.com)
  • CD11b+Gr1+ cells, which include neutrophils, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, have been shown to contribute to tumor angiogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor growth depends on the formation of blood vessels that bring nutrients and oxygen to the cells, a process known as angiogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the definition and biology, especially of endothelial progenitor cells, is complex and under heavy debate. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for endothelial cell biology research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • The Human Endothelial Cell Biology RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes related to endothelial cell biology. (qiagen.com)
  • In the December 2015 issue of Experimental Biology and Medicine , Huber et al from the Division of Pulmonology at the University Hospital Zurich and the Institute of Veterinary Physiology University of Zurich extended these studies by assuming that miRNAs, beyond regulating BMPR2, might directly target cell cycle regulators. (eurekalert.org)
  • The corresponding author Dr. Matthias Brock said "These translational data indicate a pathogenetic role of miR-125a in pulmonary vascular biology and might explain endothelial cell-specific alterations in pulmonary hypertension. (eurekalert.org)
  • This approach provides a physically controlled drug delivery method harnessing the biology of endothelial adherens junction and opens a new avenue for drug delivery in a broad range of biomedical research and therapeutic applications. (nature.com)
  • 3 CRP elicits a multitude of effects on endothelial biology that favor a proatherosclerotic phenotype, such as decreasing NO release, 4 upregulating adhesion molecules, 5 stimulating vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, 6 and activating the complement system. (ahajournals.org)
  • We investigated the function of TFEB in vascular biology and pathophysiology and demonstrated that TFEB in endothelial cells inhibited inflammation and reduced atherosclerosis development. (sciencemag.org)
  • Endothelial cells have important roles in the regulation of vascular biology and pathology, such as atherosclerosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because endothelial cells are the major site of CCL2 chemokine production ( 10 ), identification of molecules that regulate CCL2 production in endothelial cells can provide insight into the biology behind atherosclerosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Endothelial cells are involved in many aspects of vascular biology, including edema. (genlantis.com)
  • This loss of metabolic function induces a massive proliferation of the remaining liver cells (hepatocytes). (dkfz.de)
  • As such, the work revealed that liver endothelial cells control hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration by blocking an inhibitor pathway that acts as an endogenous brake. (dkfz.de)
  • A growing body of evidence indicates that neovascularization does not exclusively rely on proliferation of local ECs but also involves bone marrow-derived circulating stem cells ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Uncontrolled proliferation of these cells is mainly mediated by dysregulations of growth factor receptors and regulator proteins of the cell cycle. (eurekalert.org)
  • When the expression of miR-125a was inhibited in cultured endothelial cells by transfecting these cells with a specific miRNA inhibitor, the expression of two important tumor suppressor genes that control the regulation of the cell cycle was increased resulting in reduced proliferation of endothelial cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The vascular system, consisting of blood and lymphatic vessels, is crucially dependent on vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs), which regulate the proliferation and function of endothelial cells. (nature.com)
  • On the other hand, VEGFR signaling activates several transcription factors (TFs), including AP-1, NFAT and FOXO family members, that regulate several genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. (nature.com)
  • Knockdown of galectin-1 expression in endothelial cells inhibits proliferation and migration, whereas galectin-1-null (gal-1 −/− ) mice display hampered tumor growth due to decreased angiogenic activity ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we provide evidence that exogenous galectin-1 specifically promotes endothelial H-Ras signaling toward the Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) kinase (Mek)/Erk pathway and that it stimulates endothelial cell migration and proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These MPs increase capillary-like formation and proliferation but inhibit migration in endothelial cell culture. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Proliferation of rat coronary endothelial cells (CEC) and rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) was determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation, the MTT-test and by directly counting cells in a coulter counter. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - The angiotensin AT2-receptor mediates inhibition of cell proliferation in coronary endothelial cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cell proliferation was found to be independent of grating textures and the alignment of cell shape was maintained at confluence. (cambridge.org)
  • by signaling this information to the surrounding cells, they enable the blood vessel to adapt its diameter and wall thickness to suit the blood flow. (nih.gov)
  • Endothelial colony forming cells represent a distinct population that has been found to have the potential to differentiate and promote vessel repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early endothelial progenitor cells isolated from differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells were shown to give rise to three blood vessel cell components, hematopoietic, endothelial, and smooth muscle cells ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells and the formation of vessel structure have been studied extensively in murine embryogenesis, including maturation steps, molecular events, and growth factor involvement ( 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • A dense network of arteries, capillaries and veins leaves every cell of the body within less than one tenth of a millimeter of the nearest blood vessel. (dkfz.de)
  • The newly emerging concepts of 'angiocrine signaling' - the notion that endothelial cells are active drivers and not just passive responders - will transform our conceptual understanding of vascular function and may in the long run pave the way towards the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with vessel and organ diseases. (dkfz.de)
  • Endothelial cells (ECs) line the interior surface of blood cells and lymphatic vessels forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the vessel wall. (intechopen.com)
  • There is evidence that the changes in the blood vessel rigidity may affect the various functions of the cells in the blood vessel, including endothelial cells (ECs) and the smooth muscle cells. (scirp.org)
  • Remodelling, due to neoplastic-like alterations in smooth muscle and endothelial cells of the vessel wall, is arguably the most important and, to date, the least treated factor in this pathogenetic triad. (eurekalert.org)
  • VEGFs exert their function by binding to the three known VEGFRs, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 or VEGFR-3, which are expressed by blood vessel endothelial cells (BECs) in case of VEGFR-1 and -2, and lymphatic vessel endothelial cells (LECs) in case of VEGFR-2 and -3. (nature.com)
  • Alternatively, intracarotid infusion of hyperosmotic agents or vessel dilators is used to transiently open the blood-brain barrier by inducing endothelial cell shrinkage and vascular dilatation 9 . (nature.com)
  • Development of a nanofibrous bioactive vascular graft that wo uld direct appropriate cell adhesion and growth would have a significant impact on small vessel repair and replacement. (sbir.gov)
  • In response, the endothelial cells embark on a multistep process that results in new blood vessel formation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When found in the body lining the pulmonary arteries, these cells are usually arranged so that their long axis is oriented parallel to the direction of blood flow in the vessel. (fsu.edu)
  • The lumen of each blood vessel is surrounded by a thin layer of endothelial cells (ECs) supported by a basement membrane and mural cells (pericytes and smooth muscle cells). (stemcell.com)
  • The isolated cells display pro-angiogenic activity both in vitro (by secretion of angiogenic cytokines) and in vivo, but lack the capacity to inosculate into a new blood vessel. (stemcell.com)
  • As a new and highly sensitive inflammation index, OX40L may be a key to understanding the mechanisms that regulate interactions between cells within the vessel wall and inflammatory mediators during the development of atherosclerosis. (scielo.br)
  • Some details: either primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells or a human papilloma virus transformed umbilical vein endothelial cell line. (bio.net)
  • Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), purchased from Clonetics, were cultured in EGM-2 media (Clonetics) and used at passages 2 to 3. (ahajournals.org)
  • To this day, various subsets of these endothelial-regenerating cells have been identified according to cellular origin, phenotype, and properties in vivo and in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • Environment and local intercellular influences are important not only in vivo but also fundamentally affect EC phenotype in vitro depending on sparse or confluent cell growth or the matrix on which the ECs are grown. (ahajournals.org)
  • We isolated human embryonic endothelial cells from day 13-15 EBs by using platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) antibodies and characterized their behavior in vitro and in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • These data show that in vitro interactions with endothelial cells upregulate eosinophil membrane receptor expression and mediator release and that these effects are differently modulated by T-helper cell type 1 and 2 cytokines. (ersjournals.com)
  • Mackle, "Evaluation of Human Endothelial Cells Post Stent Deployment in a Cardiovascular Simulator In Vitro"' Annual of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using an in vitro model in which a confluent monolayer of capillary endothelial cells is mechanically wounded, gap junction-mediated intercellular communication has been studied by loading the cells with the fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow. (rupress.org)
  • 5 However it was later demonstrated that triple positive CD34 + KDR + CD133 + cells do not form endothelial colonies in vitro but do form hematopoietic colonies. (stemcell.com)
  • Because the influence and function of Ox-LDL in the OX40/OX40L signaling pathway is unclear, the purpose of this study was to clarify whether Ox-LDL is involved in the OX40/OX40L signaling pathways using an in vitro model of endothelial cell injury. (scielo.br)
  • The cells will processed and stained for markers of endothelial function and oxidative stress including enoS, phospho-enoS, nFkB, and nitrotyrosine using immunofluorescence technique. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Endothelial mitochondrial oxidative stress is implicated in senescent vascular events and AMPK plays a defensive role in this oxidative stress in aging ECs [ 12 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • TFEB suppresses oxidative stress and inflammation in endothelial cells to decrease atherosclerosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • found that, in cultured endothelial cells, the transcription factor TFEB reduced oxidative stress and inflammation, two processes thought to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The anti-inflammatory effect of TFEB was, at least, partially due to reduced oxidative stress because TFEB overexpression in endothelial cells decreased the concentrations of reactive oxygen species and increased the expression of the antioxidant genes HO1 (which encodes heme oxygenase 1) and SOD2 (which encodes superoxide dismutase 2). (sciencemag.org)
  • Patients with Down's syndrome show an increased pulmonary vascular reactivity that could be due to an impaired vascular endothelial function, which is possibly related to increased oxidative stress. (biomedsearch.com)
  • EtOH's actions on endothelial TRP channels could affect intracellular Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ dynamics, which mediate leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and endothelial permeability at the BBB, thus altering immune and inflammatory responses. (springer.com)
  • This review summarizes the current knowledge on hantavirus interactions with hematopoietic and endothelial cells, and their effects on the increased vascular permeability. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because these adhesions between endothelial cells are what allow these cells to form a tight seal between the blood inside vessels and the surrounding tissues, the research also suggests that changes in mechanical forces might induce endothelial cells to modulate the "tightness" of adhesions with each other, which may then modify the permeability of blood vessels. (manufacturing.net)
  • Although IL-2 promotes the adhesion of NK cells to endothelial cells (ECs) and enhances the susceptibility of ECs to NK cell- or LAK cell-mediated cytolysis, several IL-2-inducible cytokines produced by NK cells, including TNF-α and IFN-γ, have no effect on endothelial permeability ( 11 , 12 ), suggesting that cell-to-cell contact between NK or LAK cells and ECs is necessary to induce VLS. (jimmunol.org)
  • 1 7 Metabolic activities, such as prostaglandin metabolism, endothelial-derived relaxation factor production, and endothelin secretion, are altered, leading to changes of endothelial permeability and vascular contractility. (ahajournals.org)
  • Due to this fact, BPAE cells are often utilized in hypertension research as well as studies of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. (microscopyu.com)
  • Background- Because complement-mediated vascular injury participates in atherosclerosis and C-reactive protein (CRP) can activate the complement cascade, we sought to determine whether CRP affects the expression of the protective complement-inhibitory factors on the cell surface of endothelial cells (ECs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, treatments that enhance the activity of TFEB in endothelial cells could reduce the development of atherosclerosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Laminar shear stress, which protects against atherosclerosis, increased TFEB abundance in cultured primary human endothelial cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, transgenic mice with endothelial cell-specific expression of TFEB exhibited reduced leukocyte recruitment to endothelial cells and decreased atherosclerosis development. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our study suggests that TFEB is a protective transcription factor against endothelial cell inflammation and a potential target for treating atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases. (sciencemag.org)
  • CCL2 and its cell surface receptor (CCR2) have been shown to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in mouse models ( 4 , 5 ), and development of atherosclerosis was strongly suppressed by the therapeutic gene transfer of dominant-negative CCL2 into ApoE-null mice ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease characterized by an inflammatory hyperplasic response elicited by injury to vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the artery wall, promoting local accumulation of oxidative low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) ( 2 - 4 ). (scielo.br)
  • A new and highly sensitive inflammation index, OX40L, is present in almost all of the cells involved in atherosclerosis, including endothelial cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells ( 6 ). (scielo.br)
  • During the progression of atherosclerosis, endothelial injury and Ox-LDL accumulation in the intima are critical initiating events. (scielo.br)
  • BACKGROUND: Altered expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) has been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions, including atherosclerosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ESCs have the characteristic properties of a stem cell: self-renewal and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiation is the process by which a cell becomes more specialized. (wikipedia.org)
  • The former requires differentiation of endothelial cells from hemangioblasts and then the further organization into a primary capillary network. (wikipedia.org)
  • We describe here the differentiation steps of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells forming vascular-like structures. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, in addition to potential clinical applications, purified human embryonic endothelial cells could be important for studying early human development and the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into various tissues. (pnas.org)
  • hES cells have the potential to generate all embryonic cell lineages when they undergo differentiation ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Differentiation of hES can be induced by removing the cells from their feeder layer and growing them in suspension. (pnas.org)
  • This differentiation in suspension results in aggregation of the cells and formation of embryoid bodies (EBs), in which successive differentiation steps occur ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the present study, we show an increase in the expression of several endothelial cell-specific genes during EB differentiation, reaching a maximum between days 13-15, and development of extensive vasculature-resembling structures within the EB. (pnas.org)
  • Transcription factor Prox1 as a regulator of skeletal muscle stem cell differentiation and metabolism. (helsinki.fi)
  • We have shown that Prox1 transcription factor, which regulates stem cell behaviour in various healthy and malignant tissues, is essential for slow muscle fiber type and satellite cell differentiation in skeletal muscle (Kivelä et al. (helsinki.fi)
  • Further studies on Prox1 mediated regulation of muscle stem cell (satellite cell) differentiation will be important for promoting muscle regeneration and to understand its function in stem cells and in cancer. (helsinki.fi)
  • The coating on the device can also contain a compound or growth factor for promoting the progenitor endothelial cell to accelerate adherence, growth and differentiation of the bound cells into mature and functional endothelial cells on the surface of the device to prevent intimal hyperplasia. (google.ca)
  • In the instant invention, rho GTPase function inhibitors are found to upregulate endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity. (google.ca)
  • As a result, rho GTPase function inhibitors are useful in treating or preventing conditions that result from the abnormally low expression and/or activity of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase. (google.ca)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein the amount is sufficient to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity above normal baseline levels. (google.ca)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 wherein the subject has a condition comprising an abnormally low level of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity which is chemically induced. (google.ca)
  • 13. The method of claims 1 - 9 , further comprising co-administering an endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase substrate. (google.ca)
  • 14. The method of claims 1 - 9 , further comprising co-administering a non-rho GTPase function inhibitor agent that increases endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity. (google.ca)
  • In the instant invention, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are found to upregulate endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity through a mechanism other than preventing the formation of oxidative-LDL. (google.com)
  • It is characteristic of hematopoietic stem cells, as well as muscle stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells can of course undergo self-renewal, and are multipotent cells that give rise to erythrocytes (red blood cells), megakaryocytes/platelets, mast cells, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, monocyte/macrophage, and granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aging is associated with changes in the hematopoietic system, including cell-intrinsic alterations of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), leading to a decline in HSC self-renewal, immune system dysregulation, and predisposition to myeloid neoplasms. (sciencemag.org)
  • 9 In humans, it has been shown that transplanted hematopoietic stem cells can differentiate into vascular endothelial wall. (haematologica.org)
  • Although VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 are expressed in vascular endothelial cells, monocytes, macrophages, and hematopoietic stem cells, the expression of VEGFR-3 is largely restricted to lymphatic endothelial cells consistent with a role of this receptor in lymphangiogenesis ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Panel a: Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) were transfected with wild type FAK (pHA-FAK) or central kinase inactive FAK mutants (pHA-FAK Y397F and pHA-FAK D395A ). (nih.gov)
  • Distribution of Mitochondria in BPAE Cell Cultures - A culture of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells was stained with MitoTracker Red CMXRos, vividly labeling the intracellular mitochondrial network. (fsu.edu)
  • It is hoped that by blocking the formation of new blood vessels through drugs that act on endothelial cells, it may be possible to block the growth of tumors (discussed in Chapter 23). (nih.gov)
  • 4 Interestingly, the gene expression profile of EPC more closely resembled that of freshly isolated endothelial cells from tumors rather than that of cultured endothelial cells. (haematologica.org)
  • 2011) Human solid tumors contain high endothelial venules (HEV): association with T and B lymphocyte infiltration and favourable prognosis in breast cancer. (ipbs.fr)
  • In addition, the cells are able to differentiate and form tube-like structures when cultured on matrigel. (pnas.org)
  • A potential source of cells for these applications are embryonic stem cells which, in murine systems, were shown to differentiate into endothelial cells that form vascular structures in a process called vasculogenesis ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, it was recently shown that endothelial progenitors and embryonic endothelial cells could differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes when cocultured with neonatal cardiomyocytes or when injected near a damaged heart area ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • 3 These cells differentiate via separate pathways into erythrocytes, thrombocytes, various lineages of leukocytes, and also endothelial cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Endothelial progenitor cells are cells which are able to differentiate into endothelial cells and replace the inner vascular wall.In this study, we used 5x106 embryonic endothelial progenitor cells, a number relatively modest with respect to the size of the targeted infarct region. (innovations-report.com)
  • Recently, controversy has developed over the definition of true endothelial progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular genetic analysis of early outgrowth putative EPC populations suggests they do indeed have monocyte -like expression patterns, and support the existence of a separate population of progenitors, the late outgrowth, or endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, there are no unique markers for endothelial progenitors that are not shared with other endothelial or hematopoietic cells, which has contributed to the historical controversy surrounding the field. (wikipedia.org)
  • In avian and rodent species, endothelial progenitors are closely connected to the hematopoietic lineage. (ahajournals.org)
  • MVs are released from various tumor cells and some progenitors of differentiated cells [14] . (plos.org)
  • There, the viruses replicate rapidly, creating an overwhelming inflammatory cytokine response, essentially causing an immune response so powerful that it kills the pulmonary endothelial cells, results which Tumpey says correlate with the H5N1-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome that is observed in humans where the production of cytokines, immune system compounds, has been detected in lung endothelial cells. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Endothelial cells exposed to cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-4 and tumour necrosis factor-α increase their expression of ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 18 , 19 , which serve as ligands for eosinophil integrins. (ersjournals.com)
  • Consequently, cytokines may modulate the transendothelial migration of eosinophils and amplify endothelial cell-induced changes in eosinophil functions 19 , 20 . (ersjournals.com)
  • It was found that expression of CD69, an early marker of activation, and of CD35, a receptor for complement proteins, and LTC 4 release were modulated by endothelial cells and that treatment of endothelial cells with T-helper cell type 1 and 2 cytokines differently modified their effect on eosinophils. (ersjournals.com)
  • E-selectin expression is found only on endothelial cells after activation of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) or endotoxin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cells are plated on fibronectin-coated plates and incubated with a cocktail of cytokines. (stemcell.com)
  • Vascular cells regulate the inflammatory process through the expression of adhesion molecules, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 4 Further studies in mice revealed that bone marrow-derived cells naturally participate in the formation of new blood vessels in ischemic limb. (haematologica.org)
  • The identification and quantification of circulating endothelial cells (CEC) have been developed as a novel marker of endothelial function. (hindawi.com)
  • Flow mediated dilation (FMD) by ultrasound of the brachial artery on the contralateral arm will be used as an additional marker of endothelial function. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Hence, detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in endothelial cell restoration are of fundamental interest for preventional and therapeutic concepts in cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stem cell therapy emerges as a promising approach in cardiovascular medicine. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Our aim is to identify novel targets in endothelial cells for cardiovascular diseases. (helsinki.fi)
  • While STXBP5 facilitates granule release from platelets, it inhibits secretion from the Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) of endothelial cells. (jci.org)
  • A ) STXBP5 inhibits regulated exocytosis from endothelial cells, but promotes granule secretion from platelets. (jci.org)
  • SU11248 inhibits VEGFRs, PDGFR, c-kit, and Flt-3 and has efficacy in imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor ( 8 ) and renal cell carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dr. Mariana Kaplan and her team at the University of Michigan Health Systems in Ann Arbor studied the abnormal function of stem cells that repair damaged blood vessels, an important factor implicated in heart disease in lupus. (youtube.com)
  • They build continuous, fenestrated, or discontinuous cell layers to, for example, regulate cell barrier function in the brain, trafficking in bone marrow or absorption in the intestine. (ahajournals.org)
  • The better molecular and mechanistic understanding of the complexity of endothelial cell function consequently holds great promise to lead to the development of novel therapies. (dkfz.de)
  • Here, we evaluate the selectivity and interactions between one lysosomal (Lyso-ID) and one autophagosomal (Cyto-ID) probe under conditions modulating autophagy and/or endo-lysosomal function in live cells. (springer.com)
  • 1 , 4 - 7 In experimental studies, increased neovascularization by these cells improves cardiac function after myocardial ischemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Baldoli E, Castiglioni S, Maier JA (2013) Regulation and function of TRPM7 in human endothelial cells: TRPM7 as a potential novel regulator of endothelial function. (springer.com)
  • Vascular endothelial cell (EC) function depends on appropriate organ-specific molecular and cellular specializations. (nih.gov)
  • Endothelial cells cultured on the A-B(D) functionalized surfaces demonstrated typical cell morphologies and expected spreading behavior as a function of the density of RGDS ligand, calculated as the amount of B(D) associated with grafted A on the surface of the gels. (nih.gov)
  • However, the mechanism by which ECs get old and become senescent and the impact of endothelial senescence on the vascular function are not fully understood. (mdpi.com)
  • Senescence is the biological aging of cells and represents the gradual deterioration of cellular function. (mdpi.com)
  • Stxbp5 KO mice exhibit a spectrum of hemostatic phenotypes that are consistent with the role of STXBP5 function in endothelial cells and platelets. (jci.org)
  • The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, consisting of the vascular endothelial cell (EC) and perivascular stromal niches, normally provides paracrine signals to support HSC maintenance and function. (sciencemag.org)
  • Endothelial cell function in patients with Down's syndrome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Patients with Down's syndrome showed a significant impairment of endothelial function versus controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent studies also suggest a role for exogenous galectin-1 in endothelial cell function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Background: Kidney transplantation (RTx) leads to amelioration of endothelial function in patients with advanced renal failure. (uni-muenster.de)
  • Increased EPC count may be associated to endothelial repair and function in these patients. (uni-muenster.de)
  • 16 After 4-7 days in culture, the non-adherent cells are removed and the remaining cells are examined for their ability to take up acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL) and to bind to Ulex europaeus agglutinin1 (lectin), both considered to be hallmarks of EC function. (stemcell.com)
  • Endothelial cells form adaptable transport networks but have also emerged as critical regulators of organ growth, regeneration and stem cell niche function. (grc.org)
  • Moreover, Ox-LDL plays a role in regulation of the biological function of cells by stimulating cell membrane receptor-mediated endocytosis. (scielo.br)
  • No significant correlation was found between total and endothelial stem cell numbers and HRCT score of pulmonary emphysema ( figure 1 ), lung function data or smoking status (current vs ex-smokers). (bmj.com)
  • In the present study, we sought a role of walnuts ( Juglans regia L.) in endothelial and bone-cell function. (cambridge.org)
  • Broad field images show heterogeneity in RFP-LC3 localization within the cell population (bottom panels), which switches from a mainly diffuse to a particulate pattern with longer EBSS incubation periods. (springer.com)
  • Freshly separated NK cells expressed the fractalkine receptor (CX 3 CR1) determined by FACS analysis and efficiently adhered to immobilized full-length fractalkine, but not to the truncated forms of the chemokine domain or mucin domain, suggesting that fractalkine functions as an adhesion molecule on the interaction between NK cells and ECs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cloning human platlet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, structural & functional characterization, J immunol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cells express endothelial cell markers in a pattern similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, their junctions are correctly organized, and they have high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. (pnas.org)
  • Our observations show that these probes can be used in combination with protein-based markers for monitoring the interactions of both pathways in live cells. (springer.com)
  • In the early postnatal brain, single-cell RNA-seq of purified ECs reveals (1) close relationships between veins and mitotic cells and between arteries and tip cells, (2) a division of capillary ECs into vein-like and artery-like classes, and (3) new endothelial subtype markers, including new validated tip cell markers. (nih.gov)
  • 4 These cells expressed several markers in common with endothelial cells such as CD34, CD31, VEGFR2 (KDR), and Tie2. (haematologica.org)
  • The effects of contact with and migration through endothelial cells on eosinophil expression of surface markers and release of leukotriene C 4 were evaluated. (ersjournals.com)
  • Despite the fact these two antigens have continued to be used as markers for circulating cells with vascular reparative properties, it was not demonstrated that the infused cells directly formed new blood vessels. (stemcell.com)
  • Host gene expression profiling of dengue virus infection in cell lines and patients," PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases , vol. 1, no. 2, p. e86, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Endothelial stem cells (ESCs) are one of three types of stem cells found in bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are multipotent, which describes the ability to give rise to many cell types, whereas a pluripotent stem cell can give rise to all types. (wikipedia.org)
  • These parent stem cells, ESCs, give rise to progenitor cells, which are intermediate stem cells that lose potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progenitor stem cells are committed to differentiating along a particular cell developmental pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells have the unique ability make identical copies of themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • For stem cells, this usually occurs through several stages, where a cell proliferates giving rise to daughter cells that are further specialized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not to be confused with Endothelial stem cell . (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cell lines (hES) recently established from the inner cell mass of human blastocytes ( 12 ) provide a unique system for studying these events in human embryonic development. (pnas.org)
  • Stem Cell Res Ther. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The BPAE cell line was initiated in January 1979 from the main stem of a pulmonary artery belonging to a young cow ( Bos taurus ). (microscopyu.com)
  • We examine genetic determinants of congenital heart disease in a Finnish patient population using next generation sequencing, CRISPR/CAS9 gene editing technology, and patient-derived induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (helsinki.fi)
  • In a study published in Cell Stem Cell , researchers at Osaka University and colleagues discovered a population of vascular endothelial cells that could be used as a regenerative therapy for vascular injury and hemophilia. (biocentury.com)
  • Poulos and colleagues used murine ex vivo hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC)/EC coculture and in vivo EC infusion models to study the impact of ECs on hematopoietic system aging. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and artery-derived endothelial and smooth muscle cells were used to demonstrate the specificity of the EPC microfluidic device. (medgadget.com)
  • 6 - 8 Functional evidence for the bone marrow component of circulating EPC was originally based on mice models of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, in which EPC of the recipient were shown to originate from donor stem cells by clonal analysis. (haematologica.org)
  • However, a similar cell line might be derived from human embryonic stem cells, and become a helpful tool for ischemia/reperfusion injury of the heart in the future. (innovations-report.com)
  • The study is a phase I/II trial where allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are injected intracfect into the lumbar facet joints. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells in patients with cirrhosis of liver. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Stem cells will be injected into the hepatic artery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Allogeneic HUman Mesenchymal Stem Cell InfusioN Versus Placebo in Subjects With Alcohol Use Disorder and Major DepreSsion. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This is a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, placebo controlled interventional study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in 20 patients wit. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in healthy equine superficial digital flexor tendon: A study of the local inflammatory response. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Human CD134 (OX40) expressed on T cells plays a key role for human herpesvirus 6B replication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • CD134 (OX40), which is a cellular receptor for human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) and expresses on activated T cells, may play a key role for HHV-6B replication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell tra. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Multicenter phase 1/2 application of adenovirus-specific T cells in high-risk pediatric patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Adenovirus (ADV) reactivation can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Use of Some Additives for Improving Mesenchymal Stem Cell Isolation Outcomes in Non-Mobilized Peripheral Blood. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of peripheral blood (PB) have been recognized as a promising source for allogeneic cell therapy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in T-cell lymphoma. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 2 However, it is unknown if a decrease in the blood of these stem cells contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema in humans. (bmj.com)
  • All the recruited subjects were free from concomitant diseases or drugs able to interfere with the number of circulating stem cells. (bmj.com)
  • These data indicate that the number of circulating endothelial stem cells is not related to the presence and/or severity of the pulmonary emphysema or the presence or absence of COPD. (bmj.com)
  • Correlation between number of circulating endothelial stem cells (ESC) expressed as a percentage of the total number (CD34+) of circulating stem cells, and high-resolution CT scan of the chest score of pulmonary emphysema. (bmj.com)
  • The team demonstrated that, when "exercised," the actomyosin cytoskeleton in a pair of cells can generate substantial tugging force on adherens junctions, and, in response, the junctions grow stronger. (manufacturing.net)
  • This study marks the first time cell-generated forces at the adherens junction have been measured. (manufacturing.net)
  • ECs form the physical interface between the blood and surrounding solid tissues, and as such, regulate physiological events including vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, blood coagulation, nutrient delivery, gas exchange, and the homing of regulatory cells. (stemcell.com)
  • Upon partial hepatectomy, Ang2 production in endothelial cells is rapidly downregulated. (dkfz.de)
  • For example, LOX-1 stimulates the upregulation of CD40 and CD40L, which are associated with inflammation in endothelial cells ( 13 ). (scielo.br)
  • Briefly, after red cell lysis, blood cells in the mononuclear cell gate were analyzed for the expression of surface antigen using FITC-conjugated anti-CD34 (Becton Dickinson), phycoerythrin-conjugated anti-KDR (R&D Systems), and allophycocyanin-conjugated anti-CD133 (Miltenyi Biotech) monoclonal antibodies. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Compositions and methods are provided for producing a medical device such as a stent, a stent graft, a synthetic vascular graft, heart valves, coated with a biocompatible matrix which incorporates antibodies, antibody fragments, or small molecules, which recognize, bind to and/or interact with a progenitor cell surface antigen to immobilize the cells at the surface of the device. (google.ca)
  • 1991) Methods for the detection of anti-endothelial antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, we attempted to identify additional components of Weibel- Palade bodies by raising monoclonal antibodies to these granules, purified by cell fractionation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The adherent culture of BPAE cells featured in the digital image above was immunofluorescently labeled with anti-vinculin mouse monoclonal primary antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab heavy and light chain fragments conjugated to Rhodamine Red-X. In addition, the specimen was simultaneously stained for DNA with the ultraviolet-absorbing probe DAPI, and for the cytoskeletal filamentous actin network with Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated to phalloidin. (fsu.edu)
  • 5 Briefly, quantification of peripheral blood CD34+ cells was performed with double labelling with FITC-anti-CD45 and phycoerythrin-anti-CD34 monoclonal antibodies (Becton Dickinson, Milan, Italy) on a FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson) according to standardised procedures. (bmj.com)
  • Dengue virus induces novel changes in gene expression of human umbilical vein endothelial cells," Journal of Virology , vol. 77, no. 21, pp. 11822-11832, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Hypoxia regulates vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression in endothelial cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Junctional communication is induced in migrating capillary endothelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • Increasing evidence indicates that tumor endothelial cells (TEC) differ from normal endothelial cells (NEC). (plos.org)
  • Furthermore, there are many differences at the molecular and functional levels between tumor endothelial cells (TEC) and normal EC (NEC) [3] , [4] . (plos.org)
  • We show that tumor endothelial cells in gal-1 −/− mice take up galectin-1 from galectin-1-secreting tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To investigate the specific transcriptional effects of VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 activation, we performed a correlation analysis of previously published CAGE sequencing and microarray data of human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) stimulated with distinct VEGFs acting through either VEGFR-2 or VEGFR-3. (nature.com)
  • Here, we characterize circulating endothelial cells (CECs) using an automated and clinically feasible CEC three-channel fluorescence microscopy assay in 50 consecutive patients with ST-segment elevation MI and 44 consecutive healthy controls. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although the presence of elevated amounts of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) has been associated with acute coronary syndromes, the enumeration of CECs has not been incorporated into clinical practice ( 6 - 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Organosulfur Garlic Compounds Induce Neovasculogenesis in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells through a Modulation of MicroRNA 221 and the PI3-K/Akt Signaling Pathways. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 10 While CD34 positive cells comprise only about 0.1% of the total circulating white blood cell population, hematopoietic or angiogenic growth factors induce significant release of these cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation. (haematologica.org)
  • Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. (jci.org)
  • Flow cytometric analysis was used in 1997 by Asahara and colleagues to identify CD34 + KDR + circulating cells as putative endothelial progenitor cells. (stemcell.com)