A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Endosomes containing intraluminal vesicles which are formed by the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) may fuse with other organelles such as LYSOSOMES or fuse back with the PLASMA MEMBRANE releasing their contents by EXOCYTOSIS. The MVB intraluminal vesicles released into the extracellular environment are known as EXOSOMES.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A large family of phosphatidylinositol phosphate-binding proteins that are involved in mediating intracellular transport and sorting of proteins via a variety of endocytic pathways.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.
"Brefeldin A's effects on endosomes, lysosomes, and the TGN suggest a general mechanism for regulating organelle structure and ... Using the drug Brefeldin A to perturb membrane trafficking, she showed that membranes cycle between the endoplasmic reticulum ... Lippincott-Schwartz, J.; Donaldson, J. G.; Klausner, R. D. (1992-03-01). "Brefeldin A: insights into the control of membrane ... "Rapid redistribution of Golgi proteins into the ER in cells treated with brefeldin A: evidence for membrane cycling from Golgi ...
Brefeldin A (BFA) is a fungal metabolite used experimentally to disrupt the secretion pathway as a method of testing Golgi ... The TGN may act as an early endosome in yeast and plants. There are structural and organizational differences in the Golgi ... Additionally, what is known of the Rab GTPase roles in mammalian endosomes can help predict putative roles within the Golgi. ... ARFs are small GTPases which regulate vesicular trafficking through the binding of COPs to endosomes and the Golgi. BFA ...
It is sensitive to brefeldin A. This encoded protein contains a GRIP domain which is thought to be used in targeting. Two ... 2007). "The trans-Golgi network golgin, GCC185, is required for endosome-to-Golgi transport and maintenance of Golgi structure ...
Li H, Adamik R, Pacheco-Rodriguez G, Moss J, Vaughan M (Feb 2003). "Protein kinase A-anchoring (AKAP) domains in brefeldin A- ... This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic ...
Brefeldin A, a commonly used inhibitor of ER-to-Golgi apparatus transport, has been shown to inhibit transcytosis in dog kidney ... Hunziker, W.; Peters, P. J. (1998). "Rab17 localizes to recycling endosomes and regulates receptor-mediated transcytosis in ...
Brefeldin A causes a microtubule-mediated fusion of the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes.. Wood SA1, Park JE, Brown WJ. ... indicating that it is also functionally an early endosome. Formation of the TGN-early endosome network is microtubule dependent ... Brefeldin A (BFA) is a fungal metabolite that causes a redistribution of the stacked cisternae of the Golgi complex into the ... We report that BFA also causes membrane tubules derived from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to fuse with early endosomes. In the ...
Synaptic vesicle proteins and early endosomes in cultured hippocampal neurons : differential effects of Brefeldin A in axon and ... Synaptic vesicle proteins and early endosomes in cultured hippocampal neurons : differential effects of Brefeldin A in axon and ... We have studied the effects of Brefeldin A (BFA) on the distribution of several SV membrane proteins (synaptophysin, ... In the same neurons, the transferrin receptor, a well established marker of early endosomes, is selectively concentrated in ...
Brefeldin A rapidly disrupts plasma membrane polarity by blocking polar sorting in common endosomes of MDCK cells. Journal of ... Brefeldin A rapidly disrupts plasma membrane polarity by blocking polar sorting in common endosomes of MDCK cells. In: Journal ... Brefeldin A rapidly disrupts plasma membrane polarity by blocking polar sorting in common endosomes of MDCK cells. / Wang, E.; ... title = "Brefeldin A rapidly disrupts plasma membrane polarity by blocking polar sorting in common endosomes of MDCK cells", ...
1991) Brefeldin As effects on endosomes, lysosomes, and the TGN suggest a general mechanism for regulating organelle structure ... 1992) In AtT20 and HeLa cells brefeldin A induces the fusion of tubular endosomes and changes their distribution and some of ... Domains on Rab4 and Rab11 Endosomes Are Sensitive to Brefeldin A. We next asked whether structural alterations on the endosomal ... Endosomes were identified by the internalized BSA-gold. 50-100 endosomes on ten images were analyzed for immunogold labeling, ...
recycling endosomes. BFA. brefeldin A. ArfGEF. guanine nucleotide exchange factors for ADP-ribosylation factor. MS. Murashige ... early endosome. PVC/MVB. prevacuolar compartments/multivesicular bodies. PM. plasma membrane. RLK. receptor-like kinase. RE. ... 6, G, H, and S) at various time points, as represented by the number of endosomes (Fig. 6S). Treatment with 50 µm BFA resulted ... 6, K and T). A large amount of the FM4-64 signal was still enclosed in BFA compartments beside endosome signals upon BFA ...
Brefeldin A / pharmacology * Depsipeptides / pharmacology * Endosomes / chemistry * Endosomes / drug effects * Endosomes / ... Actin-based motility of endosomes is linked to the polar tip growth of root hairs Eur J Cell Biol. 2005 Jun;84(6):609-21. doi: ... We also show that both the presence of endosomes as well as their rapid movements within the tip region depends on an intact ...
Our results reveal sterol-enriched early endosomes as targets for BFA interference in plants. Early endocytic sterol ... Early endocytic sterol trafficking involves transport via ARA6-positive early endosomes that, in contrast to animal cells, is ... The vesicle trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA) has been suggested to disrupt biosynthetic sterol transport at the Golgi ... Arabidopsis sterol endocytosis involves actin-mediated trafficking via ARA6-positive early endosomes Curr Biol. 2003 Aug 19;13( ...
recycling endosomes. BFA. brefeldin A. ArfGEF. guanine nucleotide exchange factors for ADP-ribosylation factor. MS. Murashige ... early endosome. PVC/MVB. prevacuolar compartments/multivesicular bodies. PM. plasma membrane. RLK. receptor-like kinase. RE. ... 6, G, H, and S) at various time points, as represented by the number of endosomes (Fig. 6S). Treatment with 50 µm BFA resulted ... 6, K and T). A large amount of the FM4-64 signal was still enclosed in BFA compartments beside endosome signals upon BFA ...
early endosome. BFA. Brefeldin A. Wm. Wortmannin. LE. late endosome. MVB. multivesicular body. RFP. red fluorescent protein. ... FLS2 receptors constitutively recycle in a Brefeldin A (BFA)-sensitive manner, while flg22-activated receptors traffic via ARA7 ... FLS2 localizes to bona fide endosomes via two distinct endocytic trafficking routes depending on its activation status. ... indicating that activated FLS2 receptors are targeted to late endosomes. RME inhibitors Tyrphostin A23 and Endosidin 1 altered ...
2006) Association of brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 2 (BIG2) with recycling endosomes during ... which was associated also with recycling endosomes (24⇓-26), e.g., in moving proteins and lipids among TGN, endosomes, and cell ... Its localization to recycling endosomes and implication in the endosome integrity. Mol Biol Cell 15(12):5283-5294. ... 1999) Brefeldin A inhibited activity of the sec7 domain of p200, a mammalian guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP- ...
Brefeldin As effects on endosomes, lysosomes, and the TGN suggest a general mechanism for regulating organelle structure and ...
Rab9 is involved in transport between late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (34). Together with the fact that mitophagy ... We examined the effect of brefeldin A (BFA), which inhibits Golgi-derived membranes, upon mitophagy in CMs. BFA significantly ... Rab9 functions in transport between late endosomes and the trans Golgi network. EMBO J. 1993;12(2):677-682.. View this article ... In alternative autophagy, autophagosomes are derived from trans-Golgi and endosomes and associate with Rab9 but not LC3 (18). ...
Synaptic vesicle proteins and early endosomes in cultured hippocampal neurons: differential effects of Brefeldin A in axon and ...
... brefeldin A (eBioscience) was added to prevent cytokine secretion. After co-culture, cells were stained for surface markers, ... We recently demonstrated that targeting antigens to early endosomes, as compared with late endosomes and lysosomes, results in ... We find that BDCA3+ DCs are superior to BDCA1+ DCs for cross presenting antigen targeted to late endosomes and lysosomes, ... As expected, BDCA3+ DCs were superior at cross presentation of antigens delivered to late endosomes and lysosomes by uptake of ...
1993) Synaptic vesicle proteins and early endosomes in cultured hippocampal neurons: differential effects of Brefeldin A in ... EnV, Endocytic vesicle; EE, early endosome; RE, recycling endosome; ExV, exocytic vesicle; EEA1, early endosome antigen 1; AF- ... D, mGFP-positive dendrite following incubation with AF-Tfn (100 μg/ml) for 1 h at 37°C to label recycling endosomes. Puncta of ... 2002) Human Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 6 is found in recycling endosomes of cells, not in mitochondria. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ...
"Brefeldin As effects on endosomes, lysosomes, and the TGN suggest a general mechanism for regulating organelle structure and ... Using the drug Brefeldin A to perturb membrane trafficking, she showed that membranes cycle between the endoplasmic reticulum ... Lippincott-Schwartz, J.; Donaldson, J. G.; Klausner, R. D. (1992-03-01). "Brefeldin A: insights into the control of membrane ... "Rapid redistribution of Golgi proteins into the ER in cells treated with brefeldin A: evidence for membrane cycling from Golgi ...
Brefeldin A/pharmacology, Carrier Proteins/immunology/metabolism, Cell Adhesion Molecules; Neuronal/immunology/*metabolism, ... Stabilin-1 localizes to endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in human macrophages and interacts with GGA adaptors.. ... Endosomes/drug effects/immunology/*metabolism, Flow Cytometry, Humans, Interleukin-4/pharmacology, Macrophages/drug effects/ ...
Both BIGs contain a Sec7 domain, which is the active site for the nucleotide switch and the target of brefeldin A, a fungal ... Golgi-localized, γ-adaptin ear containing, Arf-binding (GGA) 3 is a coat protein involved in TGN-to-endosome transport. The ... Treatment of neuroendocrine and exocrine cells with brefeldin A blocks the formation and maturation of immature SGs but does ... The TGN is a cellular crossroad; departing proteins can enter vesicles targeted to endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum ...
Brefeldin As effects on endosomes, lysosomes, and the TGN suggest a general mechanism for regulating organelle structure and ... except 20 μg/mL brefeldin A was added during the last 15 minutes of uptake to further distinguish recycling endosomes from ... This distinction was even more obvious after a 15-minute treatment with brefeldin A, which collapses the recycling endosomes, ... Involvement of MIIC-like late endosomes in B cell receptor-mediated antigen processing in murine B cells. J Immunol 1999;162: ...
... inhibition of Golgi-derived membranes with brefeldin A resulted in a marked reduction in mitophagy, without any effect on ... began by investigating whether the autophagosomal membranes in the Ulk1 pathway are derived from trans-Golgi and endosomes and ... be discarded by an alternative autophagy pathway that utilizes autophagosomes derived from the trans-Golgi and late endosomes, ...
Brefeldin A may also block the trafficking of proteins from recycling and/or late endosomes to the plasma membrane. To ... DCs treated with LPS plus brefeldin A (▴), DCs treated with LPS plus cycloheximide (▪), and DCs treated with LPS plus brefeldin ... S2, brefeldin A treatment blocks the emergence of IL-15Rα onto the surface of cells or into the supernatants of DCs. Fig. S3 ... Significant levels of IL-15-IL-15Rα complexes were induced in WT cells even in the presence of brefeldin A (Fig. 2 C). No IL- ...
Brefeldin A causes a microtubule-mediated fusion of the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes. Wood, S.A., Park, J.E., Brown ... Formation of the TGN-early endosome network is microtubule dependent and may involve modification of membrane processes ...
Brefeldin A (BFA) is a fungal metabolite used experimentally to disrupt the secretion pathway as a method of testing Golgi ... The TGN may act as an early endosome in yeast and plants. There are structural and organizational differences in the Golgi ... Additionally, what is known of the Rab GTPase roles in mammalian endosomes can help predict putative roles within the Golgi. ... ARFs are small GTPases which regulate vesicular trafficking through the binding of COPs to endosomes and the Golgi. BFA ...
1991). Brefeldin A causes a microtubule-mediated fusion of the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes. Cell 67, 591-600. ... 1991). Brefeldin As effect on endosomes, lysosomes, and the TGN suggests a general mechanism for regulating organelle ... When Ii alone is expressed in CV1 cells it is sorted to endosomes. The Ii cytoplasmic tail has been found to be essential for ... 1989). Rapid distribution of Golgi proteins into the ER in cells treated with brefeldin A: evidence for membrane cycling from ...
Lippincott-Schwartz J, Yuan L, Tipper C, Amherdt M, Orci L, and Klausner RD (1991) Brefeldin As effects on endosomes, ... Brefeldin A causes a microtubule-mediated fusion of the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes. Cell 67: 591CrossRefPubMed ... Hess MW, Müller M, Debbage PL, Vetterlein M, and Pavelka M (2000) Cryopreparation provides new insight into Brefeldin A-effects ... Klausner RD, Donaldson JG, and Lippincott-Schwartz J (1992) Brefeldin A: insights into the control of membrane traffic and ...
Wood, S. A. and Brown, W. J. ( 1992). The morphology but not the function of endosomes and lysosomes is altered by brefeldin A ... Gaynor, E. C., Chen, C. Y., Emr, S. D. and Graham, T. R. ( 1998). ARF is required for maintenance of yeast Golgi and endosome ... Helms, J. B. and Rothman, J. E. ( 1992). Inhibition by brefeldin A of a Golgi membrane enzyme that catalyses exchange of ... Peyroche, A., Antonny, B., Robineau, S., Acker, J., Cherfils, J. and Jackson, C. L. ( 1999). Brefeldin A acts to stabilize an ...
Brefeldin As effects on endosomes, lysosomes, and the TGN suggest a general mechanism for regulating organelle structure and ... and this uptake mechanism delivers the particles to early endosomes (EEs). Endosome acidification to a pH of ≤6.3 triggers ... Inhibition by brefeldin A of a Golgi membrane enzyme that catalyses exchange of guanine nucleotide bound to ARF. Nature 360:352 ... Novel blockade by brefeldin A of intracellular transport of secretory proteins in cultured rat hepatocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 261: ...
1991) Brefeldin As effects on endosomes, lysosomes, and the TGN suggest a general mechanism for regulating organelle structure ... 1991) Brefeldin A arrests the maturation and egress of herpes simplex virus particles during infection. J. Virol. 65:1893-1904. ... The cells expressing HSV-gE were also treated for 5 min with 10 μg of brefeldin A (BFA) per ml, a drug known to induce a rapid ... 1991) Effect of brefeldin A on alphaherpesvirus membrane protein glycosylation and virus egress. J. Virol. 65:1066-1081. ...
"Plant signaling endosomes and endosome trafficking, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental ... Trafficking of the Human Transferrin Receptor in Plant Cells: Effects of Tyrphostin A23 and Brefeldin A ... Plant signaling endosomes and endosome trafficking. Plant signaling endosomes and endosome trafficking Klyachko, N. 2010-03-25 ... Plant signaling endosomes and endosome trafficking. Klyachko, N. Add Journal to My Library Russian Journal of Plant Physiology ...
The activity of the fungal toxin BFA (Brefeldin A) inhibits endocytic recycling, inducing the formation of intracellular ... Arabidopsis sterol endocytosis involves actin-mediated trafficking via ARA6-positive early endosomes ... Brefeldin A). This compound inhibits endocytosis from the PM and promotes trafficking to the vacuole, consistent with ... agglomerations known as BFA bodies [6,7]. Endosome-resident membrane proteins can also be sorted to the PVC (pre-vacuolar ...
  • Here most ligands dissociate from their cognate receptors and are, together with fluid phase material, delivered to late endosomes and lysosomes for degradation. (rupress.org)
  • As expected, BDCA3 + DCs were superior at cross presentation of antigens delivered to late endosomes and lysosomes by uptake of anti-DEC205 antibody conjugated to antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Lippincott-Schwartz J, Yuan L, Tipper C, Amherdt M, Orci L, and Klausner RD (1991) Brefeldin A's effects on endosomes, lysosomes, and TGN suggests a general mechanism for regulating organelle structure and membrane traffic. (springer.com)
  • Rab7 regulates endocytic trafficking between early and late endosomes and between late endosomes and lysosomes. (asm.org)
  • Rab7 , which is a gene identified in Homo sapiens , controls the late stages of endocytosis, including early to late endosomal fusion and transport between late endosomes and lysosomes ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Defects of the V-type proton (H+) ATPase (V-ATPase) impair acidification and intracellular trafficking of membrane-enclosed compartments, including secretory granules, endosomes, and lysosomes. (ugent.be)
  • Evidence suggests that syntaxins 7 and 8 also mediate heterotypic fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes in conjunction with vti1b and VAMP7 (18 19 We found that syntaxins 7 and 8 are TAK-285 palmitoylated and investigated the functional effects of this modification. (antiviralbiologic.com)
  • Full-length E3/49K was not detected in late endosomes/lysosomes but the C-terminal fragment accumulated in this compartment at late times of infection. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • We have studied the effects of Brefeldin A (BFA) on the distribution of several SV membrane proteins (synaptophysin, synaptotagmin, synaptobrevin, p29, SV2 and rab3A) and on endosomal markers to investigate the relationship between SVs and the membranes with which they interact in cultured hippocampal neurons developing in isolation. (unimi.it)
  • In axons, BFA did not produce any obvious alteration of the distribution of SV proteins, nor of peroxidase- or Lucifer yellow-labeled early endosomes. (unimi.it)
  • Cotubulation of transferrin receptors and synaptophysin in the perikaryal-dendritic region is consistent with a functional interconnection between the traffic of SV proteins and early endosomes. (unimi.it)
  • These data are consistent with a model in which polarized sorting of basolateral membrane proteins occurs via a brefeldin-A-sensitive process of segregation into basolateral recycling vesicles. (elsevier.com)
  • Following transferrin as cargo molecule and GFP-tagged Rab proteins we could show that cargo moves through distinct domains on endosomes. (rupress.org)
  • We propose that endosomes are organized as a mosaic of different Rab domains created through the recruitment of specific effector proteins, which cooperatively act to generate a restricted environment on the membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Multifunctional β-catenin, with critical roles in both cell-cell adhesion and Wnt-signaling pathways, was among HeLa cell proteins coimmunoprecipitated by antibodies against brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors 1 and 2 (BIG1 or BIG2) that activate ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) by accelerating the replacement of bound GDP with GTP. (pnas.org)
  • Endosome acidification to a pH of ≤6.3 triggers conformational changes in the G proteins that in turn force fusion between the viral and cellular membranes and release of the viral RNP into the host cell cytosol ( 67 ). (asm.org)
  • A number of proteins that function in early endosomes have been isolated ( 59 , 62 ), but relatively little is known about the process of lysosomal fusion. (asm.org)
  • This study also provides evidence that these internalized TSH/TSHR complexes meet an intracellular pool of Gs proteins in sorting endosomes and in TGN and activate it there, as visualized in real-time using a conformational biosensor nanobody, Nb37. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Taken together this data provides evidence that internalized TSH/TSHR complexes meet and activate Gs proteins in sorting endosomes and at the TGN, leading to a local activation of PKA and consequently increased CREB activation. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The VAMP-containing, plasma membrane-derived vesicles can be readily separated on sucrose gradients from transferrin (Tf)-containing vesicles generated by incubating Tf-labeled plasma membrane preparations at 37°C. Dynamin-interacting proteins are required for the AP2-mediated vesiculation from the plasma membrane, but not from endosomes. (emory.edu)
  • The L. pneumophila AnkX protein prevented microtubule-dependent vesicular transport to interfere with fusion of the L. pneumophila -containing vacuole with late endosomes after infection of macrophages, which demonstrates that Ank proteins have effector functions important for bacterial infection of eukaryotic host cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • the speed of proteins turnover of syntaxins 7 and 8 nor would it impact the steady-state localization of syntaxin 8 in past due endosomes. (antiviralbiologic.com)
  • Sorting endosomes (SEs) are control stations regulating the recycling or degradation of internalized plasma membrane proteins. (arizona.edu)
  • Our results further implicate the GGA proteins in SorLA trafficking and provide evidence that SNX1 and Vps35, as parts of the retromer complex or possibly in a separate context, are engaged in retraction of the receptor from endosomes. (asm.org)
  • Our studies of living, polarized cells show that disrupting endocytosis with brefeldin-A rapidly destroys the polarity of transferrin receptors in MDCK cells while having no effect on tight junctions. (elsevier.com)
  • Cells internalize the attached particles by clathrin-dependent endocytosis ( 14 , 15 , 29 , 41 , 58 ), and this uptake mechanism delivers the particles to early endosomes (EEs). (asm.org)
  • The early stage of endocytosis involves the budding of vesicles from the plasma membrane and their fusion with early endosomes. (asm.org)
  • Channel recycling was disrupted by brefeldin A, which inhibited ENaC exocytosis, by chloroquine, which inhibited ENaC endocytosis and recycling, and by latrunculin A, which blocked ENaC exocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • Here we examined SorLA's trafficking using full-length and chimeric receptors and find that its cytoplasmic tail mediates efficient Golgi body-endosome transport, as well as AP-2 complex-dependent endocytosis. (asm.org)
  • Upon Brefeldin-A treatment cell surface expression was rapidly lost, even for mutants lacking all known endocytosis motifs. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Brefeldin-A treatment induces tubulation of endosomes, but the sequential compartments and transport steps of the transcytotic pathway remain intact. (elsevier.com)
  • In this lecture, I describe briefly recent progress in this research area and also the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in endosome transport from the plasma membrane to acceptor compartments. (deepdyve.com)
  • Subsequently, the vesicles enter multivesicular bodies (MVBs) that sort and release them as late endosomes for transport of the cargo to appropriate compartments where they are deposited by vesicle fusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found normal PIN1:GFP localization at the apical membrane of root cells, but treatment with brefeldin A resulted in PIN1 accumulating in smaller and more numerous compartments than in the wild type. (plantcell.org)
  • Brefeldin A diminished PM-associated CHX17, whereas wortmannin caused formation of ring-like structures of CHX17-bound compartments. (umd.edu)
  • Lam SK, Cai Y, Tse YC, Wang J, Law AH, Pimpl P, Chan HY, Xia J, Jiang L. (2009) BFA-induced compartments from the Golgi apparatus and trans-Golgi network/early endosome are distinct in plant cells. (sustc.edu.cn)
  • Tse YC, Lo SW, Hillmer S, Dupree P and Jiang L. (2006) Dynamic response of prevacuolar compartments to Brefeldin A in plant cells. (sustc.edu.cn)
  • bex5 displays defects such as enhanced protein accumulation in abnormal BFA compartments, aberrant endosomes, and defective exocytosis and transcytosis. (elsevier.com)
  • The AtGALT31A localized to the small compartments were colocalized with neither SYP61 (syntaxin of plants 61), a marker for trans-Golgi network (TGN), nor FM4-64-stained endosomes. (vtt.fi)
  • Taken together, AtGALT31A localized to small compartments that are distinct from the Golgi apparatus, the SYP61-localized TGN, FM4-64-stained endosomes and Wortmannin-vacuolated prevacuolar compartments, but may be part of an unconventional protein secretory pathway represented by EXO70E2 in plants. (vtt.fi)
  • The accumulation of GFP-RabA1d in the core of brefeldin A (BFA)-induced-compartments and the quantitative upregulation of RabA1d protein levels after BFA treatment confirmed the association of RabA1d with early endosomes/TGN and its role in vesicle trafficking. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We report that BFA also causes membrane tubules derived from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to fuse with early endosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Formation of the TGN-early endosome network is microtubule dependent and may involve modification of membrane processes affected by microtubule-associated motor activity. (nih.gov)
  • The data suggest that BFA has revealed a membrane transport cycle between the TGN and early endosomes, perhaps used for the secretion or delivery of molecules to the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies showing thorough intermixing of apical and basolateral endosomes have demonstrated that endocytic sorting is critical to maintaining the plasma membrane polarity of epithelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • From the apical recycling endosome, transferrin is then directed to the apical plasma membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • Two endosome populations involved in recycling of membranes and receptors to the plasma membrane have been described, the early and the recycling endosome. (rupress.org)
  • Considering the structural and functional properties of endosomes, several problems arise for the distinction of these two membrane pools by cargo accessibility and morphological criteria. (rupress.org)
  • Sterols can be internalized from the plasma membrane and localize to endosomes positive for the early endosomal Rab5 GTPase homolog ARA6 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) (ARA6-GFP). (nih.gov)
  • Using the drug Brefeldin A to perturb membrane trafficking, she showed that membranes cycle between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi, leading to a recognition that cellular organelles are dynamic, self-organized structures that constantly regenerate themselves through intracellular vesicle traffic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recycling endosomes perform activity-dependent transport of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and lipids to the postsynaptic membrane, activities that are known to contribute to long-term synaptic potentiation and hypothesized to subserve learning and memory processes in the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Klausner RD, Donaldson JG, and Lippincott-Schwartz J (1992) Brefeldin A: insights into the control of membrane traffic and organelle structure. (springer.com)
  • Plant signaling endosomes and endosome trafficking Klyachko, N. 2010-03-25 00:00:00 A discovery of a possibility for signal transduction from endosomes differing quantitatively and qualitatively from signaling from the plasma membrane became a reliably proved fact for animal and yeast receptors but was unaddressed by plant researches for a long time. (deepdyve.com)
  • vps38 seedlings also have dampened root gravitropism, which is underpinned by aberrant vectoral auxin transport likely caused by defects in plasma membrane/endosome cycling of the PIN-FORMED family of auxin transporters necessary for asymmetric cell elongation. (frontiersin.org)
  • These data suggest that SFC is required for normal intracellular transport of PIN1 from the plasma membrane to the endosome. (plantcell.org)
  • AP-4 is localized to TGN, and mediates vesicle trafficking from TGN to endosomes or basolateral plasma membrane. (bioscirep.org)
  • Involved in trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes and is required for membrane association of the AP-1 complex and GGA1. (genecards.org)
  • Seems to be involved in recycling of the transferrin receptor from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane. (genecards.org)
  • For example, the nonenveloped reovirus, parvovirus, and adenovirus become internalized and traffic to endosomes where the low pH or proteases trigger viral conformational changes that allow them to penetrate the endosomal membrane [3] - [6] . (prolekare.cz)
  • For this pathway the plasma membrane is the precursor rather than endosomes. (emory.edu)
  • Thus, VAMP is sorted into small vesicles by AP3 and ARF1 at endosomes and by AP2 and clathrin at the plasma membrane. (emory.edu)
  • He also revealed that Brefeldin A selectively inhibited apical membrane trafficking in some polarized epithelial cells. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • B-fragment sorting at the level of early/recycling endosomes seemed to involve vesicular coats, since brefeldin A treatment led to B-fragment accumulation in transferrin receptor-containing membrane tubules, and since B-fragment colocalized with adaptor protein type 1 clathrin coat components on early/recycling endosomes. (nih.gov)
  • 1993). Selecting, recycling where possible, and focusing on are mediated by a series of morphologically and functionally heterogeneous membrane-bound spaces known jointly as endosomes (Geuze et al. (biomarketx.net)
  • Syntaxin 7 cycles between endosomes as well as the plasma membrane actively. (antiviralbiologic.com)
  • The eight palmitoylated SNAREs have a home in the trans-Golgi network endosomes as well as the plasma membrane that are membranes using a wealthy sterol articles. (antiviralbiologic.com)
  • The functional implications of palmitoylation from the TMD SNAREs aren't clear aside from Tlg1 which regulates membrane trafficking between endosomes as well as the Golgi. (antiviralbiologic.com)
  • Syntaxins 7 and 8 are localized in early and late endosomes and can traffic through the plasma membrane (14). (antiviralbiologic.com)
  • Real-time live cell analysis along with subcellular markers revealed that AUX1 resides at the apical plasma membrane of protophloem cells and at highly dynamic subpopulations of Golgi apparatus and endosomes in all cell types. (ist.ac.at)
  • Plasma membrane and intracellular pools of AUX1 are interconnected by actin-dependent constitutive trafficking, which is not sensitive to the vesicle trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A. AUX1 subcellular dynamics are not influenced by the auxin influx inhibitor NOA but are blocked by the auxin efflux inhibitors TIBA and PBA. (ist.ac.at)
  • We propose that these autophagosome intermediates fuse with recycling endosomes instead to form multivesicular body carriers that then fuse with the plasma membrane to release cargo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • E3/49K is localized in the Golgi/trans-Golgi-network (TGN), early endosomes and on the plasma membrane, yet the cellular compartment where E3/49K is cleaved and the protease involved remained elusive. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Hess MW, Müller M, Debbage PL, Vetterlein M, and Pavelka M (2000) Cryopreparation provides new insight into Brefeldin A-effects on the structure of the HepG2 Golgi apparatus. (springer.com)
  • BEX5/RabA1b localizes to trans-Golgi network/early endosomes (TGN/EE) and acts on distinct trafficking processes like those regulated by GTP exchange factors on ADP-ribosylation factors GNOM-LIKE1 and HOPM INTERACTOR7/BFA-VISUALIZED ENDOCYTIC TRAFFICKING DEFECTIVE1, which regulate trafficking at the Golgi apparatus and TGN/EE, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • Abnormal vesicular trafficking was evidenced by delayed retrograde transport after brefeldin A treatment and abnormal swelling and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. (ugent.be)
  • Direct pathway from early/recycling endosomes to the Golgi apparatus revealed through the study of shiga toxin B-fragment transport. (nih.gov)
  • Upon subsequent incubation at 37 degreesC, ultrastructural studies on cryosections failed to detect B-fragment-specific label in multivesicular or multilamellar late endosomes, suggesting that the protein bypassed the late endocytic pathway on its way to the Golgi apparatus. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, we hypothesize that Shiga toxin B-fragment is transported directly from early/recycling endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. (nih.gov)
  • The vesicle trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA) has been suggested to disrupt biosynthetic sterol transport at the Golgi level. (nih.gov)
  • Using brefeldin A (BFA), a chemical inhibitor of COPI function, we demonstrate that short-term (1-h) BFA treatments inhibit VSV gene expression, while only long-term (12-h) treatments block virus entry. (asm.org)
  • To identify novel molecular components of endocytic recycling, mainly exocytosis, we designed a PIN1-green fluorescent protein fluorescence imaging-based forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that showed increased intracellular accumulation of cargos in response to the trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA). (elsevier.com)
  • GBF1, BIG1 and BIG2 are mostly at the Golgi and are sensitive to the trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A. Many of the initial observations linking the Arfs to virus replication are based on the observation that replication is sensitive to brefeldin A. It should be noted that some Arf GEFs, like ARNO and EFA6, are resistant to brefeldin A treatment. (bioscience.org)
  • Endosomes of the cell dendrites and body perform house cleaning features, whereas endosomes located in the axons are specific for recycling where possible of synaptic vesicle protein (Parton et al. (biomarketx.net)
  • 1994). These endosomal populations consist of different synaptic vesicle protein and possess been demonstrated to possess varying level of sensitivity to the yeast metabolite brefeldin A (BFA)1 (Mundigli et al. (biomarketx.net)
  • RabA1d is located in early endosomes/TGN and is involved in vesicle trafficking. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We further demonstrate that HAP13 is critical for brefeldin A-sensitive but wortmannin-insensitive post-Golgi trafficking. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Flg22-induced FLS2 endosomal numbers were increased by Concanamycin A treatment but reduced by Wortmannin, indicating that activated FLS2 receptors are targeted to late endosomes. (plantcell.org)
  • However, 41% colocalized with EXO70E2 (Arabidopsis thaliana exocyst protein Exo70 homolog 2), a marker for exocyst-positive organelles, and least affected by Brefeldin A and Wortmannin. (vtt.fi)
  • Although disruption of polar sorting correlates with dissociation of γ-adaptin from endosomes, γ-adaptin does not appear to be specifically involved in sorting into recycling vesicles, as we find it associated with the transcytotic pathway, and particularly to the post-sorting transcytotic apical recycling endosome. (elsevier.com)
  • Consequently, by the so far applied criteria, tubules and vesicles of the recycling endosome cannot be distinguished from transport intermediates. (rupress.org)
  • Acidification of vesicles is also an important determinant of their biogenesis and function ( Weisz, 2003 ), yet the mechanisms controlling pH homeostasis of postsynaptic endosomes are not well understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the neuroendocrine cell line, PC12, synaptic vesicles can be generated from endosomes by a sorting and vesiculation process that requires the hetero-tetrameric adaptor protein AP3 and a small molecular weight GTPase of the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) family. (emory.edu)
  • 1994). Recycling where possible endosomes are a pericentriolar network of tubules and vesicles that are specific from the selecting endosomes and consist of recycling where possible receptors and fats (Dunn et al. (biomarketx.net)
  • BEN3/BIG2 ARF GEF is involved in brefeldin a-sensitive trafficking at the trans-Golgi network/early endosome in Arabidopsis thaliana. (ist.ac.at)
  • Strikingly, transferrin receptors (TfRs) and Rab 11, a marker for the perinuclear recycling endosomes, were also redistributed to the same location while early endosomal and Golgi/TGN markers were unaffected. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In the presence of BFA, a mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR)-enriched tubular network rapidly forms from the TGN, not from the prelysosomal compartment, and can be labeled with endocytic tracers after only 5 min of uptake at either 20 degrees C or 37 degrees C, indicating that it is also functionally an early endosome. (nih.gov)
  • In plant cells, secretory and endocytic routes intersect at the trans-Golgi network ( TGN )/early endosome ( EE ), where cargos are further sorted correctly and in a timely manner. (plantphysiol.org)
  • BFA causes coaccumulation of sterols, endocytic markers like ARA6-GFP, and PIN2, a polarly localized presumptive auxin transport protein, in early endosome agglomerations that can be distinguished from ER and Golgi. (nih.gov)
  • Early endocytic sterol trafficking involves transport via ARA6-positive early endosomes that, in contrast to animal cells, is actin dependent. (nih.gov)
  • FLS2 localizes to bona fide endosomes via two distinct endocytic trafficking routes depending on its activation status. (plantcell.org)
  • A γ-cleavage activity might be found in early endosomes and leads to the secretion of βA4, which we identified mainly to correspond to βA4 1-40 . (jneurosci.org)
  • Consistent with this, we show that ablation of endosomes significantly inhibited the secretion of ACRP30, as did treatment of cells with Brefeldin A. In order to further probe the role of recycling endosomes on the secretion of ACRP30, we over-expressed a mutant form of Rab11, Rab11-S25N, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and found that expression of this mutant significantly reduced basal and insulin-stimulated secretion. (elsevier.com)
  • Collectively, these data implicate both Arf6 and Rab11 as crucial mediators of constitutive and insulin-stimulated secretion of ACRP30 and further suggest that recycling endosomes may play a central role in this process. (elsevier.com)
  • In these cells, selecting endosomes are located in the periphery of the cell and contain internalized ligands and receptors (Yamashiro et al. (biomarketx.net)
  • Past due endosomes consist of Spn lysosome-directed ligands and receptors, and are believed to adult from the selecting endosomes (Stoorvogel et al. (biomarketx.net)
  • 1990). Basolateral endosomes are included in the recycling where possible and subscriber base of receptors and ligands included in cell maintenance, and are occasionally known to as house cleaning endosomes (Kelly, 1993). (biomarketx.net)
  • In the same neurons, the transferrin receptor, a well established marker of early endosomes, is selectively concentrated in perikarya and dendrites. (unimi.it)
  • These data suggest that a β-cleavage activity resides in a late endosomal compartment and that a γ-cleavage occurs in early endosomes, resulting in the generation of βA4 peptides with the majority ending at residue 40. (jneurosci.org)
  • In A. thaliana, NHX5 and NHX6 localize to the Golgi, trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) and the multivesicular body/pre-vacuolar compartment (MVB/PVC) where they regulate lumenal pH homeostasis (Bassil et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • Depletion of HeLa cell brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (BIG)1 and/or BIG2 impaired β-catenin S675 phosphorylation and its transcriptional effects, as well as ADP-ribosylation factor activation-enhanced phospholipase D activity and vesicular trafficking, both required for restoration of transcriptional activation by appropriate BIG protein overexpression in depleted cells. (pnas.org)
  • Wagner M, Rajasekaran AK, Hanzel DK, Mayor S, and Rodriguez-Boulan E (1994) Brefeldin A causes structural and functional alterations of the trans -Golgi network of MDCK cells. (springer.com)
  • When Ii alone is expressed in CV1 cells it is sorted to endosomes. (biologists.org)
  • However, the truncated protein was localized to Golgi, suggesting a role of the C tail in sorting CHX17 from Golgi to PVC and PM. These results suggest that CHX17 is associated with a subset of endosomes that traffick among PVC, vacuole and PM in cells of whole plants. (umd.edu)
  • 2002). Reevaluation of the Effects of Brefeldin A on Plant Cells Using Tobacco Bright Yellow 2 Cells Expressing Golgi-Targeted Green Fluorescent Protein and COPI Antisera. (agrisera.com)
  • The perinuclear distribution of CPD is detected even when the AtT-20 cells are treated with brefeldin A for 1-30 minutes, suggesting that CPD is present in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). (elsevier.com)
  • The internalization of CPD is not substantially affected by treatment of the AtT-20 cells with brefeldin A. These data are consistent with the cycling of CPD to the cell surface and back to the TGN. (elsevier.com)
  • To synchronize endosome to Golgi transport, Shiga toxin B-fragment was internalized into HeLa cells at low temperatures. (nih.gov)
  • In comparison, apical endosomes had been believed to become included in epithelial cell typeCspecific procedures such as transcytosis and consequently specific for epithelial cells (Simonoski et al. (biomarketx.net)
  • Nevertheless, latest function in MadinDarby Puppy Kidney (MDCK) cells and the digestive tract cell range, Caco-2, offers demonstrated that some apical endosomes contain recycling where possible transferrin (Apodaca et al. (biomarketx.net)
  • Experiments in permanently or transiently AP-1 μ1-chain-deficient cells established that the AP-1 adaptor complex is essential to SorLA's transport between Golgi membranes and endosomes. (asm.org)
  • 405K, eps) Number H2Mannosylation of ricin is inhibited in the presence of Brefeldin A. HeLa cells were transfected with 25 nM of the indicated siRNA oligos 3 m previous to the experiment. (scienceonstageturkey.com)
  • The cells were treated with or without 1 g/ml Brefeldin A (BFA) for 30 min, adopted by 3 h of LY170053 incubation with ricin sulf-2 in presence of [3H]mannose. (scienceonstageturkey.com)
  • nonviral vectors that harness the change in pH in endosomes are significantly being used to provide cargoes including nucleic acids to mammalian cells. (scienceonstageturkey.com)
  • His collaboration with the Curie Institute has revealed that the VAMP4-Syntaxin6-Syntaxin16-Vti1a SNARE complex mediates retrograde transport from the early endosome to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). (a-star.edu.sg)
  • A SNARE complex of syntaxin 7 and syntaxin 8 vti1b and VAMP8 mediates homotypic fusion of late endosomes (15-17). (antiviralbiologic.com)
  • Sterol accumulation in such aggregates is enhanced in actin2 mutants, and the actin-depolymerizing drug cytochalasin D inhibits sterol redistribution from endosome aggregations. (nih.gov)
  • Wood SA, Park JE, and Brown WJ (1991) Brefeldin A causes a microtubule-mediated fusion of the trans -Golgi network and early endosomes. (springer.com)
  • Brefeldin A (BFA) is a fungal metabolite that causes a redistribution of the stacked cisternae of the Golgi complex into the endoplasmic reticulum by inhibiting anterograde transport. (nih.gov)
  • Late endosomes and endoplasmic reticulum labeled with FYVE-DsRed and ER-DsRed, respectively, were devoid of GFP-RabA1d. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The active pool of cholera toxin (CT) moves from the cell surface to the endosomes, passes through the Golgi and travels to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (eurekamag.com)
  • Association of brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 2 (BIG2) with recycling endosomes during transferrin uptake. (arigobio.com)
  • Dual immunolabeling of dendritic spines revealed that NHE6 partially colocalizes with typical markers of early and recycling endosomes as well as with the AMPAR subunit GluA1. (jneurosci.org)
  • Hence, there has been intense interest in unraveling the molecular mechanisms that underlie the trafficking of endosomes at dendritic spines and how they impact synaptogenesis and plasticity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Transferrin is sorted from LDL, but is then missorted from common endosomes to the apical recycling endosome, as identified by its nearly neutral pH, and association with GFP chimeras of Rabs 11a and 25. (elsevier.com)
  • Sipe and Murphy 1987 ), they were defined as a distinct organelle, the pericentriolar recycling endosome. (rupress.org)
  • Second, the spatial separation between early and recycling endosomes is not apparent in all cell types. (rupress.org)
  • Early and recycling endosomes are at the crossroad of several transport routes. (rupress.org)
  • The antiserum to the full length CPD is internalized to a structure that co-stains with furin and wheat germ agglutinin, but is distinct from transferrin recycling endosomes. (elsevier.com)
  • Virus Control of Trafficking from Sorting Endosomes. (arizona.edu)
  • A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of endosomes. (princeton.edu)
  • Pavelka M, and Ellinger A (1993) Early and late transformations occurring at organelles of the Golgi area under the influence of Brefeldin A. An ultrastructural and lectinocytochemical study. (springer.com)
  • AP-5 is localized to late endosomes, and its function is largely unknown. (bioscirep.org)
  • The second pathway, however, uses AP2 instead of AP3 and is brefeldin A insensitive. (emory.edu)
  • known as endotubin, can be targeted to early endosomes in transfected fibroblasts, and can be present in peripheral mainly because well mainly because perinuclear endosomes. (biomarketx.net)
  • How can endosomes then maintain their functional identity? (rupress.org)
  • Conversely, Brefeldin A treatment was without discernible effect. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Treatment with brefeldin A or chloroquine, agents that block post-ER degradative events, had no effect on the turnover of CTA1-CVIM. (eurekamag.com)
  • We also show that both the presence of endosomes as well as their rapid movements within the tip region depends on an intact actin cytoskeleton and involves actin polymerization. (nih.gov)