Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A protein involved in transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are specific for RAS PROTEINS.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.

Vac1p coordinates Rab and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Vps45p-dependent vesicle docking/fusion at the endosome. (1/4632)

The vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates transport of vacuolar protein precursors from the late Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole. Sorting of some vacuolar proteins occurs via a prevacuolar endosomal compartment and mutations in a subset of VPS genes (the class D VPS genes) interfere with the Golgi-to-endosome transport step. Several of the encoded proteins, including Pep12p/Vps6p (an endosomal target (t) SNARE) and Vps45p (a Sec1p homologue), bind each other directly [1]. Another of these proteins, Vac1p/Pep7p/Vps19p, associates with Pep12p and binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) [1] [2]. Here, we demonstrate that Vac1p genetically and physically interacts with the activated, GTP-bound form of Vps21p, a Rab GTPase that functions in Golgi-to-endosome transport, and with Vps45p. These results implicate Vac1p as an effector of Vps21p and as a novel Sec1p-family-binding protein. We suggest that Vac1p functions as a multivalent adaptor protein that ensures the high fidelity of vesicle docking and fusion by integrating both phosphoinositide (Vps34p) and GTPase (Vps21p) signals, which are essential for Pep12p- and Vps45p-dependent targeting of Golgi-derived vesicles to the prevacuolar endosome.  (+info)

PETA-3/CD151, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, is localised to the plasma membrane and endocytic system of endothelial cells, associates with multiple integrins and modulates cell function. (2/4632)

The Transmembrane 4 Superfamily member, PETA-3/CD151, is ubiquitously expressed by endothelial cells in vivo. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells PETA-3 is present on the plasma membrane and predominantly localises to regions of cell-cell contact. Additionally, this protein is abundant within an intracellular compartment which accounts for up to 66% of the total PETA-3 expressed. Intracellular PETA-3 showed colocalisation with transferrin receptor and CD63 suggesting an endosomal/lysosomal localisation which was supported by immuno-electronmicroscopy studies. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments investigating possible interactions of PETA-3 with other molecules demonstrated associations with several integrin chains including beta1, beta3, beta4, (alpha)2, (alpha)3, (alpha)5, (alpha)6 and provide the first report of Transmembrane 4 Superfamily association with the (alpha)6beta4 integrin. Using 2-colour confocal microscopy, we demonstrated similar localisation of PETA-3 and integrin chains within cytoplasmic vesicles and endothelial cell junctions. In order to assess the functional implications of PETA-3/integrin associations, the effect of anti-PETA-3 antibodies on endothelial function was examined. Anti-PETA-3 mAb inhibited endothelial cell migration and modulated in vitro angiogenesis, but had no detectable effect on neutrophil transendothelial migration. The broad range of integrin associations and the presence of PETA-3 with integrins both on the plasma membrane and within intracellular vesicles, suggests a primary role for PETA-3 in regulating integrin trafficking and/or function.  (+info)

Syntaxin 11 is associated with SNAP-23 on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. (3/4632)

SNARE proteins are known to play a role in regulating intracellular protein transport between donor and target membranes. This docking and fusion process involves the interaction of specific vesicle-SNAREs (e.g. VAMP) with specific cognate target-SNAREs (e.g. syntaxin and SNAP-23). Using human SNAP-23 as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library, we have identified the 287-amino-acid SNARE protein syntaxin 11. Like other syntaxin family members, syntaxin 11 binds to the SNARE proteins VAMP and SNAP-23 in vitro and also exists in a complex with SNAP-23 in transfected HeLa cells and in native human B lymphocytes. Unlike other syntaxin family members, no obvious transmembrane domain is present in syntaxin 11. Nevertheless, syntaxin 11 is predominantly membrane-associated and colocalizes with the mannose 6-phosphate receptor on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. These data suggest that syntaxin 11 is a SNARE that acts to regulate protein transport between late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in mammalian cells.  (+info)

The iron transport protein NRAMP2 is an integral membrane glycoprotein that colocalizes with transferrin in recycling endosomes. (4/4632)

The natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) gene family is composed of two members in mammals, Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed primarily in macrophages and mutations at this locus cause susceptibility to infectious diseases. Nramp2 has a much broader range of tissue expression and mutations at Nramp2 result in iron deficiency, indicating a role for Nramp2 in iron metabolism. To get further insight into the function and mechanism of action of Nramp proteins, we have generated isoform specific anti-Nramp1 and anti-Nramp2 antisera. Immunoblotting experiments indicate that Nramp2 is present in a number of cell types, including hemopoietic precursors, and is coexpressed with Nramp1 in primary macrophages and macrophage cell lines. Nramp2 is expressed as a 90-100-kD integral membrane protein extensively modified by glycosylation (>40% of molecular mass). Subcellular localization studies by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy indicate distinct and nonoverlapping localization for Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed in the lysosomal compartment, whereas Nramp2 is not detectable in the lysosomes but is expressed primarily in recycling endosomes and also, to a lower extent, at the plasma membrane, colocalizing with transferrin. These findings suggest that Nramp2 plays a key role in the metabolism of transferrin-bound iron by transporting free Fe2+ across the endosomal membrane and into the cytoplasm.  (+info)

Visualization of receptor-mediated endocytosis in yeast. (5/4632)

We studied the ligand-induced endocytosis of the yeast alpha-factor receptor Ste2p by immuno-electron microscopy. We observed and quantitated time-dependent loss of Ste2p from the plasma membrane of cells exposed to alpha-factor. This ligand-induced internalization of Ste2p was blocked in the well-characterized endocytosis-deficient mutant sac6Delta. We provide evidence that implicates furrow-like invaginations of the plasma membrane as the site of receptor internalization. These invaginations are distinct from the finger-like plasma membrane invaginations within actin cortical patches. Consistent with this, we show that Ste2p is not located within the cortical actin patch before and during receptor-mediated endocytosis. In wild-type cells exposed to alpha-factor we also observed and quantitated a time-dependent accumulation of Ste2p in intracellular, membrane-bound compartments. These compartments have a characteristic electron density but variable shape and size and are often located adjacent to the vacuole. In immuno-electron microscopy experiments these compartments labeled with antibodies directed against the rab5 homologue Ypt51p (Vps21p), the resident vacuolar protease carboxypeptidase Y, and the vacuolar H+-ATPase Vph1p. Using a new double-labeling technique we have colocalized antibodies against Ste2p and carboxypeptidase Y to this compartment, thereby identifying these compartments as prevacuolar late endosomes.  (+info)

Basolateral sorting of furin in MDCK cells requires a phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with an acidic amino acid cluster. (6/4632)

Furin is a subtilisin-related endoprotease which processes a wide range of bioactive proteins. Furin is concentrated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where proteolytic activation of many precursor proteins takes place. A significant fraction of furin, however, cycles among the TGN, the plasma membrane, and endosomes, indicating that the accumulation in the TGN reflects a dynamic localization process. The cytosolic domain of furin is necessary and sufficient for TGN localization, and two signals are responsible for retrieval of furin to the TGN. A tyrosine-based (YKGL) motif mediates internalization of furin from the cell surface into endosomes. An acidic cluster that is part of two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites (SDSEEDE) is then responsible for retrieval of furin from endosomes to the TGN. In addition, the acidic EEDE sequence also mediates endocytic activity. Here, we analyzed the sorting of furin in polarized epithelial cells. We show that furin is delivered to the basolateral surface of MDCK cells, from where a significant fraction of the protein can return to the TGN. A phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with the acidic EEDE cluster is required for basolateral sorting and constitutes a novel signal regulating intracellular traffic of furin.  (+info)

An arrested late endosome-lysosome intermediate aggregate observed in a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant isolated by novel three-step screening. (7/4632)

Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in the post-uptake degradation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in lysosomes were selected from mutagenized cells by novel three-step screening. First, in the presence of LDL, clones sensitive to an inhibitor of the rate-limiting enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, were isolated. Second, from the selected clones, those lacking in the degradation of a constituent of a fluorescent LDL were qualitatively screened by microscopy. Third, the clones were further screened by previously established quantitative analytical flow cytometry that detects the early-phase disintegration of LDL by lysosomal acid hydrolases. One of the isolated mutant clones, LEX1 (Lysosome-Endosome X 1), was a recessive mutant, and exhibited a specific disorder in the late endocytic pathway. LEX1 cells showed an unusual perinuclear aggregate of vesicles, heterogeneously positive for lysosomal glycoprotein-B/cathepsin D and rab7, yet negative for the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. The aggregate was formed around the microtubule organizing center, and was disrupted by nocodazole treatment. Internalized octadecyl rhodamine B-labeled LDL (R18-LDL) was accumulated in the perinuclear rab7-positive vesicles. In a Percoll density gradient, neither internalized R18-LDL nor internalized horseradish peroxidase was efficiently chased into heavy lysosomal fractions positive for beta-hexosaminidase. LEX1 cells showed differences in the activity and subcellular distribution of lysosomal enzymes. These characteristics of LEX1 cells are consistent with the ideas that the perinuclear vesicle aggregate is an arrested intermediate of direct fusion or divergence between lysosomes and rab7-positive, cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor-negative late endosomes, and that equilibrium between the lysosomes and the late endosomes is shifted towards the late endosomes in LEX1 cells. Such fusion or divergence between the late endosomes and the lysosomes would determine an appropriate equilibrium between them, and might thereby play an important role for proper lysosomal digestive functions. LEX1 mutant cells would be helpful for the dissection of the as yet unrevealed details of the late endocytic membrane dynamics and for the identification of factors involved in the process arrested by the mutation.  (+info)

Endocytic sorting of lipid analogues differing solely in the chemistry of their hydrophobic tails. (8/4632)

To understand the mechanisms for endocytic sorting of lipids, we investigated the trafficking of three lipid-mimetic dialkylindocarbocyanine (DiI) derivatives, DiIC16(3) (1,1'-dihexadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate), DiIC12(3) (1,1'- didodecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate), and FAST DiI (1,1'-dilinoleyl-3,3,3', 3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate), in CHO cells by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. All three DiIs have the same head group, but differ in their alkyl tail length or unsaturation; these differences are expected to affect their distribution in membrane domains of varying fluidity or curvature. All three DiIs initially enter sorting endosomes containing endocytosed transferrin. DiIC16(3), with two long 16-carbon saturated tails is then delivered to late endosomes, whereas FAST DiI, with two cis double bonds in each tail, and DiIC12(3), with saturated but shorter (12-carbon) tails, are mainly found in the endocytic recycling compartment. We also find that DiOC16(3) (3,3'- dihexadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate) and FAST DiO (3, 3'-dilinoleyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate) behave similarly to their DiI counterparts. Furthermore, whereas a phosphatidylcholine analogue with a BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene) fluorophore attached at the end of a 5-carbon acyl chain is delivered efficiently to the endocytic recycling compartment, a significant fraction of another derivative with BODIPY attached to a 12-carbon acyl chain entered late endosomes. Our results thus suggest that endocytic organelles can sort membrane components efficiently based on their preference for association with domains of varying characteristics.  (+info)

In the present study, we demonstrated that clathrin and AP-1 are required for the retrograde transport from recycling endosomes to the Golgi. CTxB appeared to reach recycling endosomes in the clathrin- or AP-1-knockdown cells, similar to in control cells, suggesting that clathrin and AP-1 are not essential for the transport of CTxB from the plasma membrane through early endosomes to recycling endosomes. It has been shown that clathrin localizes to the TGN, early endosomes and the plasma membrane (Brodsky, 2012). We showed that CHC also localized to recycling endosomes. CHC colocalized with the recycling endosome proteins, Rab11, Tfn and SMAP2 in COS-1 cells (in which the Golgi, early endosomes and recycling endosomes are spatially distinct) (Lee et al., 2015; Misaki et al., 2007; Uchida et al., 2011). The recycling endosomes that were dispersed from the perinuclear region to the cytoplasm by nocodazole treatment remained positive for CHC. The localization of AP-1 to recycling endosomes (Folsch ...
Regardless of the type of endocytosis, vesicles are fused with an internal membranous compartment known as endosome. Intramecellular compartments formed after phagocytosis and macropinocytosis beccome particular types of endosomes known as phagosome and macropinosome, respectively. Endosomes show an irregular shape, like large bags, although sometimes they form tubular structures. Like the TGN of the Golgi complex , endosomes are stations for receiving and distributing molecules packed in vesicles. Vesicles arrive to endosomes from the plasma membrane and from the TGN of the Golgi complex. From endosomes, vesicles leave toward the plasma membrane or TGN of the Golgi complex, both are pathways for recycling membrane receptors and lipids. However, most of the molecules in the endosomes are transported to lysosomes for degradation. Two ways of endosomal organization have been proposed: a) Cells would contain several types of endosomes. Early endosomes close to the plasma membrane that receive ...
APPL1- and RAB5-positive signaling endosomes play a crucial role in the activation of AKT in response to extracellular stimuli. Myosin VI (MYO6) and two of its cargo adaptor proteins, GIPC and TOM1/TOM1L2, localize to these peripheral endosomes and mediate endosome association with cortical actin filaments. Loss of MYO6 leads to the displacement of these endosomes from the cell cortex and accumulation in the perinuclear space. Depletion of this myosin not only affects endosome positioning, but also induces actin and lipid remodeling consistent with endosome maturation, including accumulation of F-actin and the endosomal lipid PI(3)P. These processes acutely perturb endosome function, as both AKT phosphorylation and RAC-dependent membrane ruffling were markedly reduced by depletion of either APPL1 or MYO6. These results place MYO6 and its binding partners at a central nexus in cellular signaling linking actin dynamics at the cell surface and endosomal signaling in the cell cortex ...
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells. It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway originating from the trans Golgi membrane. Molecules or ligands internalized from the plasma membrane can follow this pathway all the way to lysosomes for degradation, or they can be recycled back to the plasma membrane. Molecules are also transported to endosomes from the trans-Golgi network and either continue to lysosomes or recycle back to the Golgi. Endosomes can be classified as early, sorting, or late depending on their stage post internalization. Endosomes represent a major sorting compartment of the endomembrane system in cells. In HeLa cells, endosomes are approximately 500 nm in diameter when fully mature. Endosomes provide an environment for material to be sorted before it reaches the degradative lysosome. For example, LDL is taken into the cell by binding to the LDL receptor at the cell surface. Upon reaching early endosomes, the LDL ...
P-selectin is not sorted from LDL receptor in late endosomes. P-selectin is transported to the TGN approximately eight to nine times faster than it is delivered to lysosomes in PC12 cells (20-25 min vs. 3-3.8 h), showing that P-selectin molecules entering late endosomes are eight to nine times more likely to recycle to the TGN than to go directly to lysosomes. The ratio of these two transport rates is similar for LDL receptor (t1/2 = 2-2.5 h to the TGN vs. 20 h to lysosomes; Green and Kelly 1992). The simplest explanation for these observations is that both proteins have the same sorting phenotype in late endosomes (Fig. 1A and Fig. B). Therefore, the short half-life of P-selectin is most likely not due to its selective targeting to lysosomes, as has been suggested (Blagoveshchenskaya et al. 1998), but is due to its selective delivery from sorting endosomes to late endosomes. One significant consequence of this sorting event is rapid recycling of P-selectin through the TGN. Rapid turnover of ...
The endocytic pathway is essential for cell homeostasis and numerous small GTPase Rab have been involved in its control. The endocytic trafficking step controlled by Rab4b has not been elucidated although recent data suggested it could be important for glucose homeostasis, synaptic homeostasis, or adaptative immunity. Here we show that Rab4b is required for early endosome sorting of transferrin receptors (TfR) to the recycling endosomes and we identified the AP1γ subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1 as a Rab4b effector and key component of the machinery of early endosomes sorting. We show that internalized transferrin (Tf) does not reach Vamp3/Rab11 recycling endosomes in absence of Rab4b while it is rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane. On the contrary, Rab4b overexpression leads to the accumulation of internalized Tf within AP-1 and clathrin-coated vesicles. These vesicles are poor in early and recycling endocytic markers except TfR and require AP1γ for their formation. Furthermore, ...
Enveloped viruses fuse with host membranes without affecting cell integrity. Non-enveloped viruses and bacteria penetrate by rupturing endosomal membranes and thus expose complex-type carbohydrates from the endosome lumen to cytosolic proteins. Here we report on the dynamics and initial marker analyses of Galectin-3 (Gal3)-positive membranes triggered by incoming adenovirus species B/C in HeLa cells. Using mCherry-Gal3 reporter constructs, immunolabeling, confocal and electron microscopy, we detected robust signals from Gal3-containing, early endosomal antigen 1-positive membranes 1 h post-infection (pi). Adenoviruses penetrate from non-acidic endosomes with high efficiency, 15 min pi, and largely outnumbered the Gal3-positive membranes, suggesting that Gal3 recruitment to broken membranes is transient, or Gal3-positive membranes are rapidly turned-over. In support of rapid turn-over, Gal3 was found within single-membrane vesicles and degradative autophagosomes. The Gal3 membranes contained ubiquitin
Homotypic fusion between early endosomes requires the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P)-binding protein, Early Endosomal Autoantigen 1 (EEA1). We have investigated the role of other proteins that interact with EEA1 in the fusion of early endosomes derived from Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cells. We confirm a requirement for syntaxin 13, but additionally show that the assay is equally sensitive to reagents specifically targeted against syntaxin 6. Binding of EEA1 to immobilised GST-syntaxin 6 and 13 was directly compared; only syntaxin 6 formed a stable complex with EEA1. Early endosome fusion requires the release of intravesicular calcium, and calmodulin plays a vital role in the fusion pathway, as judged by sensitivity to antagonists. We demonstrate that both EEA1 and syntaxin 13 interact with calmodulin. In the case of EEA1, binding to calmodulin requires an IQ domain, which is adjacent to a C-terminal FYVE domain that specifically binds to PI3P. We have assessed the influence of protein binding
Genetic studies in Drosophila have demonstrated that generation of microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the NADPH dual oxidase (DUOX) is a first line of defense in the gut epithelia. Bacterial uracil acts as DUOX-activating ligand through poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we show that the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway modulates uracil-induced DUOX activation. Uracil-induced Hh signaling is required for intestinal expression of the calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule Cadherin 99C (Cad99C) and subsequent Cad99C-dependent formation of endosomes. These endosomes play essential roles in uracil-induced ROS production by acting as signaling platforms for PLC beta/PKC/Ca2+-dependent DUOX activation. Animals with impaired Hh signaling exhibit abolished Cad99C-dependent endosome formation and reduced DUOX activity, resulting in high mortality during enteric infection. Importantly, endosome formation, DUOX activation, and normal host survival are restored by genetic reintroduction of ...
Plays a role in vesicle-mediated protein trafficking to lysosomal compartments including the endocytic membrane transport and autophagic pathways. Believed to act as a core component of the putative HOPS and CORVET endosomal tethering complexes which are proposed to be involved in the Rab5-to-Rab7 endosome conversion probably implicating MON1A/B, and via binding SNAREs and SNARE complexes to mediate tethering and docking events during SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. The HOPS complex is proposed to be recruited to Rab7 on the late endosomal membrane and to regulate late endocytic, phagocytic and autophagic traffic towards lysosomes. The CORVET complex is proposed to function as a Rab5 effector to mediate early endosome fusion probably in specific endosome subpopulations (PubMed:11382755, PubMed:23351085, PubMed:24554770, PubMed:25266290, PubMed:25783203). Required for recruitment of VPS33A to the HOPS complex (PubMed:23901104). Required for fusion of endosomes and autophagosomes with lysosomes; the
Influenza viruses enter the cell inside an endosome. During the endosomal journey, acidification triggers a conformational change of the virus spike protein hemagglutinin (HA) that results in escape of the viral genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. It is still unclear how the interplay between acidification and HA conformation changes affects the kinetics of the viral endosomal escape. We develop here a stochastic model to estimate the change of conformation of HAs inside the endosome nanodomain. Using a Markov process, we model the arrival of protons to HA binding sites and compute the kinetics of their accumulation. We compute the Mean First Passage Time (MFPT) of the number of HA bound sites to a threshold, which is used to estimate the HA activation rate for a given pH (i.e. proton concentration). The present analysis reveals that HA proton binding sites possess a high chemical barrier, ensuring a stability of the spike protein at sub -acidic pH. We predict that activating more than ...
Mutations in CHMP2B, encoding a protein in the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, causes frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). FTD, the second most common form of pre-senile dementia, can also be caused by genetic mutations in other genes, including TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). How FTD-causing disease genes interact is largely unknown. We found that partial loss function of Ik2, the fly homologue of TBK1 also known as I-kappaB kinase epsilon (IKKepsilon), enhanced the toxicity of mutant CHMP2B in the fly eye and that Ik2 overexpression suppressed the effect of mutant CHMP2B in neurons. Partial loss of function of Spn-F, a downstream phosphorylation target of Ik2, greatly enhanced the mutant CHMP2B phenotype. An interactome analysis to understand cellular processes regulated by Spn-F identified a network of interacting proteins including Spn-F, Ik2, dynein light chain, and Hook, an adaptor protein in early endosome transport. Partial loss of function
CD63 (Late Endosomes Marker) Antibody - With BSA and Azide, Purified Mouse Monoclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC, IF, FC, IP, E (AH10281-20), Abgent
Probable lipid-binding protein with higher affinity for phosphatidic acid, a lipid enriched in recycling endosome membranes. On endosome membranes, may act as a downstream effector of Rab proteins recruiting cytosolic proteins to regulate membrane tubulation. May be involved in a late step of receptor-mediated endocytosis regulating for instance endocytosed-EGF receptor trafficking. Alternatively, may regulate slow endocytic recycling of endocytosed proteins back to the plasma membrane. May indirectly play a role in neurite outgrowth.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Membranes are vital barriers by which cells control the flux of molecules and energy between their exterior and interior and also between their various intracellular compartments. While numerous transport systems exist for ions and small molecules, the cytosolic uptake of larger biological molecules and in particular antibody-targeted drugs, is a big challenge. Inducing leakage of the plasma membrane is unfavorable since the target cell specificity mediated by the antibody would likely be lost in this case. After binding and internalization, the antibody drug conjugates reach the endosomes. Thus, enforcing the endosomal escape of anti-tumor toxins without affecting the integrity of other cellular membranes is of paramount importance. Different strategies have been developed in the last decades to overcome endosomal accumulation and subsequent lysosomal degradation of targeted protein-based drugs. In this review we summarize the various efforts made to establish efficient techniques to disrupt the
In this study, we uncover a novel molecular player important for axon branching and compartmentalization. We demonstrate that Clstn-1 is critical for growth and branching of peripheral sensory axons and differentially affects the behavior of separate axons from one neuron. Furthermore, our data indicate that Clstn-1 acts in part through a trafficking role and controls the transport of endosomal carriers. Our ability to image live endosome dynamics as vertebrate neurons develop complex axon arborizations in vivo has revealed new insight into Clstn-1 function and into differential endosome dynamics in specific axon compartments. Our results suggest that regulated trafficking of early endosomes from the cell body to specific axon locations is crucial for neuronal compartmentalization and axon branching.. Precise control over axon branching is essential for neuronal circuit formation. Many factors have been shown to influence axon branching, including extracellular cues, intracellular signaling ...
A diverse assortment of peptides mediates cellCcell communication. the anticipated enrichment in the endosomal markers Rab-5 and early endosome antigen 1 (Fig. S3). To make sure that the endosomal fractions had been free from any significant quantity of plasma membrane, we subjected examples to European blot evaluation with antibodies against the Na+/K+ ATPase (Fig. S3). We were not able to detect Na-K ATPase in the endosomal portion, estimating a recognition limit of 0.01% contamination predicated on the Na-K ATPase staining strength in the plasma membrane fraction. On the other hand, the approximated endosomal content material of IDE was 0.22% of the full total IDE put on the sucrose gradient. These data show that IDE within the endosomal portion isnt an artifact because of contaminants of endosomes with additional cellular components. Open up in another windows Fig. 5. Endosomal IDE content material of COS-1 cells. (display magnified views from the areas indicated by small rectangles to ...
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When released from the 20°C block, VSVG emigrated away from membranes positive for conventional Golgi to closely apposed structures that were positive for AP-1B and Exo70. Intriguingly, Exo70 also strongly localized to Tfn- and TfnR-positive recycling endosomes. Thus, it seems possible that AP-1B-dependent cargo may at least partially enter recycling endosomes before continuing to the plasma membrane after exit from the Golgi. Our data are thus in agreement with previous observations showing that Rab11 (a recycling endosome-associated GTPase) may play a role in biosynthetic traffic, at least in nonpolarized cells (Chen et al., 1998). Moreover, both the TGN and recycling endosomes are complex sorting compartments (Mellman and Warren, 2000). In the case of epithelial cells, it is also interesting to note that polarized targeting of newly synthesized and recycling glycoproteins makes use of similar or identical sorting determinants in the TGN and in the endocytic pathway (Matter et al., 1993; ...
MAJOR ISSUES The reviewers were not fully convinced by the endosome acidification results. Both wanted a more thorough characterization of endosome distribution and transferrin colocalization in the transferrin experiments and felt that more detail - in particular, relative to the calculation of the n values - were needed to judge the robustness of the pH experiments. 1. RE: N values and figures chosen: The authors must specify how many cells, how many different cultures from how many different animals were used for the determinations of transferrin (Fig 3) and for the assays of endosome acidification (Fig 4). Both reviewers felt that the number of endosomes tested was relatively small. These n values should be increased. Response: To address this question, we developed a method using a high-throughput confocal fluorescence imaging system, the Opera Phenix High Content Screening System, which allowed us to image and analyze thousands of cells and endosomes. Based on use of this new method and ...
Supplementary MaterialsS1 Fig: EHBP-1 deficient N-terminal C2-like or central CH domain didnt save the intestinal vacuole (bigger endosome) phenotype. indicate EHBP-1(NT-C2)-GFP and EHBP-1(CH)-GFP tagged puncta in the intestinal cells. Arrows reveal EHBP-1(CH)-GFP tagged intestinal vacuoles. (E-F) Intestinal manifestation of CH-CC fragment (EHBP-1(NT-C2)) disrupted recycling cargo hTAC-GFP tubular endosomal localization. (G-G) hTAC-GFP misplaced tubular endosomal localization and gathered on punctate constructions upon the knockdown of PPK-1. (H-I) Manifestation of CH-CC fragment triggered intracellular accumulation of recycling cargo hTAC-GFP about enlarged vacuoles and endosomes. Arrows reveal hTAC-GFP tagged intestinal vacuoles. Size bars stand for 10 m.(TIF) pgen.1006093.s002.tif (2.0M) GUID:?266611FC-D3A5-437B-A587-32B44A93EE3D S3 Fig: Association of EHBP-1 fragments with RAB-10 and ARF-6 tagged endosomes. Colocalization pictures are from confocal picture stacks obtained in intestinal ...
Seroussi, E., Kedra, D., Kost-Alimova, M., Sandberg-Nordqvist, A., Fransson, I., Jacobs, J., ... Dumanski, J. (1999). TOM1 Genes Map to Human Chromosome 22q13.1 and Mouse Chromosome 8C1 and Encode Proteins Similar to the Endosomal Proteins HGS and STAM. Genomics, 57, 380 - 388 ...
J Immunol. 2008 Jun 15;180(12):8192-203. Platelet-activating factor-mediated endosome formation causes membrane translocation of p67phox and p40phox that requires recruitment and activation of p38 MAPK, Rab5a, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in human neutrophils. McLaughlin NJ, Banerjee A, Khan SY, Lieber JL, Kelher MR, Gamboni-Robertson F, Sheppard FR, Moore EE, Mierau GW, Elzi DJ, Silliman CC ...
The total amount of p-EGFR in endosomes decays with the same kinetics asthe number of endosomes with p-EGFR.Time course of total integral p-EGFR intensity in en
Predicted to have phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate binding activity. Involved in erythrocyte differentiation; heme biosynthetic process; and hemoglobin biosynthetic process. Predicted to localize to early endosome membrane and retromer complex. Is expressed in digestive system; hematopoietic system; and vascular endothelium. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in syndromic microphthalmia 8. Orthologous to human SNX3 (sorting nexin 3 ...
Acts as component of the EARP complex that is involved in endocytic recycling. The EARP complex associates with Rab4-positive endosomes and promotes recycling of internalized transferrin receptor (TFRC) to the plasma membrane. Within the EARP complex, required to tether the complex to recycling endosomes. Not involved in retrograde transport from early and late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN ...
The collection of specimens illustrated in this section demonstrates the effectiveness of the Nikon YFP HYQ filter combination with a series of cell lines containing a chimeric EYFP plasmid vector that expresses a fluorescent fusion protein targeted at the cellular endosomal network.
This elegant study identifies Arc as a presenilin-1 (PS1) interacting protein that links synaptic activity with γ-secretase processing of APP in neurons. Detailed analysis of subcellular localization of APP, PS1, and Arc by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy methods suggest a mechanism whereby Arc facilitates association of PS1 with endosomes that contain internalized APP. Thus, it appears that the subset of APP that contributes to activity-dependent Aβ production encounters PS1 in endocytic organelles in dendrites of excitatory neurons.. Arc is known to associate with endophilin-2/3 and dynamin on endosomes, and mediate AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Whereas the last is markedly reduced in Arc knockout neurons, this does not appear to be the case with PS1 or APP. Whether this indicates Arc regulation of PS1/APP colocalization in tubulovesicular endosomes is distinct from its function in regulating the endocytic machinery responsible for AMPAR endocytosis remains to be ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] Vesicle mediated protein sorting plays an important role in segregation of intracellular molecules into distinct organelles. Genetic studies in yeast have identified more than 40 vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes involved in vesicle transport to vacuoles. This gene is a member of the Sec-1 domain family, and it encodes a protein similar to the yeast class C Vps33 protein. The mammalian class C VPS proteins are predominantly associated with late endosomes/lysosomes, and like their yeast counterparts, may mediate vesicle trafficking steps in the endosome/lysosome pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is a prominent substrate for activated tyrosine kinase receptors that has been proposed to play a role in endosomal membrane trafficking. The protein contains a FYVE domain, which specifically binds to the lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-phosphate (PI 3-P). We show that this interaction is required both for correct localization of the protein to endosomes that only partially coincides with early endosomal autoantigen 1 and for efficient tyrosine phosphorylation of the protein in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation. Treatment with wortmannin reveals that Hrs phosphorylation also requires PI 3-kinase activity, which is necessary to generate the PI 3-P required for localization. We have used both hypertonic media and expression of a dominant-negative form of dynamin (K44A) to inhibit endocytosis; under which conditions, receptor stimulation fails to elicit phosphorylation of Hrs. Our results provide a clear example of the
Immune responses are initiated when molecules of microbial origin are sensed by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We now report the identification of essential molecular components for the trafficking of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor complex. LPS was endocytosed by a receptor-mediated mechanism dependent on dynamin and clathrin and colocalized with TLR4 on early/sorting endosomes. TLR4 was ubiquitinated and associated with the ubiquitin-binding endosomal sorting protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, Hrs. Inhibition of endocytosis and endosomal sorting increased LPS signaling. Finally, the LPS receptor complex was sorted to late endosomes/lysosomes for degradation and loading of associated antigens onto HLA class II molecules for presentation to CD4+ T cells. Our results show that endosomal trafficking of the LPS receptor complex is essential for signal termination and LPS-associated antigen presentation, thus controlling both innate and adaptive immunity through
Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] regulates endocytic trafficking and the sorting of receptors through early endosomes, including the rapid recycling of transferrin (Tfn). However, the phosphoinositide phosphatase that selectively opposes this function is unknown. The myotubularins are a family of eight catalytically active and six inactive enzymes that hydrolyse PtdIns(3)P to form PtdIns. However, the role each myotubularin family member plays in regulating endosomal PtdIns(3)P and thereby endocytic trafficking is not well established. Here, we identify the myotubularin family member MTMR4, which localizes to early endosomes and also to Rab11- and Sec15-positive recycling endosomes. In cells with MTMR4 knockdown, or following expression of the catalytically inactive MTMR4, MTMR4(C407A), the number of PtdIns(3)P-decorated endosomes significantly increased. MTMR4 overexpression delayed the exit of Tfn from early endosomes and its recycling to the plasma membrane. By contrast, expression of
Endosomal internalisation and subsequent lysosomal degradation of membrane proteins is important for regulation of multiple cellular processes, among these the termination of receptor signalling and degradation of misfolded membrane proteins. ESCRT (Endosomal sorting complex required for transport) proteins are vital for the sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies for subsequent degradation in the lysosome. In this study we generated two stable cell lines expressing the EGFP tagged ESCRT proteins Hrs and hVps22. Our goal was to utilise these cell lines for investigations into ESCRT protein dynamics, the relative order of ESCRT protein recruitment to the endosomes, and the endosomal localisation of ESCRT proteins. However, though the EGFP-Hrs cell line seemed to express a functional Hrs protein, the EGFP-hVps22 protein was completely cytosolic and could not be visualised on endosomes. hVps4, and its mouse homologue Skd1 is an AAA-type ATPase shown to be necessary for ...
It is well established that dynamin is involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis, but relatively little is known about possible intracellular functions of this GTPase. Using confocal imaging, we found that endogenous dynamin was associated with the plasma membrane, the trans-Golgi network, and a perinuclear cluster of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR)-containing structures. By electron microscopy (EM), it was shown that these structures were late endosomes and that the endogenous dynamin was preferentially localized to tubulo-vesicular appendices on these late endosomes. Upon induction of the dominant-negative dynK44A mutant, confocal microscopy demonstrated a redistribution of the CI-MPR in mutant-expressing cells. Quantitative EM analysis of the ratio of CI-MPR to lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 in endosome profiles revealed a higher colocalization of the two markers in dynK44A-expressing cells than in control cells. Western blot analysis showed that ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Due to its nitrogen structure, Chloroquine can enter cells and endosomal membranes involved in transport within the cell Mar 17, 2020 · Specifically, the CDC research was completed in primate cells using chloroquines well known function of elevating endosomal pH. Cited by: 16 Publish Year: 2017 Author: Md. Co-incubation of cells with distinctly labeled K8- and R8-modified nanoparticles confirmed chloroquine endosomal release a common uptake pathway and different rates of endosomal escape particularly at longer time intervals. 2007 ) Chloroquine is a weak base which can partition into acidic vesicles such as endosomes and lysosomes, resulting in inhibition of endosomal acidification and lysosomal enzyme activity. Teva-Chloroquine may be available in the countries listed below. 2002). A positive control sample was exposed to chloroquine prior to imaging Chloroquine, a 9-aminoquinoline that was identified in 1934, is a weak base that increases the pH of acidic vesi-cles. Rab27b is one of several ...
We identified p18 as a potential component of lipid rafts. The predominant distribution of p18 to DRMs suggested its potential localization to lipid rafts. However, it is currently accepted that DRMs do not necessarily correspond to lipid rafts and that the DRM separation method is insufficient for the identification of lipid raft‐associated proteins (Lichtenberg et al, 2005; Hancock, 2006). Thus, to verify the raft localization of p18, we examined intracellular distribution of p18 and its mutants. The cell staining analyses showed that p18 could be colocalized with GM1 ganglioside, a marker of lipid rafts (Harder et al, 1998), and that the N‐terminal potential myristoylation and palmitoylation sites, which are known to function as lipid raft localization signals, were required for the late endosome localization of p18. These observations strongly supported the presence of p18 in lipid rafts of late endosomes (Balbis et al, 2007). It is of interest that the N‐terminal only 20 residues of ...
Looking for online definition of recycling endosome in the Medical Dictionary? recycling endosome explanation free. What is recycling endosome? Meaning of recycling endosome medical term. What does recycling endosome mean?
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Brefeldin A rapidly disrupts plasma membrane polarity by blocking polar sorting in common endosomes of MDCK cells. AU - Wang, E.. AU - Pennington, J. G.. AU - Goldenring, J. R.. AU - Hunziker, W.. AU - Dunn, Kenneth. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Recent studies showing thorough intermixing of apical and basolateral endosomes have demonstrated that endocytic sorting is critical to maintaining the plasma membrane polarity of epithelial cells. Our studies of living, polarized cells show that disrupting endocytosis with brefeldin-A rapidly destroys the polarity of transferrin receptors in MDCK cells while having no effect on tight junctions. Brefeldin-A treatment induces tubulation of endosomes, but the sequential compartments and transport steps of the transcytotic pathway remain intact. Transferrin is sorted from LDL, but is then missorted from common endosomes to the apical recycling endosome, as identified by its nearly neutral pH, and association with GFP chimeras of Rabs 11a and ...
In endocytosis small GTPases Rab5 and Rab7 act like molecular switches and regulate vesicular transport and membrane trafficking. Rab5 represents a marker of early endosomes which is essential for homotypic and heterotypic fusion as well for endosome motility while Rab7 represents a marker of late endosomes. Conversion from Rab5 to Rab7 is important for the course of an endolysosomal path. Purpose of this thesis was to investigate correlation between endosome maturation and proplatelet formation. We used Western blot analysis to examine the level of expression of early (Rab5), late (Rab7) and recycling (Rab11) endosomes in different maturation stages of mouse megakaryocytes and platelets. By immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we analyzed the localization of early (Rab5, EEA1) and late (Rab7, LAMP1) endosomes considering the maturation stage of megakaryocytes. In addition, we treated megakaryocytes with inhibitors that cause rapid alkalinization of acidic organelles and block conversion ...
Endosomal accumulation of APP in wobbler motor neurons reflects impaired vesicle trafficking: Implications for human motor neuron disease ...
The small GTP-binding protein rab5 was previously localized on early endosomes and on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. Using a cell-free assay, we have now tested whether rab5 is involved in controlling an early endocytic fusion event. Fusion could be inhibited by cytosol containing the …
CHMP2B Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_054762), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a component of the heteromeric ESCRT-III complex (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III) that functions in the recycling or degradation of cell surface receptors. ESCRT-III functions in the concentration and invagination of ubiquitinated endosomal cargos into intralumenal vesicles. The protein encoded by this gene is found as a monomer in the cytosol or as an oligomer in ESCRT-III complexes on endosomal membranes. It is expressed in neurons of all major regions of the brain. Mutations in this gene result in one form of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
The retromer is a phylogenetically conserved multisubunit complex that mediates retrograde transport of transmembrane cargo from endosomes to the TGN (Seaman, 2005; Bonifacino and Rojas, 2006; Bonifacino and Hurley, 2008). The best-characterized cargo for the mammalian retromer is the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR [CI-MPR]), one of two intracellular sorting receptors that participates in the delivery of acid hydrolases to lysosomes (Kornfeld, 1992). The CI-MPR binds newly synthesized acid hydrolases at the TGN and carries them within clathrin-coated vesicles to endosomes, where the hydrolases are released for eventual transport to lysosomes. The retromer functions to retrieve the unoccupied receptors to the TGN, where they engage in further cycles of acid hydrolase sorting. Depletion of retromer subunits by RNAi prevents this retrieval, leading to rerouting of the receptors to lysosomes and consequent leakage of newly synthesized acid hydrolases into the extracellular ...
Anterograde transport of late endosomes or lysosomes (LE/Lys) is crucial for proper axon growth. However, the role of energetic nutrients has been poorly explored. Malonyl-CoA is a precursor of fatty acids, and its intracellular levels highly fluctuate depending on glucose availability or the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We demonstrate in HeLa cells that carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C) senses malonyl-CoA and enhances LE/Lys anterograde transport by interacting with the endoplasmic reticulum protein protrudin and facilitating the transfer of Kinesin-1 from protrudin to LE/Lys. In cultured mouse cortical neurons, glucose deprivation, pharmacological activation of AMPK or inhibition of malonyl-CoA synthesis decreases LE/Lys abundance at the axon terminal, and shortens axon length in a CPT1C-dependent manner. These results identify CPT1C as a new regulator of anterograde LE/Lys transport in response to malonyl-CoA changes, and give insight into how axon growth is ...
We data-analyzed and constructed the high-expression CAMK1 phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting and transport network in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with low-expression (fold change ≥ 2) no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection) in GEO data set, using integration of gene regulatory network inference method with gene ontology (GO). Our result showed that CAMK1 transport subnetwork upstream KCNQ3, LCN2, NKX2_5, NUP62, SORT1, STX1A activated CAMK1, and downstream CAMK1-activated AFP, ENAH, KPNA2, SLC4A3; CAMK1 signal subnetwork upstream BRCA1, DKK1, GPSM2, LEF1, NR5A1, NUP62, SORT1, SSTR5, TBL3 activated CAMK1, and downstream CAMK1-activated MAP2K6, SFRP4, SSTR5, TSHB, UBE2C in HCC. We proposed that CAMK1 activated network enhanced endosome to lysosome transport, endosome transport via multivesicular body sorting pathway, Golgi to endosome transport, intracellular protein transmembrane transport, intracellular protein transport, ion transport, mRNA ...
The mechanisms by which altered processing, distribution and secretion of proteolytic enzymes occur, facilitating degradation of the extracellular matrix in invasive and metastatic cells, are not fully understood. Studies on the MCF-10 A breast epithelial cell line and its premalignant, c-Ha-ras-transfected MCF-10AneoT counterpart have shown that the ras-transfected cell line has a more alkaline pH. The objective of this study was to determine which organelles of the endosome-lysosome route were alkalinized and shifted to the cell periphery after ras-transfection. Antibodies to the hapten 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP), required for pH studies, were raised in rabbits and chickens using DNP-ovalbumin (DNP-OVA) as immunogen. Cationised DNP-OVA (DNP-catOVA) was also inoculated to increase antibody titres. Anti-hapten and carrier antibody titres were assessed. In rabbits, cationisation seems useful to increase anti-DNP titres if a non-self carrier protein (OVA) is used. In chickens, cationisation of ...
Jacob, A., and Prekeris, R. (2015) Regulation of MMP targeting to invadopodia during cancer metastasis. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. In Press.. Mangan, A., and Prekeris, R. (2015) 3D-Time-Lapse analysis of Rab11/FIP5 complex: spatiotemporal dynamics during apical lumen formation. Methods in Molecular Biology. In Press.. Li, D., Kuehn, E.W., and Prekeris, R. (2014) Kinesin-2 mediates apical endosome transport during epithelial lumen formation. Cellular Logistics. In Press.. Li, D., Mangan, A., Ciccini, L., Margolis, B., and Prekeris, R. (2014) FIP5 phosphorylation during mitosis regulates apical trafficking and luminogenesis. EMBO reports. 15(4):428-437.. Jacob, A., Jing, J., Lee, J., Schedin, P., Peden, A.A., Junutula, J.R. and Prekeris, R. (2013) Rab40b regulates MMP2 and MMP9 trafficking during invadopodia formation and breast cancer cell invasion. Journal of Cell Science. 126:4647-4658.. Schiel, J., Childs, C., and Prekeris, R. (2013) Endocytic transport and cytokinesis: from ...
This is calculation with bound lipids. Acyl chains of two lipids were modelled. Calculated hydrocarbon boundary of the lipid bilayer corresponds to the carbonyl groups of the bound lipid. Depending on conformations of bound lipids, the protein can penetrate deeper by ~2 A. Results for the dimer without bound lipids are exactly the same as for lipid-free EEA1 monomer (1hyi). Transfer energy was calculated without contribution from the bound lipid ...
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene comprise the most common cause of familial Parkinsons disease (PD), and variants increase the risk for sporadic PD. LRRK2 displays kinase and GTPase activity, and altered catalytic activity correlates with neurotoxicity, making LRRK2 a promising therapeutic target. Despite the importance of LRRK2 for disease pathogenesis, its normal cellular function, and the mechanism(s) by which pathogenic mutations cause neurodegeneration remain unclear. LRRK2 seems to regulate a variety of intracellular vesicular trafficking events to and from the late endosome in a manner dependent on various Rab proteins. At least some of those events are further regulated by LRRK2 in a manner dependent on two-pore channels (TPCs). TPCs are ionic channels localized to distinct endosomal structures and can cause localized calcium release from those acidic stores, with downstream effects on vesicular trafficking. Here, we review current knowledge about the link ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Mihoko Tame.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Developmental Biology Seminar Series series.. ...
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In this work, we have shown that RME‐8 and SNX‐1 are required to rescue MIG‐14 from degradation after its endocytosis. Our results showing the aberrant sorting and degradation of MIG‐14 in snx‐1 and rme‐8 mutants are quite similar to those earlier shown for CI‐M6PR after co‐depletion of Snx1 and Snx2, or single depletion of other retromer components, in mammalian cells (Rojas et al, 2007). Our results are also reminiscent of the aberrant sorting and degradation of the EGF‐R after siRNA‐mediated depletion of RME‐8 in mammalian cells (Girard and McPherson, 2008). In fact, this similarity in phenotype may indicate that a fraction of EGF‐Rs recycle through the retrograde endosome to Golgi pathway.. However, CI‐M6PR steady‐state levels were not reported to be reduced after siRNA‐mediated depletion of RME‐8 (Girard et al, 2005). Rather, CI‐M6PR was reported to aberrantly accumulate in or near the Golgi (Girard et al, 2005). We do not yet understand this apparent ...
Protein present in Fab1, YOTB, Vac1, and EEA1. The FYVE zinc finger is named after four proteins where it was first found: Fab1, YOTB/ZK632.12, Vac1, and EEA1. The FYVE finger has been shown to bind two Zn2+ ions. The FYVE finger has eight potential zinc coordinating cysteine positions. The FYVE finger is structurally related to the PHD finger and the RING finger. Many members of this family also include two histidines in a motif R+HHC+XCG, where + represents a charged residue and X any residue. The FYVE finger functions in the membrane recruitment of cytosolic proteins by binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P), which is prominent on endosomes. The R+HHC+XCG motif is critical for PI3P binding. ...
Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in vesicle formation and cargo selection. They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10066790, PubMed:10436028). AP-4 forms a non clathrin-associated coat on vesicles departing the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and may be involved in the targeting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosomal-lysosomal system. It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization of somatodendritic proteins in neurons. AP-4 is involved in the recognition and binding of tyrosine-based sorting signals found in the cytoplasmic part of cargos, but may also recognize other types of sorting signal (Probable). ...
Alix [ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2)-interacting protein X] is a ubiquitinous adaptor protein first described for its capacity to bind to the calcium-binding protein, ALG-2. Alix regulates neuronal death in ways involving interactions with ALG-2 and with proteins of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport). Even though all Alix interactors characterized to date are involved in endosomal trafficking, the genuine function of the protein in this process remains unclear. We have demonstrated recently that Alix and ALG-2 form in the presence of calcium, a complex with apical caspases and with the endocytosed death receptor TNFR1 (tumour necrosis factor α receptor 1), thus suggesting a molecular coupling between endosomes and the cell death machinery.. ...
Endosomal-lysosomal pH defects are an emerging theme in mechanisms underlying a number of neurodegenerative diseases. To date, results from experiments in vivo and in vitro have revealed the importance of proper vesicular pH balance and optimal acidification in transporting and degrading cargo via the endocytic pathway [48, 49]. For instance, Lee et al. reported that, in presenilin1 (PSEN1)-deleted blastocysts, defective lysosome acidification was observed with a substaintially elevated lysosomal PH of 5.4 and PSEN1 is essential for the transport of mature V0a1 subunites of V-ATP to lysosomes for their acidification and proteolysis [50]. Specifically, dysregulation of acidification and intracellular pH perturbation could influence the activity of enzymes in endomembrane compartments, resulting in impaired clearance of protein aggregates downstream of elevated endomembrane system pH, or conversely, due to decreased cytoplasmic pH. Regarding the latter, asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) is a typical ...
Rab5兔多克隆抗体(ab31261)可与果蝇样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被12篇文献引用并得到6个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Molecular motors generate the force needed for long-distance transport of cargos and organelles in the cell. How motor proteins attach to a diverse array of cargos and navigate to the correct location in the cell with enough fidelity to maintain organelle integrity is only starting to be understood. Studying the properties of individual motors, and their fine-tuning by regulatory molecules, is one area of active investigation in vitro. However, the organization of the cell, and the variability of the environment within a single cell, cannot be fully reconstituted in vitro. We investigated the effects of the crowded intracellular environment on early endosomal trafficking. Live-cell imaging of an endosomal cargo (endocytosed epidermal growth factor-conjugated quantum dots) combined with high-resolution tracking was used to analyze the heterogeneous motion of individual endosomes. The motile population of endosomes moved towards the perinuclear region in directed bursts of microtubule-based, dynein
Distinct effects of endosomal escape and inhibition of endosomal trafficking on gene delivery via electrotransfection.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Location, location, location. Among those who suggest this real estate mantra deserves higher priority in Alzheimer disease drug design are scientists in Germany who have created a membrane-tethered version of a β-secretase inhibitor. In todays issue of Science, the researchers report that this modified inhibitor reaches endosomes, the subcellular compartments containing active β-secretase, and greatly outperforms free inhibitor at blocking the enzymes activity in cultured cells and in fruit fly and mouse models. While these findings represent a proof of principle for the membrane-anchoring approach, the new strategy faces tough hurdles en route to practical drug therapy.. BACE1, the transmembrane protein that confers β-secretase activity, has become a prime AD drug target in large part because it plays a key role in generating Aβ peptide, whose accumulation in plaques represents a hallmark feature of AD. Partnering with a complex of proteins known as γ-secretase, BACE1 catalyzes the ...
The association of the Vps35-Vps29-Vps26 complex to the cytosolic domains of cargo molecules endosomal membranes initiates the activation of retrograde trafficking and cargo capture.[16] The nucleation complex was formed through the interaction of VPS complex with GTP-activated Rab7[17] with clathrin, clathrin-adaptors and various binding proteins.[18]. The SNX-BAR dimer enters the nucleation complex via direct binding or lateral movement on endosomal surface. The increased level of Retromer SNX-BARs causes a conformational switch to a curvature-inducing mode which initiates membrane tubule formation.[19][20] Once the cargo carriers are matured, the carrier scission is then catalyzed by dynamin-II or EHD1,[21] together with the mechanical forces generated by actin polymerization and motor activity.. The cargo carrier is transported to the TGN by motor proteins such as dynein. Tethering of the cargo carrier to the recipient compartment will lead to the uncoating of the carrier which is driven by ...
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All in all, the results of the Gal-3 studies in COS cells paint a largely coherent picture of intracellular transport (Figure 3). The first contact between Gal-3 and the glycoproteins it sorts presumably takes place in a still unidentified post-Golgi compartment. By manipulating the pH, it was possible for the first time to localise YFP-labeled Gal-3 in endosomal compartments which are probably EEs (early endosomes) or REs (recycling endosomes) and which are discussed as the possible location of post-Golgi sorting. The vesicles formed by budding could then be transported via microtubules and then switch to actin microfilaments (Figure 2) in the vicinity of the membrane. After fusion of the vesicles with the membrane, the apical glycoproteins sorted by Gal-3 have reached their destination and are distributed together with Gal-3 in the membrane. However, a different mechanism seems to be responsible for transporting Gal-3 into the inside the cell interior. Whereas Gal-3 is important for the apical ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Noriko Ishii, Kenji Funami, Megumi Tatematsu, Tsukasa Seya, Misako Matsumoto].
EGFR signaling regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. Our work has shown that the range of action of the ligand Spitz is limited by fatty acid modification, which tethers it to the plasma membrane to increase its local concentration (Miura et al., Dev. Cell 2006). Surprisingly, Spitz is synthesized as a transmembrane precursor, but the transmembrane domain inhibits its ability to signal. We resolved this paradox by showing that cleavage of the transmembrane domain is necessary to relocalize Spitz from the apical surface of the cell to the basolateral surface, where the active lipid-modified form is released (Steinhauer et al., J. Cell Sci. 2013). Once bound to Spitz, the EGFR is endocytosed and eventually degraded. However, blocking its progression through the endocytic pathway can curtail signaling, suggesting that it is active on endosomes (Miura et al., Development 2008). Surprisingly, one ESCRT complex component that promotes EGFR signaling does so independently of its ...
This gene encodes a protein involved in endosomal sorting of cell surface receptors via a multivesicular body/late endosome ... Raiborg C, Rusten TE, Stenmark H (2004). "Protein sorting into multivesicular endosomes". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15 (4): 446-55 ... "TSG101/mammalian VPS23 and mammalian VPS28 interact directly and are recruited to VPS4-induced endosomes". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... "TSG101/mammalian VPS23 and mammalian VPS28 interact directly and are recruited to VPS4-induced endosomes". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ...
... had no effect on the transport of endosomes devoid of the rabies virus. (Rabies resides in nerve endosomes). But ... endosomes carrying the virus were either completely immobilized, or were only able to move short distances at slower-than- ...
Seet LF, Liu N, Hanson BJ, Hong W (2004). "Endofin recruits TOM1 to endosomes". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (6): 4670-4679. doi:10.1074/ ... 2005). "Overexpression of Rab22a hampers the transport between endosomes and the Golgi apparatus". Exp. Cell Res. 304 (2): 339- ... 2006). "Rab22a regulates the sorting of transferrin to recycling endosomes". Mol. Cell. Biol. 26 (7): 2595-2614. doi:10.1128/ ...
Seet LF, Liu N, Hanson BJ, Hong W (2004). "Endofin recruits TOM1 to endosomes". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (6): 4670-9. doi:10.1074/jbc ... Seet LF, Hong W (2005). "Endofin recruits clathrin to early endosomes via TOM1". J. Cell Sci. 118 (Pt 3): 575-87. doi:10.1242/ ... Seet, Li-Fong; Liu Ningsheng; Hanson Brendon J; Hong Wanjin (Feb 2004). "Endofin recruits TOM1 to endosomes". J. Biol. Chem. ... "Tollip and Tom1 form a complex and recruit ubiquitin-conjugated proteins onto early endosomes". J Biol Chem. 279 (23): 24435-43 ...
Seet LF, Liu N, Hanson BJ, Hong W (2004). "Endofin recruits TOM1 to endosomes". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (6): 4670-9. doi:10.1074/jbc ...
Seet LF, Liu N, Hanson BJ, Hong W (February 2004). "Endofin recruits TOM1 to endosomes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... Seet LF, Liu N, Hanson BJ, Hong W (February 2004). "Endofin recruits TOM1 to endosomes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
... localizes to early endosomes where it is involved in the recruitment of RAB7A and the maturation of these compartments to ... It drives the maturation of endosomes by transporting vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) from trans-Golgi network to endocytic ... "Entrez Gene: RAB5A RAB5A, member RAS oncogene family". Huotari J, Helenius A (Aug 2011). "Endosome maturation". The EMBO ... is complexed with hVPS45 and recruited to endosomes through a FYVE finger domain". The Journal of Cell Biology. 151 (3): 601-12 ...
... preferentially binds to early endosomes; fluorescent-labelled dextran can be used to visualize these endosomes under a ...
Wells, W. A. (2007). "Ira Mellman: From endosomes to industry". The Journal of Cell Biology. 177 (4): 570-571. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... Ira Mellman is an American cell biologist who discovered endosomes. He serves as Vice President of Research Oncology at ... Cohn at Rockefeller University and started characterizing endosomes. He returned to Yale after completing postdoctoral work and ...
Raiborg C, Bache KG, Mehlum A, Stang E, Stenmark H (2001). "Hrs recruits clathrin to early endosomes". EMBO J. 20 (17): 5008-21 ... "FYVE and coiled-coil domains determine the specific localisation of Hrs to early endosomes". J. Cell Sci. 114 (Pt 12): 2255-63 ... "STAM and Hrs are subunits of a multivalent ubiquitin-binding complex on early endosomes". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (14): 12513-21. ... is localized to the cytoplasmic surface of early endosomes". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (33): 20538-44. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.33.20538. ...
Raiborg, C; Bache K G; Mehlum A; Stang E; Stenmark H (Sep 2001). "Hrs recruits clathrin to early endosomes". EMBO J. 20 (17): ...
... which is known to block the v-type H+-ATPases of endosomes. This reduces the acidity in endosomes. The physiological uptake ... Having an acidic endosome pH leads to topological alterations of TcdB (Figure 6). The gene that encodes the TcdB protein, tcdB ... To see whether effects of proteolytic cleavage of TcdB takes place at the cell surface or in acidic endosomes, studies used ... Acidic endosomes allow toxin B to enter the cytosol. This phenomenon takes place by a binding receptor region, which enables ...
... endosomes, and lysosomes in J774 macrophages. Enrichment of cathepsin H in early endosomes". The Journal of Biological ...
Seemann J, Weber K, Gerke V (August 1997). "Annexin I targets S100C to early endosomes". FEBS Letters. 413 (1): 185-90. doi: ...
... RNAi also disperse endosomes and lysosomes. Drosophila kinetochore components Rough deal (Rod) and Zw10 are required for ...
Park, M. (24 September 2004). "Recycling Endosomes Supply AMPA Receptors for LTP". Science. 305 (5692): 1972-1975. Bibcode: ...
For the movement of the virus in endosomes, Ca2+ is necessary. As NAADP regulates maturation of endosomes by the calcium ... The TPC mechanism once again allows the influx of calcium for the fusion of the endosomes and lysosomes (where LDL is degraded ... Therefore, when TPCs are not functioning, the Ebolavirus cannot escape before the fusion of the endosome with the lysosome. In ... The influx of calcium is what regulates the fusion between the endosome and lysosomes and what mediates trafficking events. ...
Recycling endosomes within the dendritic spine contain pools of AMPA receptors for such synaptic reinsertion. Two distinct ... Park M, Penick EC, Edwards JG, Kauer JA, Ehlers MD (September 2004). "Recycling endosomes supply AMPA receptors for LTP". ... October 2008). "Myosin Vb mobilizes recycling endosomes and AMPA receptors for postsynaptic plasticity". Cell. 135 (3): 535-48 ...
Viral particles are then transported to late endosomes. Gc-mediated membrane fusion with the endosomal membrane, triggered by ...
"Syntaxin 7 is localized to late endosome compartments, associates with Vamp 8, and Is required for late endosome-lysosome ... Nakamura N, Yamamoto A, Wada Y, Futai M (March 2000). "Syntaxin 7 mediates endocytic trafficking to late endosomes". The ... "A SNARE complex mediating fusion of late endosomes defines conserved properties of SNARE structure and function". The EMBO ... "A SNARE complex mediating fusion of late endosomes defines conserved properties of SNARE structure and function". The EMBO ...
... as in early endosomes and recycling endosomes), or sort them to degradation (as in late endosomes and lysosomes). The principal ... Stoorvogel W, Strous GJ, Geuze HJ, Oorschot V, Schwartz AL (May 1991). "Late endosomes derive from early endosomes by ... Late endosomes receive endocytosed material en route to lysosomes, usually from early endosomes in the endocytic pathway, from ... Early endosomes are often located in the periphery of the cell, and receive most types of vesicles coming from the cell surface ...
Mucolipin1 is thought to be localized in endosomes. An important property of mucolipin1 is that decreasing pH (acidification) ...
Puri, C.; Rubinsztein, D. C. (2013). "Diverse autophagosome membrane sources coalesce in recycling endosomes". Cell. 154 (6): ...
... 1 is known to be localized in late endosomes. This subunit also contains a lipase domain between its S1 and S2 segments. ...
"Follicular Dendritic Cells Retain Infectious HIV in Cycling Endosomes". PLOS Pathogens. 11 (12): e1005285. doi:10.1371/journal. ...
... localizes to late endosomes and lysosomes and is involved in the fusion of transport vesicles to their target membranes. ... Advani RJ, Yang B, Prekeris R, Lee KC, Klumperman J, Scheller RH (1999). "VAMP-7 mediates vesicular transport from endosomes to ... "A SNARE complex mediating fusion of late endosomes defines conserved properties of SNARE structure and function". EMBO J. 19 ( ... "Syntaxin 7 and VAMP-7 are soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors required for late endosome- ...
Wu C, Lai CF, Mobley WC (August 2001). "Nerve growth factor activates persistent Rap1 signaling in endosomes". The Journal of ...
... is found at the yeast vacuole and endosomes. The PI3P binding FYVE domain of Pib2 is key for this localization. Pib2 also ... Shin ME, Ogburn KD, Varban OA, Gilbert PM, Burd CG (November 2001). "FYVE domain targets Pib1p ubiquitin ligase to endosome and ...
The internalized receptor is transported to basolateral early endosomes. The following step of transporting the pIgR across the ... cell (through tubulo-vesicular compartments to apical recycling endosome) is dependent on microtubules. When pIgR reaches the ...
"Synaptic membrane proteins form stable microdomains in early endosomes". Microsc. Res. Tech. 73 (6): 606-617. doi:10.1002/jemt. ...
Endosomes, exosomes and Trojan viruses.. Pelchen-Matthews A1, Raposo G, Marsh M. ...
There are three different types of endosomes: early endosomes, late endosomes, and recycling endosomes. They are distinguished ... Early endosomes then mature into late endosomes before fusing with lysosomes. Early endosomes mature in several ways to form ... a process that begins in early endosomes. When the endosome has matured into a late endosome/MVB and fuses with a lysosome, the ... returns from the early endosome to the cell surface, both directly and via recycling endosomes. Transport from late endosomes ...
Cells in which HIF-2α was stabilized failed to form giant endosomes upon transfection with an activated form of Rab5, and in ... which is necessary for Rab5-mediated endosome fusion. Forced expression of rabaptin-5 reduced the half-life of EGFR and ...
Late endosomes derive from early endosomes by maturation.. Stoorvogel W1, Strous GJ, Geuze HJ, Oorschot V, Schwartz AL. ... Late endosomes are the major site for entry of newly synthesized lysosomal hydrolases via the cation-independent mannose 6- ... No consensus exists as to the mechanism of transport from early to late endosomes. We used asialoorosomucoid and transferrin to ... These results together with immunoelectron microscopic data support a model in which early endosomes gradually mature into late ...
... Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2002 Aug;14(4):454-62. doi: 10.1016/s0955-0674(02)00352-6. ... that Phox homology domains recognise phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate explains how sorting nexins are recruited to endosomes, ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for endosome All GO annotations for Grn (62) ...
... a docking protein on the surface of early endosomes. APP seemed to never quite reach the endosome lumen, which is necessary for ... Alzheimers GWAS Hits Point to Endosomes, Synapses. Go to another part. Series - Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting 2015: ... When he silenced Bin1, BACE1 co-localized more with the early endosome marker Rab5 in axons. The secretase exited much more ... They spotted Bin1 and CD2AP in endosomes, and Bin1 in postsynaptic compartments as well. The sightings suggest that both Bin1 ...
Gene Ontology Term: late endosome membrane. GO ID. GO:0031902 Aspect. Cellular Component. Description. The lipid bilayer ... surrounding a late endosome.. View GO Annotations in other species in AmiGO ...
... Gunnar K. Gouras ... Gunnar K. Gouras, "Convergence of Synapses, Endosomes, and Prions in the Biology of Neurodegenerative Diseases," International ...
Within five minutes, most of the receptors had transferred to the ASRT domains of endosomes. But when the team inhibited the ... But recent evidence shows that GPCRs can signal from the cell membrane and from endosomes, suggesting that the move could alter ... But GPCRs that possess these sequences home in on tubular sections of the endosome that carry actin/sorting nexin/retromer ( ... In contrast, other types of receptors that also travel to the endosomes after they bind their ligands, such as nutrient ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Q: Does targeting BACE inhibitors to endosomes make sense from a drug development perspective?. A: This is definitely a very ... Tethering the inhibitor to the membrane not only got it into endosomes to reach its target, they argue, but it also increased ... Noting the acidic interior of endosomes (pH 5) and contrasting it with the cell exterior, whose pH is closer to 7, first author ... These new data clearly support that membrane-anchored inhibitors can be transported to the endosomes, where β cleavage occurs, ...
The small GTP-binding protein rab5 was previously localized on early endosomes and on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma ... rab5 controls early endosome fusion in vitro Cell. 1991 Mar 8;64(5):915-25. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(91)90316-q. ... The small GTP-binding protein rab5 was previously localized on early endosomes and on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma ... These in vitro findings strongly suggest that rab5 is involved in the process of early endosome fusion. ...
Endosomes and Lysosomes: A Dynamic Relationship, 1993, Buch, 978-1-55938-362-2. Bücher schnell und portofrei ... Our understanding of endosomes and lysosomes has undergone a molecular revolution over the last decade. Hence, we now know much ... In fact, endosomes may well not be discrete entities but rather continuously changing and evolving in their molecular ... Because of this vast increase in knowledge of molecules, we have realized that endosomes in particular are very ephemeral ...
Cripto Localizes Nodal at the Limiting Membrane of Early Endosomes. By Marie-Hélène Blanchet, J. Ann Le Good, Viola Oorschot, ... Cripto Localizes Nodal at the Limiting Membrane of Early Endosomes. By Marie-Hélène Blanchet, J. Ann Le Good, Viola Oorschot, ... Cripto Localizes Nodal at the Limiting Membrane of Early Endosomes Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Thus, we propose that Cripto stimulates Nodal activity by localizing it at the interface of endosomes with cytoplasmic ...
Endosomes are specialized platforms for bacterial sensing and NOD2 signalling.. [Norihiro Nakamura, Jennie R Lill, Qui Phung, ... Thus, dendritic cell endosomes are specialized platforms for both the lumenal and cytosolic sensing of pathogens. ... 2), indicating that endosomes also provide for the translocation of bacterial components across the endosomal membrane. Despite ... little is known about how its ligands escape from endosomes. Here we show that two endo-lysosomal peptide transporters, SLC15A3 ...
Some endocytosed material passes through endosomes on its way to lysosomes. Endosomes are in part responsible for the sorting ... In biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside cells, roughly 300-400 nm in diameter when fully mature[1]. Many ... In the acidic endosome, the iron is released from transferrin and then the iron-free transferrin (still bound the transferrin ... Ganley et.al, Rab9 GTPase Regulates Late Endosome Size and Requires Effector Interaction for Its Stability, Molecular Biology ...
Thus, MVEs operate in the endosome-to-lysosome portion of the pathway. In yeast cells, where MVE formation has been extensively ... multivesicular endosome. In part, the internalization and targeting of membrane proteins to the MVE involves ubiquitin, a ... Multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) are complex intracellular organelles that function in endocytosis. A major function of the ... Multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) are complex intracellular organelles that function in endocytosis. A major function of the ...
Endosome-Mediated Signaling in Plants. 07/01/2007. Endosome-Mediated Signaling in Plants. ... Endosomes were once thought to function solely in the inactivation of receptors and the down-regulation of cell signaling. Work ... "These findings will influence our thinking of the evolutionary origins of endosomes and hopefully help us to understand why ... Niko Geldner, Joanne Chory and colleagues (The Salk Institute and HHMI) demonstrate that endosomes can function as signaling ...
Additional EYFP-Endosome Images with the YFP HYQ Filter Combination. HeLa Human Cervical Carcinoma Cellular Endosomes. ... Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein (EYFP) Endosome Localization. In eukaryotic cells, endosomes constitute a large network of ... Canine Kidney Cellular Endosomes. Fluorescence emission intensity from a culture of canine kidney (Madin-Darby; MDCK line) ... an enzyme that is localized in early endosomes, recycling endosomes, and multivesicular bodies. Upon transcription and ...
... provides an easy way to label early endosomes with red fluorescent protein (RFP) in live cells. Simply add the reagent to your ... CellLight® Early Endosomes-RFP, BacMam 2.0, provides an easy way to label early endosomes with red fluorescent protein (RFP) in ... CellLight® Early Endosomes-RFP, BacMam 2.0, is a fusion construct of Rab5a and TagRFP, providing accurate and specific ... You can observe early endosomes-RFP behavior in live cells independently of organelle pH and label with multiple tracking or ...
Home/ Forums/ Cell Signaling/Transduction: Kinases (RTKs)/ Akt signalling in endosomes. Akt signalling in endosomes. 1 post / 0 ... Akt signalling in endosomes Heres a pretty cool breakthrough in Alt signaling published in Cell this week. Makes sense if you ... Indeed, Akt and GSK-3ß, but not TSC2, dynamically associate with Appl1 endosomes upon growth factor stimulation. We propose ...
Endosomes Is the Subject Area "Endosomes" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Correction: Neuron Specific Rab4 Effector GRASP-1 Coordinates Membrane Specialization and Maturation of Recycling Endosomes ...
Signaling endosome-mediated events in cell bodies and dendrites. On reaching cell bodies, Trk-harboring endosomes stimulate ... Signaling endosome-mediated events in cell bodies and dendrites. *Defects in signaling endosomes in neurodevelopmental ... is recruited to Trk endosomes, and prevents the fusion of endosomes with lysosomes. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ... with Trk-containing endosomes transitioning from early to late endosomes. Alternatively, it is possible that several distinct ...
APOE [early endosome] (Homo sapiens) * CR:atREs [early endosome] (Homo sapiens) * CR [early endosome] (Homo sapiens) * APOE [ ... APOE [early endosome] (Homo sapiens) * CR:atREs [early endosome] (Homo sapiens) * CR [early endosome] (Homo sapiens) * APOE [ ... APOE [early endosome] (Homo sapiens) * CR:atREs [early endosome] (Homo sapiens) * CR [early endosome] (Homo sapiens) * APOE [ ... APOE [early endosome] (Homo sapiens) * CR:atREs [early endosome] (Homo sapiens) * CR [early endosome] (Homo sapiens) * APOE [ ...
TLR3 [endosome membrane] (Homo sapiens) * viral dsRNA :TLR3 [endosome membrane] (Homo sapiens) * TLR3 [endosome membrane] (Homo ... SARM:TICAM1:viral dsRNA:TLR3 [endosome membrane] (Homo sapiens) * viral dsRNA:TLR3:TICAM1 [endosome membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... viral dsRNA:TLR3:TRIF:TRAF6 [endosome membrane] (Homo sapiens) * viral dsRNA:TLR3:TICAM1 [endosome membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... viral dsRNA:TLR3:TRIF:TRAF6 [endosome membrane] (Homo sapiens) * viral dsRNA:TLR3:TICAM1 [endosome membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ...
A novel class of clathrin-coated vesicles budding from endosomes. J. Cell Biol. 132:21-33. doi:10.1083/jcb.132.1.21. ... Unconventional secretion of FABP4 by endosomes and secretory lysosomes. View ORCID ProfileJulien Villeneuve, View ORCID Profile ... Unconventional secretion of FABP4 by endosomes and secretory lysosomes. Julien Villeneuve, Laia Bassaganyas, Sebastien Lepreux ... Dynamin-dependent transferrin receptor recycling by endosome-derived clathrin-coated vesicles. Mol. Biol. Cell. 13:169-182. doi ...
Visualization of retrovirus uptake and delivery into acidic endosomes Kosuke Miyauchi; Kosuke Miyauchi ... Recent evidence suggests that HIV also infects permissive cell lines by fusing with endosomes in a pH-independent manner. This ... Kosuke Miyauchi, Mariana Marin, Gregory B. Melikyan; Visualization of retrovirus uptake and delivery into acidic endosomes. ...
... calcium channel required for neurotransmitter release also regulates the fusion of neuronal lysosomes with endosomes and ...
Labeling of endosomes:. Transiently transfected HeLa cells expressing fusion of human RhoB GTPase and c-Myc epitope tag with ... Subcellular localization vectors: labeling of endosomes. CAT.#. PRODUCT. REPORTER. COLOR OF FLUORESCENCE. SIZE. PRICE. ... mKate2 (A) and FusionRed (B). The fusion protein is localized in the endosomes. ...
  • LDL dissociates because of the slightly acidified environment of the early endosome, generated by a vacuolar membrane proton pump V-ATPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some material recycles to the plasma membrane directly from early endosomes, but most traffics via recycling endosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The finding that Phox homology domains recognise phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate explains how sorting nexins are recruited to endosomes, where they mediate the retrieval of membrane proteins from the endocytic pathway. (nih.gov)
  • When GPCRs are activated, they shuttle from the cell membrane to endosomes. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, other types of receptors that also travel to the endosomes after they bind their ligands, such as nutrient receptors, return to the cell membrane even if they lack the distinctive sequences, a mechanism called bulk recycling ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • But recent evidence shows that GPCRs can signal from the cell membrane and from endosomes, suggesting that the move could alter the effects of receptor activation ( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • While these findings represent a "proof of principle" for the membrane-anchoring approach, the new strategy faces tough hurdles en route to practical drug therapy. (alzforum.org)
  • Like other membrane proteins, BACE1 transits constantly from the plasma membrane into endosomes and back. (alzforum.org)
  • Noting the acidic interior of endosomes (pH 5) and contrasting it with the cell exterior, whose pH is closer to 7, first author Lawrence Rajendran reasoned that BACE1 does not adopt its active conformation at the plasma membrane. (alzforum.org)
  • The small GTP-binding protein rab5 was previously localized on early endosomes and on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • However, through residues phenylalanine 78 and glycine 71, Cripto enriched Nodal at the limiting membrane of early endosomes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Internalized pathogens also activate sensors in the cytosol such as NOD1 and NOD2 (ref. 2), indicating that endosomes also provide for the translocation of bacterial components across the endosomal membrane. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In biology , an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside cells, roughly 300-400 nm in diameter when fully mature [1] . (wikidoc.org)
  • Many endocytotic vesicles derived from the plasma membrane are transported to an endosome and fuse with it. (wikidoc.org)
  • MVEs arise by invagination of the limiting membrane of an endosomal vesicle such that many small internal vesicles are formed, hence the term "multivesicular endosome. (curriki.org)
  • CTB-labeled vesicles contained the early endosome marker Rab5 but not lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 and were not labeled with either Texas red-transferrin or Lysotracker, indicating that they represent early endosomes. (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that transport of CT/GM1 complexes from the early endosome to the plasma membrane depends on the function of NPC1, whereas transport to the Golgi apparatus/endoplasmic reticulum does not. (pnas.org)
  • NPC1 resides in intracellular vesicles that contain late endosome markers Rab7 and Rab9 and also a late endosome/lysosome marker lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2). (pnas.org)
  • a form of early endosome responsible for the targeting of its content to various membrane compartments, such as recycling endosomes and multivesicular bodies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Endosomes derived from the plasma membrane can either recycle their cargo back to the cell surface or undergo maturation into late endosomes/multi‐vesicular bodies (MVBs). (embopress.org)
  • Free ferrous iron released from Tf in the endosome enters into cytoplasm via DMT1 on the endosomal membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1) During endocytosis, material outside the cell is progressively enclosed by a portion of the plasma membrane, which then is taken up into the cell to form a bubble-like structure called an endosome , containing the ingested material. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Molecules which return to the plasma membrane, in particular cell surface receptors, are rapidly recycled from the early endosome. (springer.com)
  • These results, taken together, suggest that TOM1 is an important molecule for membrane recruitment of clathrin, and that endofin is able to exploit this recruitment at the endosome. (biologists.org)
  • One major regulating mechanism is via the generation of various species of phosphoinositides (PIs) on the plasma membrane and the endosomes, leading to membrane recruitment of proteins that harbor domain(s) capable of interacting with the various PIs ( Lemmon, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
  • Rab GTPases are implicated in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling, but how such membrane traffic regulators control vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2/KDR) dynamics and function are not well understood. (mdpi.com)
  • TfR and VEGFR2 exhibited differences in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling in the presence of chloroquine. (mdpi.com)
  • Rab-dependent endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling of VEGFR2 is important for intracellular signalling, cell migration and proliferation during angiogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Previously, we reported that the viral envelope fuses preferentially with the membrane of vesicles present within multivesicular endosomes. (ovid.com)
  • Then, these intra-endosomal vesicles (containing nucleocapsids) are transported to late endosomes, where back-fusion with the endosome limiting membrane delivers the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. (ovid.com)
  • Plant signaling endosomes and endosome trafficking Klyachko, N. 2010-03-25 00:00:00 A discovery of a possibility for signal transduction from endosomes differing quantitatively and qualitatively from signaling from the plasma membrane became a reliably proved fact for animal and yeast receptors but was unaddressed by plant researches for a long time. (deepdyve.com)
  • In this lecture, I describe briefly recent progress in this research area and also the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in endosome transport from the plasma membrane to acceptor compartments. (deepdyve.com)
  • MTMR4 overexpression delayed the exit of Tfn from early endosomes and its recycling to the plasma membrane. (garvan.org.au)
  • vps38 seedlings also have dampened root gravitropism, which is underpinned by aberrant vectoral auxin transport likely caused by defects in plasma membrane/endosome cycling of the PIN-FORMED family of auxin transporters necessary for asymmetric cell elongation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Exosomes can be formed by endocytosis of the early endosome membrane, having a unique orientation of the involuted cytoplasmic side (16,17) (Figure 1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Endosomal membrane trafficking requires coordination between phosphoinositide lipids, Rab GTPases, and microtubule-based motors to dynamically determine endosome identity and promote long-range organelle transport. (elifesciences.org)
  • IFITM3 may also redirect IAV to a non-productive pathway by promoting fusion with intralumenal vesicles of late endosomes instead of their limiting membrane. (prolekare.cz)
  • Depletion of this myosin not only affects endosome positioning, but also induces actin and lipid remodeling consistent with endosome maturation, including accumulation of F-actin and the endosomal lipid PI(3)P. These processes acutely perturb endosome function, as both AKT phosphorylation and RAC-dependent membrane ruffling were markedly reduced by depletion of either APPL1 or MYO6. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane is an important step in cell homeostasis. (knaw.nl)
  • This endosome, aggregated anionic polystyrene particles were dispersed and bound on inner membrane, was induced to form a large vesicle-like structure (LVLS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This phenomenon blocked transport of the particles from the endosome to lysosome and therefore restricted endosomal membrane trafficking through the transport vesicles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent studies have revealed that the endosome, which was a membrane pool, participated in membrane trafficking to maintain membrane cellular equilibrium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To perform this function, macrophages must rapidly replenish their cell surface membrane from intracellular membrane pools constructed with recycling endosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fielding and Wilson groups have demonstrated that endosomes are also involved in mediating cellular cytokinesis and have also shown that sufficient membrane and pivotal proteins have to be available to allow the division of a mother cell into two daughter cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multivesicular endosomes are present in virtually every eucaryotic cell, where they arise by intra-endosomal budding of the limiting endosomal membrane. (biologists.com)
  • Some genetic diseases such as Chediak-Higashi syndrome are characterized by enlarged membrane-filled endosomes. (biologists.com)
  • Once endocytic vesicles have uncoated, they fuse with early endosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also increase in size due to the homotypic fusion of early endosomes into larger vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Removal of recycling molecules such as transferrin receptors and mannose 6-phosphate receptors continues during this period, probably via budding of vesicles out of endosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early endosomes consist of a dynamic tubular-vesicular network (vesicles up to 1 µm in diameter with connected tubules of approx. (wikipedia.org)
  • Late endosomes, also known as MVBs, are mainly spherical, lack tubules, and contain many close-packed intraluminal vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Late endosomes/MVBs are sometimes called endocytic carrier vesicles, but this term was used to describe vesicles that bud from early endosomes and fuse with late endosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon after forming, the clathrin coated vesicles release their associated clathrin and become competent to fuse with early endosomes. (wikidoc.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, endosomes constitute a large network of cytoplasmic vesicles that are formed through the fusion of smaller internalized vesicles arising from receptor-mediated endocytosis. (microscopyu.com)
  • and ( iii ) recent studies have shown genetic interactions between TORC1 and different components of the protein-sorting machinery, including those of the class C Vps complex that functions in docking and fusion of vesicles with the Golgi, endosomes, and vacuoles (refs. (pnas.org)
  • Reed et al , 2013 ) (Fig 1 A). The vesicles associated with this "perinuclear cloud" are diverse and include early and late endosomes, lysosomes, and the vesicles of the TGN. (embopress.org)
  • These vesicles include early endosomes, late endosomes/ MVB s, lysosomes, and post‐Golgi secretory vesicles. (embopress.org)
  • Moreover, the maturation of endosomes generated through either fluid‐phase or ligand‐mediated endocytosis and the distribution of post‐Golgi vesicles were all disrupted when RNF26 is silenced. (embopress.org)
  • It constitutively cycles through clathrin vesicles and recycling endosomes in a pathway that is not dependent on cAMP signaling in endothelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The ligand-p75 complex was internalized via clathrin-coated pits into early endosomes and eventually accumulated in recycling endosomes in the cell body and vesicles colabeled by the cholera toxin B-subunit in the growth cones. (jneurosci.org)
  • These receptor-ligand complexes are internalized by clathrin-coated vesicles, which give rise to endosomes. (springer.com)
  • Shortly after endosome formation, the internal pH of these vesicles drops to between pH 5-6. (springer.com)
  • 4,5 Susceptible protein ligands are cleaved in endosomes indicating that these vesicles also serve as a processing compartment. (springer.com)
  • None of the known markers of early endosomes [Early Endosomes Antigen 1 (EEA1), Rab5 and Rab11] colocalized with the CD2AP/CMS-positive vesicles. (rug.nl)
  • After clustering in clathrin-coated pits and being taken up in coated vesicles, CPV colocalized with coendocytosed transferrin in endosomes resembling recycling endosomes. (asm.org)
  • The subcellular distribution of VAMP3, a v-SNARE protein that resides in recycling endosomes and endosome-derived transport vesicles, was also regulated by MTMR4. (garvan.org.au)
  • Subsequently, the vesicles enter multivesicular bodies (MVBs) that sort and release them as late endosomes for transport of the cargo to appropriate compartments where they are deposited by vesicle fusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the data provide no support for the direct involvement of T. brucei metacaspases in programmed cell death and suggest that the proteins have a function associated with RAB11 vesicles that is independent of known recycling processes of RAB11-positive endosomes. (strath.ac.uk)
  • By using both liposome and column based affinity chromatography methods we find that Arl5 interacts with the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex that acts in the tethering of vesicles moving from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). (biologists.org)
  • The deep end of the endosomal compartment is called the late endosome compartment. (wikidoc.org)
  • This chimera is entirely localized to both early and late endosomes and does not display a significant effect on endosomal trafficking. (microscopyu.com)
  • We conclude that Golgi-to-endosome trafficking is an obligate step for the Gln3 route to the nucleus, and we suggest a model in which Tor signaling to nitrogen-regulated transactivators occurs on endosomal membranes. (pnas.org)
  • RESULTS: Immunoblotting showed that endosomal fraction was enriched with Rab5 (96.23+2.38%, n=6) and Rab11 (95.01+3.96%, n=6), markers of early and recycling endosomes respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have recently shown that endofin, a FYVE domain protein associated with the early endosome, is able to recruit cytosolic TOM1 onto endosomal membranes. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we show that the tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101) subunit of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-I complex, which mediates receptor sorting into multivesicular endosomes, is dispensable for viral envelope fusion with endosomal membranes and viral RNA transport to late endosomes but is necessary for infection. (ovid.com)
  • Recycling endosomes ( RE s) are transient endosomal tubular intermediates of early/sorting endosomes (E/ SE s) that function in cargo recycling to the cell surface and deliver the cell type‐specific cargo to lysosome‐related organelles such as melanosomes in melanocytes. (embopress.org)
  • The endosomal network consists of early (EE), sorting (SE), recycling (RE) and late (LE) endosomes [ 1 ]. (embopress.org)
  • During the endosomal journey, acidification triggers a conformational change of the virus spike protein hemagglutinin (HA) that results in escape of the viral genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. (epfl.ch)
  • We predict that activating more than 3 adjacent HAs is necessary to trigger endosomal fusion and this configuration prevents premature release of viruses from early endosomes. (epfl.ch)
  • Renal cortical endosomes were isolated and the endosomal acidification (acridine orange fluorescence change) and TEA uptake (Millipore filtration technique) were assessed. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • In endosomes of Cd-intoxicated rats, the ATP-dependent TEA uptake was markedly attenuated due to inhibition of endosomal acidification as well as $H^+/TEA$ antiport. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Nanoparticles enter cells by different endocytic pathways and are transported into endosomes via endosomal-lysosomal pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here the authors show that kinesin-1 is required for antigen cross-presentation and coordinates endosome scission from early endosomes to allow sorting internalized cargoes towards the recycling endosomal or lysosomal compartments. (nature.com)
  • This gene encodes a protein involved in endosomal sorting of cell surface receptors via a multivesicular body/late endosome pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescence emission intensity from a culture of human cervical adenocarcinoma ( HeLa line) epithelial cells that were transfected with a pEYFP-Endosome plasmid subcellular localization vector. (microscopyu.com)
  • Fluorescence emission intensity from a culture of rat thoracic aorta medial layer ( A-10 line) myoblast cells that were transfected with a pEYFP-Endosome plasmid subcellular localization vector. (microscopyu.com)
  • In HEK293 cells overexpressing DsRed-tagged α1B-ARs and EGFP-tagged Rab proteins, pharmacological protein kinase C activation mimicked α1B-AR traffic elicited by non-related agents, such as sphingosine 1-phosphate, i.e., transient α1B-AR-Rab5 FRET signal followed by a sustained α1B-AR-Rab9 interaction, suggesting brief receptor localization in early endosomes and transfer to late endosomes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Molecules are also transported to endosomes from the trans Golgi network and either continue to lysosomes or recycle back to the Golgi apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that mutations in class C and D Vps components, which mediate Golgi-to-endosome vesicle transport, impair nuclear translocation of Gln3, NCR gene activation, and growth in poor nitrogen sources. (pnas.org)
  • These results reveal a role for Golgi-to-endosome vesicular trafficking in TORC1-controlled nuclear translocation of Gln3 and support a model in which Tor-mediated signaling in response to nutrient cues occurs in these compartments. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, class D vps mutants exhibit similar defects, implicating Golgi-to-endosome trafficking as a critical event for Gln3 regulation. (pnas.org)
  • Schekman, "Amyloid precursor protein (APP) traffics from the cell surface via endosomes for amyloid [beta] (A[beta]) production in the trans-Golgi network," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Association of gamma-secretase with lipid rafts in post-Golgi and endosome membranes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ligands delivered into endosomes undergo a variety of fates including transport back to the cell surface 3 or sorting to different intracellular compartments such as lysosomes and the Golgi. (springer.com)
  • In order to investigate the role of dynamin and clathrin in endosome-to-Golgi transport of Shiga toxin, we have used HeLa dyn(K44A) and BHK antisense clathrin heavy chain (CHC) cells that, in an inducible manner, express mutant dynamin or CHC antisense RNA, respectively. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In these cell lines, one can study the role of dynamin and clathrin on endosome-to-Golgi transport because they, as shown here, still internalize Shiga toxin when dynamin- and clathrin-dependent endocytosis is blocked. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Our results indicate that endosome-to-Golgi transport of Shiga toxin is dependent on functional dynamin in both untreated cells and in cells treated with butyric acid. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Interestingly, the regulation of Shiga toxin transport in untreated and butyric-acid-treated cells differs when it comes to the role of clathrin, because only cells that are sensitized to Shiga toxin with butyric acid need functional clathrin for endosome-to-Golgi transport. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Direct transport from early endosomes to the Golgi apparatus is an essential step that allows the toxins to bypass degradative late endosomes and lysosomes. (mdpi.com)
  • In plant cells, secretory and endocytic routes intersect at the trans-Golgi network ( TGN )/early endosome ( EE ), where cargos are further sorted correctly and in a timely manner. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Stabilin-1 localizes to endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in human macrophages and interacts with GGA adaptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • X‐chromosome‐encoded σ1B is one out of three isogenes (termed A-C) for the tiny σ subunit of AP‐1 (comprising γ1, β1, μ1 and σ1 adaptins) localized to the trans‐Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. (embopress.org)
  • Previous work showed that the multisubunit complex GARP (Golgi-Associated Retrograde Protein), composed of Ang2, Vps52, Vps53 and Vps54 subunits, functions as a tethering factor in retrograde transport from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). (nih.gov)
  • Humans have two closely related Arl5 paralogues (Arl5a and Arl5b), and both Arl5a and Arl5b localize to the trans-Golgi with Arl5b being involved in retrograde traffic from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. (biologists.org)
  • These phenotypes are consistent with a role in endosome-to-Golgi traffic, but are less severe than loss of GARP itself. (biologists.org)
  • Endosomes provide an environment for material to be sorted before it reaches the degradative lysosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intent in initiating this volume was to bring together a series of essays which would define our present understanding of the endosome and lysosome and their interrelationship. (beck-shop.de)
  • Thus, MVEs operate in the endosome-to-lysosome portion of the pathway. (curriki.org)
  • These results provided our current concept of NPC1 as a primarily late endosome-resident protein that transiently associates with the lysosome ( 6 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Rab22A promotes the assembly of a BLOC ‐1‐ BLOC ‐2‐ KIF 13A complex on sorting endosomes to generate the recycling tubular endosomes that are required for the biogenesis of lysosome‐related organelles. (embopress.org)
  • Rab22A‐ BLOC ‐1‐ BLOC ‐2‐ KIF 13A complex modulates recycling endosome dynamics for lysosome‐related organelle biogenesis and cellular homeostasis. (embopress.org)
  • Upon exposure of the vector to cells, the cells incorporate the lipoplex by means of endocytosis, causing the complex to subsequently reside in the early and late endosome, and finally to be degraded in the lysosome. (elifesciences.org)
  • If snapin cannot function properly, then dynein is unable to collect the endosome and transport it to the lysosome for disposal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using a cell-free content mixing assay containing rat liver endosomes and lysosomes in the presence of pig brain cytosol, we demonstrated that after incubation at 37 degrees C, late endosome-lysosome hybrid organelles were formed, which could be isolated by density gradient centrifugation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Syntaxin 7 is localized to late endosome compartments, associates with Vamp 8, and Is required for late endosome-lysosome fusion. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An arrested late endosome-lysosome intermediate aggregate observed in a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant isolated by novel three-step screening. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As expected, BDCA3 + DCs were superior at cross presentation of antigens delivered to late endosomes and lysosomes by uptake of anti-DEC205 antibody conjugated to antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Neutral polymer micelle carriers with pH-responsive, endosome-releasing activity modulate antigen trafficking to enhance CD8(+) T cell responses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Subcutaneous immunization of mice with ovalbumin-polymer conjugates significantly enhanced antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses (0.4% IFN-γ(+) of CD8(+)) compared to immunization with soluble protein, ovalbumin and polymer mixture, and the control micelle without endosome-releasing activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Autoantibodies directed against the 160 kDa endosome protein early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) are seen in patients with neurological diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Autoantibodies to early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) were reported in the sera of the patients with neurological disorders [ 6 , 7 ], but the pathological significance of EEA1 antibodies is not known. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes has been shown to result in the formation of a 'hybrid' compartment, with characteristics intermediate of the two source compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • They spotted Bin1 and CD2AP in endosomes, and Bin1 in postsynaptic compartments as well. (alzforum.org)
  • In today's issue of Science, the researchers report that this modified inhibitor reaches endosomes, the subcellular compartments containing active β-secretase, and greatly outperforms free inhibitor at blocking the enzyme's activity in cultured cells and in fruit fly and mouse models. (alzforum.org)
  • It may take 5-15 minutes for materials to be transported from the cell surface through early endosome compartments and on to the late endosome. (wikidoc.org)
  • These findings will influence our thinking of the evolutionary origins of endosomes and hopefully help us to understand why cells use them as signaling compartments," noted lead author of the paper, Dr. Niko Geldner. (cshlpress.com)
  • Signaling endosomes acutely regulate growth events in axons, and also undergo long-distance transport to somatodendritic compartments to activate transcriptional programs and modulate synapse assembly, reviewed in [ 3 - 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We conclude that amiodarone alters late compartments of the endocytic pathway and inhibits SARS coronavirus infection by acting after the transit of the virus through endosomes. (uzh.ch)
  • Late endosomes are the major site for entry of newly synthesized lysosomal hydrolases via the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor into the degradative pathway. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers show that the growth-promoting brassinosteroid receptor (BRI1) is trafficked through endosomes to enhance activation of this growth response pathway, which affects both shoot and root growth. (cshlpress.com)
  • It is recruited predominantly onto the early endosome and seems to regulate trafficking in the endocytic pathway, although the precise mechanism remains elusive. (biologists.org)
  • We propose that CD2AP/CMS, through interactions with Rab4 and c-Cbl, controls early endosome morphology and may play a role in traffic between early and late endosomes, and thus in the degradative pathway. (rug.nl)
  • Therefore, MTMR4 localizes at the interface of early and recycling endosomes to regulate trafficking through this pathway. (garvan.org.au)
  • Under 25 μg/ml, internalized 30 nm polystyrene beads(30 nm Ps nanoparticles) induced the formation of binucleated macrophages when they entered into endosomes via the endocytic pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In these cells BACE1 trafficking appeared normal but, in dendrites, endocytosed APP co-localized more with EEA1, a docking protein on the surface of early endosomes. (alzforum.org)
  • However, coexpression of Rab4-Q67L with CD2AP/CMS induces a significant enlargement of EEA1-positive early endosomes. (rug.nl)
  • Since early endosomes are key functional components of both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons [ 11 , 12 ], the association of EEA1 autoantibodies with neurological diseases suggests a number of interesting clinical and neurobiology studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bin1 protein is implicated in endosome recycling. (alzforum.org)
  • The secretase exited much more slowly than normal from endosome tubules, where protein sorting occurs (see image below). (alzforum.org)
  • provide a novel explanation for why activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) migrate from the cell surface to the endosomes ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • EYFP ) of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) coupled to human RhoB GTPase, an enzyme that is localized in early endosomes, recycling endosomes, and multivesicular bodies. (microscopyu.com)
  • The human RhoB GTPase enzyme fused to an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein domain can be efficiently incorporated into the endosomes from a variety of mammalian cell lines (as illustrated in Figure 1). (microscopyu.com)
  • CellLight® Early Endosomes-RFP, BacMam 2.0, provides an easy way to label early endosomes with red fluorescent protein (RFP) in live cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Transiently transfected HeLa cells expressing fusion of human RhoB GTPase and c-Myc epitope tag with mKate2 (A) and FusionRed (B). The fusion protein is localized in the endosomes. (evrogen.com)
  • S. Diment and P. Stahl, Macrophage endosomes contain proteases which degrade endocytosed protein ligands, J. Biol Chem . (springer.com)
  • Remarkably, overexpression of endofin led to a massive and specific recruitment of clathrin [but not dynamin, or the adaptor protein (AP) complexes, AP1, AP2 or AP3] onto endofin-positive endosomes. (biologists.org)
  • In this report we show that the minor capsid protein L2 is required for egress of viral genomes from endosomes but not for initial uptake and uncoating and that a 23-amino-acid peptide at the C terminus of L2 is necessary for this function. (asm.org)
  • Knocking down the small GTPase Arl8b, which recruits the motor protein kinesin-1 to late endosomes, abolished the delivery of late endosomes to focal adhesions and caused a similar decrease in adhesion turnover and cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • Protein kinase C activation promotes α1B-adrenoceptor internalization and late endosome trafficking through Rab9 interaction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Data suggest that protein kinase C modulates α1B-adrenergic receptor transfer to late endosomes and that Rab9 regulates this process and participates in G protein-mediated signaling turn-off. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the current study, we found that a previously uncharacterized protein named "Syndetin" assembles with Ang2, Vps52 and Vps53 - but not Vps54 - to form another complex named "EARP" (Endosome-Associated Recycling Protein). (nih.gov)
  • Endosomes represent a major sorting compartment of the endomembrane system in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, CPV was found to enter, via late endosomes, a perinuclear vesicular compartment, where it colocalized with lysosomal markers. (asm.org)
  • Examination of chimeric proteins of endofin and SARA suggests that the C-terminal half of endofin is responsible for interaction with the C-terminal region of TOM1 and for recruitment of TOM1 and clathrin to endosomes. (biologists.org)
  • This work thus not only provides novel insights into the role of clathrin/AP-1 coats in SV recycling from endosomes, but also unravels a molecular mechanism that may contribute to some forms of X-linked mental retardation. (embopress.org)
  • Frequently, these endosome‐like structures contained clathrin‐coated buds of undefined molecular identity, which did not appear to be connected to the plasmalemma ( Figure 1 ). (embopress.org)
  • Like other enveloped viruses, vesicular stomatitis virus infects cells through endosomes. (ovid.com)
  • However, these proteins also restrict Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) that appears to fuse with early endosomes [18] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Phagosomes, macropinosomes and autophagosomes mature in a manner similar to endosomes, and may require fusion with normal endosomes for their maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Late endosomes derive from early endosomes by maturation. (nih.gov)
  • However, before this happens, more late endosomes may fuse with the hybrid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent data both from cell-free experiments and from cultured cells have shown that lysosomes can fuse directly with late endosomes to form a hybrid organelle. (biologists.org)
  • This has a led to a hypothesis that dense core lysosomes are in essence storage granules for acid hydrolases and that, when the former fuse with late endosomes, a hybrid organelle for digestion of endocytosed macromolecules is created. (biologists.org)
  • But to move to the next stage of infection, the virus must fuse with the endosome and spill its DNA into the cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Subsequently, autophagosomes either fuse with late endosomes (LEs), generating a hybrid organelle termed amphisome, or fuse with lysosomes for final degradation. (nih.gov)
  • Dense core lysosomes can fuse with late endosomes and are re-formed from the resultant hybrid organelles. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Endocytosed proteins destined for degradation in lysosomes are targeted mainly to early endosomes following uptake. (nih.gov)
  • We show that FABP4 secretion is also independent of GRASP proteins, autophagy, and multivesicular bodies but involves enclosure within endosomes and secretory lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Evidence of a role for heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins in endosome fusion. (springer.com)
  • The viral capsid proteins are sequentially removed in endosomes. (asm.org)
  • Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) block infection of many enveloped viruses, including the influenza A virus (IAV) that enters from late endosomes. (prolekare.cz)
  • Myosin VI (MYO6) and two of its cargo adaptor proteins, GIPC and TOM1/TOM1L2, localize to these peripheral endosomes and mediate endosome association with cortical actin filaments. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Thus, we propose that Cripto stimulates Nodal activity by localizing it at the interface of endosomes with cytoplasmic effectors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Endosomes are a collection of intracellular sorting organelles in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) are complex intracellular organelles that function in endocytosis. (curriki.org)
  • The fluorescence intensity (QDs) of cells gradually decreased and was highly concentrated in endosomes , suggesting intracellular degradation of QDs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The eukaryotic endocytic system consists of pleiotropic intracellular organelles including endosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2 Many internalized receptor-ligand complexes dissociate upon endosome acidification, with the released receptors recycling back to the cell surface. (springer.com)
  • Both acidification of endosomes and intact microtubules have been demonstrated to be essential for efficient papillomavirus infection ( 11 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • Because of this vast increase in knowledge of molecules, we have realized that endosomes in particular are very ephemeral organelles. (beck-shop.de)
  • This Review will attempt to collate key characteristics of the different types of endosomes and provide a platform for discussion of this unique and fascinating collection of organelles. (biologists.org)
  • noticed that, instead of accumulating in the center of cells like other late endosomes, MP1-positive organelles moved along microtubules toward peripheral focal adhesions attaching the cell to its underlying substrate. (rupress.org)
  • In this study we take advantage of recently developed methods using J774 macrophages to prepare enriched fractions of early endosomes, late endosomes, dense lysosomes, as well as phagosomes of different ages enclosing 1-micron latex beads to investigate the steady state distribution and trafficking of lysosomal enzyme activity between these organelles. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the acidic endosome, the iron is released from transferrin and then the iron-free transferrin (still bound the transferrin receptor) returns from the early endosome to the cell surface. (wikidoc.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] regulates endocytic trafficking and the sorting of receptors through early endosomes, including the rapid recycling of transferrin (Tfn). (garvan.org.au)
  • TfR binds diferric transferrin, and the receptor-transferren complex is internalized into an endosome , where the iron is transferred to the cytosol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The small GTPase Rab4 is involved in endocytosis through sorting and recycling early endosomes. (rug.nl)
  • Early endosomes then mature into late endosomes before fusing with lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results together with immunoelectron microscopic data support a model in which early endosomes gradually mature into late endosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Cells in which HIF-2α was stabilized failed to form giant endosomes upon transfection with an activated form of Rab5, and in cells exposed to fluorescently labeled EGF the internalized ligand persisted in cells lacking in VHL. (sciencemag.org)
  • These findings suggest another explanation for why cells direct activated GPCRs to the ASRT-containing tubules of endosomes. (rupress.org)
  • To determine whether the sterol-linked inhibitor was in fact reaching endosomes, the scientists made fluorescent derivatives of both the sterol-linked and the free inhibitor and visualized treated cells under the microscope. (alzforum.org)
  • Finally, we provide evidence that FIP3 can form homo-oligomers in cells, and that a critical determinant of Rab11 binding in vitro is necessary for FIP3 recruitment to recycling endosomes during cytokinesis. (uniprot.org)
  • You can observe early endosomes-RFP behavior in live cells independently of organelle pH and label with multiple tracking or tracing dyes to image dynamic cellular processes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Divergent Effects of MYO5B Mutations on Apical Brush Border and Apical Recycling Endosome Organization in Kidney and Intestinal Epithelial Cells of Microvillus Inclusion Disease Patients Presenting with Transient Renal Fanconi Syndrome. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inside the cells, the internalized complex in the endosome is acidified by a vacuolar [H. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In primary endothelial cells, VEGFR2 displays co-localisation with Rab4a, but not Rab11a GTPase, on early endosomes. (mdpi.com)
  • In elongated cells of Ustilago maydis, dynein is thought to move early endosomes (EEs) toward the septum (retrograde), whereas kinesin-3 transports them to the growing cell tip (anterograde). (wur.nl)
  • In cells with MTMR4 knockdown, or following expression of the catalytically inactive MTMR4, MTMR4(C407A), the number of PtdIns(3)P-decorated endosomes significantly increased. (garvan.org.au)
  • In the study, using the cells from individuals with Down syndrome that are genetically predisposed to developing Alzheimer's disease, we showed that elevated levels of BCTF, independent of AB, cause a specific pattern of endosome defects with similar pathology of brain cells in Alzheimer's disease," said Ying Jiang, lead author and clinical instructor in the Department of Psychiatry at NYU Langone Medical Center. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Also, contrary to a current view that excess cholesterol in late endosomes of IFITM3-expressing cells inhibits IAV entry, we show that cholesterol-laden endosomes are permissive for virus fusion. (prolekare.cz)
  • Instead, nerve terminals from σ1B‐KO mice accumulated enlarged vacuoles, reminiscent of endosomes in non‐neuronal cells. (embopress.org)
  • These new probes support the acquisition of super-resolution videos of organelle dynamics in primary cells for more than 7 min with no detectable change in endosome structure or function. (cdc.gov)
  • SiR, we describe direct evidence of endosome motility defects in cells from patients with Niemann-Pick Type-C disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Endosomes can be classified as early, sorting, or late depending on their stage post internalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteolysis in late endosomes produces infectious subviral particles, which penetrate through the lysosomal membranes and enter the cytoplasm as core particles to initiate RNA synthesis ( 8 , 21 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Our data indicate that Tsg101, in contrast to the ESCRT-0 component Hrs, plays a direct role in nucleocapsid release from within multivesicular endosomes to the cytoplasm, presumably by controlling the back-fusion process. (ovid.com)
  • Upon reaching early endosomes, the LDL dissociates from the receptor, and the receptor can be recycled to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteases were initially identified in endosomes through studies of receptor-ligand transport. (springer.com)
  • We have demonstrated recently that Alix and ALG-2 form in the presence of calcium, a complex with apical caspases and with the endocytosed death receptor TNFR1 (tumour necrosis factor α receptor 1), thus suggesting a molecular coupling between endosomes and the cell death machinery. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • There are three different types of endosomes: early endosomes, late endosomes, and recycling endosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated HIF-2α, either due to exposure to low oxygen conditions or loss of VHL function, correlated with reduced abundance of rabaptin-5, which is necessary for Rab5-mediated endosome fusion. (sciencemag.org)
  • When he silenced Bin1, BACE1 co-localized more with the early endosome marker Rab5 in axons. (alzforum.org)
  • In wild-type neurons (left), BACE1 (green) exits Rab5-labelled endosomes (purple) within about 30 seconds. (alzforum.org)
  • These in vitro findings strongly suggest that rab5 is involved in the process of early endosome fusion. (nih.gov)
  • APPL1- and RAB5-positive signaling endosomes play a crucial role in the activation of AKT in response to extracellular stimuli. (cam.ac.uk)
  • During their time in the endosomes, these receptors localize to tubules that lack ASRT domains. (rupress.org)
  • Within five minutes, most of the receptors had transferred to the ASRT domains of endosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Endosomes were once thought to function solely in the inactivation of receptors and the down-regulation of cell signaling. (cshlpress.com)
  • Currently, numerous lines of evidence support a model in which neurotrophin-bound Trk receptors are also internalized into "signaling endosomes" that include activated components of these downstream effector pathways [ 3 - 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These data suggest that signaling endosomes containing activated p75 are involved in neurotrophin signaling, and that such endosomes may be temporally and spatially distinct from those containing trk receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Another unique identifying feature that differs between the various classes of endosomes is the lipid composition in their membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • APP seemed to never quite reach the endosome lumen, which is necessary for its degradation (see image below). (alzforum.org)
  • In contrast, molecules destined for degradation are transported to the perinuclear late endosomes, and eventually to the lysosomes. (springer.com)
  • this leads to the multivesicular appearance of late endosomes and so they are also known as multivesicular endosomes or multivesicular bodies (MVBs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, in our immunolabeling and confocal analysis performed in cultured astrocytes we found that small VAMP3-, VGLUT1-, and glutamate-positive SLMVs, large phogrin-positive DCGs, and lysosomes positive for markers of multivesicular bodies and late endosomes or early and recycling endosomes exist in the same astrocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thus, dendritic cell endosomes are specialized platforms for both the lumenal and cytosolic sensing of pathogens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Plasticity-induced growth of dendritic spines by exocytic trafficking from recycling endosomes ," Neuron, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Despite the fact that NOD2 is well understood to have a key role in regulating innate immune responses and that mutations at the NOD2 locus are a common risk factor in inflammatory bowel disease and possibly other chronic inflammatory states, little is known about how its ligands escape from endosomes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recycling endosomes are concentrated at the microtubule organizing center and consist of a mainly tubular network. (wikipedia.org)
  • p14 and MP1 are two components of an adaptor complex that regulates MAP kinase and mTORC signaling on late endosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Phosphatidyl inositol phosphates (PIPs), one of the most important lipid signaling molecules, is found to differ as the endosomes mature from early to late. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a paper that will be published online in advance of its July 1st publication date, Drs. Niko Geldner, Joanne Chory and colleagues (The Salk Institute and HHMI) demonstrate that endosomes can function as signaling platforms in plants, as well as in animals. (cshlpress.com)
  • Drs. Geldner, Chory and collaborators now extend the range of endosome-mediated signaling into the plant kingdom. (cshlpress.com)
  • In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying this endosome-mediated signaling, focusing on the instructive role of neurotrophin signaling itself in directing its own trafficking. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this review, we discuss the regulatory role of neurotrophin-mediated signaling itself in directing the formation and retrograde transport of neurotrophin-harboring signaling endosomes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Addgene: Wnt signaling requires sequestration of glycogen synthase kinase 3 inside multivesicular endosomes. (addgene.org)
  • The latter possibility has been elaborated as the "signaling endosome" hypothesis ( Di Fiore and De Camilli, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • providing a possible mechanism for trafficking of trk-signaling endosomes. (jneurosci.org)
  • In support for this, we identified a role for SLC15A4, an oligopeptide transporter expressed in early endosomes, in Nod1-dependent NF-kappaB signaling. (uzh.ch)
  • Finally, the endosomes lose RAB5A and acquire RAB7A, making them competent for fusion with lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simian virus 40 ( SV40 ) polyadenylation signals inserted downstream from the EYFP-Endosome fusion sequence direct proper processing of the 3' end of the transcribed messenger RNA. (microscopyu.com)
  • CellLight® Early Endosomes-RFP, BacMam 2.0, is a fusion construct of Rab5a and TagRFP, providing accurate and specific targeting to cellular Early Endosomes-RFP. (thermofisher.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that late endosome (LE)-loaded dynein-snapin complexes drive AV retrograde transport in axons upon fusion of autophagosomes with LEs into amphisomes. (nih.gov)
  • Loss of MYO6 leads to the displacement of these endosomes from the cell cortex and accumulation in the perinuclear space. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The metacaspases were found to colocalise with RAB11, a marker for recycling endosomes. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Endosomes are a heterogeneous population of endocytic vacuoles through which molecules internalized during pinocytosis pass en route to lysosomes. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition of $H^+/TEA$ antiport was also observed in normal endosomes directly exposed to free Cd (but not Cd-metallothionein complex, CdMt) in vitro. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Structural basis for Rab11-mediated recruitment of FIP3 to recycling endosomes. (uniprot.org)
  • At this step of mitosis, recycling endosomes are organized as clusters located at the mitotic spindle poles as well as at both sides of the midbody. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Here, we identify the myotubularin family member MTMR4, which localizes to early endosomes and also to Rab11- and Sec15-positive recycling endosomes. (garvan.org.au)
  • Recycling endosomes are transient tubular intermediates that maintain cellular/organelle homeostasis. (embopress.org)
  • EARP) at Rab4-positive recycling endosomes. (nih.gov)
  • No consensus exists as to the mechanism of transport from early to late endosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Endosomes are in part responsible for the sorting of endocytosed material before transport to lysosomes. (wikidoc.org)
  • Indeed, Akt and GSK-3ß, but not TSC2, dynamically associate with Appl1 endosomes upon growth factor stimulation. (scientistsolutions.com)