Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Endosomes containing intraluminal vesicles which are formed by the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) may fuse with other organelles such as LYSOSOMES or fuse back with the PLASMA MEMBRANE releasing their contents by EXOCYTOSIS. The MVB intraluminal vesicles released into the extracellular environment are known as EXOSOMES.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large family of phosphatidylinositol phosphate-binding proteins that are involved in mediating intracellular transport and sorting of proteins via a variety of endocytic pathways.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.
Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.

Function of WW domains as phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding modules. (1/1211)

Protein-interacting modules help determine the specificity of signal transduction events, and protein phosphorylation can modulate the assembly of such modules into specific signaling complexes. Although phosphotyrosine-binding modules have been well-characterized, phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding modules have not been described. WW domains are small protein modules found in various proteins that participate in cell signaling or regulation. WW domains of the essential mitotic prolyl isomerase Pin1 and the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 bound to phosphoproteins, including physiological substrates of enzymes, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The Pin1 WW domain functioned as a phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding module, with properties similar to those of SRC homology 2 domains. Phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding activity was required for Pin1 to interact with its substrates in vitro and to perform its essential function in vivo.  (+info)

Identification of determinants in E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes required for hect E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase interaction. (2/1211)

Members of the hect domain protein family are characterized by sequence similarity of their C-terminal regions to the C terminus of E6-AP, an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. An essential intermediate step in E6-AP-dependent ubiquitination is the formation of a thioester complex between E6-AP and ubiquitin in the presence of distinct E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes including human UbcH5, a member of the UBC4/UBC5 subfamily of E2s. Similarly, several hect domain proteins, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae RSP5, form ubiquitin thioester complexes, indicating that hect domain proteins in general have E3 activity. We show here, by the use of chimeric E2s generated between UbcH5 and other E2s, that a region of UbcH5 encompassing the catalytic site cysteine residue is critical for its ability to interact with E6-AP and RSP5. Of particular importance is a phenylalanine residue at position 62 of UbcH5 that is conserved among the members of the UBC4/UBC5 subfamily but is not present in any of the other known E2s, whereas the N-terminal 60 amino acids do not contribute significantly to the specificity of these interactions. The conservation of this phenylalanine residue throughout evolution underlines the importance of the ability to interact with hect domain proteins for the cellular function of UBC4/UBC5 subfamily members.  (+info)

Interaction of the Doa4 deubiquitinating enzyme with the yeast 26S proteasome. (3/1211)

e Saccharomyces cerevisiae Doa4 deubiquitinating enzyme is required for the rapid degradation of protein substrates of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Previous work suggested that Doa4 functions late in the pathway, possibly by deubiquitinating (poly)-ubiquitin-substrate intermediates associated with the 26S proteasome. We now provide evidence for physical and functional interaction between Doa4 and the proteasome. Genetic interaction is indicated by the mutual enhancement of defects associated with a deletion of DOA4 or a proteasome mutation when the two mutations are combined. Physical association of Doa4 and the proteasome was investigated with a new yeast 26S proteasome purification procedure, by which we find that a sizeable fraction of Doa4 copurifies with the protease. Another yeast deubiquitinating enzyme, Ubp5, which is related in sequence to Doa4 but cannot substitute for it even when overproduced, does not associate with the proteasome. DOA4-UBP5 chimeras were made by a novel PCR/yeast recombination method and used to identify an N-terminal 310-residue domain of Doa4 that, when appended to the catalytic domain of Ubp5, conferred Doa4 function, consistent with Ubp enzymes having a modular architecture. Unlike Ubp5, a functional Doa4-Ubp5 chimera associates with the proteasome, suggesting that proteasome binding is important for Doa4 function. Together, these data support a model in which Doa4 promotes proteolysis through removal of ubiquitin from proteolytic intermediates on the proteasome before or after initiation of substrate breakdown.  (+info)

Defective regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel by Nedd4 in Liddle's syndrome. (4/1211)

Liddle's syndrome is an inherited form of hypertension linked to mutations in the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). ENaC is composed of three subunits (alpha, beta, gamma), each containing a COOH-terminal PY motif (xPPxY). Mutations causing Liddle's syndrome alter or delete the PY motifs of beta- or gamma-ENaC. We recently demonstrated that the ubiquitin-protein ligase Nedd4 binds these PY motifs and that ENaC is regulated by ubiquitination. Here, we investigate, using the Xenopus oocyte system, whether Nedd4 affects ENaC function. Overexpression of wild-type Nedd4, together with ENaC, inhibited channel activity, whereas a catalytically inactive Nedd4 stimulated it, likely by acting as a competitive antagonist to endogenous Nedd4. These effects were dependant on the PY motifs, because no Nedd4-mediated changes in channel activity were observed in ENaC lacking them. The effect of Nedd4 on ENaC missing only one PY motif (of beta-ENaC), as originally described in patients with Liddle's syndrome, was intermediate. Changes were due entirely to alterations in ENaC numbers at the plasma membrane, as determined by surface binding and immunofluorescence. Our results demonstrate that Nedd4 is a negative regulator of ENaC and suggest that the loss of Nedd4 binding sites in ENaC observed in Liddle's syndrome may explain the increase in channel number at the cell surface, increased Na+ reabsorption by the distal nephron, and hence the hypertension.  (+info)

Oxidative stress-induced destruction of the yeast C-type cyclin Ume3p requires phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and the 26S proteasome. (5/1211)

The yeast UME3 (SRB11/SSN3) gene encodes a C-type cyclin that represses the transcription of the HSP70 family member SSA1. To relieve this repression, Ume3p is rapidly destroyed in cells exposed to elevated temperatures. This report demonstrates that Ume3p levels are also reduced in cultures subjected to ethanol shock, oxidative stress, or carbon starvation or during growth on nonfermentable carbons. Of the three elements (RXXL, PEST, and cyclin box) previously shown to be required for heat-induced Ume3p destruction, only the cyclin box regulates Ume3p degradation in response to these stressors. The one exception observed was growth on nonfermentable carbons, which requires the PEST region. These findings indicate that yeast cells contain multiple, independent pathways that mediate stress-induced Ume3p degradation. Ume3p destruction in response to oxidative stress, but not to ethanol treatment, requires DOA4 and UMP1, two factors required for 26S proteasome activity. This result for the first time implicates ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in C-type cyclin regulation. Similarly, the presence of a membrane stabilizer (sorbitol) or the loss of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC1) protects Ume3p from oxidative-stress-induced degradation. Finally, a ume3 null allele suppresses the growth defect of plc1 mutants in response to either elevated temperature or the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that the growth defects observed in plc1 mutants are due to the failure to downregulate Ume3p. Taken together, these findings support a model in which Plc1p mediates an oxidative-stress signal from the plasma membrane that triggers Ume3p destruction through a Doa4p-dependent mechanism.  (+info)

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibits epithelial Na+ channels carrying Liddle's syndrome mutations. (6/1211)

Epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) are inhibited by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) upon activation by protein kinase A. It is, however, still unclear how CFTR regulates the activity of ENaC. In the present study we examined whether CFTR interacts with ENaC by interfering with the Nedd4- and ubiquitin-mediated endocytosis of ENaC. Various C-terminal mutations were introduced into the three alpha-, beta-, and gamma-subunits of the rat epithelial Na+ channel, thereby eliminating PY motifs, which are important binding domains for the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, most of the ENaC stop (alpha-H647X, beta-P565X, gamma-S608X) or point (alpha-P671A, beta-Y618A, gamma-P(624-626)A) mutations induced enhanced Na+ currents when compared with wild type alpha,beta,gamma-rENaC. However, ENaC currents formed by either of the mutant alpha-, beta-, or gamma-subunits were inhibited during activation of CFTR by forskolin (10 micromol/l) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1 mmol/l). Antibodies to dynamin or ubiquitin enhanced alpha,beta,gamma-rENaC whole cell Na+ conductance but did not interfere with inhibition of ENaC by CFTR. Another mutant, beta-T592M,T593A-ENaC, also showed enhanced Na+ currents, which were down-regulated by CFTR. Moreover, activation of ENaC by extracellular proteases and xCAP1 does not disturb CFTR-dependent inhibition of ENaC. We conclude that regulation of ENaC by CFTR is distal to other regulatory limbs and does not involve Nedd4-dependent ubiquitination.  (+info)

Expression of a new isoform of the tumor susceptibility TSG101 protein lacking a leucine zipper domain in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. (7/1211)

The tumor susceptibility gene, TSG101, has been identified as a candidate tumor suppressor gene. We have examined the expression of TSG101 in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. Several aberrant messages were detected in all cell lines. Aberrant splice donor sites are located within exon 1 at positions 132, 154, 172 and 284. Splice acceptors are located at positions 847 and 1054 within exon 5. The aberrant messages are coexpressed with a normal message and could be the result of additional splicing reactions of the mature message that behaves as an intermediate. The normal message codes for 46 kDa protein (TSG101A). One aberrant message joins in frame nucleotides 283-1055 and codes for a protein isoform of 17 kDa (TSG101B), as demonstrated by in vitro translation assays. The TSG101B isoform lacks the leucine zipper near the C-terminus, a transcriptional repressor domain, and retains most of the N-terminal region which has homology to E2 ubiquitin regulatory enzymes and the CROC-1 transcriptional regulator. The TSG101B isoform was detected in sixteen out of twenty-two (72%) BL cell lines, but not in normal lymphoid populations. The presence of two TSG101 isoforms with different dimerization potential opens up a new level of regulation of the TSG101 proteins possibly affecting cell cycle regulation.  (+info)

Hrs, a FYVE finger protein localized to early endosomes, is implicated in vesicular traffic and required for ventral folding morphogenesis. (8/1211)

Hrs is an early endosomal protein homologous to Vps27p, a yeast protein required for vesicular trafficking. Hrs has a FYVE double zinc finger domain, which specifically binds phosphatidylinositol(3)-phosphate and is conserved in several proteins involved in vesicular traffic. To understand the physiological role of Hrs, we generated mice carrying a null mutation of the gene. Hrs homozygous mutant embryos developed with their ventral region outside of the yolk sac, had two independent bilateral heart tubes (cardia bifida), lacked a foregut, and died around embryonic day 11 (E11). These phenotypes arise from a defect in ventral folding morphogenesis that occurs normally around E8.0. Significant apoptosis was detected in the ventral region of mutant embryos within the definitive endoderm, suggesting an important role of this germ layer in ventral folding morphogenesis. Abnormally enlarged early endosomes were detected in the mutants in several tissues including definitive endoderm, suggesting that a deficiency in vesicular transport via early endosomes underlies the mutant phenotype. The vesicular localization of Hrs was disrupted in cells treated with wortmannin, implicating Hrs in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway of membrane trafficking.  (+info)

Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is a prominent substrate for activated tyrosine kinase receptors that has been proposed to play a role in endosomal membrane trafficking. The protein contains a FYVE domain, which specifically binds to the lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-phosphate (PI 3-P). We show that this interaction is required both for correct localization of the protein to endosomes that only partially coincides with early endosomal autoantigen 1 and for efficient tyrosine phosphorylation of the protein in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation. Treatment with wortmannin reveals that Hrs phosphorylation also requires PI 3-kinase activity, which is necessary to generate the PI 3-P required for localization. We have used both hypertonic media and expression of a dominant-negative form of dynamin (K44A) to inhibit endocytosis; under which conditions, receptor stimulation fails to elicit phosphorylation of Hrs. Our results provide a clear example of the
Immune responses are initiated when molecules of microbial origin are sensed by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We now report the identification of essential molecular components for the trafficking of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor complex. LPS was endocytosed by a receptor-mediated mechanism dependent on dynamin and clathrin and colocalized with TLR4 on early/sorting endosomes. TLR4 was ubiquitinated and associated with the ubiquitin-binding endosomal sorting protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, Hrs. Inhibition of endocytosis and endosomal sorting increased LPS signaling. Finally, the LPS receptor complex was sorted to late endosomes/lysosomes for degradation and loading of associated antigens onto HLA class II molecules for presentation to CD4+ T cells. Our results show that endosomal trafficking of the LPS receptor complex is essential for signal termination and LPS-associated antigen presentation, thus controlling both innate and adaptive immunity through
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Endosomal internalisation and subsequent lysosomal degradation of membrane proteins is important for regulation of multiple cellular processes, among these the termination of receptor signalling and degradation of misfolded membrane proteins. ESCRT (Endosomal sorting complex required for transport) proteins are vital for the sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies for subsequent degradation in the lysosome. In this study we generated two stable cell lines expressing the EGFP tagged ESCRT proteins Hrs and hVps22. Our goal was to utilise these cell lines for investigations into ESCRT protein dynamics, the relative order of ESCRT protein recruitment to the endosomes, and the endosomal localisation of ESCRT proteins. However, though the EGFP-Hrs cell line seemed to express a functional Hrs protein, the EGFP-hVps22 protein was completely cytosolic and could not be visualised on endosomes. hVps4, and its mouse homologue Skd1 is an AAA-type ATPase shown to be necessary for ...
Probable peripherally associated component of the endosomal sorting required for transport complex III (ESCRT-III) which is involved in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) formation and sorting of endosomal cargo proteins into MVBs. MVBs contain intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that are generated by invagination and scission from the limiting membrane of the endosome and mostly are delivered to lysosomes enabling degradation of membrane proteins, such as stimulated growth factor receptors, lysosomal enzymes and lipids. The MVB pathway appears to require the sequential function of ESCRT-O, -I,-II and -III complexes. ESCRT-III proteins mostly dissociate from the invaginating membrane before the ILV is released. The ESCRT machinery also functions in topologically equivalent membrane fission events, such as the terminal stages of cytokinesis and the budding of enveloped viruses (HIV-1 and other lentiviruses). ESCRT-III proteins are believed to mediate the necessary vesicle extrusion and/or membrane fission activities,
Probable core component of the endosomal sorting required for transport complex III (ESCRT-III) which is involved in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) formation and sorting of endosomal cargo proteins into MVBs. MVBs contain intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that are generated by invagination and scission from the limiting membrane of the endosome and mostly are delivered to lysosomes enabling degradation of membrane proteins, such as stimulated growth factor receptors, lysosomal enzymes and lipids. The MVB pathway appears to require the sequential function of ESCRT-O, -I,-II and -III complexes. ESCRT-III proteins mostly dissociate from the invaginating membrane before the ILV is released (PubMed:12860994, PubMed:18209100). The ESCRT machinery also functions in topologically equivalent membrane fission events, such as the terminal stages of cytokinesis (PubMed:21310966). Together with SPAST, the ESCRT-III complex promotes nuclear envelope sealing and mitotic spindle disassembly during late anaphase (PubMed
Probable core component of the endosomal sorting required for transport complex III (ESCRT-III) which is involved in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) formation and sorting of endosomal cargo proteins into MVBs. MVBs contain intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that are generated by invagination and scission from the limiting membrane of the endosome and mostly are delivered to lysosomes enabling degradation of membrane proteins, such as stimulated growth factor receptors, lysosomal enzymes and lipids. The MVB pathway appears to require the sequential function of ESCRT-O, -I,-II and -III complexes. ESCRT-III proteins mostly dissociate from the invaginating membrane before the ILV is released. The ESCRT machinery also functions in topologically equivalent membrane fission events, such as the terminal stages of cytokinesis and the budding of enveloped viruses (HIV-1 and other lentiviruses). Key component of the cytokinesis checkpoint, a process required to delay abscission to prevent both premature resolution ...
The Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) K3 viral gene product effectively down-regulates cell surface MHC Class I. K3 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes K63-linked polyubiquitination of MHC Class I, providing the signal for clathrin mediated endocytosis. Endocytosis is followed by sorting into the intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and eventual delivery to lysosomes. The sorting of MHC Class I into MVBs requires many individual proteins of the four endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). In HeLa cells expressing the KSHV K3 ubiquitin ligase, the effect of RNA interference-mediated depletion of individual proteins of the ESCRT-0 and ESCRT-I complexes and three ESCRT-III proteins showed that these are required to down-regulate MHC Class I. However, depletion of proteins of the ESCRT-II complex or of the ESCRT-III protein, VPS20/CHMP6, failed to prevent the loss of MHC Class I from the cell surface. Depletion of His domain ...
Product Pig Charged multivesicular body protein 2b(CHMP2B) ELISA kit From B-Gene - A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Charged multivesicular body protein 2b(CHMP2B) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species. Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUTION*1 vial 12. WASH SOLUTION (100 x)*1 vial 13. BALANCE SOLUTION*1 vial 14. INSTRUCTION*1
Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
We report two patients with ALS-spectrum disorders and mutations in CHMP2B. Both have a possible family history. Both cases were negative for other known ALS mutations. Both were screened for SOD1 and angiogenin, Patient 1 was screened for VAPB, and Patient 2 for SOD2, SOD3, VEGF-A1, and dynactin. They were phenotypically dissimilar: Patient 1 showed PMA during life (El Escorial category suspected ALS) confirmed by conventional neuropathologic methods. Patient 2 showed features of ALS-dementia presenting with frontal lobe features before developing ALS (El Escorial category ALS + syndrome). Q206H is highly conserved from humans to Drosophila, whereas I29V is positioned within two conserved regions, the snf-7 and coiled coil domains (figure E-2). In silico prediction of structure with the I29V mutation suggests that stability would be significantly reduced in the mutant protein. The Q206H change likely represents a pathogenic mutation because it was not found in this study in 450 controls or in ...
Charged multivesicular body protein 4b is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHMP4B gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000101421 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000038467 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Katoh K, Shibata H, Hatta K, Maki M (Dec 2003). CHMP4b is a major binding partner of the ALG-2-interacting protein Alix among the three CHMP4 isoforms. Arch Biochem Biophys. 421 (1): 159-65. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2003.09.038. PMID 14678797. Entrez Gene: CHMP4B chromatin modifying protein 4B. Human CHMP4A genome location and CHMP4A gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Human CHMP4B genome location and CHMP4B gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Deloukas P, Matthews LH, Ashurst J, et al. (2002). The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20. Nature. 414 (6866): 865-71. doi:10.1038/414865a. PMID 11780052. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). Generation and initial ...
Background: Cardiac autophagic flux is impaired during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R). Impaired autophagic flux may exacerbate MI/R injury. Charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) is a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT-III) complex that is required for autophagy. However, the reverse role of CHMP2B accumulation in autophagy and MI/R injury has not been established. The objective of this article is to elucidate the roles of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/atrogin-1 pathways in inhibiting CHMP2B accumulation in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice (3-4 months) and H9c2 cardiomyocytes were used to evaluate MI/R and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury in vivo and in vitro, respectively. MI/R was built by a left lateral thoracotomy and occluded the left anterior descending artery. H9c2 cells were firstly treated in 95% N2 and 5% CO2 for 15 h and reoxygenation for 1 h. Metformin (100 mg/kg/d) and CHMP2B (Ad-CHMP2B) transfected ...
p,The ESCRT-III complex induces outward membrane budding and fission through homotypic polymerization of its core component Shrub/CHMP4B. Shrub activity is regulated by its direct interaction with a protein called Lgd in flies, or CC2D1A or B in humans. Here, we report the structural basis for this interaction and propose a mechanism for regulation of polymer assembly. The isolated third DM14 repeat of Lgd binds Shrub, and an Lgd fragment containing only this DM14 repeat and its C-terminal C2 domain is sufficient for in vivo function. The DM14 domain forms a helical hairpin with a conserved, positively charged tip, that, in the structure of a DM14 domain-Shrub complex, occupies a negatively charged surface of Shrub that is otherwise used for homopolymerization. Lgd mutations at this interface disrupt its function in flies, confirming functional importance. Together, these data argue that Lgd regulates ESCRT activity by controlling access to the Shrub self-assembly surface.,/p,. ...
E3 ubiquitin ligases catalyze ubiquitination, which can target specific proteins for degradation. Although a growing number of E3 ubiquitin ligases and their targets have been identified, much less is known about the mechanisms that regulate their activity. A convergence of data indicate that phosphorylation regulates the binding of Nedd4-2, a HECT (homologous to the E6-AP C terminus) domain E3 ubiquitin ligase, to its target, the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC. Nedd4-2 phosphorylation is emerging as a central convergence point for the regulation of epithelial Na+ transport.. ...
CHMP2B Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_054762), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a component of the heteromeric ESCRT-III complex (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III) that functions in the recycling or degradation of cell surface receptors. ESCRT-III functions in the concentration and invagination of ubiquitinated endosomal cargos into intralumenal vesicles. The protein encoded by this gene is found as a monomer in the cytosol or as an oligomer in ESCRT-III complexes on endosomal membranes. It is expressed in neurons of all major regions of the brain. Mutations in this gene result in one form of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
CHMP5 belongs to the chromatin-modifying protein/charged multivesicular body protein (CHMP) family. These proteins are components of ESCRT-III…
Component Of The ESCRT-I Complex; ESCRT-I Is Involved In Ubiquitin-dependent Sorting Of Proteins Into The Endosome; Prevents Polyubiquitination Of The Arrestin-related Protein Rim8p, Thereby Directing Its Monoubiquitination By Rsp5p; Homologous To The Mouse And Human Tsg101 Tumor Susceptibility Gene; Mutants Exhibit A Class E Vps Phenotype;
Complete information for CHMP6 gene (Protein Coding), Charged Multivesicular Body Protein 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
TSG101, a tumor susceptibility gene, bidirectionally modulates cell invasion through regulating MMP-9 mRNA expression. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In eukaryotic cells, delivery of transmembrane proteins into the lumen of the lysosome for degradation is mediated by the multivesicular body pathway. The function of the ESCRT protein complexes is required for both the formation of multivesicular body lumenal vesicles and the sorting of endosomal c …
An endosome-associated DUB may be expected to influence trafficking of ubiquitinated receptors. We used siRNA to specifically knockdown AMSH in HeLa cells (Fig. 4, a-c). If AMSH influences the dynamics of EGFR trafficking through deubiquitination, then it should alter the rate of receptor degradation following acute stimulation with EGF. We consistently observed an increased rate of receptor degradation in AMSH knockdown cells. The relative amount of receptor remaining after 30 min of stimulation compared with control cells is 0.51 (± 0.04, n = 4). A second siRNA duplex designed to knockdown AMSH likewise enhanced the rate of EGFR degradation (unpublished data). The E3-ligase Cbl has been shown to promote EGFR degradation through ubiquitination of the receptor, which promotes lysosomal sorting at the expense of recycling (Levkowitz et al., 1998; Thien and Langdon, 2001). Endosomal DUBs, such as AMSH, could be expected to reverse this modification and hence oppose lysosomal sorting. In support ...
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CHMP1B antibody (charged multivesicular body protein 1B) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-CHMP1B pAb (GTX32520) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Under the microscope, the researchers were able to recognize or - in jargon - resolve the structure of PspA. The structure of a protein is essential for its function and a defect in the structure can impair the protein function. Under the microscope, we realized that PspA has a structure similar to ESCRT-III proteins, which our laboratory had already been working on. This came as a complete surprise and showed how important it is to elucidate protein structures in detail, said Sachse. After billions of years, the two groups of proteins have genetically diverged so far that their similarities could only be detected based on their structure.. ESCRT-III proteins are found in all living organisms with a true cell nucleus, including human cells. Here, the ESCRT-III protein complexes are involved in cell membrane remodeling and repair but also play a key role in a number of other cell processes. In bacteria, no proteins of the ESCRT-III family were previously known. Therefore, PspA and ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0A1L8GER0 (A0A1L8GER0_XENLA), Charged multivesicular body protein 1a. Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog)
The divergently transcribed DIT1 and DIT2 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which belong to the mid-late class of sporulation-specific genes, are subject to Ssn6-Tup1-mediated repression in mitotic cells. The Ssn6-Tup1 complex, which is required for repression of diverse sets of coordinately regulated genes, is known to be recruited to target genes by promoter-specific DNA-binding proteins. In this study, we show that a 42-bp negative regulatory element (NRE) present in the DIT1-DIT2 intergenic region consists of two distinct subsites and that a multimer of each subsite supports efficient Ssn6-Tup1-dependent repression of a CYC1-lacZ reporter gene. By genetic screening procedures, we identified DFG16, YGR122w, VPS36, and the DNA-binding proteins Rim101 and Nrg1 as potential mediators of NRE-directed repression. We show that Nrg1 and Rim101 bind simultaneously to adjacent target sites within the NRE in vitro and act as corepressors in vivo. We have found that the ability of Rim101 to be ...
TSG101 and ALIX both function in HIV budding and in vesicle formation at the multivesicular body (MVB), where they interact with other Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) pathway factors required for release of viruses and vesicles. Proteomic analyses revealed that ALIX and TSG1 …
During animal cell division, the final separation of daughter cells requires ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), the core membrane scission machinery. Carlton et al. (see the Perspective by Petronczki and Uhlmann) report that ESCRT-III modulates abscission timing through one of its subunits, CHMP4C. Depletion of CHMP4C results in faster resolution of the midbody, the cytoplasmic bridge that connects the daughter cells at the end of cytokinesis. This phenotype correlates with a differential spatiotemporal distribution of CHMP4C at the midbody. As CHMP4C is essential for activating the Aurora B-mediated abscission checkpoint, consequently, depletion of CHMP4C results in the accumulation of genetic damage. Thus, the ESCRT machinery protects the cell against genetic damage by coordinating its cytokinetic activity with the abscission checkpoint.. J. G. Carlton, A. Caballe, M. Agromayor, M. Kloc, J. Martin-Serrano, ESCRT-III governs the Aurora B-mediated abscission ...
Some internet veterans will scoff at this (GoDaddy used to be absolutely notorious) but recently GoDaddy has greatly improved their customer service since the mid-2000s. Thus, the short TPR in the MIT domain has adapted to bind a target protein in trans, rather than a fourth helix in cis, raising the intriguing possibility that helices from the ESCRT-III proteins may bind by completing or extending the TPR. The ENSP identifier links to the Ensembl website protein summary, while the ENST identifier links to the Ensembl website transcript summary for the selected splice variant. If the offered operating systems are not the right fit, you may want to consider a Fof Server Our Dedicated Servers allow for the download powershell for windows server 2008 of custom operating systems. Sedver were housed in IVC cages and fed ad libitum. FunctionMay play a role in vesicle-mediated protein trafficking to lysosomal download powershell for windows server 2008 and in membrane dockingfusion reactions of late ...
Complete information for BROX gene (Protein Coding), BRO1 Domain And CAAX Motif Containing, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Clearly, targeting receptors to the lumen of lysosomes will terminate signaling. Thus, diverting receptors from this fate and recycling them to the cell surface will prolong signaling. Although true for many RTKs, this effect has been most extensively studied in the context of the EGF receptor (EGFR; Grandal and Madshus, 2008; Sorkin and Goh, 2009), an oncogenic signaling receptor frequently up-regulated or activated in cancer cells. Here, tuning EGFR lifetime via modulation of its ubiquitination, which ultimately targets it for lysosomal degradation via the ESCRT pathway, is a strategy exploited by cancer cells to drive sustained receptor signaling. Thus, mutations in EGFR or Cbl, the E3 ligase that ubiquitinylates the EGFR, are frequently associated with cancers (Mellman and Yarden, 2013). Similarly, mitogenic stimuli, such as TGFα, which binds more weakly to EGFRs, dissociates in early endosomes, allowing unoccupied EGFR to avoid ubiquitination and be recycled to the cell surface (Longva et ...
Research in the Hanson laboratory focuses on fundamental unknowns of intracellular membrane organization and trafficking, with a special interest in roles played by ATPases of the AAA+ family of protein remodeling enzymes. We use a range of cell biological and biochemical tools to study pathways and processes controlled by these membrane-regulatory AAA+ ATPases and to learn how changes in these pathways contribute to pathogenesis. Current projects focus on two major problems. The first is to understand how the ESCRT machinery and its AAA+ ATPase VPS4 create vesicles inside late endosomes (a.k.a. multivesicular bodies). The second is to define the role of lumenal AAA+ proteins related to torsinA in controlling endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope (NE) structure and function. Both projects are advancing understanding of key cellular pathways while providing insight into diseases ranging from cancer to dystonia.. ...
Replication of HIV-1 requires the assembly and release of mature and infectious viral particles. In order to accomplish this goal, HIV-1 has evolved multiple methods to interact with the host cell. HIV-1 recruits the host cell ESCRT machinery to facilitate the release of nascent viral particles from the host cell membrane. Recruitment of these cellular factors is dependent on the presence of short motifs in Gag referred to as Late-domains. Deletion or mutation of these domains results in substantial decrease in the release of infectious virions. However, previously published work has indicated that over-expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, NEDD4.2s is able to robustly rescue release of otherwise budding-defective HIV-1 particles. This rescue is specific to the NEDD4.2s isoform as related E3 ubiquitin ligases display no ability to rescue particle release. In addition, rescue of particle release is dependent on the presence of the partial C2 domain and a catalytically active HECT domain of NEDD4.2s.
Interleukin-1 Receptors: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Fast delivery of BROX knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
4N7H: Structural and biochemical basis for ubiquitin ligase recruitment by arrestin-related domain-containing protein-3 (ARRDC3).
|strong|Mouse anti ALIX antibody, clone 3A9|/strong| recognizes the apoptosis-linked gene-2 interacting protein X (ALIX), also known as Programmed cell death 6-interacting protein or Hp95. ALIX is a 8…
The Nedd4-like family of E3 ubiquitin ligases have been implicated in several types of human cancer. There are nine members of the Nedd4-like E3 family, all of which have an N-terminal C2 domain, two to four WW domains in the central region, and a C-terminal domain that is homologous to the C-terminus of E6-AP. This ub
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Models for Tsg101 recruitment and activation during MVB and HIV budding. (A) Model illustrating sites of Tsg101/Hrs interaction and a possible activation mechan
The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans can grow over a wide pH range, which is associated with its ability to colonize and infect distinct host niches. C. albicans growth in neutral-alkaline environments requires proteolytic activation of the transcription factor Rim101. Rim101 activation requires Snf7, a member of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway. We hypothesized that Snf7 has distinct functions in the Rim101 and ESCRT pathways, which we tested by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. While some snf7 alleles conferred no defects, we identified alleles with solely ESCRT-dependent, solely Rim101-dependent, or both Rim101- and ESCRT-dependent defects. Thus, Snf7 function in these two pathways is at least partially separable. Both Rim101- and ESCRT-dependent functions require Snf7 recruitment to the endosomal membrane and alleles that disrupted both pathways were found to localize normally, suggesting a downstream defect. Most alleles that conferred solely ...
Molecular mechanism of sodium acetate tolerance caused by the Thr255Ala mutation in the yeast ubiquitin ligase Rsp5pMolecular mechanism of sodium acetate tolerance caused by the Thr255Ala mutation in the yeast ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p ...
Probable core component of the endosomal sorting required for transport complex III (ESCRT-III) which is involved in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) formation and sorting of endosomal cargo proteins into MVBs. MVBs contain intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that are generated by invagination and scission from the limiting membrane of the endosome and mostly are delivered to lysosomes enabling degradation of membrane proteins, such as stimulated growth factor receptors, lysosomal enzymes and lipids. In the ESCRT-III complex, it probably serves as an acceptor for the ESCRT-II complex on endosomal membranes. [-] ...
The ubiquitin ligase (E3) Rsp5p is the only member of the Nedd (neural-precursor-cell-expressed, developmentally down-regulated) 4 family of E3s present in yeast. Rsp5p has several proteasome-independent functions in membrane protein trafficking, including a role in the ubiquitination of most plasma membrane proteins, leading to their endocytosis. Rsp5p is also required for the ubiquitination of endosomal proteins, leading to their sorting to the internal vesicles of MVBs (multivesicular bodies). Rsp5p catalyses the attachment of non-conventional ubiquitin chains, linked through ubiquitin Lys-63, to some endocytic and MVB cargoes. This modification appears to be required for efficient sorting, possibly because these chains have a greater affinity for the ubiquitin-binding domains present within endocytic or MVB sorting complexes. The mechanisms involved in the recognition of plasma membrane and MVB substrates by Rsp5p remain unclear. A subset of Rsp5/Nedd4 substrates have a PY motif and are ...
The Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a gammaretrovirus that hijack host components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) for budding. To determine the minimal requirements for ESCRT factors in MLV viral and viral-like particles (VLP) release, an siRNA knockdown screen of ESCRT(-associated) proteins was performed in MLV-producing human cells. We found that MLV VLPs and virions primarily engage the ESCRT-I factor Tsg101 and marginally the ESCRT-associated adaptors Nedd4-1 and Alix to enter the ESCRT pathway. Conversely, the inactivation of ESCRT-II had no impact on VLP and virion egress. By analyzing the effects of individual ESCRT-III knockdowns, VLP and virion release was profoundly inhibited in CHMP2A- and CHMP4B-knockdown cells. In contrast, neither the CHMP2B and CHMP4A isoforms nor CHMP3, CHMP5, and CHMP6 were found to be essential. In case of CHMP1, we unexpectedly observed that the CHMP1A isoform was specifically required for virus budding, but dispensable for VLP release.
Olivier Staub received his diploma in Chemistry at the University of Bern, Switzerland (1987), and his PhD degree at the University of Lausanne (1992). He was trained as a postdoc at UCLA and at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, before joining the Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology at the University of Lausanne as an independent researcher in 1997. Currently he holds the position of an Associate Professor. The research of Dr. Staub is focused on understanding how ubiquitylation and phosphorylation pathways control sodium and potassium homeostasis and consequently blood pressure. His major contributions concerns the discovery that the ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-2 binds to and downregulates the epithelial Na channel ENaC, a mechanisms defective in Liddles syndrome. Subsequent work showed that this pathway is regulated either by controlling NEDD4-2 expression or by phosphorylation of NEDD4-2 by the aldosterone-induced SGK1 kinase. More recently, he developed tubule specific ...
Exosome biogenesis and secretion. Exosomes initially form as intraluminal vesicles (ILVs), which are generated by inward budding of the limiting membrane during endosome maturation into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in the endocytic pathway (30). The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT-0, -I, -II, -III) and the associated ATPase Vps4 complex play important roles in this process. However, after depletion of key subunits of all four ESCRTs, ESCRT-independent ILV biogenesis still exists in mammalian cells. MVBs can fuse either with lysosomes for intracellular degradation or with the plasma membrane, resulting in release of ILVs into the extracellular space as exosomes (27).. Exosome biogenesis and/or release is affected by various molecules, including the ESCRT machinery components, Rab GTPases acting on vesicular traffic, membrane-spanning tetraspanins, and the intracellular adaptor syntenin (31). Features of cellular metabolic status such as ceramide metabolism, ER stress, ...
Exosome biogenesis and secretion. Exosomes initially form as intraluminal vesicles (ILVs), which are generated by inward budding of the limiting membrane during endosome maturation into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in the endocytic pathway (30). The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT-0, -I, -II, -III) and the associated ATPase Vps4 complex play important roles in this process. However, after depletion of key subunits of all four ESCRTs, ESCRT-independent ILV biogenesis still exists in mammalian cells. MVBs can fuse either with lysosomes for intracellular degradation or with the plasma membrane, resulting in release of ILVs into the extracellular space as exosomes (27).. Exosome biogenesis and/or release is affected by various molecules, including the ESCRT machinery components, Rab GTPases acting on vesicular traffic, membrane-spanning tetraspanins, and the intracellular adaptor syntenin (31). Features of cellular metabolic status such as ceramide metabolism, ER stress, ...
Exosome biogenesis and secretion. Exosomes initially form as intraluminal vesicles (ILVs), which are generated by inward budding of the limiting membrane during endosome maturation into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in the endocytic pathway (30). The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT-0, -I, -II, -III) and the associated ATPase Vps4 complex play important roles in this process. However, after depletion of key subunits of all four ESCRTs, ESCRT-independent ILV biogenesis still exists in mammalian cells. MVBs can fuse either with lysosomes for intracellular degradation or with the plasma membrane, resulting in release of ILVs into the extracellular space as exosomes (27).. Exosome biogenesis and/or release is affected by various molecules, including the ESCRT machinery components, Rab GTPases acting on vesicular traffic, membrane-spanning tetraspanins, and the intracellular adaptor syntenin (31). Features of cellular metabolic status such as ceramide metabolism, ER stress, ...
1. NagyPD (2008) Yeast as a model host to explore plant virus-host interactions. Annu Rev Phytopathol 46: 217-242.. 2. NagyPD, PoganyJ (2008) Multiple roles of viral replication proteins in plant RNA virus replication. Methods Mol Biol 451: 55-68.. 3. HuangYW, HuCC, LinNS, HsuYH (2012) Unusual roles of host metabolic enzymes and housekeeping proteins in plant virus replication. Curr Opin Virol 2: 676-682.. 4. ShullaA, RandallG (2012) Hepatitis C virus-host interactions, replication, and viral assembly. Curr Opin Virol 2: 725-732.. 5. MineA, OkunoT (2012) Composition of plant virus RNA replicase complexes. Curr Opin Virol 2: 669-675.. 6. BelovGA, van KuppeveldFJ (2012) (+)RNA viruses rewire cellular pathways to build replication organelles. Curr Opin Virol 2: 740-747.. 7. NagyPD, PoganyJ (2012) The dependence of viral RNA replication on co-opted host factors. Nature Reviews Microbiology 10: 137-149.. 8. AhlquistP, NoueiryAO, LeeWM, KushnerDB, DyeBT (2003) Host factors in positive-strand RNA virus ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Applicants can follow steps given below to get Vizag Steel Plant Exam cu toff for SC ST OBC General 2016 from msreportserver_configurationsetting official website of Vizag Steel Plant. VPS Hosting provides a more cost-effective and scalable option for growing businesses when compared to Dedicated Server Hosting. As such they are involved in virus budding, transcriptional control, cell make web hosting freebsd progression, mRNA localization and apoptosis 313242 - 48 Therefore, it is possible that the observed genetic differences of the ESCRT-II components may be caused by distinct requirements in addition to and independently of endosomal function and possibly independently of the ESCRT-II complex and the remaining ESCRT machinery. In Figure 2B, there is a lot of green, so under the null hypothesis that Vps23 localizes nowhere in particular (say its cytosolic), of course the authors would have been able to find two cells in which red Snf7 localized in a subset of places where green Vps23 was ...
Environmental carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were reviewed as the major risk factors for lung cancer development. In this p
A subunit of the Interleukin-18 Receptor that plays a Role in receptor signaling by Association of its cytoplasmic domain with Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins such as Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 ...
Vps34 appears to alternate between a closed cytosolic form and an open form on the membrane. This offer is available in several locations, including Serverr TX, Stockholm Sweden, Manchester UK, Bucharest Romania, Frankfurt Germany, and The Hague Netherlands. Though, Hostgator is in the process of getting sold, so if you looking for best cheap alternative option, I would suggest to opt for Bluehost. Tips and Disclaimer: In order to access your router and perform sever proper firmware upgrade, its best to directly connect your router to your recorx using an ethernet cable that you plug in your computer and LAN port 1 - that way you can directly last inserted record in sql server the router. In the final step of protein sorting, Last inserted record in sql server ATPase Vps4AB interacts with ESCRT-III to catalyze disassembly of the ESCRT machinery to recycle its components. Theres a good chance that if you do this, your site insertwd a virus or hacker targets the web hosting service. You may ...
In HIV-infected macrophages, newly formed progeny virus particles accumulate in intracellular plasma membrane-connected compartments (IPMCs). Although the virus is usually seen in these compartments, it is unclear whether HIV assembly is specifically targeted to IPMCs or whether some viruses may also form at the cell surface but are not detected, as particles budding from the latter site will be released into the medium. To investigate the fidelity of HIV-1 targeting to IPMCs compared to the cell surface directly, we generated mutants defective in recruitment of the Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT) proteins required for virus scission. For mutants unable to bind the ESCRT-I component Tsg101, HIV release was inhibited and light and electron microscopy revealed that budding was arrested. When expressed in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), these mutants formed budding-arrested, immature particles at their assembly sites, allowing us to capture virtually all of the virus
B cells bearing cognate pathogens bound to major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHC) receive TCRs from T cells and initiate intracellular signals in response to isolated synaptic microvesicles. Chronicles story is done. In summary, our data suggest that impaired ESCRT function leads to the accumulation of N and Dl, and possibly of a receptor controlling the Hippo pathway. 20 Оl of glutathione-Sepharose beads loaded with the corresponding GST bait were incubated at 4 ВC with the 35S-labeled configure pfsense as proxy server in a total volume of 0. Although the resources are still shared, as under the time-sharing model, virtualization provides a higher level of security, dependent on the type of virtualization used, as the individual virtual servers are mostly isolated from each other and may run their own full-fledged operating system which can be independently rebooted as a virtual instance. Safe server.met, SGH-44ADM cells exhibited a slower growth rate and stronger excretion ...
Summary Cellular processes such as cytokinesis, the budding of enveloped retrovirus (e.g. HIV-1), and multivesicular biogenesis have direct links to several human diseases including carcinogenesis and neuro-degeration etc. While seemingly unrelated, these processes all involve membrane abscission for generating two newly formed membrane bound structures - a process aided by the cytosolic proteins collectively termed ESCRT-III. Understanding these processes for therapeutic intervention has so far focused on identification of the factors involved, their structures, and the interactions between them. However, given that membrane-abcission is the key event in all these processes, the mechanics of membrane scission cannot be neglected. Due to fast and highly localised transformations, protein mediated membrane remodelling in general has proven difficult for quantitative mechanistic scrutiny (perhaps with the single exception of dynamin which, unlike the ESCRT-III, acts from the outside of a membrane ...
Once the protein is tagged, the piece of membrane with the targeted protein forms a packet, called a vesicle, that enters the cells cytoplasm. There, the vesicle enters a larger membrane body called an endosome, which in turn dumps it into another compartment called the lysosome, where special enzymes break apart big molecules to their core units: proteins to amino acids, membranes to fatty acids, carbohydrates to sugars and nucleic acids to nucleotides, and those basic materials are then reused.. The paper in Developmental Cell, co-authored by Emr with postdoctoral fellows David Teis and Suraj Saksena, describes for the first time how a set of four proteins assemble into a highly ordered complex. This complex encircles membrane proteins that must be disposed of in the lysosome. Emrs lab was the first to identify and characterize these protein complexes (known as ESCRTs). The Developmental Cell paper describes the order of events in which the ESCRT complexes encircle and deliver waste ...
The C2H2, How to setup raid 0 in windows server 2008, and coiled-coil (CC) 2080 as well as the NPF motifs of Rabenosyn-5 were all dispensable for this interaction, but a region including amino acids 70-120 was essential for the binding of Rabensoyn-5 to Vps45 ( Fig. Thats not unlike E ndeavoranother servee I played again recently. Now if your hosting provider allows this, you dont have to go through the process of moving all your websites and domain to another host gaid registrar. We make it easy to include a highly reliable web hosting as part of your service and increase your revenue at the same time. The skys the limit. Depending on which type of european usenetserver address you sign up for, we offer differing numbers of free transfers. Studies from our laboratory using the HER2 over-expressing breast cancer cell line SKBR3 have demonstrated that hypoxia or reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced VPS4 dysregulation leads to the accumulation of the ESCRT machinery in exosomes, as well as an ...
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It is a member of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) system. A missense mutation (K382N) in VPS37A ... "The Human Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT-I) and Its Role in HIV-1 Budding". Journal of Biological ... Vacuolar protein sorting 37 homolog A (S. cerevisiae) is a protein in humans that is encoded by the VPS37A gene. ... "Entrez Gene: Vacuolar protein sorting 37 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)". Retrieved 2012-04-20. Bache KG, Slagsvold T, Cabezas A, ...
It is a component of the endosome-associated complex ESCRT-II (Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport protein II). ... an endosome-associated complex required for protein sorting: crystal structure and interactions with ESCRT-III and membranes". ... a protein complex that binds to ubiquitinated endosomal cargo. ESCRT-II is a trilobal complex composed of two copies of vps25, ... Babst M, Katzmann DJ, Snyder WB, Wendland B, Emr SD (August 2002). "Endosome-associated complex, ESCRT-II, recruits transport ...
2005). "Identification of human VPS37C, a component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport-I important for viral ... 2007). "NESH (Abi-3) is present in the Abi/WAVE complex but does not promote c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation". FEBS Lett. 580 ( ...
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) recognise this ubiquitin and sort the protein into the forming ... Vesicles also transport molecules directly back to the plasma membrane, but many molecules are transported in vesicles that ... Molecules are also transported to endosomes from the trans Golgi network and either continue to lysosomes or recycle back to ... Transport from late endosomes to lysosomes is, in essence, unidirectional, since a late endosome is "consumed" in the process ...
"The human endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT-I) and its role in HIV-1 budding". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (34): ... The encoded protein is one of the three subunits of the ESCRT-I complex (endosomal complexes required for transport) involved ... "The human endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT-I) and its role in HIV-1 budding". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (34): ... a component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport-I important for viral budding". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (1): 628-36 ...
"Dynamics of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery during cytokinesis and its role in abscission". ... Both complexes also included a small Eaf6 protein. The biochemical and in silico analysis of complexes formed by HBO1 and TIP60 ... JADE1 isoforms assemble at least two different complexes, JADE1L-HBO1-ING4/5 and JADE1S-HBO1 complex. Due to the lack of the C- ... Studies analyzing native complexes of INhibitor of Growth (ING) PHD finger family of proteins revealed that ING4 and ING5 ...
... endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) which are required for protein sorting at the early endosome. More ... "The human endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT-I) and its role in HIV-1 budding". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (34): ... The ESCRT complexes form the machinery driving protein sorting from endosomes to lysosomes. ESCRT complexes are central to ... The assembly of the ESCRT-I complex is directed by the C-terminal steadiness box (SB) of VPS23, the N-terminal half of VPS28, ...
Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport). DUF143 has also been shown to interact with UFD1, tRNA synthetases class II ... MALSU1 was shown to interact with CHMP protein which is part of the ESCRT-III complex ( ... additional MIT domain-containing proteins bind to multiple components of the human ESCRT III complex". Genomics. 88 (3): 333-46 ...
... endosomal sorting complex required for transport) protein machinery. This set of protein complexes is critical for down- ... His work on the ESCRT complexes has led to his election into both the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2004 and the ...
... endosomal sorting complexes required for transport'). Vps4p is a AAA-type ATPase involved in this MVB sorting pathway. It had ... Multivesicular bodies are endosomal compartments that sort ubiquitinated membrane proteins by incorporating them into vesicles ... intracellular transport, transcriptional activation, protein refolding, disassembly of protein complexes and protein aggregates ... Vps4p is anchored via Vps46p to the endosomal membrane. Vps4p assembly is assisted by the conserved Vta1p protein, which ...
"Interaction of the mammalian endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) III protein hSnf7-1 with itself, ... Nara A, Mizushima N, Yamamoto A, Kabeya Y, Ohsumi Y, Yoshimori T (2002). "SKD1 AAA ATPase-dependent endosomal transport is ... "ATPase-deficient hVPS4 impairs formation of internal endosomal vesicles and stabilizes bilayered clathrin coats on endosomal ... Vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 4A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VPS4A gene. The protein encoded by ...
... "endosomal sorting complexes required for transport" (ESCRT) made up of cytosolic protein complexes. During nuclear membrane ... KASH domain proteins of Nesprin-1 and -2 are part of a LINC complex (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) and can bind ... The nuclear envelope is punctured by thousands of nuclear pores, large hollow protein complexes about 100 nm across, with an ... After that, the rest of the nuclear pore complexes break apart simultaneously. Biochemical evidence suggests that the nuclear ...
2005). "Interaction of the mammalian endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) III protein hSnf7-1 with itself, ... 2003). "Divergent retroviral late-budding domains recruit vacuolar protein sorting factors by using alternative adaptor ... a human homologue of yeast Snf7 that is involved in multivesicular body sorting". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (40): 39104-13. doi: ... additional MIT domain-containing proteins bind to multiple components of the human ESCRT III complex". Genomics. 88 (3): 333-46 ...
"Interaction of the mammalian endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) III protein hSnf7-1 with itself, ... an endosome-associated heterooligomeric protein complex required for mvb sorting". Dev. Cell. 3 (2): 271-82. doi:10.1016/S1534- ... of the ESCRT-III protein complex that binds to the endosomal membrane and recruits additional cofactors for protein sorting ... Yan Q, Hunt PR, Frelin L, Vida TA, Pevsner J, Bean AJ (2005). "mVps24p functions in EGF receptor sorting/trafficking from the ...
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is made up of cytosolic protein complexes, known as ... ESCRT complexes transport ubiquitinated cargo to cellular vesicles that bud directly into the cell's endosomal compartment, ... The components of the ESCRT-0 complex exist as follows: The complex is a 1:1 heterodimer of Vps27 (vacuolar protein sorting ... The complex is then responsible for binding to a lipid on the endosomal membrane, which recruits these tagged proteins to the ...
It forms part of one of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) - specifically ESCRT-III - which are a ... 2005). "Mutations in the endosomal ESCRTIII-complex subunit CHMP2B in frontotemporal dementia". Nat. Genet. 37 (8): 806-8. doi: ... 2003). "Divergent retroviral late-budding domains recruit vacuolar protein sorting factors by using alternative adaptor ... series of complexes involved in cell membrane remodelling. CHMP2B forms long chains that spiral around the neck of a budding ...
These proteins are components of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), a complex involved in ... 2003). "Divergent retroviral late-budding domains recruit vacuolar protein sorting factors by using alternative adaptor ... is required for both MVB formation and regulation of cell cycle progression. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000086065 - ... additional MIT domain-containing proteins bind to multiple components of the human ESCRT III complex". Genomics. 88 (3): 333-46 ...
... the host cell begins once M proteins recruit host class E proteins that form endosomal sorting complex required for transport ( ... HN and F proteins are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and travel through the Golgi complex to the cell membrane, ... "Viral budding via the host ESCRT complexes". ViralZone. Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 21 August 2020. "Mumps ... complex consisting of the genome surrounded by a nucleocapsid that RdRp is bound to. RNPs are surrounded by an envelope, a ...
The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery was previously considered as a possible mechanism for ... Extracellular vesicles in particular are thought to be a way to transport RNA between cells, in a process that may be general ... In another study of extracellular mRNAs, mRNAs transported by microvesicles from endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to human ... Carried within extracellular vesicles, lipoproteins, and protein complexes, exRNAs are protected from ubiquitous RNA-degrading ...
... the viral particle may be secreted from the endoplasmic reticulum through the endosomal sorting complex required for transport ... Additional work is required to determine the dates of evolution of the various genotypes and the timing of their spread across ... Claudin 1, which is a tight-junction protein, and CD81 link to create a complex, priming them for later HCV infection processes ... Gupta G, Qin H, Song J (2012). "Intrinsically unstructured domain 3 of hepatitis C Virus NS5A forms a "fuzzy complex" with VAPB ...
Seaman MN (April 2004). "Cargo-selective endosomal sorting for retrieval to the Golgi requires retromer". The Journal of Cell ... Seaman MN, McCaffery JM, Emr SD (August 1998). "A membrane coat complex essential for endosome-to-Golgi retrograde transport in ... Once released from the carrier, the Vps35-Vps29-Vps26 complex and the SNX-BAR dimers get recycled back onto the endosomal ... Although the SNX dimer is required for the recruitment of retromer to the endosomal membrane, the cargo binding function of ...
BLOC-1 is required for normal biogenesis of specialized organelles of the endosomal-lysosomal system, such as melanosomes and ... "BLOC-1 Is Required for Cargo-specific Sorting from Vacuolar Early Endosomes toward Lysosome-related Organelles". Molecular ... These studies demonstrate that BLOC-1 facilitates protein transport to lysosomal compartments, such as melanosomes, via ... These results appear to be relevant to the whole complex as the majority of expressed dysbindin localized to the BLOC-1 complex ...
... aids in this sorting process by binding to kinesin II and forming a protein complex to regulate vesicular trafficking ... This process allows for the coordination and organization of endosomal transport and ultimately gives Rab11 its versatile ... Rab11FIP5 is also required for regulated exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. Knockdown of Rab11FIP5 inhibited calcium- ... This process involves the transport of cargo proteins, like endocytosed receptors, to endosome recycling complexes and ...
Seaman MN (2004). "Cargo-selective endosomal sorting for retrieval to the Golgi requires retromer". J. Cell Biol. 165 (1): 111- ... Hille-Rehfeld A (1995). "Mannose 6-phosphate receptors in sorting and transport of lysosomal enzymes". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ... "Requirement of the Human GARP Complex for Mannose 6-phosphate-receptor-dependent Sorting of Cathepsin D to Lysosomes". Mol. ... Nair P, Schaub BE, Rohrer J (2003). "Characterization of the endosomal sorting signal of the cation-dependent mannose 6- ...
Rehling P, Darsow T, Katzmann DJ, Emr SD (2000). "Formation of AP-3 transport intermediates requires Vps41 function". Nature ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ... "Mutation in AP-3 delta in the mocha mouse links endosomal transport to storage deficiency in platelets, melanosomes, and ... AP-3 complex subunit delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3D1 gene. AP3D1 is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor- ...
Antonin W, Fasshauer D, Becker S, Jahn R, Schneider TR (February 2002). "Crystal structure of the endosomal SNARE complex ... "Early/recycling endosomes-to-TGN transport involves two SNARE complexes and a Rab6 isoform". The Journal of Cell Biology. 156 ( ... and VAMP-8 are present in human platelets and are required for granule secretion". Blood. 100 (3): 1081-3. doi:10.1182/blood. ... "ACAP1 promotes endocytic recycling by recognizing recycling sorting signals". Developmental Cell. 7 (5): 771-6. doi:10.1016/j. ...
The SNARE complex of STX10, STX16, VTI1A, and VAMP3 are required for late endosome to Golgi trafficking of the mannose 6- ... "The clathrin heavy chain isoform CHC22 functions in a novel endosomal sorting step". The Journal of Cell Biology. 188 (1): 131- ... Ganley IG, Espinosa E, Pfeffer SR (January 2008). "A syntaxin 10-SNARE complex distinguishes two distinct transport routes from ... Early endosome to Golgi trafficking of Shiga toxin requires the SNARE complex of STX6, STX16, VTI1A, and VAMP3 or VAMP4. Thus, ...
Mizuno E, Kawahata K, Okamoto A, Kitamura N, Komada M (March 2004). "Association with Hrs is required for the early endosomal ... a mammalian master molecule in vesicular transport and protein sorting, suppresses the degradation of ESCRT proteins signal ... Bache KG, Raiborg C, Mehlum A, Stenmark H (April 2003). "STAM and Hrs are subunits of a multivalent ubiquitin-binding complex ... Bache KG, Raiborg C, Mehlum A, Stenmark H (April 2003). "STAM and Hrs are subunits of a multivalent ubiquitin-binding complex ...
... -coated vesicles (CCV) selectively sort cargo at the cell membrane, trans-Golgi network, and endosomal compartments for ... During mitosis, clathrin binds to the spindle apparatus, in complex with two other proteins: TACC3 and ch-TOG/CKAP5. Clathrin ... Review on involvement of clathrin in plant endocytosis) Royle SJ, Bright NA, Lagnado L (April 2005). "Clathrin is required for ... Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to transport molecules within cells. The endocytosis ...
Binding of ApoB requires repeats 2-7 while binding ApoE requires only repeat 5 (thought to be the ancestral repeat). Next to ... Exon 1 contains a signal sequence that localises the receptor to the endoplasmic reticulum for transport to the cell surface. ... Class 4 mutations inhibit the internalization of the receptor-ligand complex. e.g. "JD" mutant results from a single point ... Leren TP (November 2014). "Sorting an LDL receptor with bound PCSK9 to intracellular degradation". Atherosclerosis. 237 (1): 76 ...
... participating in endocytosis and endosomal sorting and signaling. It downregulates retrograde transport of intracellular ... it is suggested that SNX8 may be involved in the transport of endogenous acid environment-requiring cargo. In addition, as SNX8 ... The link between these two protein within the JAK1-SNX8 complex allows JAK1 to catalyse SNX8's tyrosines phosphorylation in ... Although the endosomal compartment is composed of vesicular and tubular structures, it has been demonstrated that sorting ...
Botelho RJ, Efe JA, Teis D, Emr SD (October 2008). "Assembly of a Fab1 phosphoinositide kinase signaling complex requires the ... 5-bisphosphate synthesis and turnover that regulates the progression of endosomal transport. Novel Sac phosphatase joins the ... "PIKfyve controls fluid phase endocytosis but not recycling/degradation of endocytosed receptors or sorting of procathepsin D by ... The presence of two enzymes with opposing activities for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis and turnover in a single complex indicates the ...
LIMP-2 in a membrane protein in lysosomes that functions to regulate lysosomal/endosomal transport. Mutations in LIMP-2 have ... "Structural requirements for interactions between leucine-sorting signals and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex AP3". ... Ogata S, Fukuda M (Feb 1994). "Lysosomal targeting of Limp II membrane glycoprotein requires a novel Leu-Ile motif at a ... Gupta SN, Kloster MM, Rodionov DG, Bakke O (Jun 2006). "Re-routing of the invariant chain to the direct sorting pathway by ...
Friedman, JM; Leibel, RL; Bahary, N; Siegel, DA; Truett, G (1991). "Genetic analysis of complex disorders. Molecular mapping of ... evidence for deficient plasma-to-CSF transport of leptin in both the Zucker and Koletsky obese rat". Diabetes. 46: 513-8. doi: ... "Mahoganoid and mahogany mutations rectify the obesity of the yellow mouse by effects on endosomal traffic of MC4R protein". J. ... use of a flow-sorted Robertsonian chromosome". Genomics. 13: 761-9. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(92)90151-h. PMID 1639403. Chua, SC; ...
3-phosphoinositide-mediated association of sorting nexin-1 with an early sorting endosomal compartment is required for its ... The protein encoded by this gene is a sorting nexin. SNX1 is a component of the retromer complex. This gene encodes a member of ... 2004). "Sorting nexin-1 mediates tubular endosome-to-TGN transport through coincidence sensing of high- curvature membranes and ... 2002). "Endosomal localization and function of sorting nexin 1". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (10): 6767-72. doi:10.1073/ ...
The late endosome itself can eventually grow into a mature lysosome, as evidenced by the transport of endosomal membrane ... As a result, immune complexes in the lysosome recycle to the surface of macrophages causing an accumulation of nuclear antigens ... so that they are properly sorted into acidified vesicles. In 2009, Marco Sardiello and co-workers discovered that the synthesis ... The enzymes responsible for this hydrolysis require an acidic environment for optimal activity. In addition to being able to ...
Additionally it has been proposed that the directed transport of active signaling complexes to the nucleus might be required to ... Once fused, the endocytosed cargo (receptor and/or ligand) can then be sorted to lysosomal, recycling, or other trafficking ... "The HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin perturbs endosomal structure and drives recycling ErbB2 and transferrin to modified MVBs/ ... It is widely used for the specific uptake of certain substances required by the cell (examples include LDL via the LDL receptor ...
Adaptins are important components of clathrin-coated vesicles transporting ligand-receptor complexes from the plasma membrane ... "Interaction of HIV-1 Nef with the cellular dileucine-based sorting pathway is required for CD4 down-regulation and optimal ... is a substrate to coupled ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and functions in the endosomal pathway". J. Biol. Chem. ... This protein along with the complex is thought to function at some trafficking step in the complex pathways between the trans- ...
Assembly of a Fab1 phosphoinositide kinase signaling complex requires the Fig4 phosphoinositide phosphatase. Mol Biol Cell. ... 5-bisphosphate synthesis and turnover that regulates the progression of endosomal transport. Novel Sac phosphatase joins the ... P2 effector required for protein sorting to the multivesicular body. Dev Cell. 2003 Sep;5(3):499-511. PMID 12967568 Michell RH ... Yeast Fab1p, Vac14p, and Fig4p also form a complex, called the Fab1 complex. However, the Fab1 complex contains additional ...
December 2015). "SLC46A3 Is Required to Transport Catabolites of Noncleavable Antibody Maytansine Conjugates from the Lysosome ... This Y-based sorting signal directs the trafficking within the endosomal and the secretory pathways of integral membrane ... NF-Y is a heterotrimeric complex of three different subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB, NF-YC) that regulates gene expression, both ... The protein works via secondary active transport, where the energy for transport is provided by an electrochemical gradient. A ...
... which relate to ILV formation in endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) [13]. Exosomes from dendritic cells, ... Endocytosis, intracellular sorting, and processing of exosomes by dendritic cells. Blood. 2004;104(10):3257-66.PubMedCrossRef ... The bioluminescent signal requires ultra-sensitive CCD camera for detection [57]. An advantage of BLI lies in its high signal- ... Although SEM sample preparation is relatively simple when compared to that of TEM, which requires samples to be embedded and ...
... endosomal sorting complexes required for transport; human embryonic kidney 293 cells; inositol hexakisphosphate kinases; ...
Endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) proteins function in. * Post author By colinsbraincancer ... Endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) proteins function in AMD 070 multivesicular body biogenesis ... The synthesis of selenoproteins requires the translational recoding from the UGA → Abnormalities in the STAT3 pathway get ... 2002 Fevrier and Raposo 2004 A great deal of attention has recently focused on understanding how proteins are sorted into MVBs ...
dephosphorylation of regulatory sites on the endosomal sorting complex required for transport component STAM2 DOI: 10.1074/jbc. ... Here, we have identified STAM2, an endosomal protein involved in sorting activated RTKs for lysosomal degradation, as a ...
... a component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III, one of three multiprotein complexes associating ... fungal pH signaling involves most of the components of the endosomal ESCRT complexes (12), and (ii) PalF is phosphorylated and ... a component of the ESCRT complexes transiently associating to endosomal membranes (10, 12). ... endosomal sorting complexes required for transport. ... Locus Maps of Complex Genomes, ed. OBrien, S. J. (Cold Spring ...
Ub, ubiquitin; AP, adaptor protein; ESCRT, endosomal sorting complex required for transport; ALIX, ALG-2 interacting protein X. ... Ubiquitinated proteins are endocytosed and sorted in the endosomal pathway by a process dependent on adaptor proteins that ... P2X7 Receptor-Stimulated Secretion of MHC Class II-Containing Exosomes Requires the ASC/NLRP3 Inflammasome but Is Independent ... 4 and Table 3). In addition, there were several cytoskeletal proteins and putative endosomal cargo, including apical plasma ...
... and sorting of ubiquitinated plasma membrane cargo into ILVs is mediated by Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport ( ... Endosomal Sorting Complex Required For Transport. ILV, ILVs. intraluminal vesicles. MVB, MVBs. multivesicular bodies. Y2H. ... 2015) Conformational changes in the endosomal sorting complex required for Transport-III Subunit Ist1 lead to distinct modes of ... 2014) The Arabidopsis Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III regulates internal vesicle formation of the ...
MVB sorting: endosomal sorting complexes required for transports. The molecular machinery that drives MVB sorting is termed the ... endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) pathway, a series of multi-protein complexes and accessory factors first ... 2015) Negative membrane curvature catalyzes nucleation of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III assembly ... endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway, a series of multi-protein complexes first identified in the ...
Ubiquitinated transmembrane receptors are recognized by the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) complex ... Endosomal sorting complex required for transport.. Acknowledgments. The authors apologize for not being able to cite all the ... The holoenzyme proteasome is a more than 2.5 MDa complex comprised of a core particle containing 28 subunits (the 20S complex) ... whereas full activation of USP12 requires ternary complex formation with both UAF-1/WDR48 and WDR20 [106]. ...
Endosomal sorting complex required for transport III. Vps4:. Vacuolar protein sorting associated protein-4. ... Ctb9/KLHDC5 complex is reported to bind CUL3 and the final complex, CUL3/Ctb9/KLHDC,5 binds Katanin to mark it for proteasomal ... SCF complex), has been shown to bind Nedd8 protein and this neddylation increases affinity of E2 Ligase for E3 complex, helping ... Redistribution of γ-tubulin ring complex from centrosome to mitotic spindles and subsequent addition of these γ-tubulin to ends ...
... via the retrograde transport route. Endosomes are an obligatory through station. Whether early, recycling and late endosomes ... Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport / metabolism* * Endosomes / metabolism* * Humans * Intracellular Membranes ... Retrograde transport: two (or more) roads diverged in an endosomal tree? Traffic. 2011 Aug;12(8):956-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1600- ... In this review, we give a short historical overview on how retrograde transport was discovered and explored. We then summarize ...
... the E2 first forms a transient E2 approximately Ub covalent complex and then interacts with an E3 for Ub transfer. For cascades ... Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport / chemistry* * Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport / genetics ... Insights into ubiquitin transfer cascades from a structure of a UbcH5B approximately ubiquitin-HECT(NEDD4L) complex Mol Cell. ... To gain insights into this process, we determined the crystal structure of a complex between the HECT domain of NEDD4L and the ...
The MVB pathway appears to require the sequential function of ESCRT-O, -I,-II and -III complexes. ESCRT-III proteins mostly ... formation and sorting of endosomal cargo proteins into MVBs. MVBs contain intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that are generated by ... Probable peripherally associated component of the endosomal sorting required for transport complex III (ESCRT-III) which is ... R-HSA-917729. Endosomal Sorting Complex Required For Transport (ESCRT). Miscellaneous databases. ChiTaRS: a database of human, ...
The MVB pathway appears to require the sequential function of ESCRT-O, -I,-II and -III complexes. ESCRT-III proteins mostly ... formation and sorting of endosomal cargo proteins into MVBs. MVBs contain intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that are generated by ... Plays a role in the endosomal sorting pathway. ESCRT-III proteins are believed to mediate the necessary vesicle extrusion and/ ... CHMP4A/B/C are required for the exosomal release of SDCBP, CD63 and syndecan (PubMed:22660413). ...
Endosomal Sorting Complex Required For Transport (ESCRT). DR Reactome; R-BTA-917937; Iron uptake and transport. DR Reactome; R- ... DR Reactome; R-BTA-937039; IRAK1 recruits IKK complex. DR Reactome; R-BTA-937042; IRAK2 mediated activation of TAK1 complex. DR ... component of the PPAR9-DTX3L complex. ADP-ribosylation requires CC processing by E1 and E2 enzymes and prevents ubiquitin ... TRAF6-mediated induction of TAK1 complex within TLR4 complex. DR Reactome; R-BTA-975110; TRAF6 mediated IRF7 activation in TLR7 ...
... endosomal sorting complex required for transport; vs, versus; GSLs, glycosphingolipids; PKH, Paul Karl Horan; WGA, Wheat Germ ... be attenuated by interfering with exosome biogenesis through inhibition of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport ... Role in prion diseases (left): transport of PrPSc via exosomes secreted from a prion-infected cell or binding of PrPSc to ... 2016). Are prions transported by plasma exosomes? Transfus Apher. Sci. 55, 70-83. doi: 10.1016/j.transci.2016.07.013 ...
Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) proteins and tetraspanins. Both ESCRT-dependent and independent ... ESCRT proteins were not required for EV release in S. cerevisiae, but played a role in determining the protein composition of ... Bacteria-derived toxins transported by EV can also modulate immune cell functions to promote pathogen survival. For example, ... These vesicles transport various molecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between cells within one organism or ...
Direct transport from early endosomes to the Golgi apparatus is an essential step that allows the toxins to bypass degradative ... The essentiality of this transport step also makes it an ideal target for the development of small-molecule inhibitors of toxin ... Here, we review the recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the early endosome-to-Golgi transport of STx, ... ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport)-0 complex component. [20]. FUT1. Fucosylation enzyme. [20]. ...
endosomal sorting complex required for transport. IB. immunoblot. IHC. immunohistochemistry. mRFP. monomeric RFP. MVB. ... signal termination pathway in the absence of Snx16 that is controlled by endosomal sorting complex required for transport ( ... early endosomes is attenuated either through Nwk-SNX16 interactions or through endosomal sorting complex required for transport ... Endosomal sorting and signalling: an emerging role for sorting nexins. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 9:574-582. doi:10.1038/nrm2427 ...
... which relate to ILV formation in endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) [13]. Exosomes from dendritic cells, ... The bioluminescent signal requires ultra-sensitive CCD camera for detection [57]. An advantage of BLI lies in its high signal- ... Although SEM sample preparation is relatively simple when compared to that of TEM, which requires samples to be embedded and ... However, imaging and tracking EVs can be challenging due to their small sizes, often requiring labeling prior to their ...
... and sorting into, intralumenal vesicles is mediated by the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery ... endosomal sorting complexes required for transport. GPCR. G protein-coupled receptor. MVB. multivesicular body. NSCLC. non- ... early endosomal trafficking and the multiple homo- and heterotypic fusion events driving endosomal sorting can play a direct ... In contrast to the well-studied changes in endosomal sorting and trafficking, much less is known about cancer cell-specific ...
When amino acids are scarce Gap1p is sorted to the plasma membrane, whereas when amino acids are abundant Gap1p is ... the cytoplasmically oriented state could more efficiently interact with the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport ... Rather, a transport cycle is required. This dependence on transport activity would distinguish the mode of regulated sorting of ... Sorting of Gap1p into the MVE requires direct recognition of transport substrates Amino acid regulation of the distribution of ...
These proteins are components of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), a complex involved in ... Probable core component of the endosomal sorting required for transport complex III (ESCRT-III) which is involved in ... Probable core component of the endosomal sorting required for transport complex III (ESCRT-III). ESCRT-III components are ... Probable core component of the endosomal sorting required for transport complex III (ESCRT-III) which is involved in ...
Proteins in this family are part of the ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III) which degrades surface ... Proteins in this family are part of the ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III) which degrades surface ... Probable core component of the endosomal sorting required for transport complex III (ESCRT-III) which is involved in ... Probable core component of the endosomal sorting required for transport complex III (ESCRT-III). ESCRT-III components are ...
Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) Tethering complex Others AP-3 complex ... K20195 MON1; vacuolar fusion protein MON1 K20195 MON1; vacuolar fusion protein MON1 K24763 RMC1; regulator of MON1-CCZ1 complex ... 64060 Vps33b; vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 33B 681989 Vipas39; spermatogenesis-defective protein 39 homolog ... vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 33B K23287 VIPAS39; VPS33B-interacting protein in polarity and apical restriction ...
It is a member of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) system. A missense mutation (K382N) in VPS37A ... "The Human Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT-I) and Its Role in HIV-1 Budding". Journal of Biological ... Vacuolar protein sorting 37 homolog A (S. cerevisiae) is a protein in humans that is encoded by the VPS37A gene. ... "Entrez Gene: Vacuolar protein sorting 37 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)". Retrieved 2012-04-20. Bache KG, Slagsvold T, Cabezas A, ...
Mediates the association between the ESCRT-0 and ESCRT-I complex. Required for completion of cytokinesis; the function requires ... Binds to ubiquitinated cargo proteins and is required for the sorting of endocytic ubiquitinated cargos into multivesicular ... Required for the exosomal release of SDCBP, CD63 and syndecan (By similarity). It may also play a role in the extracellular ... Component of the ESCRT-I complex, a regulator of vesicular trafficking process. ...
... including Rab GTPases and the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). EV uptake by target cells appears to ... Robinson LJ, Aniento F, Gruenberg J (1997) NSF is required for transport from early to late endosomes. J Cell Sci 110(Pt 17): ... Vesicular transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi stack requires the NEM-sensitive fusion protein. Nature 339 ... Additional research is required to establish the importance of thiols in EV biology and to identify the molecular mechanisms ...
Endosomal Sorting Complex Required For Transport (ESCRT), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Endosomal Sorting Complex ... ESCRT-0 complex, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG) ESCRT-0 complex, organism-specific biosystemStructural complex; ... ESCRT-0 complex, conserved biosystem (from KEGG) ESCRT-0 complex, conserved biosystemStructural complex; Genetic information ... Title: Hrs controls sorting of the epithelial Na+ channel between endosomal degradation and recycling pathways. ...
AP, adaptor protein; ESCRT, endosomal sorting complex required for transport.. We defined the co-fitness between any two genes ... Another heterozygous deletion strain cluster included 13 of the 14 proteasome core complex genes and UMP1, a chaperone required ... The peroxisome requires a low pH, and the deletion strains were also sensitive to high pH. There is also growing evidence for ... Genes required for optimal growth in multiple conditions. (A) The percent of deletion strains inhibited by the given percent of ...
  • SKD1 is a core component of the mechanism that degrades plasma membrane proteins via the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport ( ESCRT ) pathway. (plantphysiol.org)
  • PalA and its yeast Rim20 ortholog interact with Vps32 ( 10 , 12 ), a component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III, one of three multiprotein complexes associating with the membrane of the late endosome to mediate sorting of ubiquitinated cargoes into the multivesicular body pathway ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Proteomic analysis of urinary vesicles through nanospray liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified numerous protein components of MVBs and of the endosomal pathway in general. (pnas.org)
  • This machinery is termed the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) pathway, a series of multi-protein complexes and accessory factors first identified in yeast. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Here, we review the yeast ESCRT pathway and describe the corresponding components in mammalian cells that sort EGFR. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Finally, we describe a working model for how this ESCRT pathway might overcome the intrinsic topographical problem of EGFR sorting to the MVB lumen. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The molecular machinery that drives MVB sorting is termed the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway, a series of multi-protein complexes first identified in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( Table 1 and Figure 2 ). (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The pathway begins with ESCRT-0, a dimer of Vps27 (vacuolar protein sorting 27) and Hse1 [Hrs-binding protein, STAM (signal transducing adaptor molecule) and EAST 1 (EGFR-associated protein with SH3 and TAM domain 1)] [ 13 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Recent studies indicate that K63 chains are required to target substrates for degradation in the MVB/lysosome pathway [ 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We identify an alternative signal termination pathway in the absence of Snx16 that is controlled by endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-mediated internalization of receptors into the endosomal lumen. (rupress.org)
  • Our results define a presynaptic trafficking pathway mediated by SNX16, NWK, and the ESCRT complex that functions to control synaptic growth signaling at the interface between endosomal compartments. (rupress.org)
  • The MVB pathway appears to require the sequential function of ESCRT-O, -I,-II and -III complexes. (uniprot.org)
  • 26040712 ). Plays a role in the endosomal sorting pathway. (uniprot.org)
  • Our data show that endosomal access of the Notch receptor is critical to achieve physiological levels of signaling and further suggest that altered residence in distinct endocytic compartments could underlie pathologies involving aberrant Notch pathway activation. (rupress.org)
  • This sorting pathway terminates EGF/EGFR signaling by delivering receptors to the lysosomes for degradation, a process known as down-regulation ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These observations indicate that there are probably multiple pathways for protein sorting/MVB vesicle formation in human cells and that HIV-1 does not utilize an ESCRT-II-dependent pathway to leave the cell. (asm.org)
  • Complementary biochemical analyses revealed that MVB vesicle formation proceeds through an ordered pathway in which a series of soluble class E complexes, termed ESCRT-I ( 39 ), ESCRT-II ( 4 ), and ESCRT-III ( 3 ), are sequentially recruited to endosomal membranes, where they function in vesicle formation (Fig. 1A ). (asm.org)
  • Ubiquitinated cargoes are recognised by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) apparatus, which mediate sorting through the multivesicular body pathway to the lysosome for degradation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Down-regulation (degradation) of cell surface proteins within the lysosomal lumen depends on the function of the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. (rupress.org)
  • The function of this pathway requires the class E vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Of the class E Vps proteins, both the ESCRT-I complex (composed of the class E proteins Vps23, 28, and 37) and Vps27 (mammalian hepatocyte receptor tyrosine kinase substrate, Hrs) have been shown to interact with ubiquitin, a signal for entry into the MVB pathway. (rupress.org)
  • A peptide sequence in this domain, PTVP, is involved in the function of Vps27 in the MVB pathway, the efficient endosomal recruitment of ESCRT-I, and is related to a motif in HIV-1 Gag protein that is capable of interacting with Tsg101, the mammalian homologue of Vps23. (rupress.org)
  • The multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway provides a mechanism for the delivery of cargo destined for degradation to the vacuole or lysosome. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is essential for the MVB sorting pathway by driving the cargo sorting to its destination. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport, (ESCRT), are essential for the selective degradation of membrane proteins via the MVB pathway. (i-med.ac.at)
  • The major components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complex are proteins recruited at different stages of the vesicular transport pathway. (cellsignal.com)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MVB pathway is composed of 17 evolutionarily conserved ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) genes grouped by their vacuole protein sorting Class E mutant phenotypes. (elsevier.com)
  • Only one integral membrane protein, the endosomal Na + (K + )/H + exchanger Nhx1/Vps44, has been assigned to this class, but its role in the MVB pathway has not been directly tested. (elsevier.com)
  • In plants, some PM proteins, which cycle between the PM and endosomal compartments, have been found to be ubiquitinated, but it is unclear whether ubiquitin is sufficient to mediate internalization and thus acts as a primary sorting signal for the endocytic pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ubiquitin acts as a sorting signal at different compartments in the endomembrane system to target membrane proteins into the vacuolar degradation pathway: If displayed at the PM, ubiquitin triggers internalization of PM reporters into the endocytic transport route, but it also mediates vacuolar delivery if displayed at the Golgi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the endosomal accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins induced by dysfunctional ESCRT-III was not significantly affected, further confirming the essential contribution of dysregulated autophagy pathway in neurodegeneration. (jneurosci.org)
  • In particular, it is unclear whether autophagosome accumulation is protective or detrimental to neuronal survival at different pathogenic stages of FTD3 or other neurodegenerative diseases involving defects in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • These observations support the idea that ATP secretion occurs via vesicle-mediated mechanisms and that uptake of ATP into the secretory pathway happens upstream of the Golgi requiring a proton gradient. (g3journal.org)
  • A mechanism of signal attenuation is through receptor endocytosis and subsequent vacuolar degradation, which requires the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway. (asm.org)
  • This pathway comprises several polyprotein complexes (ESCRT-0, -I, -II, -III, and -DS) that are sequentially recruited to the endosomal membrane. (asm.org)
  • The ESCRT pathway also activates the Rim101 transcription factor, which governs expression of genes required for virulence. (asm.org)
  • Here we use Arabidopsis mutants to demonstrate that LIP5 controls the constitutive degradation of plasma membrane proteins and the formation of endosomal intraluminal vesicles. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Internalized plasma membrane proteins are then delivered in endocytic vesicles to early endosomes where they can be recycled back to the plasma membrane or be sorted for degradation in late endosomes, also called multivesicular bodies ( MVBs ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Sorting of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) within the multivesicular body (MVB) is an essential step during the down-regulation of the receptor. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The machinery that drives EGFR sorting attaches to the cytoplasmic face of the endosome and generates vesicles that bud into the endosome lumen, but somehow escapes encapsulation itself. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • A host of protein factors control membrane traffic through the interconnected tubules and vesicles of the endosomal system, and sorting occurs by isolation of cargo in membrane domains of defined geometry and lipid composition ( Bonifacino and Rojas, 2006 ). (rupress.org)
  • These internal vesicles accumulate over time, use ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) machinery for formation, and appear to derive from the outer peroxisomal membrane. (nature.com)
  • Many substances (neurotransmitters, protein, complex carbohydrates, small molecules such as ATP) in eukaryotes are sequestered in vesicles which then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing to the extracellular medium the intra-vesicular contents. (tcdb.org)
  • Common intercellular transport reactions, such as secreted insulin delivery to the cell surface, work through the formation of small membrane vesicles that bud into the cytoplasm of the cell. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • This ring structure then acts as a kind of master copy for the MBV transport vesicles. (fwf.ac.at)
  • the ESCRT complexes generate multivesicular bodies (MVBs) by packaging cargo into small vesicles that bud off from the limiting membrane into the lumen of the endosomes ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exosomes are 30-150 nm unilamellar extracellular vesicles that originate from intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that form in the endosomal compartment. (springer.com)
  • Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted upon fusion of endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
  • The multivesicular body (MVB) is an endosomal intermediate containing intralumenal vesicles destined for membrane protein degradation in the lysosome. (elsevier.com)
  • However, analysis of cellular trafficking and ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy revealed that nhx1Δ cells retain the ability to sort cargo into intralumenal vesicles. (elsevier.com)
  • The ESCRT sorts proteins expressed on cells' surfaces into particular vesicles, which Rozycki calls the "trash cans of the cell. (europa.eu)
  • Periodically, these proteins get damaged or need to be swapped, so the ESCRT sorts out the chaff, packages it into vesicles and sends them off to be metabolised. (europa.eu)
  • These ubiquitinated proteins are internalized into clathrin-coated vesicles and are transported to early endosomal compartments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There, ubiquitinated proteins are sorted by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery into the intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Endocytosis involves invagination and fission of vesicles at the plasma membrane (PM) and their transport to endosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ESCRT-III is required for trafficking of ubiquitinated transmembrane proteins from early endosomes to luminal vesicles in multivesicular bodies and other biological processes ( Hurley, 2008 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • This screen revealed key cellular processes that regulate extracellular ATP levels, including mitochondrial translation and vesicle sorting in the late endosome, indicating that ATP production and transport through vesicles are required for efflux. (g3journal.org)
  • Direct transport from early endosomes to the Golgi apparatus is an essential step that allows the toxins to bypass degradative late endosomes and lysosomes. (mdpi.com)
  • Proteins in this family are part of the ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III) which degrades surface receptors, and in biosynthesis of endosomes. (genecards.org)
  • ESCRT-0 protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is targeted to endosomes independently of signal-transducing adaptor molecule (STAM) and the complex formation with STAM promotes its endosomal dissociation. (nih.gov)
  • We have demonstrated recently that Alix and ALG-2 form in the presence of calcium, a complex with apical caspases and with the endocytosed death receptor TNFR1 (tumour necrosis factor α receptor 1), thus suggesting a molecular coupling between endosomes and the cell death machinery. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • We reported recently that an aberration in certain steps of EGF‑stimulated phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR) endocytic trafficking from the early endosomes to the late endosomes occurs in the gefitinib‑resistant NSCLC cells, in which large amounts of sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) are colocalized with EGFR in the aggregated early endosomes where the internalized pEGFR is also accumulated of these cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Using immunofluorescence, we observed an efficient endocytic transport of pEGFR from early endosomes to late endosomes/lysosomes after EGF‑stimulation in the cells transfected with siRNA‑SNX1, whereas the delayed endocytic delivery of pEGFR was evident in the siRNA‑control‑transfected cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12559036 The small GTPase Rab4 is involved in endocytosis through sorting and recycling early endosomes. (jove.com)
  • Internalized RTK undergoes trafficking to Rab5-positive endosomes, where they are sorted for either degradation or recycling. (ahajournals.org)
  • Internalised surface membrane proteins first localise to endosomes before sorting to other compartments. (portlandpress.com)
  • Vps27 subsequently recruits/activates ESCRT-I on endosomes, thereby facilitating sorting of ubiquitinated MVB cargoes. (rupress.org)
  • The encoded protein is a component of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein complex which acts as a tethering factor for carriers in retrograde transport from the early and late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. (nih.gov)
  • Acts as component of the GARP complex that is involved in retrograde transport from early and late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). (nih.gov)
  • The GARP complex is required for the maintenance of protein retrieval from endosomes to the TGN, acid hydrolase sorting, lysosome function, endosomal cholesterol traffic and autophagy. (nih.gov)
  • The EARP complex associates with Rab4-positive endosomes and promotes recycling of internalized transferrin receptor (TFRC) to the plasma membrane (PubMed:25799061). (nih.gov)
  • 2002 Fevrier and Raposo 2004 A great deal of attention has recently focused on understanding how proteins are sorted into MVBs and how ILVs actually form. (colinsbraincancer.com)
  • Probable peripherally associated component of the endosomal sorting required for transport complex III (ESCRT-III) which is involved in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) formation and sorting of endosomal cargo proteins into MVBs. (uniprot.org)
  • Since exosomes are generated from the MVBs, exosomes contain biomarkers such as Alix and tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101) which relate to ILV formation in endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) [ 13 ]. (springer.com)
  • These proteins are components of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), a complex involved in degradation of surface receptor proteins and formation of endocytic multivesicular bodies (MVBs). (genecards.org)
  • Binds to ubiquitinated cargo proteins and is required for the sorting of endocytic ubiquitinated cargos into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). (uniprot.org)
  • They collectively act to transport the membrane-associated proteins such as receptor proteins into lysosomes for degradation via the formation and sorting of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • ESCRT (ESCRT-I, -II, -III) complexes orchestrate efficient sorting of ubiquitinated transmembrane receptors to lysosomes via multivesicular bodies (MVBs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ESCRT packages receptors into multivesicular bodies (MVBs), temporary transport structures that control the down-regulation and the degradation of receptors. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • ESCRTs help sort these proteins into structures called multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which deliver them to lysosomes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The generation of the ILVs into MVBs involves the lateral segregation of cargo at the endosomal limiting membrane, the formation of an inward budding vesicle and the release in the endosomal lumen of the membrane vesicle containing a small portion of cytosol. (biologists.org)
  • Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (?1-?4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky hydrophobic residue), which are sorting signals in transmembrane proteins. (jove.com)
  • Recently we found that a non-canonical YXXØ-signal on the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) binds to a distinct region of the ?4 subunit of the AP-4 complex. (jove.com)
  • UBAP1 (ubiquitin associated protein 1) is a ubiquitin-binding ESCRT-I subunit (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport). (cathdb.info)
  • Functions as a negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/PI3K activity associated with endosomal membranes via BECN1, a core subunit of the PI3K complex. (nih.gov)
  • Together, they looked at how the connections between synapses can be affected by changes in a protein named CHMP2B, a subunit of cell machinery called endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT). (psychcentral.com)
  • Jeyaprakash's team studies the molecular mechanisms of accurate cell division by characterising key regulators (multi-subunit protein complexes) of cell division, using an interdisciplinary approach combining structural, biochemical and cell biological methods. (wellcome.ac.uk)
  • Here, we have identified STAM2, an endosomal protein involved in sorting activated RTKs for lysosomal degradation, as a substrate of PTP1B. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Cell surface receptor uptake via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and subsequent intracellular sorting for degradation or recycling regulates the strength and specificity of downstream signaling. (rupress.org)
  • Ubiquitination of endosomal membrane proteins is a signal for their degradation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Cell growth and survival requires the selective degradation of cellular components. (i-med.ac.at)
  • It is for instance, required for the delivery of cargos like BST2/tetherin from early to late endosome and thereby participates indirectly to their degradation by the lysosome (PubMed:27126989). (nih.gov)
  • The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) plays a crucial role in the transportation and degradation of proteins. (asm.org)
  • To test whether plants use ubiquitin as a signal for the degradation of membrane proteins, we have translationally fused ubiquitin to different fluorescent reporters for the plasma membrane and analyzed their transport. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Vesicle-mediated transport and Cellular Senescence (REACTOME) . (genecards.org)
  • The budding of many enveloped RNA viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), requires some of the same cellular machinery as vesicle formation at the multivesicular body (MVB). (asm.org)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the ESCRT-II complex performs a central role in MVB protein sorting and vesicle formation, as it is recruited by the upstream ESCRT-I complex and nucleates assembly of the downstream ESCRT-III complex. (asm.org)
  • Although the processes of vesicle formation and cargo incorporation are not yet understood in mechanistic detail, ESCRT-I and -II appear to function primarily as adaptors that recognize protein cargoes and help recruit ESCRT-III, which in turn appears to function more directly in protein sorting and vesicle formation. (asm.org)
  • Among the proteins involved in creating ILVs are at least 18 that were identified via genetic studies of vacuolar protein sorting in the yeast suggest that PTP2C they act late in the process after ESCRT-I and ESCRT-II. (colinsbraincancer.com)
  • In the ESCRT-III complex, it probably serves as an acceptor for the ESCRT-II complex on endosomal membranes. (genecards.org)
  • It is a component of the endosome-associated complex ESCRT-II (Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport protein II). (wikipedia.org)
  • ESCRT-II recruits the transport machinery for protein sorting at MVB. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the human ESCRT-II has been shown to form a complex with RNA polymerase II elongation factor ELL in order to exert transcriptional control activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • ESCRT-II transiently associates with the endosomal membrane and thereby initiates the formation of ESCRT-III, a membrane-associated protein complex that functions immediately downstream of ESCRT-II during sorting of MVB cargo. (wikipedia.org)
  • ESCRT-II in turn functions downstream of ESCRT-I, a protein complex that binds to ubiquitinated endosomal cargo. (wikipedia.org)
  • ESCRT-II is a trilobal complex composed of two copies of vps25, one copy of vps22 and the C-terminal region of vps36. (wikipedia.org)
  • A team from Innsbruck Medical University and Cornell University in the USA has now discovered a surprising function of one of the ESCRT complexes (No II): ESCRT-II also initiates the assembly of ESCRT-III, the central complex in the transport chain. (fwf.ac.at)
  • A) Schematic model summarizing the protein interactions of the human ESCRT-II complex (see the text for details). (asm.org)
  • B) Three-dimensional structure of the yeast ESCRT-II complex. (asm.org)
  • Deletion of ESCRT components in yeast causes gross changes to endosome morphology [ 7 , 8 ] and prevents ubiquitinated cargo from being sorted to the lumen of the vacuole [ 9 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Transport activity-dependent intracellular sorting of the yeast general amino acid permease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since their discovery in 2001 as regulators of cargo sorting to the yeast vacuole, work on the ESCRT machinery has exploded as our understanding of this machinery's role in remodelling different membranes has grown. (biochemistry.org)
  • Although peroxisomes typically are considered to consist of a single membrane enclosing a protein lumen, more complex peroxisomal membrane structure has occasionally been observed in yeast, mammals, and plants. (nature.com)
  • As first demonstrated in yeast [ 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ], TOR is found in all eukaryotic cells in two distinct macromolecular complexes, TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). (mdpi.com)
  • Working with Scott Emr, director of Cornell's Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology and professor of molecular biology and genetics, the researchers used bakers yeast as an animal model and discovered the mechanism by which the ESCRT machinery directs the formation of the MVB transport structure. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to discover and define many mechanisms that regulate conserved features of endosomal trafficking. (portlandpress.com)
  • Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) proteins are conserved between Archaea, yeast and mammalian cells. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Homologues in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Plo1p and Clp1p, are required for either formation or stabilisation of the contractile ring that drives cytoplasmic cleavage. (gla.ac.uk)
  • ESCRT genes were shown to be required for cytokinesis and cell separation in fission yeast, implying a role for the ESCRT proteins in this process. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The effect of single ESCRT deletions on vacuolar sorting in fission yeast was characterised. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Single mutants of plo1 and clp1 were also shown to affect vacuolar sorting, indicating novel roles for these proteins in fission yeast. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Over 60 yeast mutants interfering with late endosomal trafficking have been identified and grouped into five classes based upon endosomal morphology. (g3journal.org)
  • Results hSnf7 assembles into homopolymeric filaments on the membrane To study the organization of ESCRT-III-containing polymers by quick-freeze deep-etch EM (DEEM) we took advantage of our earlier observation that overexpressed hSnf7 (CHMP4) protein accumulate in areas on or next to the plasma membrane aswell as on inner mainly endosomal compartments (Lin et al. (colinsbraincancer.com)
  • Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. (jove.com)
  • In addition to their classical role in endosomal sorting, this machinery is co-opted to perform similar membrane-remodelling events allowing HIV-1 release, release of exosomes and microvesicles, membrane abscission during cytokinesis, neuronal pruning, repair of damaged regions of plasma membrane and regeneration and repair of the nuclear envelope. (biochemistry.org)
  • The vast expansion in recent years of the cellular processes promoted by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery has reinforced its identity as a modular system that uses multiple adaptors to recruit the core membrane remodelling activity at different intracellular sites and facilitate membrane scission. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • They recruit proteins of the host ESCRT machinery (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) or ESCRT-associated proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • Hallmark transcriptional signatures were identified for each infection, e.g. induction of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) and autophagy genes in response to M. marinum and inhibition of genes associated with the translation machinery and energy metabolism in response to L. pneumophila . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The canonical machinery facilitating MVB formation is the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). (mayo.edu)
  • Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery supports the efficient budding of Marburg virus (MARV) and many other enveloped viruses. (nih.gov)
  • The machinery responsible for down regulation of receptors is called ESCRT (for endosomal sorting complex required for transport). (thefutureofthings.com)
  • The ESCRT machinery catalyzes a transport reaction that is topologically opposite to most other intercellular transport reactions in the cell," said Emr. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • Interestingly, these seemingly unrelated processes all require the function of the ESCRT machinery. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • The YAGL motif did not act as a late (L) domain, however, since hMPV budding was independent of the cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery and because replacement of the YAGL motif with classical L domains generated defective viruses. (asm.org)
  • During animal cell division, the final separation of daughter cells requires ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), the core membrane scission machinery. (sciencemag.org)
  • We have performed an RNA interference screen targeting 23 components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery and associated proteins in MHC class II (MHC II)-expressing HeLa-CIITA cells. (biologists.org)
  • Vacuolar delivery of the reporters was abolished upon inhibition of the ESCRT machinery, indicating that the vacuolar delivery of these reporters occurs via the endocytic transport route. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ILVs) to form the multivesicular body (MVB), an intermediate compartment en route to the degradative milieu of the lysosome ( Figure 1 ). (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Sensing of nutrients by CPT1C regulates late endosome/lysosome anterograde transport and axon growth. (uio.no)
  • By modifying the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate/PtdInsP3 content of endosomal membranes may regulate endosome fusion, recycling, sorting and early to late endosome transport (PubMed:26783301). (nih.gov)
  • In light of these findings and the absence of the so-called Class E compartment in nhx1Δ, we eliminated a requirement for Nhx1 in MVB formation and suggest an alternative post-ESCRT role in endosomal membrane fusion. (elsevier.com)
  • Vacuolar protein-sorting-associated protein 25 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VPS25 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 51 family. (nih.gov)
  • Although endocytosis is a mechanism well known to terminate receptor signaling ( Grandal and Madshus, 2008 ), it has also become clear that endocytosis is required for the initiation of some signaling cascades ( Platta and Stenmark, 2011 ). (rupress.org)
  • ESCRTs help transport proteins from the outer cell membrane to the interior of the cell, a process known as endocytosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Secretory and endosomal trafficking pathways control the transport and abundance of proteins throughout the endomembrane system of cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Therefore, defining the mechanisms by which the rate and direction of the flow of endosomal protein traffic are controlled is critical to determining how neuronal signal transduction pathways are tuned up and down after activation. (rupress.org)
  • Ypk1 is a central regulator of pathways and processes required for plasma membrane lipid and protein homeostasis, and requires phosphorylation on its T-loop by eisosome-associated protein kinase Pkh1 (mammalian ortholog is PDK1) and a paralog (Pkh2). (mdpi.com)
  • Various membrane trafficking pathways transport molecules through the endosomal system of eukaryotic cells, where trafficking decisions control the localisation and activity of a diverse repertoire of membrane protein cargoes. (portlandpress.com)
  • This study advances our understanding of the mechanism of ATP secretion in eukaryotes and implicates TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and nutrient signaling pathways in the regulation of ATP efflux. (g3journal.org)
  • Although lip5 mutants were able to polarize the auxin efflux facilitators PIN2 and PIN3, both proteins were mis-sorted to the tonoplast in lip5 root cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here we test the hypothesis that Gap1p itself is the sensor of amino acid abundance by examining the trafficking of Gap1p mutants with altered substrate specificity and transport activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We find that γ-secretase cleavage and signaling of endogenous Notch is reduced in mutants that impair entry into the early endosome but is enhanced in mutants that increase endosomal retention. (rupress.org)
  • In mutants that block endosomal entry, we also uncover an alternative, low-efficiency Notch trafficking route that can contribute to signaling. (rupress.org)
  • Analysis of vacuolar sorting in double mutants provided further characterisation of observed genetic interactions: plo1+ was regarded to function upstream of ESCRT genes, and clp1+ downstream. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We generated deletion mutants in each ESCRT complex and determined that ESCRT-I, -II, and -III are required for Rim101 activation but that ESCRT-0 and ESCRT-DS are not. (asm.org)
  • Interaction with Tsg101 is necessary for the efficient transport and release of nucleocapsids in marburg virus-infected cells. (nih.gov)
  • Live-cell imaging analyses revealed that Tsg101 accumulated in inclusions of rMARV(wt)-infected cells and was co-transported together with nucleocapsids. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, rMARV(PSAPmut) nucleocapsids did not display co-localization with Tsg101, had significantly shorter transport trajectories, and migration close to the plasma membrane was severely impaired, resulting in reduced recruitment into filopodia, the major budding sites of MARV. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that the PSAP motif in NP, which enables binding to Tsg101, is important for the efficient actin-dependent transport of nucleocapsids to the sites of budding. (nih.gov)
  • They have multiple characteristics including a cup or spherical shape, maximum diameter of approximately 100 nm, a buoyant density of ∼1.12 to ∼1.19 g /mL on a sucrose gradient, endosomal origin and the enrichment of late endosomal membrane markers, including TSG101 and proteins from the tetraspanin family (e.g. (intechopen.com)
  • Alix regulates neuronal death in ways involving interactions with ALG-2 and with proteins of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport). (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • MVB sorting affects a host of cellular activities, but its importance is exemplified by how it controls epidermal growth factor-mediated signalling. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Ligand-activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1) is ubiquitinated by Cbl ubiquitin ligase [ 1 ] and then sorted to the MVB and thus down-regulated to turn off the signalling response. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • ESCRT-I then physically binds to Vps27 on endosomal membranes via a domain within the COOH terminus of Vps27. (rupress.org)
  • The recognition, concentration, and sorting of ubiquitinated plasma membrane cargo into ILVs is mediated by Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport ( ESCRT ) proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Microtubules, being heteropolymer of two tubulin proteins, α -tubulin, and β -tubulin, show varying degree of polymerization to maintain proper transport of intracellular cargo, divisional chromosome arrangement/segregation, and various other cellular functions. (hindawi.com)
  • During infection by intracellular pathogens, a highly complex interplay occurs between the infected cell trying to degrade the invader and the pathogen which actively manipulates the host cell to enable survival and proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A mutant strain of C. neoformans that cannot transport xylose precursors into the secretory compartment is severely. (asm.org)
  • Defective MVB sorting of EGFR and other growth factor receptors is linked to tumour formation and common diseases [ 2 - 6 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • VPS51 participates in retrograde transport of acid hydrolase receptors, likely by promoting tethering and SNARE-dependent fusion of endosome-derived carriers to the TGN (PubMed:20685960). (nih.gov)
  • Internalised plasma membrane proteins either recycle or are ubiquitinated and sorted to the MVB. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • ESCRT complexes act in succession to facilitate the MVB sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The conference programme will focus on the ever-growing developments and applications of structural mass spectrometry of membrane proteins and their complexes, as well as new advancements and technological developments in mass spectrometry. (biochemistry.org)
  • Some proteins and lipids traffic from the plasma membrane to the trans Golgi network (TGN)/Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum, via the retrograde transport route. (nih.gov)
  • When amino acids are scarce Gap1p is sorted to the plasma membrane, whereas when amino acids are abundant Gap1p is sorted from the trans-Golgi through the multivesicular endosome (MVE) and to the vacuole. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Finally, in contrast to overexpression of the D190A mutant, and acting in a dominant-negative manner, overexpression of ?4 with either a F255A or a R283D substitution at the non-canonical site halted APP transport at the Golgi apparatus. (jove.com)
  • Surprisingly, a ubiquitin-tagged reporter for the Golgi was also transported into the lumen of the vacuole. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blocking MVB formation by ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) depletion results in impaired miRNA silencing and loss of GW-bodies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mediates the association between the ESCRT-0 and ESCRT-I complex. (uniprot.org)
  • Also mediates nuclear localization of the preintegration complex. (rcsb.org)
  • Transport systems of this type catalyze facilitated diffusion (by an energy-independent process) by passage through a transmembrane aqueous pore or channel without evidence for a carrier-mediated mechanism. (tcdb.org)
  • Herein, we tested whether some of the endosomal PSMA could be transferred to exosomes as an extracellular resource for PSMA. (nih.gov)
  • Even though much remains to be learned, we are beginning to appreciate the functions of mammalian exosomes as intercellular signaling and communication devices, and have begun to unravel their complex roles in immune modulation and immune surveillance. (biologists.org)
  • Some CHMPs have both nuclear and cytoplasmic/vesicular distributions, and one such CHMP, CHMP1A (MIM 164010), is required for both MVB formation and regulation of cell cycle progression (Tsang et al. (genecards.org)
  • Their primary function appears to be transport of murein hydrolases across the cytoplasmic membrane to the cell wall where these enzymes hydrolyze the cell wall polymer as a prelude to cell lysis. (tcdb.org)
  • We are especially interested in the role of scaffold proteins in organizing signal transduction complexes and study the spatial and temporal resolution of signaling mechanisms as well as their cytoplasmic effectors and target genes. (i-med.ac.at)
  • For nearly 20 years our group has been interested in how the ESCRTs and associated factors facilitate the MVB sorting process. (mayo.edu)
  • The protein complexes in question are referred to as ESCRTs (endosomal-sorting complex required for transport). (fwf.ac.at)
  • Although its exact function is not well understood, within cells this protein interacts with large groups of interrelated proteins known as endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The scientists found they could slow HIV particles from budding out of cells by interfering with how they interact with proteins named ESCRTs (pronounced "escorts"), or "endosomal sorting complexes required for transport. (eurekalert.org)
  • Vacuolar protein sorting 37 homolog A (S. cerevisiae) is a protein in humans that is encoded by the VPS37A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study report that similar to piwi, dfmr1 , the Drosophila homolog of human FMR1, is required for transposon suppression in the germlines. (sdbonline.org)
  • Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. (jove.com)
  • Here we show that the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine delays neuronal cell loss caused by dysfunctional endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III), either through loss of its essential component mSnf7-2 or ectopic expression of the disease protein CHMP2B Intron5 , which is associated with frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3. (jneurosci.org)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) serves as a useful model for the regulation of synaptic growth signaling as the muscle surface area expands 100-fold over 4 d of larval development, requiring increased input from its innervating motor neuron to drive contraction. (rupress.org)
  • Cells expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged form of the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 (green) and a red endosomal marker are visualized using deconvolving fluorescence microscopy and a 3D image generated. (mayo.edu)
  • PalA is a BRO1 domain-containing protein, which binds two YPXL/I (X = any amino acid) motifs in PacC and is required for the ambient pH-dependent first PacC proteolytic cleavage, probably catalyzed by the calpain-like cysteine protease PalB ( 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Acts as component of the EARP complex that is involved in endocytic recycling. (nih.gov)
  • domain inhibit lipid binding and result in defects in the sorting of ubiquitinated cargo. (cellsignal.com)
  • In an editorial about the study, Dr. Ben Short of Rockefeller University, New York, N.Y., states that synaptic growth is stimulated by defects in endosomal function, resulting in neurodegeneration. (psychcentral.com)
  • Component of the ESCRT-I complex, a regulator of vesicular trafficking process. (uniprot.org)
  • This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. (jove.com)
  • Recently, fusion has been shown to initiate by formation of a pore complex of various pore sizes. (tcdb.org)
  • Both cytokines mediate their effects on T cells through a heterotrimeric receptor complex consisting of a cytokine specific α-chain (IL-2Rα or IL-15Rα), the common γ-chain (γ c ), and the IL-2/15R β-chain (β) ( 6 - 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • An integrated view of the roles and mechanisms of heat shock protein gp96-peptide complex in eliciting immune response. (elsevier.com)
  • An interdisciplinary evaluation of these results with experts from neighbouring fields such as protein-protein interactions, computational biology, dynamic membrane transport mechanisms and lipid biophysics is now needed to retain and even accelerate this momentum. (biochemistry.org)
  • In the post-genomic era, it is widely recognized that identification of the subcellular organelle localization and transport mechanisms of the encoded proteins are necessary for a fundamental understanding of their biological functions and the organization of cellular activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this paper, we show that Nwk acts through a physical interaction with sorting nexin 16 (SNX16). (rupress.org)
  • Here, we describe the identification of a novel Nwk-binding partner, sorting nexin 16 (SNX16). (rupress.org)
  • A protein complex, which is an important link in a cellular transport chain, also initiates the assembly of the next link in the chain. (fwf.ac.at)
  • Originally discovered as regulators of cargo sorting during endosomal trafficking, ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins are emerging as flexible machines that shape the behaviour of membranes throughout the cell. (smw.ch)
  • We demonstrate that activation of the MVB sorting reaction is dictated largely through interactions between Vps27 and the endosomally enriched lipid species phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate via the FYVE domain (Fab1, YGL023, Vps27, and EEA1) of Vps27. (rupress.org)
  • We propose that compartmental specificity for the MVB sorting reaction is the result of interactions of Vps27 with phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and ubiquitin. (rupress.org)
  • We found that the ESCRT-0 member Vps27 and ESCRT-DS components are required to promote epithelial cell damage and, using a murine model of oral candidiasis, found that the vps27 Δ/Δ mutant had a decreased fungal burden compared to that of the wild type. (asm.org)
  • Its ATPase activity and endosomal recruitment are regulated by the ESCRT components LIP5 and IST1. (plantphysiol.org)