Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
An enzyme which catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of phosphodiester bonds at purinic or apyrimidinic sites (AP-sites) to produce 5'-Phosphooligonucleotide end products. The enzyme prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and was formerly classified as EC 3.1.4.30.
A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Enzyme systems containing three different subunits and requiring ATP, S-adenosylmethionine, and magnesium for endonucleolytic activity to give random double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. They function also as DNA-dependent ATPases and modification methylases, catalyzing the reactions of EC 2.1.1.72 and EC 2.1.1.73 with similar site-specificity. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave at sites remote from the recognition sequence. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.3.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Endonucleases that remove 5' DNA sequences from a DNA structure called a DNA flap. The DNA flap structure occurs in double-stranded DNA containing a single-stranded break where the 5' portion of the downstream strand is too long and overlaps the 3' end of the upstream strand. Flap endonucleases cleave the downstream strand of the overlap flap structure precisely after the first base-paired nucleotide, creating a ligatable nick.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The excision of in-frame internal protein sequences (INTEINS) of a precursor protein, coupled with ligation of the flanking sequences (EXTEINS). Protein splicing is an autocatalytic reaction and results in the production of two proteins from a single primary translation product: the intein and the mature protein.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Enzymes that recognize CRUCIFORM DNA structures and introduce paired incisions that help to resolve the structure into two DNA helices.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Interruptions in one of the strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone of double-stranded DNA.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Hydrolysate of DNA in which purine bases have been removed.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Enzyme systems composed of two subunits and requiring ATP and magnesium for endonucleolytic activity; they do not function as ATPases. They exist as complexes with modification methylases of similar specificity listed under EC 2.1.1.72 or EC 2.1.1.73. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave a short distance, about 24 to 27 bases, away from the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.5.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. They include DNA HELICASES; RNA-BINDING PROTEINS; ENDONUCLEASES; and RNA and DNA POLYMERASES.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They are responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern, on either adenine or cytosine residues, in a specific short base sequence in the host cell's own DNA. This methylated sequence will occur many times in the host-cell DNA and remain intact for the lifetime of the cell. Any DNA from another species which gains entry into a living cell and lacks the characteristic methylation pattern will be recognized by the restriction endonucleases of similar specificity and destroyed by cleavage. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.
The internal fragments of precursor proteins (INternal proTEINS) that are autocatalytically removed by PROTEIN SPLICING. The flanking fragments (EXTEINS) are ligated forming mature proteins. The nucleic acid sequences coding for inteins are considered to be MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Inteins are composed of self-splicing domains and an endonuclease domain which plays a role in the spread of the intein's genomic sequence. Mini-inteins are composed of the self-splicing domains only.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A cross-shaped DNA structure that can be observed under the electron microscope. It is formed by the incomplete exchange of strands between two double-stranded helices or by complementary INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES that refold into hairpin loops on opposite strands across from each other.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.
A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.
Gram-negative aerobic rods found in warm water (40-79 degrees C) such as hot springs, hot water tanks, and thermally polluted rivers.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped to ellipsoidal bacteria occurring singly or in pairs and found in flowers, soil, honey bees, fruits, cider, beer, wine, and vinegar. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
The effects on gene expression that depend on the location of a gene with respect to its neighboring genes and region of chromosome. Stable position effects are sequence dependent. Variegated position effects depend on whether the gene is located in or adjacent to HETEROCHROMATIN or EUCHROMATIN.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Genes involved in activating the enzyme VDJ recombinase. RAG-1 is located on chromosome 11 in humans (chromosome 2 in mice) and is expressed exclusively in maturing lymphocytes.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
A family of gram-negative, gliding bacteria in the order Cytophagales, class Cytophagia. They are found in SOIL and SEA WATER.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
A dye which inhibits protein biosynthesis at the initial stages. The ammonium salt (aluminon) is a reagent for the colorimetric estimation of aluminum in water, foods, and tissues.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.

Postnatal growth failure, short life span, and early onset of cellular senescence and subsequent immortalization in mice lacking the xeroderma pigmentosum group G gene. (1/2984)

The xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XP-G) gene (XPG) encodes a structure-specific DNA endonuclease that functions in nucleotide excision repair (NER). XP-G patients show various symptoms, ranging from mild cutaneous abnormalities to severe dermatological impairments. In some cases, patients exhibit growth failure and life-shortening and neurological dysfunctions, which are characteristics of Cockayne syndrome (CS). The known XPG protein function as the 3' nuclease in NER, however, cannot explain the development of CS in certain XP-G patients. To gain an insight into the functions of the XPG protein, we have generated and examined mice lacking xpg (the mouse counterpart of the human XPG gene) alleles. The xpg-deficient mice exhibited postnatal growth failure and underwent premature death. Since XPA-deficient mice, which are totally defective in NER, do not show such symptoms, our data indicate that XPG performs an additional function(s) besides its role in NER. Our in vitro studies showed that primary embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the xpg-deficient mice underwent premature senescence and exhibited the early onset of immortalization and accumulation of p53.  (+info)

A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii. (2/2984)

In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity.  (+info)

Base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage activated by XPG protein. (3/2984)

Oxidized pyrimidines in DNA are removed by a distinct base excision repair pathway initiated by the DNA glycosylase--AP lyase hNth1 in human cells. We have reconstituted this single-residue replacement pathway with recombinant proteins, including the AP endonuclease HAP1/APE, DNA polymerase beta, and DNA ligase III-XRCC1 heterodimer. With these proteins, the nucleotide excision repair enzyme XPG serves as a cofactor for the efficient function of hNth1. XPG protein promotes binding of hNth1 to damaged DNA. The stimulation of hNth1 activity is retained in XPG catalytic site mutants inactive in nucleotide excision repair. The data support the model that development of Cockayne syndrome in XP-G patients is related to inefficient excision of endogenous oxidative DNA damage.  (+info)

Conserved residues of human XPG protein important for nuclease activity and function in nucleotide excision repair. (4/2984)

The human XPG endonuclease cuts on the 3' side of a DNA lesion during nucleotide excision repair. Mutations in XPG can lead to the disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome. XPG shares sequence similarities in two regions with a family of structure-specific nucleases and exonucleases. To begin defining its catalytic mechanism, we changed highly conserved residues and determined the effects on the endonuclease activity of isolated XPG, its function in open complex formation and dual incision reconstituted with purified proteins, and its ability to restore cellular resistance to UV light. The substitution A792V present in two XP complementation group G (XP-G) individuals reduced but did not abolish endonuclease activity, explaining their mild clinical phenotype. Isolated XPG proteins with Asp-77 or Glu-791 substitutions did not cleave DNA. In the reconstituted repair system, alanine substitutions at these positions permitted open complex formation but were inactive for 3' cleavage, whereas D77E and E791D proteins retained considerable activity. The function of each mutant protein in the reconstituted system was mirrored by its ability to restore UV resistance to XP-G cell lines. Hydrodynamic measurements indicated that XPG exists as a monomer in high salt conditions, but immunoprecipitation of intact and truncated XPG proteins showed that XPG polypeptides can interact with each other, suggesting dimerization as an element of XPG function. The mutation results define critical residues in the catalytic center of XPG and strongly suggest that key features of the strand cleavage mechanism and active site structure are shared by members of the nuclease family.  (+info)

A restriction endonuclease from Staphylococcus aureus. (5/2984)

A specific endonuclease, Sau 3AI, has been partially purified from Staphylococcus aureus strain 3A by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The enzyme cleaves adenovirus type 5 DNA many times, SV40 DNA eight times but does not cleave double-stranded phi X174 DNA. It recognizes the sequence (see article) and cleaves as indicated by the arrows. Evidence is presented that this enzyme plays a role in the biological restriction-modification system of Staphylococcus aureus strain 3A.  (+info)

Chromatin structure: a property of the higher structures of chromatin and in the time course of its formation during chromatin replication. (6/2984)

The action of a number of enzymes and metals on one nuclear preparation were interpreted in terms of the existence of a fragile but highly DNAase-I resistant feature of chromatin superstructure. The generation of this DNAase-I resistance feature of chromatin was then followed during normal DNA synthesis in the regenerating rat liver by following the disappearance of a transitory DNAase-I susceptible state. This transitory, DNAase-I susceptible state appears to be extremely similar to the post-synthetic, DNAase-I susceptible state that has been described in He La32.  (+info)

'Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2/6 complex interacts with Holliday junctions and facilitates their cleavage by phage resolution enzymes. (7/2984)

Genetic and biochemical studies have indicated that mismatch repair proteins can interact with recombination intermediates. In this study, gel shift assays and electron microscopic analysis were used to show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2/6 complex binds to Holliday junctions and has an affinity and specificity for them that is at least as high as it has as for mispaired bases. Under equilibrium binding conditions, the MSH2/6 complex had a Kd of binding to Holliday junctions of 0.5 nM. The MSH2/6 complex enhanced the cleavage of Holliday junctions by T4 endonuclease VII and T7 endonuclease I. This is consistent with the view that the MSH2/6 complex can function in both mismatch repair and the resolution of recombination intermediates as predicted by genetic studies.  (+info)

Defective repair of cisplatin-induced DNA damage caused by reduced XPA protein in testicular germ cell tumours. (8/2984)

Metastatic cancer in adults usually has a fatal outcome. In contrast, advanced testicular germ cell tumours are cured in over 80% of patients using cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy [1]. An understanding of why these cells are sensitive to chemotherapeutic drugs is likely to have implications for the treatment of other types of cancer. Earlier measurements indicate that testis tumour cells are hypersensitive to cisplatin and have a low capacity to remove cisplatin-induced DNA damage from the genome [2] [3]. We have investigated the nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity of extracts from the well-defined 833K and GCT27 human testis tumour cell lines. Both had a reduced ability to carry out the incision steps of NER in comparison with extracts from known repair-proficient cells. Immunoblotting revealed that the testis tumour cells had normal amounts of most NER proteins, but low levels of the xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein (XPA) and the ERCC1-XPF endonuclease complex. Addition of XPA specifically conferred full NER capacity on the testis tumour extracts. These results show that a low XPA level in the testis tumour cell lines is sufficient to explain their poor ability to remove cisplatin adducts from DNA and might be a major reason for the high cisplatin sensitivity of testis tumours. Targeted inhibition of XPA could sensitise other types of cells and tumours to cisplatin and broaden the usefulness of this chemotherapeutic agent.  (+info)

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Background. Genome integrity is continuously challenged by exogenous or endogenous factors. To prevent global DNA damage potentially leading to tumorigenesis, DNA lesions need to be permanently recognized and repaired. A large set of proteins contribute to DNA repair. In this thesis we focus on structure-specific endonucleases functioning in resolution of various intermediates arising during DNA replication and the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR). In particular, we describe cooperation of human structure-specific endonuclease MUS81-EME1 with RecQ helicase RECQL5β. In addition, DNA repair enzymes also need to be tightly regulated to ensure their proper function. One such mechanism involves SUMOylation where a small peptide (SUMO) is post-translationally attached to an enzyme thus potentially modulating its activity and function. In the other part of this thesis we have identified and characterized the effect of SUMOylation on yeast structure-specific ...
We aimed to determine the associations of genetic polymorphisms of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) rs11615, xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD/ERCC2) rs13181, X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) rs25487, XRCC3 rs1799794, and breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) rs1799966 from the DNA repair pathway and multiple drug resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) rs1045642 with response to chemotherapy and survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Chinese population. ...
Purpose To evaluate the prognostic significance of DNA excision repair gene polymorphisms, excision repair cross-complementation group 1 ( ERCC1) and X-ray repair complementing defective repair in...
Cervical cancer is a public health problem and the molecular mechanisms underlying radioresistance are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the modulation of key molecules involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle and DNA repair in cervical cancer cell lines (CASKI and C33A) and in malignant tissues biopsied from 10 patients before and after radiotherapy. The expression patterns of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and p53 were evaluated in cancer cell lines by quantitative PCR and western blotting, and in human malignant tissues by immunohistochemistry. The mutation status of TP53 gene was evaluated by direct sequencing. Among cell lines, absent or weak modulations of EGFR, ERCC1 and p53 ...
XPB antibody (excision repair cross-complementation group 3) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-XPB pAb (GTX55844) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Excision repair cross-complementing group 8 ( ERCC8) plays a critical role in DNA repair. Genetic polymorphisms in ERCC8may contribute to the risk of cancer development. We selected tag single...
Little is known about how the activity of DNA repair nucleases is controlled in cells. Insufficient activity would compromise DNA repair, whereas excessive activity might result in pathological genome cleavage events. In this study, we identify USP45 as a regulator of ERCC1 function in cells. Mass spectrometry analysis identified ERCC1-XPF and the SLX4 scaffold as potentials targets of USP45 together with a number of other proteins that co‐precipitated with USP45. These included MYH9, MYH10, MYL12B, ZFR and RBMX that have previously been reported to interact with USP45 (Sowa et al, 2009). There are two pools of ERCC1-XPF in cells-one is bound to the SLX4 scaffold protein and the other is not (Munoz et al, 2009; Stoepker et al, 2011b). Gel filtration experiments showed that USP45 was associated with both pools of XPF-ERCC1. This observation, together with the findings that USP45 co‐precipitates with XPF-ERCC1 in Slx4 null cells and that ERCC1 interacts with USP45 in a yeast two‐hybrid ...
Little is known about how the activity of DNA repair nucleases is controlled in cells. Insufficient activity would compromise DNA repair, whereas excessive activity might result in pathological genome cleavage events. In this study, we identify USP45 as a regulator of ERCC1 function in cells. Mass spectrometry analysis identified ERCC1-XPF and the SLX4 scaffold as potentials targets of USP45 together with a number of other proteins that co‐precipitated with USP45. These included MYH9, MYH10, MYL12B, ZFR and RBMX that have previously been reported to interact with USP45 (Sowa et al, 2009). There are two pools of ERCC1-XPF in cells-one is bound to the SLX4 scaffold protein and the other is not (Munoz et al, 2009; Stoepker et al, 2011b). Gel filtration experiments showed that USP45 was associated with both pools of XPF-ERCC1. This observation, together with the findings that USP45 co‐precipitates with XPF-ERCC1 in Slx4 null cells and that ERCC1 interacts with USP45 in a yeast two‐hybrid ...
Purpose: Chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is now widely recognized as bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, some patients who fail CRT may miss the chance to be cured by cystectomy. Therefore, it is important to select patients with MIBC who are expected to have a good response to CRT. Several reports indicate that the excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) gene is associated with resistance to cisplatin and radiation therapy. In this study, we examined the correlation between ERCC1 and CRT in vitro and in vivo in bladder cancer. Experimental Design: Bladder cancer cell lines T24, 5637, Cl8-2 (multi-drug-resistant subline of T24), and CDDP10-3 (cisplatin-resistant subline of T24) were used for in vitro assays to measure ERCC1 expression level and growth inhibition with cisplatin or irradiation (IR). We then examined by immunohistochemistry whether ERCC1 nuclear staining correlates with the efficacy of CRT using cisplatin in 22 patients with MIBC. ...
A link between DNA damage and the process of aging has been firmly established (1, 2). The brain in particular is a vulnerable organ that is plagued by various neurodegenerative disorders that have been related to aging, i.e. Alzheimer and Parkinson disease. The study of the early onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases is challenging, because there are not many confident early molecular determinants that predict their development. Therefore, progeroid syndromes (showing premature aging) are often used as a model for segmental aging as they show consistent and predictive elements of the aging phenotype (e.g. cessation of growth and development, hearing loss, and severe and progressive neuron dysfunction) (1, 3). These accelerated aging syndromes have in common that they carry defects in one or multiple proteins involved in DNA damage repair mechanisms.. A well established progeroid mouse model is the excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (Ercc1)1 gene knock-out (4, 5). The ...
casSAR Dugability of Q8BJW7 | Eme1 | Crossover junction endonuclease EME1 - Also known as EME1_MOUSE, Eme1. Interacts with MUS81 to form a DNA structure-specific endonuclease with substrate preference for branched DNA structures with a 5-end at the branch nick. Typical substrates include 3-flap structures, replication forks and nicked Holliday junctions. May be required in mitosis for the processing of stalled or collapsed replication forks. May self-associate (By similarity). Interacts with MUS81.
Compare Anti-X-Ray Repair Cross Complementing 2 Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Abnova Human ERCC3 Full-length ORF (NP_000113.1, 1 a.a. - 782 a.a.) Recombinant Protein with GST-tag at N-terminal 25µg Life Sciences:Protein Biology:Proteins:Proteins
References for Abcams Recombinant Human ERCC8 protein (ab114805). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
This gene encodes a protein that functions as an assembly component of multiple structure-specific endonucleases. These endonuclease complexes are required for repair of specific types of DNA lesions and critical for cellular responses to replication fork failure. Mutations in this gene were found in patients with Fanconi anemia. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2016] ...
1BIX: The crystal structure of the human DNA repair endonuclease HAP1 suggests the recognition of extra-helical deoxyribose at DNA abasic sites.
ERCC5 - ERCC5 (untagged)-Human excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 5 (ERCC5) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Taiwan. The carcinogen in the environment is a key role in the development of lung cancer, and one of its main resource is tobacco. Activated carcinogens in the organism lead to mutations of crucial oncogenes resulting in tumor development. Genes such as Cytochrome P-450 family, GST (glutathione S-transferase) family, UGT (UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase) family, ERCC-1(excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency),ERCC-4 and ERCC-5,are encoding antioxidant enzymes or involving in the DNA repair process and the production of some transcription factors. In recent years, many studies have shown the correlation between these genes and the susceptibility of lung cancer. Each gene has a different role in the tumor development pathway. CYP, UGT, GST, NAT2 (N-acetyltransferase 2) and NQO1(NAD(P)H:quinono oxidoreductase 1) involve in the production of antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant enzymes can detoxificate hydrogen peroxide or ...
Homo sapiens excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 8 (ERCC8), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00001161-R02) - Products - Abnova
Shop tRNA(fMet)-specific endonuclease ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and tRNA(fMet)-specific endonuclease Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
ERCC1 antibody [1C3] (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 1 (includes overlapping antisense sequence)) for FACS, WB. Anti-ERCC1 mAb (GTX84554) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
X-Ray Repair Cross Complementing 1 (XRCC1) plays a role in excision repair of DNA after ionizing irradiation. XRCC1 interacts with human…
Complete information for XRCC5 gene (Protein Coding), X-Ray Repair Cross Complementing 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
a/configure.in +++ b/configure.in @@ -5335,27 +5335,41 @@ if test $MOZ_WIDGET_TOOLKIT = gonk - MOZ_GONK_MEDIACODEC=1 AC_SUBST(MOZ_GONK_MEDIACODEC) fi dnl ======================================================== dnl = EME support dnl ======================================================== -MOZ_ARG_DISABLE_BOOL(eme, -[ --disable-eme Disable support for Encrypted Media Extensions], - MOZ_EME=, - MOZ_EME=1) - +MOZ_ARG_ENABLE_STRING(eme, +[ --enable-eme[=adobe] Enable support for Encrypted Media Extensions ], + MOZ_EME_ARGS=$enableval) + +if test $MOZ_EME_ARGS; then + if test $MOZ_EME_ARGS = no; then + dnl EME explicitly disabled with --disable-eme + MOZ_EME= + elif test $MOZ_EME_ARGS = yes; then + dnl EME explicitly enabled with --enable-eme + MOZ_EME=1 + else + dnl EME explicitly enabled with --enable-eme=,args, + MOZ_EME=1 + MOZ_EME_MODULES=`echo $MOZ_EME_ARGS , sed -e s/,/ /g` + fi +fi + +AC_SUBST_SET(MOZ_EME_MODULES) if test -n $MOZ_EME; then if test -z $MOZ_FMP4; then ...
Complete information for ERCC8 gene (Protein Coding), ERCC Excision Repair 8, CSA Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
EME2 forms a heterodimer with MUS81 (MIM 606591) that functions as an XPF (MIM 278760)-type flap/fork endonuclease in DNA repair (Ciccia et al., 2007 [PubMed 17289582]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
ERCC8兔多克隆抗体(ab107290)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
1. Olaussen KA, Dunant A, Fouret P, Brambilla E, Andre F, Haddad V. et al. DNA repair by ERCC1 in non-small-cell lung cancer and cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The New England journal of medicine. 2006;355:983-91 2. Hubner RA, Riley RD, Billingham LJ, Popat S. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) status and lung cancer outcomes: a meta-analysis of published studies and recommendations. PLoS One. 2011;6:e25164 3. Allingham-Hawkins D, Lea A, Levine S. ERCC1 Expression Analysis to Guide Therapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. PLoS Curr. 2010;2:RRN1202 4. Azuma K, Komohara Y, Sasada T, Terazaki Y, Ikeda J, Hoshino T. et al. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 predicts progression-free and overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:1336-43 5. Malottki K, Popat S, Deeks JJ, Riley RD, Nicholson AG, Billingham L. Problems of variable biomarker evaluation in stratified medicine research-A case ...
Mung bean nuclease is a nuclease derived from sprouts of the mung bean Vigna radiata that removes nucleotides in a step-wise manner from single-stranded DNA molecules (ssDNA) and is used in biotechnological applications to remove such ssDNA from a mixture also containing double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). This enzyme is useful for transcript mapping, removal of single-stranded regions in DNA hybrids or single-stranded overhangs produced by restriction enzymes, etc. The enzyme degrades single-stranded DNA or RNA to nucleoside 5-monophosphates, but does not digest double-stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA, or DNA / RNA hybrids. Mung Bean Nuclease catalyzes the specific degradation of single-stranded DNA or RNA, and produces mono and oligonucleotides carrying a 5′-P terminus. Mung bean nuclease has a theoretical molecular weight of 39 kDa. Mung bean nuclease has a stringent single-stranded specificity for DNA or RNA and produces 5-phosphoryl oligo- and mononucleotides. Mung bean nuclease requires ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deficiency of DNA repair nuclease ERCC1-XPF promotes prostate cancer progression in a tissue recombination model. AU - Matoka, Derek J.. AU - Yao, Veronica. AU - Harya, Diana S.. AU - Gregg, Jennifer L.. AU - Robinson, Andria R.. AU - Niedernhofer, Laura J.. AU - Parwani, Anil V.. AU - Maier, Christoph. AU - Bacich, Dean J.. PY - 2012/8/1. Y1 - 2012/8/1. N2 - BACKGROUND The excision repair cross complementing (ERCC1) gene product plays a vital role in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and DNA interstrand crosslink repair pathways, which protect the genome from mutations and chromosomal aberrations, respectively. Genetic deletion of Ercc1 in the mouse causes dramatically accelerated aging. We examined the effect of Ercc1 deletion in the development of prostate cancer in a prostate recapitulation model as Ercc1 deficient mice die within four weeks of birth. METHODS Prostate tissues from Ercc1 -/- mice or wild-type littermates were combined with embryonic rat urogenital ...
Currently, quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue is a critical tool for research and is not well established in routine diagnostics. Therefore, continuous improvement in mathematics and statistics associated with interpreting final accurate and reproducible results are fundamental. This project describes and discusses specificity and sensitivity with respect to intra- and inter-assay variances by use of a commercial Human Reference RNA and individual RNA derived from colorectal cancer patients (n = 25). All patients were treated with 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) and a concomitant pelvic radiotherapy (50.4 Gy). Quality assessment of target tissue samples was evaluated by clinicopathological findings and optical density (OD) measurements. We analyzed the steady state messenger RNA (mRNA) expression level of a small panel of cancer relevant genes, excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M1 (RRM1),
Structure-specific endonucleases (SSEs) have key roles in DNA replication, recombination and repair, and emerging roles in transcription. These enzymes have specificity for DNA secondary structure rather than for sequence, and therefore their activity must be precisely controlled to ensure genome stability. In this Review, we discuss how SSEs are controlled as part of genome maintenance pathways in eukaryotes, with an emphasis on the elaborate mechanisms that regulate the members of the major SSE families - including the xeroderma pigmentosum group F-complementing protein (XPF) and MMS and UV-sensitive protein 81 (MUS81)-dependent nucleases, and the flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), XPG and XPG-like endonuclease 1 (GEN1) enzymes - during processes such as DNA adduct repair, Holliday junction processing and replication stress ...
Label-free biosensors (LFBs) have demonstrated a great potential in cost-effective applications, and most of the DNA-based LFBs are based on the principle of binding-induced structural transformation. This review is a collection of the latest reported studies, which have employed structure-selective nucleic Recent Review Articles
ERCC2 - ERCC2 Mutant (L485P), Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 2 (ERCC2), transcript variant 1 as transfection-ready DNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The endo-exonuclease is an enzyme that possesses 5′-3′ exonucleolytic activity with dsDNA and endonucleolytic activity with ssDNA (17, 20, 34, 35). It acts early in the repair of DNA DSB (23). The expression of the endo-exonuclease in cancer cells is much higher than in normal primary cells (Fig. 1 and Table 1) and may be related to the rapid growth of the cancer cell. The expression of the endo-exonuclease is high during the fast-growing phase of the cell cycle and is expressed at very low levels at the stationary phase of the cell cycle (17, 18, 25, 36). In addition, the biological activity of the endo-exonuclease in transfected mammalian cells is shown by an increase in nuclease activity and increased resistance to DNA-damaging agents as well as elevated levels of recombination capacity (22, 37). These unique features of the endo-exonuclease suggest that it might be a target for drug development for the homologous recombination pathway of the DNA DSB repair and cancer. In a search for an ...
ERCC4 is a protein designated as DNA repair endonuclease XPF that in humans is encoded by the ERCC4 gene Together with ERCC1 ERCC4 forms the ERCC1XPF enzym
This gene encodes a member of the RecA/Rad51-related protein family that participates in homologous recombination to maintain chromosome stability and repair DNA damage. This gene functionally complements Chinese hamster irs1SF, a repair-deficient mutant that exhibits hypersensitivity to a number of different DNA-damaging agents and is chromosomally unstable. A rare microsatellite polymorphism in this gene is associated with cancer in patients of varying radiosensitivity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the most common chemotherapy agent of CRC. A high level of X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) in cancer cells has been associated with the drug resistance occurrence. Moreover, the activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been indicated to regulate the cancer cell survival. Thus, this study was aimed to examine whether XRCC1 plays a role in the 5-FU/AMPK agonist (AICAR)-induced cytotoxic effect on CRC and the underlying mechanisms. Human HCT-116 colorectal cells were used in this study. It was shown that 5-FU increases the XRCC1 expression in HCT-116 cells and then affects the cell survival through CXCR4/Akt signaling. Moreover, 5-FU combined with AICAR further result in more survival inhibition in HCT-116 cells, accompanied with reduced CXCR4/Akt signaling activity and XRCC1 expression. These results elucidate the role and mechanism of XRCC1 in the
Similar to DNA repair endonuclease UVH1 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Ultraviolet hypersensitive 1) (AtRAD1) (DNA excision repair protein XP-F homolog ...
The SCOP classification for the Homing endonucleases superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
The SCOP classification for the Homing endonucleases superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
Protocols.io also provides an interactive version of this protocol where you can discover and share optimizations with the research community
ERCC4, 0.1 ml. The protein encoded by this gene forms a complex with ERCC1 and is involved in the 5 incision made during nucleotide excision repair.
Authors: Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Folkers, Gert; Zheng, Chao; Das, Devashish; Grinstead, Jeffrey; Kaptein, Robert; Boelens, Rolf. Citation: Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Folkers, Gert; Zheng, Chao; Das, Devashish; Grinstead, Jeffrey; Kaptein, Robert; Boelens, Rolf. Analysis of the XPA and ssDNA-binding surfaces on the central domain of human ERCC1 reveals evidence for subfunctionalization Nucleic Acids Res. 35, 5789-5798 (2007).. Assembly members: ...
The DST strategy brings together both existing and new methodologies, such as the Ub fusion technique (22, 23); the split-Ub assay (24); ZF DNA-recognizing proteins (43-45); restriction nucleases that are derived either from engineered ZF proteins (37-41) or from homing endonucleases (35, 36) and that are configured (in DST designs) as split nucleases; DNA sequence-enabled assembly of a split protein (31); a new arrangement of split Ub-type domains in a polypeptide chain that enables a double proteolytic cleavage once two chains associate in vivo; and a new feedback mechanism that receives input from a circuit operating as a Boolean OR gate and involves the activation of split nucleases, which destroy the DST vector in normal (nontarget) cells (Figs. 1-3). A certainty that an HD in a cancer cell will be present in that cell and its progeny for as long as those cells endure may lead to a changed perspective on the nature of curative therapies. In what follows, I shall assume, for the sake of ...
DB-ID: Database ID of variant, grouping multiple observations of the same variant together, starting with the HGNC gene symbol, followed by an underscore (_) and a six digit number (e.g. DMD_012345). _000000 is used for variants where DNA was not analysed (change predicted from RNA analysis), variants seen in animal models or variants not seen in humans but functionally tested in vitro ...
GO Process. tRNA splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation onclick=removeFacet(GO Process/tRNA splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation)> GO Process tRNA splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation ...
1EVX: Conformational changes and cleavage by the homing endonuclease I-PpoI: a critical role for a leucine residue in the active site.
Our observations suggest that variances happen in the processing and the creation of specific fragments that could give an crucial, under-examined system for
Eme in Marathi - चे उपयोग, डोसेज, दुष्परिणाम, फायदे, अभिक्रिया आणि सूचना शोधून काढा - Eme upyog, dosage, dushparinam, fayde, abhikriya ani suchna
He discusses ligation which is related to the fact that there are particular enzymes (ligases) which assist the ends of the DNA strands to join. The process is called ligation. He mentions the Ku factors and DNA-PKcs, which are shown in the graphic in my last post. A heterodimer is a macromolecular complex composed of two different macromolecules. Endonucleases are enzymes which cleave certain chemical bonds. Try to not get bogged down in the jargon ...
The single washing and drying step in the NucleoSpin Plasmid QuickPure miniprep procedure effectively removes endonucleases from the final plasmid miniprep.
Homing endonucleases[edit]. Homing endonucleases can recognize a target sequence, cut it, and then use its own sequence as a ... CRISPR gene drive and homing endonuclease systems[edit]. CRISPR allows the construction of artificial homing endonucleases, ... A phenomenon closely related to segregation distortion is homing endonucleases.[50][51][52] These are enzymes that cut DNA in a ... Homing endonucleases insert themselves into the genome at the site homologous to the first insertion site, resulting in a ...
Roberts, RJ (1976). "Restriction endonucleases". CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem. 4 (2): 123-64. doi:10.3109/10409237609105456. PMID ...
... a restriction enzyme Homing endonuclease List of homing endonuclease cutting sites List of restriction enzyme cutting sites ... and the DNA-free endonuclease". In Alfred M. Pingoud (ed.). Restriction Endonucleases (Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology, ... Type IIG restriction endonucleases (e.g., RM.Eco57I) do have a single subunit, like classical Type II restriction enzymes, but ... Naturally occurring restriction endonucleases are categorized into four groups (Types I, II III, and IV) based on their ...
Chirikjian, Jack G. (1987). Restriction Endonucleases and Methylases. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-01285-2. "Michael McClelland - ...
Digest with appropriate restriction endonucleases. The region can be digested to remove elements which are thought to not be ...
Homing endonuclease genes (HEG) convert their rival allele into a copy of themselves, and are thus inherited by nearly all ... They achieve this by encoding an endonuclease which breaks the rival allele. This break is repaired by using the sequence of ... The allele without the HEGs are cleaved by the homing endonuclease and the double-strand break are repaired by homologous ... HEGs encode sequence-specific endonucleases. The recognition sequence (RS) is 15-30 bp long and usually occurs once in the ...
... are both endonucleases and deoxyribonucleases. They catalyze cleavage of the phosphodiester bonds in DNA ... Examples include: DNA restriction enzymes micrococcal nuclease Ribonuclease UvrABC endonuclease Endodeoxyribonucleases at the ...
To achieve this behavior, endonuclease gene drives consist of two nested elements: either a homing endonuclease or a RNA-guided ... When the endonuclease cuts the target sequence, the cell repairs the damage by replacing the original sequence with homologous ... At the molecular level, an endonuclease gene drive works by cutting a chromosome at a specific site that does not encode the ... However, homing endonucleases are sequence-specific. Altering their specificity to target other sequences of interest remains a ...
Specific restriction endonucleases are used to digest DNA. The RFLP molecular marker is specific to a single fragment. Along ... DNA is first digested with endonucleases. The restriction fragments are then ligated together. A molecular marker is then ... Minisatellites Similar to RFLP, this technique also uses restriction endonucleases to digest the genomic DNA. Minisatellites ...
R. A. Bowen; Laura Austgen; Melissa Rouge (20 February 2000). "Restriction Endonucleases and DNA Modifying Enzymes". Nucleases ... a subset of endonucleases). Some are fairly indiscriminate about the DNA sequence at which they cut, while others, including ...
Restriction Endonucleases (REs) and Their Use. Elsevier. 1986-01-01. ISBN 978-0-444-01082-7. Fredens, Julius; Wang, Kaihang; de ... Soon after the discovery of restriction endonucleases and ligases, the field of genetics began using these molecular tools to ...
Endonuclease. Endodeoxyribonuclease. *Deoxyribonuclease I. *Deoxyribonuclease II. *Deoxyribonuclease IV. *Restriction enzyme. * ...
Endonuclease. Endodeoxyribonuclease. *Deoxyribonuclease I. *Deoxyribonuclease II. *Deoxyribonuclease IV. *Restriction enzyme; ...
Endonuclease. Endodeoxyribonuclease. *Deoxyribonuclease I. *Deoxyribonuclease II. *Deoxyribonuclease IV. *Restriction enzyme; ...
Endonuclease. Endodeoxyribonuclease. *Deoxyribonuclease I. *Deoxyribonuclease II. *Deoxyribonuclease IV. *Restriction enzyme. * ...
Endonuclease. Endodeoxyribonuclease. *Deoxyribonuclease I. *Deoxyribonuclease II. *Deoxyribonuclease IV. *Restriction enzyme. * ...
... may be degraded by endonucleases. The linkers are short double stranded DNA segments which are formed of ... These are then treated with restriction endonuclease enzyme to produce cohesive ends of DNA fragments. The commonly used ...
Dou D, Inagati K, Kita K, Ohshima A, Hiraoka N, Kishimoto N, Sugio T, Tano T (September 1989). "Restriction endonuclease AfaI ... de Waard A, Korsuize J, van Beveren CP, Maat J (December 1978). "A new sequence-specific endonuclease from Anabaena cylindrica ... Roberts RJ, Myers PA, Morrison A, Murray K (March 1976). "A specific endonuclease from Arthrobacter luteus". J Mol Biol. 102 (1 ... Bilcock DT, Daniels LE, Bath AJ, Halford SE (December 1999). "Reactions of type II restriction endonucleases with 8-base pair ...
This flap is then cleaved by endonucleases. At the replication fork, the gap in DNA after removal of the flap is sealed by DNA ...
mcrA RNAs are often found upstream of genes that encode restriction endonucleases of the mcrA type. These endonucleases are ...
"Analysis of baculovirus genomes with restriction endonucleases". Virology. 89 (2): 517-527. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(78)90193-9. ...
The endonuclease acts as a homodimer, which facilitates the cleavage of both strands. Cleavage occurs at a defined position ... Endonucleases cleave internal/non-terminal phosphodiester bonds. They do so only after recognising specific sequences in DNA ... Instead of working as a complex, the methyltransferase and endonuclease are encoded as two separate proteins and act ... Nathans D, Smith HO (1975). "Restriction endonucleases in the analysis and restructuring of dna molecules". Annu. Rev. Biochem ...
DNA methyltransferase Kessler C, Manta V (August 1990). "Specificity of restriction endonucleases and DNA modification ... Yuan R (1981). "Structure and mechanism of multifunctional restriction endonucleases". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 50: 285- ...
Both UV endonuclease V from bacteriophage T4 (UV endonuclease V) and UV endonuclease III from E. coli catalyze N- glycosylase ... phage-T4 UV endonuclease; Micrococcus luteus UV endonuclease; AP site-DNA 5'-phosphomonoester-lyase; and X-ray endonuclease III ... A homolog of endonuclease III, human endonuclease III homolog 1, or hNTH1 functions similarly in humans as its homolog does in ... Bacteriophage T4 and Micrococcus luteus UV endonucleases were actually shown not to be under the class of "endonuclease," but ...
Pingoud A, Jeltsch A (September 2001). "Structure and function of type II restriction endonucleases". Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (18 ... Kessler C, Manta V (August 1990). "Specificity of restriction endonucleases and DNA modification methyltransferases a review ( ... homing endonucleases and their genes". Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (7): 1805-12. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg274. PMC 152790. PMID 12654995. ...
It is also possible to fuse a protein constructed in this way with the catalytic domain of an endonuclease in order to induce a ... RNA-guided endonucleases:clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats associated Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) are a new tool ... In particular CRISPR/Cas9 engineered endonucleases allows the use of multiple guide RNAs for simultaneous Knockouts (KO) in one ... Meganucleases, discovered in the late 1980s, are enzymes in the endonuclease family which are characterized by their capacity ...
"Catalytic domain of restriction endonuclease BmrI as a cleavage module for engineering endonucleases with novel substrate ... Sukackaite R, Grazulis S, Bochtler M, Siksnys V (March 2008). "The recognition domain of the BpuJI restriction endonuclease in ... Pingoud A, Jeltsch A (September 2001). "Structure and function of type II restriction endonucleases". Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (18 ... Sukackaite R, Lagunavicius A, Stankevicius K, Urbanke C, Venclovas C, Siksnys V (March 2007). "Restriction endonuclease BpuJI ...
Mushtaq R, Naeem S, Sohail A, Riazuddin S (July 1993). "BseRI a novel restriction endonuclease from a Bacillus species which ... Mok YK, Clark DR, Kam KM, Shaw PC (May 1991). "BsiY I, a novel thermophilic restriction endonuclease that recognizes 5' ... Repin VE, Babkin IV, Tereshchenko TA (April 1993). "Bse118 I--a new isoschizomer of restriction endonuclease Cfr10 I, isolated ... Degtyarev SK, Rechkunova NI, Kolyhalov AA, Dedkov VS, Zhilkin PA (October 1990). "II-Q restriction endonucleases--new class of ...
Schildkraut I, Lynch J, Morgan R (July 1987). "The cleavage site for the restriction endonucleases BanI and HgiC I is 5' ...G ... Newman M, Strzelecka T, Dorner LF, Schildkraut I, Aggarwal AK (August 1995). "Structure of Bam HI endonuclease bound to DNA: ... Viadiu H, Aggarwal AK (October 1998). "The role of metals in catalysis by the restriction endonuclease BamHI". Nat Struct Biol ... Sears LE, Zhou B, Aliotta JM, Morgan RD, Kong H (September 1996). "BaeI, another unusual BcgI-like restriction endonuclease". ...
Structural studies of endonucleases have revealed a similar architecture for the active site with the residues following the ... BglII's active site is similar to other endonucleases', following the sequence Asp-(X)9-Glu-X-Gln. In its active site there ... Restriction endonucleases play a very important role in modern molecular cloning techniques. Because of their unique ... bound enzyme have yet to be observed in any other restriction endonuclease and may possibly represent a novel mechanism for ...
Home Products Restriction Endonuclease Products Restriction Endonucleases Restriction Endonucleases. Product Listing Product ... Restriction Endonucleases includes these subcategories: Restriction Endonucleases. FAQs for Restriction Endonucleases *How do I ... Where can I find a complete list of Restriction Endonucleases FAQ?. Protocols for Restriction Endonucleases *Double Digest ... Optimizing Restriction Endonuclease Reactions. Other Tools & Resources Brochures * CutSmart Trifold The CutSmart™ Trifold ...
Type II restriction endonucleases (REs) are highly sequence-specific compared with other classes of nucleases. PD-(D/E)XK ... Restriction endonucleases: natural and directed evolution.. Gupta R1, Capalash N, Sharma P. ...
Endonucleases play a role in DNA repair. AP endonuclease, specifically, catalyzes the incision of DNA exclusively at AP sites, ... An example of a Type I restriction endonuclease. Furthermore, there exist DNA/RNA non-specific endonucleases, such as those ... E. coli cells contain two AP endonucleases: endonuclease IV (endoIV) and exonuclease III (exoIII) while in eukaryotes, there is ... Exonuclease Restriction endonuclease Nuclease Ribonuclease AP endonuclease HUH-tag "Properties of Exonucleases and ...
Homing endonucleases : methods and protocols. [David R Edgell;] -- Homing Endonucleases: Methods and Protocols aims at ... providing molecular biologists with a comprehensive resource to identify and characterize homing endonucleases from genomic ... Endonucleases a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Endonucleases"@en ;. . ... Mapping homing endonuclease cleavage sites using in vitro generated protein / Richard P. Bonocora and Marlene Belfort --. ...
The endonuclease activity of FENs was initially identified as acting on a DNA duplex which has a single-stranded 5 overhang on ... Flap endonucleases (FENs, also known as 5 nucleases in older references) are a class of nucleolytic enzymes that act as both 5 ... Flap endonucleases have been used in biotechnology, for example the Taqman PCR assay and the Invader Assay for mutation and ... Flap endonucleases have been identified in eukaryotes, prokaryotes, archaea, and some viruses. Organisms can have more than one ...
The crystal structure of bacteriophage T4 endonuclease V reveals an enzyme composed of a single compact domain classified as an ... Site-directed deletion mutagenesis within the T4 endonuclease V gene: dispensable sequences within putative loop regions.. ... One such enzyme is T4 endonuclease V, an enzyme responsible for the first step of a pyrimidine-dimer-specific excision-repair ...
1. restriction endonuclease, restriction nuclease, restriction enzyme, endonuclease. usage: any of the enzymes that cut nucleic ...
While Endonuclease VIII is similar to Endonuclease III, Endonuclease VIII has β and ? lyase activity while Endonuclease III has ... Endonuclease VIII from E. coli acts as both an N-glycosylase and an AP-lyase. The N-glycosylase activity releases damaged ... Damaged bases recognized and removed by Endonuclease VIII include urea, 5, 6- dihydroxythymine, thymine glycol, 5-hydroxy-5- ... While Endonuclease VIII is similar to Endonuclease III, Endonuclease VIII has β and δ lyase activity while Endonuclease III has ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Conferring operator specificity on restriction endonucleases Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... recognition sequences well beyond the present 8-base pair limit by combining the specificity of the restriction endonuclease ...
Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. M Nei and W H Li ...
In addition, a method of synthesis of the restriction endonuclease and its use are claimed. ... synthesized from a restriction endonuclease that has one C-terminal domain and one N-terminal domain and two DNA binding sites ... A restriction endonuclease having one DNA binding site is proposed, ... A restriction endonuclease having one DNA binding site is proposed, synthesized from a restriction endonuclease that has one C- ...
endonuclease S1 (thing). See all of endonuclease S1, no other writeups in this node. ...
restriction endonuclease synonyms, restriction endonuclease pronunciation, restriction endonuclease translation, English ... Noun 1. restriction endonuclease - any of the enzymes that cut nucleic acid at specific restriction sites and produce ... restriction endonuclease. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ThesaurusAntonymsRelated Words ... restriction endonuclease - any of the enzymes that cut nucleic acid at specific restriction sites and produce restriction ...
... endonuclease-initiated nucleotide incision repair (NIR). In the BER pathway, an AP endonuclease cleaves DNA at AP sites and 3- ... The majority of characterized AP endonucleases possess classic BER activities, and approximately a half of them can also have a ... Taken together, these data show that NIR is an evolutionarily conserved function in the Xth family of AP endonucleases. ... Structural comparison of AP endonucleases from the exonuclease III family reveals new amino acid residues in human AP ...
Temperature: Most endonucleases optimally digest the target DNA at 37 °C. However, there are some exceptions with lower or ... These enzymes make one incision on each of the two strands of DNA and are also called restriction endonucleases.4, 5 ... The DNA of interest, whose structure is to be determined, is cleaved with a series of restriction endonucleases to produce DNA ... DNA mapping, also known as restriction mapping, involves the use of restriction endonucleases to obtain structural information ...
Mus musculus MUS81 structure-specific endonuclease subunit (Mus81), mRNA Mus musculus MUS81 structure-specific endonuclease ... Mus musculus MUS81 structure-specific endonuclease subunit (Mus81), mRNA. NCBI Reference Sequence: NM_027877.3 ...
... Julian Wood woodj at acs.ucalgary.ca Tue Aug 1 14:34:07 EST 1995 *Previous ... Next message: Endonuclease activity: Crude extraction from E.coli * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ... Next message: Endonuclease activity: Crude extraction from E.coli * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ... This is in favour of an active endonuclease. Im looking for a quick method to make a crude extraction containing the ...
Previous message: Endonuclease activity: Crude extraction from E.coli *Next message: Endonuclease activity: Crude extraction ... Previous message: Endonuclease activity: Crude extraction from E.coli *Next message: Endonuclease activity: Crude extraction ... This is in favour of an , active endonuclease. , , Im looking for a quick method to make a crude extraction containing the , ... endonuclease (and possibly get rid of non-specific endonuclease activity). , , The extract will be used to test for the ...
Thayer MM, Ahern H, Xing D, Cunningham RP and Tainer JA (1995) Novel DNA binding motifs in the DNA repair enzyme endonuclease ... Mol CD, Hosfield DJ and Tainer JA (2000) Abasic site recognition by two apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease families in DNA base ... Sander, Miriam, and Wilson, Samuel H(May 2005) Base Excision Repair, AP Endonucleases and DNA Glycosylases. In: eLS. John Wiley ... Base Excision Repair, AP Endonucleases and DNA Glycosylases. Miriam Sander, Page One Editorial Services, Durham, North Carolina ...
AP endonuclease) is known to have two distinct functional domains. One domain is responsible for regulating ... A mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (AP endonuclease) is known to have two distinct functional domains. One domain ... Cunningham, R.P., Saporito, S.M., Spitzer, S.G., Weiss, B. (1986). Endonuclease IV (nfo) mutant of Escherichia coli. J. ... Takiguchi, Y., Chen, D.J. Genomic structure of the mouse apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease gene. Mammalian Genome 5, 717-722 ( ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... Q Tashiro 15 and Rachel Rhee 15 Contents:. I. Introduction. II. General Structure III. Base- ... and ultraviolet damage endonuclease repair (UVDE). The ultraviolet damage endonuclease repair system distinguishes itself by ... Structure of the DNA repair enzyme endonuclease IV and its DNA complex: Double-nucleotide flipping at abasic sites and three- ... Crystal structure of the DNA repair enzyme ultraviolet damage endonuclease. 2007;15:1316-1324.. 3. Siede W, Doetsch PW, Wah Kow ...
... Bioessays. 1995 Jul;17(7):609 ... DSB-mediated recombination can be initiated synchronously by the conditional expression of two site-specific endonucleases, HO ...
"The complex between a four-way DNA junction and T7 endonuclease I.". Declais A.C., Fogg J.M., Freeman A.D., Coste F., Hadden J. ... DNA-binding, Endonuclease, Hydrolase, Nuclease. Biological process. Bacterial host gene expression shutoff by virus, ... "The importance of the N-terminus of T7 endonuclease I in the interaction with DNA junctions.". Freeman A.D., Declais A.C., ... "An endonuclease specific for single-stranded DNA selectively damages the genomic DNA and induces the SOS response.". ...
The influenza virus PA endonuclease is an attractive target for the development of novel anti-influenza virus therapeutics, ... Moreover, docking studies of PA endonuclease with compounds 1 and 2 were performed, to further analyse the possible mechanism ... Influenza virus Thiosemicarbazone Endonuclease Metal chelation Antiviral Electronic supplementary material. The online version ... The influenza virus PA endonuclease is an attractive target for the development of novel anti-influenza virus therapeutics, ...
The kinetic mechanism of EcoRI endonuclease. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 31896 (1999). doi:10.1074/jbc.274.45.31896 pmid:10542216. ... On the divalent metal ion dependence of DNA cleavage by restriction endonucleases of the EcoRI family. J. Mol. Biol. 393, 140 ( ... Sequence- and structure-specific RNA processing by a CRISPR endonuclease. Science 329, 1355 (2010). doi:10.1126/science.1192272 ... Cas9 is a DNA endonuclease guided by two RNAs. Cas9, the hallmark protein of type II systems, has been hypothesized to be ...
The ability of endonuclease V to recognize both deoxyinosine and deoxyxanthosine suggests that endonuclease V is important for ... Deoxyxanthosine in DNA is repaired by Escherichia coli endonuclease V Mutat Res. 2000 Mar 20;459(2):109-14. doi: 10.1016/s0921- ... Endonuclease V-catalyzed cleavage of DNA containing deoxyxanthosine is a result of its ability to recognize the altered base ... Endonuclease V cleaves DNA containing deoxyxanthosine at the second phosphodiester bond 3 to deoxyxanthosine, generating a 3- ...
DNA endonuclease RBBP8. DNA endonuclease RBBP8, EC 3.1.-.- (CtBP-interacting protein, CtIP) (Retinoblastoma-binding protein 8, ... DNA endonuclease RBBP8Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p ... tr,J3QLW6,J3QLW6_HUMAN DNA endonuclease RBBP8 (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=RBBP8 PE=1 SV=1 ...
What is phosphate yielding endonucleases? Meaning of phosphate yielding endonucleases medical term. What does phosphate ... Looking for online definition of phosphate yielding endonucleases in the Medical Dictionary? phosphate yielding endonucleases ... redirected from phosphate yielding endonucleases). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. phosphate. [fos´fāt] any ... phosphate yielding endonucleases. a class of ribonuclease involved in the usually fairly rapid turnover of RNA in the cell that ...
  • Mol CD, Hosfield DJ and Tainer JA (2000) Abasic site recognition by two apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease families in DNA base excision repair: the 3′ ends justify the means. (els.net)
  • A mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (AP endonuclease) is known to have two distinct functional domains. (springer.com)
  • Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA for an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease from HeLa cells. (springer.com)
  • Isolation of cDNA clones encoding a human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease that corrects DNA repair and mutagenesis defects in E. coli xth (exonuclease III) mutants. (springer.com)
  • The role of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease DNA repair gene in endometriosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1) functions in both DNA repair and redox signaling, making it an attractive emerging therapeutic target. (jimmunol.org)
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1) 3 is a multifunctional protein containing a redox-sensitive domain and a DNA repair domain ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The role of genotype/phenotype at apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease Rs1130409 in renal cell carcinoma. (medworm.com)
  • In this study, we aim at evaluation the role of the Asp148Glu (rs1130409) variant at apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) gene in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and the contribution of different genotypes to its transcriptional mRNA levels. (medworm.com)
  • 1,2 Among the endogenous mechanisms that repair oxidative DNA damage is the ubiquitously expressed apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), also known as redox factor-1 (ref-1). (ahajournals.org)
  • We studied the expression of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), a key multifunctional protein involved in DNA base excision repair in RB. (bmj.com)
  • PURPOSE: The DNA repair enzyme, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) plays a role in base excision repair pathway involved in repairing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site after oxidative stress. (koreamed.org)
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein and its role in tumor biology has attracted considerable attention. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The multi-functional apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) DNA repair and redox signaling protein has been shown to have a role in cancer growth and survival, however, little has been investigated concerning its role in inflammation. (iupui.edu)
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (Ap endo) is a key DNA repair enzyme that cleaves DNA at cytotoxic abasic sites caused by alkylating agents and radiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Homing Endonucleases: Methods and Protocols aims at providing molecular biologists with a comprehensive resource to identify and characterize homing endonucleases from genomic sequence, to deduce the biological basis of binding and cleavage specificity, as well as to provide protocols to redesign endonuclease target specificity for genome-editing applications. (worldcat.org)
  • Ultimately, there are three categories of restriction endonucleases that relatively contribute to the cleavage of specific sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • A restriction endonuclease typically requires a recognition site and a cleavage pattern (typically of nucleotide bases: A, C, G, T). If the recognition site is outside the region of the cleavage pattern, then the restriction endonuclease is referred to as Type I. If the recognition sequence overlaps with the cleavage sequence, then the restriction endonuclease restriction enzyme is Type II. (wikipedia.org)
  • A restriction endonuclease having one DNA binding site is proposed, synthesized from a restriction endonuclease that has one C-terminal domain and one N-terminal domain and two DNA binding sites, by proteolytic cleavage into the two domains or by cloning the gene segment that codes for the domains and. (google.com)
  • 35) Danna, K and D Nathans, 'Specific cleavage of simian virus 40 DNA by restriction endonuclease of Hemophilus influenzae', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The APE1-T268D mutant showed a drastically decreased NIR activity and an inverted Mg(2+) dependence of the AP site cleavage activity, which is in line with the presence of an aspartic residue at the equivalent position among other known NIR-deficient AP endonucleases. (rcsb.org)
  • Products of cleavage by AP endonuclease have 3′‐hydroxyl and 5′‐deoxyribosephosphate termini (lower right) and products of cleavage by AP lyase have 5′‐phosphate and 3′‐deoxyribosephosphate termini (upper right). (els.net)
  • DNA binding and cleavage selectivity of the Escherichia coli DNA G:T-mismatch endonuclease (vsr protein). (yale.edu)
  • Our study reveals a family of endonucleases that use dual-RNAs for site-specific DNA cleavage and highlights the potential to exploit the system for RNA-programmable genome editing. (sciencemag.org)
  • Endonuclease V-catalyzed cleavage of DNA containing deoxyxanthosine is a result of its ability to recognize the altered base and not due to its mismatch-specific endonuclease activity. (nih.gov)
  • The nuclear auto-digestion assay for DNase catalyzing internucleosomal DNA cleavage revealed that nuclei from neuronal differentiated PC12 cells contain acidic and neutral endonucleases, while nuclei from undifferentiated PC12 cells have only acidic endonuclease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast, simple electrophoretic patterns are obtained after genomic DNA digestion by low-frequency-cleavage restriction endonucleases and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, making it easier to compare numerous strains from the same species. (asm.org)
  • Here, we assessed whether one potential host factor, flap structure-specific endonuclease 1 (FEN1), is involved in cleavage of the flap-like structure in rcDNA. (bionity.com)
  • Deoxynucleoside phosphorothioates were introduced into the deoxyoxanosine-containing oligonucleotide probes in order to increase the cleavage accuracy of endonuclease V on double-stranded DNA templates. (rsc.org)
  • In other experiments, cleavage of S6G-containing DNA by some but not all restriction endonucleases progressed poorly, compared with the control guanine-containing DNA, independently of the location of S6G at recognition or cleavage sites, as previously observed by Iwaniec et al. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Consistently, in vitro endonuclease assays showed that flupyranochromene exerts its inhibitory effects by blocking endonucleolytic cleavage by the PA subunit of viral RNA polymerase complex. (flutrackers.com)
  • The data are assumed to have been obtained by restriction endonuclease digestion of the segments, from which the numbers and frequencies of the cleavage sites in the sample are determined. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cleavage by EcoRI endonuclease under conditions reducing specificity was examined using steady-state kinetics to determine the hierarchy of preference among sequences other than the canonical, GAATTC. (illinois.edu)
  • A novel fluorescence-based approach was used to track the progress of the cleavage of short synthetic DNA oligonucleotides by restriction endonucleases in real time. (tufts.edu)
  • Engineering of designer homing endonucleases has set the stage for genome editing of complex eukaryotic genomes with a broad range of potential applications including targeted gene knockouts in model organisms and gene therapy in humans, making this book a valuable resource for future research. (worldcat.org)
  • Site-directed deletion mutagenesis within the T4 endonuclease V gene: dispensable sequences within putative loop regions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This study reports on the isolation and characterization of the genomic structure of the mouse AP endonuclease gene ( Apex ). (springer.com)
  • Human apurinic endonuclease gene (APE): structure and genomic mapping (chromosome 14q11.2-12). (springer.com)
  • Using PCR, we cloned T4 gene 49, which encodes the endonuclease VII, and the inactive mutant gene 49 amE727 into vector pET-lla. (psu.edu)
  • We aimed at evaluating the contribution of the polymorphic variant in apurinic/apyriminidinic endonuclease (APEX1) gene to its mRNA and protein levels and the risk of endometriosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial endonuclease I-SceI creates a double-strand break as the initiating step in the gene conversional transfer of the omega+ intron to omega- DNA. (genetics.org)
  • Both the kinetics and the proportion of deletions and gene conversions are very similar to analogous events initiated by a galactose-inducible HO endonuclease gene. (genetics.org)
  • The endonuclease activity within the viral acidic polymerase (PA) protein is an attractive target for drug discovery due to the critical role it plays in viral gene transcription. (osti.gov)
  • We describe SegF, a novel site-specific DNA endonuclease encoded by gene 69, which is similar to GIY-YIG homing endonucleases of group I introns. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • We have found that gene 6 protein also has flap endonuclease activity. (harvard.edu)
  • Unlike the human homolog of gene 6 protein, the flap endonuclease activity of gene 6 protein is dependent on the length of the 5′-flap. (harvard.edu)
  • This dependency of activity on the length of the 5′-flap may result from the structured helical gateway region of gene 6 protein which differs from that of human flap endonuclease 1. (harvard.edu)
  • This mutant, isolated after one round of hydroxylamine treatment of cells carrying the ecoRIR(E111Q) gene, possesses binding specificity opposite to wild-type EcoRI endonuclease for methylated and unmethylated GAATTC: wild-type binds tightly to the unmethylated site and several orders of magnitude less to the methylated site, but this mutant appears to bind tightly to the methylated site and almost undetectably to the unmethylated. (illinois.edu)
  • In an effort to understand the role of AP endonuclease 1 in early development, we recently explored the effects of knocking down expression of the gene in zebrafish embryos ( 16 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The cDNA of a Drosophila DNA repair gene, AP3, was cloned by screening an embryonic lambda gt11 expression library with an antibody that was originally prepared against a purified human apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease. (asm.org)
  • Whereas gene-targeted clones are nearly undetectable without endonuclease expression, they represent approximately 10% of cells transfected with the I-SceI expression vector. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, a general method was devised that extends the effective recognition sequences well beyond the present 8-base pair limit by combining the specificity of the restriction endonuclease with that of another sequence-specific protein that binds tightly to DNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • To find a novel influenza inhibitor targeting the endonuclease activity of influenza A virus polymerase acidic protein (PA), which is essential for the acquisition of primers for viral mRNA transcription, seven Kampo extracts were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit endonuclease activity of the recombinant PA protein that was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli . (go.jp)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Endonuclease_NS domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • Purification and characterization of the SegA protein of bacteriophage T4, an endonuclease related to proteins encoded by group I introns. (asm.org)
  • In this report, we have purified the SegA protein and characterized this endonuclease activity extensively. (asm.org)
  • The dual-function protein apurinic/apyrmidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1/ref-1) is essential for DNA repair and also governs the reductive activation of many redox-sensitive transcription factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is an essential endonuclease in the base excision repair pathway of oxidatively damaged DNA, as well as having reducing properties that promote the binding of redox-sensitive transcription factors such as activator protein-1 to their cognate DNA sequences. (ahajournals.org)
  • Previously we showed that when zebrafish AP endonuclease protein (ZAP1) level is knocked down, embryos cease dividing after the initial phase of rapid proliferation and die without apoptosis shortly thereafter. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Antibody to a human DNA repair protein allows for cloning of a Drosophila cDNA that encodes an apurinic endonuclease. (asm.org)
  • The N-terminal domain of the arenavirus L protein is an RNA endonuclease essential in mRNA transcription. (harvard.edu)
  • At present, the molecular mechanism underlying DNA substrate specificity of AP endonucleases remains unclear mainly due to the absence of a published structure of the enzyme in complex with a damaged base. (rcsb.org)
  • Restriction endonucleases with new sequence specificity can be developed from enzymes recognizing a partially degenerate sequence. (jove.com)
  • Taken together, our results show that SegA is an endonuclease with a hierarchy of site specificity, and these results are consistent with the insertion of segA DNA into the T4 genome some time after the divergence of the closely consistent with the insertion of segA DNA into the T4 genome some time after the divergence of the closely related T-even phages. (asm.org)
  • To begin the task of altering the specificity of EcoRI endonuclease to recognize sequences other than GAATTC, the bacteriophage P22 challenge-phage assay was adapted for use with both EcoRI and RsrI endonucleases. (illinois.edu)
  • This mutant will now be examined in vitro with respect to its binding properties, and then sequenced to determine the amino acid change, to rationalize the role of the mutation in conferring a reversal of specificity within the context of the crystallographic model now available for the specific EcoRI endonuclease/DNA complex. (illinois.edu)
  • OmniCleave Endonuclease has the same substrate specificity and yields the same products as Benzonase®, an enzyme derived from Serratia marcescens . (lucigen.com)
  • Since chelation may represent a mode of action of such class of molecules, we studied the interaction of two of them, one with and one without biological activity versus the PA enzyme, towards Mg 2+ , the ion that is probably involved in the endonuclease activity of the heterotrimeric influenza polymerase complex. (springer.com)
  • the endonuclease active site, the switch to threonine does affect the polymerase activity of some viruses and influences RO-7 affinity for the PA N target (i.e., the ≈200-residue N-terminal domain of PA). (osti.gov)
  • The flap endonuclease activity provides a mechanism by which RNA-terminated Okazaki fragments, displaced by the lagging strand DNA polymerase, are processed. (harvard.edu)
  • Consequences of 6-thioguanine incorporation into DNA on polymerase, ligase, and endonuclease reactions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Influenza virus RNA polymerase has cap-dependent endonuclease activity that produces capped RNA fragments for priming viral mRNA synthesis. (flutrackers.com)
  • Structural analysis revealed that this compound bears a putative pharmacophore that chelates divalent metal ion(s) present in the endonuclease active site in the PA subunit of the polymerase. (flutrackers.com)
  • Recombinant influenza virus polymerase: requirement of both 5' and 3' viral ends for endonuclease activity. (asm.org)
  • Influenza virus polymerase complexes that were expressed in the absence of genomic viral RNA and nucleoprotein were examined for endonuclease activity and transcriptase ability in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Nuclear extracts of cells that express influenza virus polymerase through recombinant vaccinia virus infection did not display specific endonuclease activity in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Also, full activation of this recombinant viral polymerase is dependent on the presence of both the 3' and 5' ends of the viral genome, as model RNA containing either end alone could not effectively trigger the endonuclease. (asm.org)
  • In brief, the major differences in BER performed by early stage embryos and adults are the absence of DNA polymerase-β, leading to predominance of replicative polymerases, and the presence of backup Mg 2+ -dependent endonuclease activity in early stage embryos. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The commonly used notation for restriction endonucleases is of the form "VwxyZ", where "Vwx" are, in italics, the first letter of the genus and the first two letters of the species where this restriction endonuclease may be found, for example, Escherichia coli, Eco, and Haemophilus influenzae, Hin. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify critical residues involved in the NIR function, we performed biochemical and structural characterization of Bacillus subtilis AP endonuclease ExoA and compared its crystal structure with the structures of other AP endonucleases: Escherichia coli exonuclease III (Xth), human APE1, and archaeal Mth212. (rcsb.org)
  • Endonuclease IV ( nfo ) mutant of Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • In this manuscript, we show that in addition to its known ability to recognize deoxyuridine and deoxyinosine in DNA, Escherichia coli endonuclease V cleaves DNA containing deoxyxanthosine. (nih.gov)
  • Flap endonucleases (FENs, also known as 5' nucleases in older references) are a class of nucleolytic enzymes that act as both 5'-3' exonucleases and structure-specific endonucleases on specialised DNA structures that occur during the biological processes of DNA replication, DNA repair, and DNA recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number and distribution of crossover events are tightly regulated at prophase of meiosis I. The resolution of Holliday junctions by structure-specific endonucleases, including MUS-81, SLX-1, XPF-1 and GEN-1, is one of the main mechanisms proposed for crossover formation. (harvard.edu)
  • Taking advantage of the ease of genetic analysis and high-resolution imaging afforded by C. elegans, we examined crossover designation, frequency, distribution and chromosomal morphology in single, double, triple and quadruple mutants of the structure-specific endonucleases. (harvard.edu)
  • In this thesis we focus on structure-specific endonucleases functioning in resolution of various intermediates arising during DNA replication and the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR). In particular, we describe cooperation of human structure-specific endonuclease MUS81-EME1 with RecQ helicase RECQL5β. (theses.cz)
  • Our studies shed more light into the complicated process and regulation of structure specific endonucleases during DNA repair. (theses.cz)
  • In the BER pathway, an AP endonuclease cleaves DNA at AP sites and 3'-blocking moieties generated by DNA glycosylases, whereas in the NIR pathway, the same AP endonuclease incises DNA 5' to an oxidized base. (rcsb.org)
  • Endonuclease V cleaves DNA containing deoxyxanthosine at the second phosphodiester bond 3' to deoxyxanthosine, generating a 3'-hydroxyl and a 5'-phosphoryl group at the nick site. (nih.gov)
  • To make capped viral mRNA, the PB2 subunit binds the cap structure of cellular mRNAs and then an endonuclease activity, revealed in this work to be located in the PA subunit, cleaves the cellular mRNA producing a 10-13 nucleotide, capped RNA primer. (esrf.eu)
  • The endonuclease activity of PA then cleaves the cellular mRNA which is used in b) by the PB1 subunit as a primer for viral mRNA synthesis. (esrf.eu)
  • Some, such as deoxyribonuclease I, cut DNA relatively nonspecifically (without regard to sequence), while many, typically called restriction endonucleases or restriction enzymes, cleave only at very specific nucleotide sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flap endonucleases have been used in biotechnology, for example the Taqman PCR assay and the Invader Assay for mutation and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidatively damaged DNA bases are substrates for two overlapping repair pathways: DNA glycosylase-initiated base excision repair (BER) and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease-initiated nucleotide incision repair (NIR). (rcsb.org)
  • DNA is most commonly cleansed of damaged bases by repair systems that remove and replace the altered bases including direct reversal, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER), and ultraviolet damage endonuclease repair (UVDE). (kenyon.edu)
  • Restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, recognise specific nucleotide sequences and cut the DNA at these sites. (sciencephoto.com)
  • All of these kits are based on the use of SURVEYOR Nuclease, a mismatch-specific endonuclease shown to recognize and cleave all types of mismatches arising from the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or from small insertions or deletions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the other part of this thesis we have identified and characterized the effect of SUMOylation on yeast structure-specific endonuclease Rad1-Rad10 operating during a HR subpathway and nucleotide excision repair. (theses.cz)
  • The crystal structure of bacteriophage T4 endonuclease V reveals an enzyme composed of a single compact domain classified as an all-alpha structure [ PMID: 7783199 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 2014. "Flap endonuclease of bacteriophage T7: Possible roles in RNA primer removal, recombination and host DNA breakdown. (harvard.edu)
  • Cryonase Cold-Active Nuclease is a recombinant endonuclease originally derived from a psychrophile, Shewanella sp. (clontech.com)
  • In this study, the structure of the recombinant endonuclease IV from M. tuberculosis (MtbEndo IV) was determined at a high resolution of 1.18 Å. (deepdyve.com)
  • Type II restriction endonucleases (REs) are highly sequence-specific compared with other classes of nucleases. (nih.gov)
  • There are over 240 Type II restriction endonucleases (REases) with unique specificities discovered so far from bacterial and viral sources. (patentgenius.com)
  • Type II restriction endonucleases (REase) generally have two subunits forming either a homodimer or a heterodimer. (patentgenius.com)
  • Over 470 prototype Type II restriction endonucleases (REases) are currently known. (springer.com)
  • There are 13023 Endonuclease_NS domains in 12891 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (embl.de)
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing Endonuclease_NS domain. (embl.de)
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with Endonuclease_NS domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
  • EcoRI and RsrI endonucleases present rare opportunities to study the mechanisms by which site-specific DNA-binding proteins identify their substrate sequences among an overwhelming number of other sequences to which they also show significant affinity. (illinois.edu)
  • The C-terminal domain of APE1/ref-1 displays endonuclease activity, whereas the N terminus has the reducing property. (ahajournals.org)
  • The crucial enzyme of this repair pathway in human cells is AP endonuclease 1 (Ape1) which recognizes AP sites in dsDNA and makes a single nick in the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the AP site. (jbsdonline.com)
  • STF-083010 inhibited Ire1 endonuclease activity, without affecting its kinase activity, after endoplasmic reticulum stress both in vitro and in vivo. (ugent.be)
  • The cDNA clone yielded an in vitro translation product of 35,000 daltons, in agreement with the predicted size of the translation product of the only open reading frame of AP3, and identical to the molecular size of an AP endonuclease activity recovered following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Drosophila extracts. (asm.org)
  • For details on NEB's quality controls for restriction endonucleases, visit our Restriction Enzyme Quality page. (neb.com)
  • One such enzyme is T4 endonuclease V, an enzyme responsible for the first step of a pyrimidine-dimer-specific excision-repair pathway [ PMID: 2067549 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • One unit is defined as the amount of enzyme required to cleave 1 pmol of a 34 mer oligonucleotide duplex containing a single AP site* in a total reaction volume of 10 µl in 1 hour at 37°C in 1X Endonuclease VIII Reaction Buffer containing 10 pmol of fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide duplex. (neb.com)
  • 3. A method of cleaving a DNA comprising cleaving the DNA with an enzyme, wherein the enzyme comprises the first restriction endonuclease of claim 1 . (google.com)
  • The plugs were then washed four times with TE buffer, washed twice with the appropriate restriction endonuclease buffer, and incubated overnight with the appropriate restriction enzyme. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This endonuclease enzyme can complete digestion of all types of DNA and RNA (single-stranded, double-stranded, linear or circularized) at cold temperatures and even in samples placed on ice. (clontech.com)
  • Molecular model of an endonuclease restriction enzyme (green) bound to a molecule of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). (sciencephoto.com)
  • OmniCleave™ Endonuclease is a highly purified enzyme from a recombinant E. coli strain that degrades single- and double-stranded DNA and RNA to di-, tri-, and tetranucleotides (Fig. 1). (lucigen.com)
  • The endonuclease activity of FENs was initially identified as acting on a DNA duplex which has a single-stranded 5' overhang on one of the strands (termed a "5' flap", hence the name flap endonuclease). (wikipedia.org)
  • FEN‐1, flap endonuclease 1. (els.net)
  • The flap endonuclease activity is considerably weaker than the exonuclease activity. (harvard.edu)
  • Four members of this pathway, AP endonuclease 1, XRCC1, flap endonuclease 1 and ligase I are required for embryonic development in mice ( 4 - 8 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Endonucleases are enzymes that cleave the phosphodiester bond within a polynucleotide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cleave double stranded DNA and are widely used in recombinant DNA technology, yet much about their mechanisms of action is poorly understood. (tufts.edu)
  • While Endonuclease VIII is similar to Endonuclease III, Endonuclease VIII has β and δ lyase activity while Endonuclease III has only β lyase activity. (neb.com)
  • Evidence suggests that endonuclease activity experiences a lag compared to exonuclease activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of characterized AP endonucleases possess classic BER activities, and approximately a half of them can also have a NIR activity. (rcsb.org)
  • I'm looking for a quick method to make a crude extraction containing the endonuclease (and possibly get rid of non-specific endonuclease activity). (bio.net)
  • The extract will be used to test for the activity of the endonuclease on a target DNA. (bio.net)
  • endonuclease (and possibly get rid of non-specific endonuclease activity). (bio.net)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93 (12):6175-80 (1996)) described combining a subunit with an inactive catalytic activity with a second subunit with a deficiency in DNA binding to produce a nicking endonuclease thatis non-specific with respect to which strand is nicked. (patentgenius.com)
  • The molecular mass of the neutral endonuclease present in neuronal differentiated PC12 cell nuclei is 32000 as determined by activity gel analysis (zymography). (biomedsearch.com)
  • A family of bacterial and eukaryotic endonucleases share the following characteristics: they act on both DNA and RNA, cleave double-stranded and single-stranded nucleic acids and require a divalent ion such as magnesium for their activity. (embl.de)
  • Upon addition of a virus-like model RNA template, containing the partially complementary sequence found at the ends of viral RNA, endonuclease activity is stimulated in a concentration-dependent and sequence-specific manner. (asm.org)
  • Ultimately this research will lead to single-molecule observations of restriction endonuclease activity, which will give greater insight into their mechanisms than bulk data can provide. (tufts.edu)
  • A fiber-optic based platform was also developed to screen restriction endonucleases for aberrant activity that is often observed under nonstandard reaction conditions. (tufts.edu)
  • OmniCleave Endonuclease is free of detectable protease activity. (lucigen.com)
  • Restriction endonucleases may be found that cleave standard dsDNA (double-stranded DNA), or ssDNA (single-stranded DNA), or even RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2.1 A structure of Serratia endonuclease suggests a mechanism for bindingto double-stranded DNA. (embl.de)
  • Rao, Zihe 2018-03-25 00:00:00 Endonuclease IV is a typical endonuclease of the apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) or abasic endonuclease superfamily. (deepdyve.com)
  • Endonuclease IV is a typical endonuclease of the apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) or abasic endonuclease superfamily. (deepdyve.com)
  • Endonuclease VIII from E. coli acts as both an N-glycosylase and an AP-lyase. (neb.com)
  • Cell lysates were prepared with or without OmniCleave Endonuclease from E. coli cells expressing human lactate dehydrogenase B (LDH) and E. coli alkaline phosphatase (AP). (lucigen.com)
  • Endonucleases differ from exonucleases, which cleave the ends of recognition sequences instead of the middle (endo) portion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some enzymes known as "exo-endonucleases", however, are not limited to either nuclease function, displaying qualities that are both endo- and exo-like. (wikipedia.org)
  • Safingol, a L-threo-dihydrosphingosine, induced the nuclear translocation of a mitochondrial apoptogenic mediator-endonuclease G (endo G)-and apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation is a hallmark of the apoptotic process and at least two endonucleases, caspase-activated DNase (CAD) and endonuclease G (endo G), are thought to be important for mammalian DNA fragmentation during apoptosis [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Endo G is an endonuclease that is released from the mitochondrial intermembrane space and translocates to the cell nucleus to induce DNA fragmentation in a caspase-independent manner [ 4 - 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • PCR-based bioprospecting for homing endonucleases in fungal mitochondrial rRNA genes / Mohamed Hafez [and four others. (worldcat.org)
  • Site-specific recombination determined by I-SceI, a mitochondrial group I intron-encoded endonuclease expressed in the yeast nucleus. (genetics.org)
  • Polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA of humans as revealed by restriction endonuclease analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification of catalytically relevant amino acids of the extracellularSerratia marcescens endonuclease by alignment-guided mutagenesis. (embl.de)
  • Here, we present evidence that one of the pleiotropic effects of oxidative stress in frataxin-deficient yeast cells (Δyfh1 mutant) is damage to nuclear DNA and that repair requires the Apn1 AP-endonuclease of the base excision repair pathway. (curefa.org)
  • MutSβ has been studied in a number of models, but the contribution of subsequent steps mediated by the MutL endonuclease in this pathway is less clear. (curefa.org)
  • The ability of endonuclease V to recognize both deoxyinosine and deoxyxanthosine suggests that endonuclease V is important for preventing mutations that might arise as a result of deamination of purines. (nih.gov)
  • Diagnosis of partially treated culture-negative bacterial meningitis using 16S rRNA universal primers and restriction endonuclease digestion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • include the use of a single-tube reaction that combines a rapid methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease digestion and a quantitative PCR (qPCR), thus decreasing both hands-on time and possible cross-contamination. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Endonuclease prefers T:G mismatch within a dcm sequence, but is capable of binding and hydrolysing sequences that differ by a base pair (dcm start sites). (yale.edu)
  • Identification of Simian virus 40 promoter DNA sequences capable of conferring restriction endonuclease hypersensitivity. (asm.org)
  • The simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA sequences found in the enhancer domain, nucleotides (nt) 103 to 177, and the early domain, nt 5149 to 5232, of the SV40 promoter have been analyzed for their ability to confer restriction endonuclease hypersensitivity in SV40 chromatin by using an SV40-based recombinant reporter system. (asm.org)
  • The reporter system consists of a polylinker of various unique restriction endonuclease recognition sequences introduced into SV40 at nt 2666. (asm.org)
  • We show that Zn2+ is able to inhibit also this acidic endonuclease at a concentration of 1-6 mM. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cloning and expression of APE, the cDNA encoding the major human apurinic endonuclease: definition of a family of DNA repair enzymes. (springer.com)
  • In recent years, cytogenetic studies in bivalves have expanded as a result of the introduction of new molecular cytogenetic techniques such as in situ restriction endonuclease (RE) banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Serratia endonuclease fold isdistinct from that of other nucleases that have been solved by X-raydiffraction. (embl.de)
  • Endonuclease domain containing 1 (ENDOD1) is a member of nucleases, which hydrolyze phosphodiester linkage in nucleic acids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RO-7 is a next-generation PA endonuclease inhibitor of influenza A and B viruses, but its drug resistance potential is unknown. (osti.gov)
  • In this system, a Nt.BsmAI nicking endonuclease recognition sequence and HIV target DNA sequence were integrated into hairpin probes H1 and H3, respectively. (rsc.org)
  • On the use of Zn2+ to discriminate endonucleases activated during apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • One approach to discriminate among specific DNases in apoptosis is to use inhibitors specific for each endonuclease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Zn2+ is known to inhibit Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-dependent endonuclease enzymatic activities during apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results suggest that the DNase gamma-like endonuclease present in neuronal differentiated PC12 cell nuclei is involved in internucleosomal DNA fragmentation during apoptosis, induced by NGF deprivation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DSB-mediated recombination can be initiated synchronously by the conditional expression of two site-specific endonucleases, HO or I-Scel. (nih.gov)
  • Second, after a donor plasmid carrying the I-Sec I site-containing fusion homologous arm was chemically transformed into the marker-containing cells, the fusion arms and the marker was simultaneously cleaved by I-Sec I endonuclease and the marker-free deletion was stimulated by double-strand break-mediated intermolecular recombination. (eurekamag.com)
  • Presence of DNase gamma-like endonuclease in nuclei of neuronal differentiated PC12 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The properties of the neuronal endonuclease present in neuronal differentiated PC12 cell nuclei were similar to those of purified DNase gamma from rat thymocytes and splenocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Most restriction endonucleases cleave the DNA strand unevenly, leaving complementary single-stranded ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typing of Campylobacter pylori by bacterial DNA restriction endonuclease analysis and determination of plasmid profile. (asm.org)
  • 133 Endonuclease G (ENDOG) Antibodies from 24 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, endonuclease IV is the major AP endonuclease. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cas12a, also known as Cpf1, is a type V-A CRISPR-Cas RNA-guided endonuclease that is used for genome editing based on its ability to generate specific dsDNA breaks. (ku.dk)
  • Use of low-frequency-clevage restriction endonucleases for DNA analysis in epidemiological investigations of nosocomial bacterial infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Estimating genetic variability with restriction endonucleases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Estimation of genetic variation at the DNA level from restriction endonuclease data. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Rap endonuclease targets recombinant joint molecules arising from phage λ Red-mediated genetic exchange. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Authoritative and practical, Homing Endonucleases: Methods and Protocols serves as a key reference for all labs studying site-specific DNA endonucleases. (worldcat.org)
  • Phage T4 has many optional homing endonuclease genes similar to segF, whereas similar endonuclease genes are relatively rare in other members of the T-even family of bacteriophages. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • As current methods fail to fulfill our needs, we created a new positive screening method based on a homing endonuclease, I-SceI. (purdue.edu)
  • Because the association constants governing specific and nonspecific binding to large DNA molecules by EcoRI endonuclease in the absence of magnesium ion had been determined, these same values were measured for RsrI. (illinois.edu)
  • The DNA fragments cleaved by the same endonuclease can be joined together regardless of the origin of the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9,10) Genomic DNA was cut with a restriction endonuclease , and the resultant fragments were size-fractionated in an agarose gel and transferred to a nylon membrane for probing with locus-specific probes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, the commonly used endonucleases produce too many fragments for correct separation by agarose electrophoresis. (asm.org)
  • Recent studies demonstrated that another nuclease, endonuclease G (EndoG), is specifically activated by apoptotic stimuli and is able to induce nucleosomal fragmentation of DNA independently of caspase and DFF/CAD. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Cocrystal structures of mutant and wild-type endonuclease domains with RO-7 provided the structural basis of resistance, where a key hydrophobic interaction between RO-7 and the Ile38 side chain is compromised when mutated to the polar threonine. (osti.gov)