Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Topotecan: An antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I.Arctium: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Arctiin (LIGNANS) is in the seed.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Radioisotope Teletherapy: A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Iridium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.BrazilTissue Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic: Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Renal Replacement Therapy: Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.Enzyme Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic replacement or supplementation of defective or missing enzymes to alleviate the effects of enzyme deficiency (e.g., GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE replacement for GAUCHER DISEASE).Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Hysteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Genital Neoplasms, Male: Tumor or cancer of the MALE GENITALIA.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.

Analysis of TSG101 tumour susceptibility gene transcripts in cervical and endometrial cancers. (1/2234)

Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a common malignancy among women that has been found to show loss of heterozygosity in the chromosome 11p. Recent studies have localized the TSG101 gene in this region, and also demonstrated a high frequency of abnormalities of this gene in human breast cancer. To determine the role of the TSG101 gene in the carcinogenesis of cervical and uterine carcinoma, 19 cases of cervical carcinoma and five cases of endometrial carcinoma, as well as nearby non-cancerous tissue from the same patients, and 16 blood samples from healthy persons as normal control were analysed by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA, reverse transcription of the TSG101 mRNA followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the products. We found that abnormal transcripts of the TSG101 gene were common both in cancerous or non-cancerous tissues of the uterus and cervix and in normal peripheral mononuclear cells. There was no genomic deletion or rearrangement in spite of the presence of abnormal transcripts, and no definite relationship between the abnormal transcripts and HPV infection was found. Although the frequency of abnormal transcripts was higher in cancerous than in non-cancerous tissue, normal peripheral mononuclear cells also had abnormal transcripts. Given these findings, the role of the TSG101 gene as a tumour-suppressor gene should be re-evaluated. Because some aberrant transcripts could be found at the first PCR reaction, we suggest that the aberrant transcripts might be the result of imperfect minor splicesome products.  (+info)

Low levels of cathepsin D are associated with a poor prognosis in endometrial cancer. (2/2234)

Total cytosolic cathepsin D (Cat D) levels were estimated by an immunoradiometric assay in a series of 156 consecutive patients with surgical stages I-III primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. Simultaneously, the tissue content of both oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, and p185HER-2/neu, DNA content (ploidy), and the fraction of S-phase cells (S-phase) were also estimated. Tumoral Cat D content ranged from 0 to 243 pmol mg(-1) protein (median 44 pmol mg(-1) protein) and was not associated with any of the established clinicopathological and biological prognostic variables, with the exception of a weak positive correlation with the tumoral p185HER-2/neu levels. Univariable analysis performed on a subset of 97 patients, followed for a minimum of 2 years or until death, showed that patient age at diagnosis, high histological grade, advanced surgical stage, vascular invasion, positive peritoneal cytology, low levels of Cat D, negative ER and PR status, aneuploidy, and high S-phase were predictive of the presence of persistent or recurrent disease. However, multivariable analysis revealed that only histological grade, surgical stage, Cat D and PR were significantly associated with the patient's outcome. From these findings, we conclude that Cat D is an independent prognostic factor in endometrial adenocarcinoma, its low levels being associated with a worse clinical outcome.  (+info)

Cancer risk in close relatives of women with early-onset breast cancer--a population-based incidence study. (3/2234)

Inherited susceptibility to breast cancer is associated with an early onset and bilateral disease. The extent of familial risks has not, however, been fully assessed in population-based incidence studies. The purpose of the study was to quantify the risks for cancers of the breast, ovary and other sites of close relatives of women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed at an early age. Records collected between 1943 and 1990 at the Danish Cancer Registry were searched, and 2860 women were found in whom breast cancer was diagnosed before age 40. Population registers and parish records were used to identify 14 973 parents, siblings and offspring of these women. Cancer occurrence through to 31 December 1993 was determined within the Cancer Registry's files and compared with national incidence rates. Women with early-onset breast cancer were at a nearly fourfold increased risk of developing a new cancer later in life (268 observed vs. 68.9 expected). The excess risk was most evident for second cancer of the breast (181 vs. 24.5) and for ovarian cancer (20 vs. 3.3). For mothers and sisters, risks for cancers of the breast and ovary were significantly increased by two- to threefold. Bilateral breast cancer and breast-ovarian cancer were very strong predictors of familial risks, with one in four female relatives predicted to develop breast and/or ovarian cancer by age 75. Mothers had a slightly increased risk of colon cancer, but not endometrial cancer. The risk for breast cancer was also increased among fathers (standardized incidence ratio 2.5; 95% CI 0.5-7.4) and especially brothers (29; 7.7-74), although based on small numbers. The risk for prostatic cancer was unremarkable. In this large population-based survey, the first-degree relatives of women who developed breast cancer before age 40 were prone to ovarian cancer as well as male and female breast cancer, but not other tumours that may share susceptibility genes with breast cancer.  (+info)

Molecular mechanisms of proliferation in endometrial tumour cells. (4/2234)

The human endometrium normally undergoes a cyclic proliferation process followed by differentiation under the influence of ovarian steroids and locally produced growth and differentiation factors. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in controlling these processes is of great interest, since imbalances between proliferation- and differentiation-promoting signals can have pathophysiological consequences ranging from infertility to endometrial hyperplasia and tumour formation. The present work reviews aspects of the role played by oncogenes and ovarian steroid receptors in modulating proliferation of endometrial tumour cells. The expression pattern and possible roles of protein kinase C (PKC) subunits are discussed in the context of response-specificity of endometrial tumour cells to tumour-promoting agents such as 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol acetate (TPA) and possible implications for anti-tumour therapy.  (+info)

A common MSH2 mutation in English and North American HNPCC families: origin, phenotypic expression, and sex specific differences in colorectal cancer. (5/2234)

The frequency, origin, and phenotypic expression of a germline MSH2 gene mutation previously identified in seven kindreds with hereditary non-polyposis cancer syndrome (HNPCC) was investigated. The mutation (A-->T at nt943+3) disrupts the 3' splice site of exon 5 leading to the deletion of this exon from MSH2 mRNA and represents the only frequent MSH2 mutation so far reported. Although this mutation was initially detected in four of 33 colorectal cancer families analysed from eastern England, more extensive analysis has reduced the frequency to four of 52 (8%) English HNPCC kindreds analysed. In contrast, the MSH2 mutation was identified in 10 of 20 (50%) separately identified colorectal families from Newfoundland. To investigate the origin of this mutation in colorectal cancer families from England (n=4), Newfoundland (n=10), and the United States (n=3), haplotype analysis using microsatellite markers linked to MSH2 was performed. Within the English and US families there was little evidence for a recent common origin of the MSH2 splice site mutation in most families. In contrast, a common haplotype was identified at the two flanking markers (CA5 and D2S288) in eight of the Newfoundland families. These findings suggested a founder effect within Newfoundland similar to that reported by others for two MLH1 mutations in Finnish HNPCC families. We calculated age related risks of all, colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancers in nt943+3 A-->T MSH2 mutation carriers (n=76) for all patients and for men and women separately. For both sexes combined, the penetrances at age 60 years for all cancers and for colorectal cancer were 0.86 and 0.57, respectively. The risk of colorectal cancer was significantly higher (p<0.01) in males than females (0.63 v 0.30 and 0.84 v 0.44 at ages 50 and 60 years, respectively). For females there was a high risk of endometrial cancer (0.5 at age 60 years) and premenopausal ovarian cancer (0.2 at 50 years). These intersex differences in colorectal cancer risks have implications for screening programmes and for attempts to identify colorectal cancer susceptibility modifiers.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue conjugates with strong selective antitumor activity. (6/2234)

Conjugation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues GnRH-III, MI-1544, and MI-1892 through lysyl side chains and a tetrapeptide spacer, Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly (X) to a copolymer, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-maleic acid) (P) caused increased antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast, PC3 and LNCaP prostate, and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines in culture and against tumor development by xenografts of the breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. MCF-7 cells treated with P-X-1544 and P-X-1892 displayed characteristic signs of apoptosis, including vacuoles in the cytoplasm, rounding up, apoptotic bodies, bleb formation, and DNA fragmentation. Conjugates, but not free peptides, inhibited cdc25 phosphatase and caused accumulation of Ishikawa and PC3 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle after 24 h at lower doses and in the G1 and G2 phases after 48 h. Since P-X-peptides appear to be internalized, the increased cytotoxicity of the conjugates is attributed to protection of peptides from proteolysis, enhanced interaction of the peptides with the GnRH receptors, and/or internalization of P-X-peptide receptor complexes so that P can exert toxic effects inside, possibly by inhibiting enzymes involved in the cell cycle. The additional specificity of P-X-peptides compared with free peptides for direct antiproliferative effects on the cancer cells but not for interactions in the pituitary indicates the therapeutic potential of the conjugates.  (+info)

MLH1 promoter methylation and gene silencing is the primary cause of microsatellite instability in sporadic endometrial cancers. (7/2234)

Defective DNA mismatch repair in human tumors leads to genome-wide instability of microsatellite repeats and a molecular phenotype referred to as microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI has been reported in a variety of cancers and is a consistent feature of tumors from patients with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Approximately 20% of cancers of the uterine endometrium, the fifth most common cancer of women world-wide, exhibit MSI. Although the frequency of MSI is higher in endometrial cancers than in any other common malignancy, the genetic basis of MSI in these tumors has remained elusive. We investigated the role that methylation of the MLH1 DNA mismatch repair gene plays in the genesis of MSI in a large series of sporadic endometrial cancers. The MLH1 promoter was methylated in 41 of 53 (77%) MSI-positive cancers investigated. In MSI-negative tumors on the other hand, there was evidence for limited methylation in only one of 11 tumors studied. Immunohistochemical investigation of a subset of the tumors revealed that methylation of the MLH1 promoter in MSI-positive tumors was associated with loss of MLH1 expression. Immunohistochemistry proved that two MSI-positive tumors lacking MLH1 methylation failed to express the MSH2 mismatch repair gene. Both of these cancers came from women who had family and medical histories suggestive of inherited cancer susceptibility. These observations suggest that epigenetic changes in the MLH1 locus account for MSI in most cases of sporadic endometrial cancers and provide additional evidence that the MSH2 gene may contribute substantially to inherited forms of endometrial cancer.  (+info)

Mismatch repair gene defects contribute to the genetic basis of double primary cancers of the colorectum and endometrium. (8/2234)

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a dominantly inherited cancer syndrome caused by germline defects of mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Endometrial cancer is the most common extracolonic neoplasm in HNPCC and is the primary clinical manifestation of the syndrome in some families. The cumulative incidence of endometrial cancer among HNPCC mutation carriers is high, estimated to be from 22 to 43%. We hypothesized that women with double primary cancers of the colorectum and endometrium are likely to be members of HNPCC families. In order to determine how frequently HNPCC manifests in the context of double primary cancers, we examined alterations of two MMR genes, hMSH2 and hMLH1, in 40 unrelated women affected with double primary cancers. These cases were identified using hospital-based and population-based cancer registries in Ontario, Canada. MMR gene mutations were screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Eighteen percent (seven of 40) were found to harbor mutations of one of the two MMR genes. Analysis of colorectal and/or endometrial tumors of mutation-negative probands found microsatellite instability in seven of 20 cases. Six of seven mutation-positive probands had strong family histories suggestive of HNPCC. First degree relatives of mutation-positive probands had a very high relative risk (RR) of colorectal cancer (RR = 8.1, CI 3. 5-15.9) and endometrial cancer (RR = 23.8, CI 6.4-61.0). The relative risk of mutation-negative cases was 2.8 (CI 1.7-4.5) for colorectal cancer and 5.4 (CI 2.0-11.7) for endometrial cancer. We recommend that all double primary patients with cancers at these sites should have a genetic evaluation, including molecular analysis for HNPCC where appropriate.  (+info)

  • The genetic mutation and germline mitochondrial DNA mutations also impair cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis signaling, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by several transcription factors, leading to endometrial carcinogenesis and distant metastasis. (mdpi.com)
  • The development of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for the treatment of breast cancer potentially provides such a therapeutic alternative since AIs block the synthesis of estradiol, depriving the estrogen receptor of its ligand which promotes proliferation of both breast and endometrial malignant neoplasms. (scirp.org)
  • mTOR inhibition with a rapamycin analogue demonstrated in vitro antiproliferative activity on endometrial AN3 CA and HEC-1-A tumor cells, and this inhibition of proliferation was found to be concentration dependent. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The objective was to determine the effect of Caribbean nativity on outcomes in black women with endometrial cancer compared with women born in the USA, with attention paid to the effects of tumor grade, sociodemographic factors, and treatment approaches. (nih.gov)
  • Ishikawa human endometrial tumor cells were grown in the presence of ASA (1-5 mM) for 96 hours. (nih.gov)
  • 3 ], the factors that contribute to endometrial carcinogenesis during estrogen stimulation include polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, perimenopause, functional tumor, and iatrogenic events. (mdpi.com)
  • Anthropometric measures and the risk of endometrial cancer, overall and by tumor microsatellite status and histological subtype. (nextbio.com)
  • Here, we show that Malignant Brain Tumor Domain-containing Protein 1 (MBTD1), a member of the polycomb group protein family, is critical for human endometrial stromal cell (HESC) decidualization. (frontiersin.org)
  • The tumor showed the characteristic morphology of a low-grade spindle neoplasm with uniform proliferation of small round to oval cells, minimal nuclear atypia or mitoses, and small nucleoli (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • The association of tumor and patient characteristics with an EN was evaluated, and trend analysis to compare the rate of ENs over calendar quarters was performed. (elsevier.com)
  • Objective: To determine if short-term treatment with Femara (letrozole) induces measurable reduction in tumor Ki67 expression in postmenopausal women with FIGO grade 1 and 2 endometrial carcinoma. (scirp.org)
  • Conclusion: Femara (letrozole) 2.5 mg daily for approximately 3 weeks induced a significant reduction in tumor cell Ki67 expression among 5 of 12 (41%) postmenopausal women with FIGO grade 1 or 2 endometrial carcinoma. (scirp.org)
  • Here we report the results of a pilot clinical trial asking if short-term AI treatment of FIGO grade 1 or 2 endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women is associated with significant decline in tumor Ki67 expression. (scirp.org)
  • Adiponectin levels were inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk [body mass index-adjusted relative risk for the top vs. bottom quartile = 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.36-0.86), P(trend) = 0. (nih.gov)
  • A review of the institutional cancer registry was performed to identify black, non-Hispanic women with known nativity and treated for endometrial cancer between 2001 and 2017. (nih.gov)
  • It is designed to lower insulin levels, which may slow or stop the growth of endometrial cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To find whether aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) inhibits the growth of endometrial cancer cells in vitro in a way similar to that in colorectal cancer cells and to investigate the mechanisms by which aspirin might lead to growth inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Adiponectin, an adipocytokine secreted by adipose tissue, is decreased in obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and polycystic ovary syndrome, all of which are well-established risk factors for endometrial cancer. (nih.gov)
  • The majority of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer have already gone through menopause, although it can occur in younger women as well. (oncolink.org)
  • In addition, Lynch syndrome genetic testing should be done for all women diagnosed with endometrial cancer before age 50 and family members of anyone with Lynch syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Although there are no AIs in the USA which are currently FDA approved for treatment of endometrial cancer, their use for this purpose is rational and supported by previous clinical research observations. (scirp.org)
  • This article is a summary of Chap. 9 on "Surveillance/Recurrence/Metastases of Endometrial Cancer" and is a clinically oriented abbreviated version, which includes recommendations for investigation modalities in aftercare and treatment options in cases of recurrence. (springer.com)
  • Endometrial specimens were obtained from surgeries performed between 1995 and 2005 at São Paulo Hospital, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. (scielo.br)
  • Protection may last for 15 years after discontinuation and may be greatest for nulliparous women who may be at higher risk for endometrial carcinoma than other women. (drugs.com)
  • Objective: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical impact of sentinel lymph node mapping in the management of endometrial cancer. (elsevier.com)