The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
The educational process of instructing.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.
Instructional materials used in teaching.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
The bony plate which extends outwards from the modiolus into the spiral canal of the cochlea, forming part of the structure that divides the upper SCALA VESTIBULI and the lower SCALA TYMPANI.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
Sensorineural hearing loss which develops suddenly over a period of hours or a few days. It varies in severity from mild to total deafness. Sudden deafness can be due to head trauma, vascular diseases, infections, or can appear without obvious cause or warning.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
Inflammation of the inner ear (LABYRINTH).
The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
The inner ear consists of the cochlea and several non-auditory structures. The cochlea has three fluid-filled sections (i.e. ... Strikingly, one section, called the cochlear duct or scala media, contains endolymph. Endolymph is a fluid similar in ... Efferent projections from the brain to the cochlea also play a role in the perception of sound, although this is not well ... The organ of Corti forms a ribbon of sensory epithelium which runs lengthwise down the cochlea's entire scala media. Its hair ...
The cochlea plays an important part in hearing. Vibrations from the oval window of the inner ear is transferred to the ... The Reissner's membrane transfers the vibrations to the endolymph of the middle canal. The Basilar membrane then vibrates and ... The oval window has the ability to hold fluid in the cochlea. The inner ear is composed of bony canals (bony labyrinth). It is ... divided into three parts: vestibule, semicircular canals and the cochlea. These vestibule and the semicircular parts play a key ...
Endolymph is the fluid contained within the scala media of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear and within the ... The inner ear has two major parts, the cochlea and the vestibular organ. They are connected in a series of canals in the ... Perilymph and endolymph have unique ionic compositions suited to their functions in regulating electrochemical impulses of hair ... It is found within the scala tympani and scala vestibuli of the cochlea. The ionic composition of perilymph is comparable to ...
This hammering causes the fluid within the cochlea (perilymph and endolymph) to be displaced. Displacement of the fluid causes ... If the endolymph fluid mixes with the fluid on the basal domain the neurons become depolarized, causing complete hearing loss. ... The cochlea is partially protected by the acoustic reflex, but being frequently exposed to noise does not lower the reflex ... Hair cells at or near the base of the cochlea are most sensitive to higher frequency sounds while those at the apex are most ...
They are in direct contact with the endolymph of the cochlear duct. These cells are sealed via tight junctions that prevent ... flow of endolymph between them. Boettcher cells are located immediately under Claudius cells in the lower turn of the cochlea. ... Claudius cells are considered as supporting cells within the organ of Corti in the cochlea. These cells extend from Hensen's ...
As sound waves propagate in the cochlea, the movement of endolymph fluid bends the stereocilia. If the direction of movement is ... The endolymph is the fluid that surrounds the apical surfaces of hair cells. Potassium is the major cation in the endolymph and ... Cations from the endolymph flow into the cell, depolarizing the hair cell and triggering the release of neurotransmitters to ... As acoustic sensors in mammals, stereocilia are lined up in the organ of Corti within the cochlea of the inner ear. In hearing ...
The endolymph is situated in two vestibules, the utricle and saccule, and eventually transmits to the cochlea, a spiral-shaped ... Vibration of the oval window causes vibration of the endolymph within the vestibule and the cochlea. The inner ear houses the ... The cochlea consists of three fluid-filled spaces: the vestibular duct, the cochlear duct, and the tympanic duct. Hair cells ... The cochlea is a spiral shell-shaped organ responsible for the sense of hearing. These structures together create the ...
Ménière's disease (endolymphatic hydrops) occurs when there is an elevated pressure in the endolymph in the cochlea. Its ... It damages the cochlea with lesions and degrades central portions of the auditory system. For some ototoxic chemical exposures ... There can be damage either to the ear, whether the external or middle ear, to the cochlea, or to the brain centers that process ... Damage to the inner ear (cochlea) may be caused by temporal bone fracture. People who sustain head injury are especially ...
It produces endolymph for the scala media, one of the three fluid-filled compartments of the cochlea. The stria is a somewhat ...
Within the cochlea the EP varies in the magnitude all along its length. When a sound is presented, the endocochlear potential ... a shear force is created and a small potential is generated due to a difference in potential between the endolymph (scala media ... 80 mV) and the perilymph (vestibular and tympanic ducts, -70 mV). EP is highest in the basal turn of the Cochlea and decreases ... changes either positive or negative in the endolymph, depending on the stimulus. The change in the potential is called the ...
All of these structures together constitute the cochlea. In mammals (other than monotremes), the cochlea is extended still ... The two outer are filled with perilymph and the inner with endolymph. In the middle ear, the energy of pressure waves is ... which generally detect lower-frequency sounds than the cochlea. The cochlea of birds is similar to that of crocodiles, ... The cochlea propagates these mechanical signals as waves in the fluid and membranes and then converts them to nerve impulses ...
... is filled with endolymph. The auditory hair cells in the cochlea are at the core of the auditory system's special functionality ... The cochlea of the inner ear, a marvel of physiological engineering, acts as both a frequency analyzer and nonlinear acoustic ... The cochlea has over 32,000 hair cells. Outer hair cells primarily provide amplification of traveling waves that are induced by ... The basal end of the cochlea, where sounds enter from the middle ear, encodes the higher end of the audible frequency range ...
The inner ear consists of the cochlea, which is a spiral-shaped, fluid-filled tube. It is divided lengthwise by the organ of ... endolymph. The basilar membrane is tonotopic, so that each frequency has a characteristic place of resonance along it. ... The sound information from the cochlea travels via the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. From there, the ... Characteristic frequencies are high at the basal entrance to the cochlea, and low at the apex. Basilar membrane motion causes ...
The cochlea is tonotopically mapped in a spiral fashion, with lower frequencies localizing at the apex of the cochlea, and high ... the stria vascularis contains sodium-potassium-ATPase pumps that are responsible for producing the endolymph resting potential ... Heredity: factors like early aging of the cochlea and susceptibility of the cochlea for drug insults are genetically determined ... Strial/metabolic: characterised by atrophy of stria vascularis in all turns of cochlea. Located in the lateral wall of the ...
NKCC1 is necessary for establishing the potassium-rich endolymph that bathes part of the cochlea, an organ necessary for ...
Ménière's disease (endolymphatic hydrops) occurs when there is an elevated pressure in the endolymph in the cochlea. Its ... the cochlea or the nerve that transmits the impulses from the cochlea to the hearing centre in the brain. The most common ... Conductive hearing loss is present when the sound is not reaching the inner ear, the cochlea. This can be due to external ear ... It damages the cochlea with lesions and degrades central portions of the auditory system.[60] For some ototoxic chemical ...
Together with the basilar membrane, it creates a compartment in the cochlea filled with endolymph, which is important for the ... The vestibular membrane, vestibular wall or Reissner's membrane, is a membrane inside the cochlea of the inner ear. It ... It primarily functions as a diffusion barrier, allowing nutrients to travel from the perilymph to the endolymph of the ...
... is produced due to the lack of melanocytes which provide high potassium levels in the endolymph surrounding the cochlea's hair ...
... in the a4 subunit gene in some cases can be associated with deafness due to a failure to normally acidify the endolymph of the ... chain reaction studies have shown expression of the a4 subunit in the intercalated cell of the kidney and in the cochlea. dRTA ...
... and prevention of the cochlea damage. The outer hair cells of the cochlea preprocess the signal by active movements, which can ... When exposing to sound, the K+ concentration would decrease in the endolymph while the concentration is increase in the space ... Hensen's cells are a layer of tall cells arranged in the organ of Corti in the cochlea, which are part of the supporting cells ... The shape of Hensen's cells are various in different position of cochlea, they appear as a single layer of cells in the basal ...
Here the border between endolymph and perilymph occurs at the reticular lamina, the endolymph side of the organ of Corti. The ... The basilar membrane is widest (0.42-0.65 mm) and least stiff at the apex of the cochlea, and narrowest (0.08-0.16 mm) and ... Due to its location, the basilar membrane places the hair cells adjacent to both the endolymph and the perilymph, which is a ... The basilar membrane is a stiff structural element within the cochlea of the inner ear which separates two liquid-filled tubes ...
The cochlea contains two cell types, auditory hair cells for mechanotransduction and supporting cells. Gap junction channels ... While gap junctions in the inner ear are critically involved in potassium recycling to the endolymph, connexin expression in ... The percent hair cell loss was less widespread and frequent in the cochleas of Cx30 null mice. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Kikuchi T, Kimura RS, Paul DL, Takasaka T, Adams JC (April 2000). "Gap junction systems in the mammalian cochlea". Brain ...
This gene is expressed in fetal cochlea and many other tissues, and is thought to be involved in the development and ... maintenance of the inner ear or the contents of the perilymph and endolymph. This gene was also identified as a tumor ...
The cochlear duct (or scala media) is an endolymph filled cavity inside the cochlea, located between the tympanic duct and the ... Cross section of the cochlea. Cross section at avatar.com.au. ...
Within the cochlea there is a basilar membrane that contains sensory hair structures utilized to send nerve signals to the ... Inner ear Inner ear fluid called endolymph receives the sound energy. After receiving the energy, later within the inner ear ... there are two parts: the cochlea that utilizes sound waves from the ossicles and the vestibular apparatus that manages the ...
... the endolymph-filled part of the cochlea Cochlear, an alternate term for the spoon (liturgy) used in the Eastern Orthodox ... Cochlear, the adjective form of cochlea, may refer to: Cochlear implant, a sensory aid for the deaf Cochlear nuclei, the ... or aqueduct of cochlea, a communication between the perilymphatic space and the subarachnoid space Cochlear artery, a division ... of the internal auditory artery Cochlea, part of the Labyrinth (inner ear) Cochlear duct, also known as the scala media, ...
... possibly leading to infection of the cochlea, or it may occur as a result of inner ear infection via viremia that leads to ... inflammation in the endolymph. Hearing loss may also be caused indirectly by the immune response. In animal studies, MuV has ...
The active mechanism is dependent on the cochlea being in good physiological condition. However, the cochlea is very ... is thought to be involved in the development and maintenance of the inner ear or the contents of the perilymph and endolymph. ... Damage to the cochlea can occur in several ways, for example by viral infection, exposure to ototoxic chemicals, and intense ... It is therefore clear that the OHCs play a major role in the active processes of the cochlea. The main function of the active ...
... has a high positive potential (80-120 mV in the cochlea), relative to other nearby fluids such as perilymph, due to ... Endolymph is the fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. The major cation in endolymph is potassium, with ... oto.wustl.edu/cochlea/res1.htm Longitudinal Flow of Endolymph at wustl.edu. ... angular acceleration of the endolymph in the semicircular canals stimulate the vestibular receptors of the endolymph. The ...
Play media The cochlea is filled with a watery liquid, the endolymph, which moves in response to the vibrations coming from the ... The cochlea is a portion of the inner ear that looks like a snail shell (cochlea is Greek for snail.) The cochlea receives ... The name cochlea derives from Ancient Greek κοχλίας (kokhlias) 'spiral, snail shell'. The cochlea (plural is cochleae) is a ... Cochlea at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Promenade 'Round the Cochlea" by R. Pujol, S. ...
Each canal is filled with a fluid called endolymph and contains motion sensors within the fluids. At the base of each canal, ... Cochlea and vestibular system. See also: Balance (ability) and Equilibrioception. The semicircular ducts provide sensory input ... As the head rotates the duct moves but the endolymph lags behind owing to inertia. This deflects the cupula and bends the ... If the pilot were to sustain a constant rate turn, the endolymph would eventually catch up with the ducts and cease to deflect ...
The developing auricle is first noticeable around the sixth week of gestation in the human fetus, developing from the auricular hillocks, which are derived from the first and second pharyngeal arches. These hillocks develop into the folds of the auricle and gradually shift upwards and backwards to their final position on the head. En route accessory auricles (also known as preauricular tags) may be left behind. The first three hillocks are derived from the 1st branchial arch and form the tragus, crus of the helix, and helix, respectively. Cutaneous sensation to these areas is via the trigeminal nerve, the attendant nerve of the 1st branchial arch. The final three hillocks are derived from the second branchial arch and form the antihelix, antitragus, and lobule, respectively. These portions of the ear are supplied by the cervical plexus and a small portion by the facial nerve. This explains why vesicles are classically seen on the auricle in herpes infections of the facial nerve (Ramsay Hunt ...
Vibrations of the footplate of stapes transmit through the oval window to the perilymph, which in turn causes the endolymph, ... in the middle ear to the oval window of the cochlea. ... and endo-lymph, and consequently, of ICP. Otoacoustic emission ...
The endolymph is situated in two vestibules, the utricle and saccule, and eventually transmits to the cochlea, a spiral-shaped ... Vibration of the oval window causes vibration of the endolymph within the vestibule and the cochlea.[9] ... The cochlea consists of three fluid-filled spaces: the vestibular duct, the cochlear duct, and the tympanic duct.[3] Hair cells ... The development of inner ear structures such as the cochlea is regulated by Dlx5/Dlx6, Otx1/Otx2 and Pax2, which in turn are ...
The gustatory cortex is the primary receptive area for taste. The word taste is used in a technical sense to refer specifically to sensations coming from taste buds on the tongue. The five qualities of taste detected by the tongue include sourness, bitterness, sweetness, saltiness, and the protein taste quality, called umami. In contrast, the term flavor refers to the experience generated through integration of taste with smell and tactile information. The gustatory cortex consists of two primary structures: the anterior insula, located on the insular lobe, and the frontal operculum, located on the frontal lobe. Similarly to the olfactory cortex, the gustatory pathway operates through both peripheral and central mechanisms.[clarification needed] Peripheral taste receptors, located on the tongue, soft palate, pharynx, and esophagus, transmit the received signal to primary sensory axons, where the signal is projected to the nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla, or the gustatory nucleus of ...
illustration of otolith organs showing detail of utricle, otoconia, endolymph, cupula, macula, hair cell filaments, and ...
The human ear canal is divided into two parts. The elastic cartilage part forms the outer third of the canal; its anterior and lower wall are cartilaginous, whereas its superior and back wall are fibrous. The cartilage is the continuation of the cartilage framework of pinna. The cartilaginous portion of the ear canal contains small hairs and specialized sweat glands, called apocrine glands, which produce cerumen (ear wax). The bony part forms the inner two thirds. The bony part is much shorter in children and is only a ring (annulus tympanicus) in the newborn. The layer of epithelium encompassing the bony portion of the ear canal is much thinner and therefore, more sensitive in comparison to the cartilaginous portion. Size and shape of the canal vary among individuals. The canal is approximately 2.5 centimetres (1 in) long and 0.7 centimetres (0.28 in) in diameter.[2] It has a sigmoid form and runs from behind and above downward and forward. On the cross-section, it is of oval shape. These are ...
Endolymph • Stria vascularis • Spiral ligament. Organ of Corti: Stereocilia • Tectorial membrane • Sulcus spiralis (externus, ... General cochlea. Scala vestibuli • Helicotrema • Scala tympani • Modiolus • Cochlear cupula. Perilymphatic space. Perilymph • ...
Rémy Pujol, Régis Nouvian, Marc Lenoir, "Hair cells (cochlea.eu) *^ Ashmore, Jonathan Felix (1987). "A fast motile response in ... Instead, the influx of positive ions from the endolymph in the scala media depolarizes the cell, resulting in a receptor ... The outer hair cells mechanically amplify low-level sound that enters the cochlea.[6][7] The amplification may be powered by ... Cross-section of the cochlea. The inner hair cells are located at the termination of the "inner hair cell nerves" and the outer ...
... named for the spiral shape it shares with the cochlea. These central axons exit the cochlea at its base and form a nerve trunk ... The cochlear nerve carries auditory sensory information from the cochlea of the inner ear directly to the brain. The other ... The peripheral axons of auditory nerve fibers form synaptic connections with the hair cells of the cochlea via ribbon synapses ... The axons from the low-frequency region of the cochlea project to the ventral portion of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and the ...
... and then to the oval window in the fluid-filled cochlea. Hence, it ultimately converts and amplifies vibration in air to ...
The cochlea and vestibule, viewed from above. Transverse section through head of fetal sheep, in the region of the labyrinth. X ... When the head changes position, the endolymph in the canals lags behind due to inertia and this acts on the cupula which bends ... If the pilot were to sustain a constant rate turn, the endolymph would eventually catch up with the ducts and cease to deflect ... As the endolymph stabilizes, the semicircular canals stop registering the gradual turn and the aircraft slowly loses altitude ...
... cochlea) Tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint tectospinal tract tectum tegmen tympani tegmentum tela choroidae ... emissary veins enamel encephalon encephalopathy endocardium endocranium endocrine gland endocrine system endoderm endolymph ... claustrum clava clavicle climbing fiber clinoid clitoris clivus cloaca clonus coccyx cochlea cochlear duct cochlear nerve ... fastigial nucleus fastigium fat fauces femoral artery femoral neck femoral triangle femur fenestra fenestra cochleae fenestra ...
Endolymph Fluid in the labyrinth (the organ of balance located in the inner ear that consists of three semicircular canals and ... Cochlea Snail-shaped structure in the inner ear that contains the organ of hearing. Cochlear implant Medical device that ... Inner ear Part of the ear that contains both the organ of hearing (the cochlea) and the organ of balance (the labyrinth). ... Brainstem implant Auditory prosthesis that bypasses the cochlea and auditory nerve. This type of implant helps individuals who ...
Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals. As ... PAN II - The alcohol concentration is lower in the blood than in the vestibular system, hence the endolymph is relatively ... short periods and will result in vertigo and possibly nystagmus due to the variable viscosity of the blood and the endolymph ...
The human cochlea contains on the order of 3,500 inner hair cells and 12,000 outer hair cells at birth. The outer hair cells ... Instead, the influx of positive ions from the endolymph in the scala media depolarizes the cell, resulting in a receptor ... In mammals, the auditory hair cells are located within the spiral organ of Corti on the thin basilar membrane in the cochlea of ... Housley, G D; Ashmore, J F (1992). "Ionic currents of outer hair cells isolated from the guinea-pig cochlea". The Journal of ...
Endolymph composition resembles that of the intracellular fluid (more K+ and less Na+) more closely compared to its counterpart ... Histology: A Test and Atlas[page needed] Raphael Y, Altschuler RA (June 2003). "Structure and innervation of the cochlea". ... The movement of the hair bundle, as a result of endolymph flow, will cause potassium channels on the stereocilia to open. This ...
The loss of function in this gene is thought to reduce the pH value of mammalian endolymph and impair Ca2+ absorption via TRPV5 ... "Expression of epithelial calcium transport system in rat cochlea and vestibular labyrinth". BMC Physiology. 10 (1): 1. doi: ... studies have indicated that TRPV5 and TRPV6 are needed for lowering the Ca2+ concentration in the lumen of mammalian endolymph ...
Determination of surface areas of the cochlear perilymph-endolymph barrier (PEB) on the adult guinea pig cochlea. a Overview of ... in the adult guinea pig cochlea induced osmotic volume changes of the endolymph in the scala media (SM). These volume changes ... "perilymph-endolymph barrier" (PEB, red line) that encloses the endolymph in the SM. Two partitions of the cochlear PEB, namely ... had no effect on endolymph volume or longitudinal endolymph flow in the scala media (SM). b Hyperosmotic (400 mOsm (kg H2O)−1) ...
... endolymph and perilymph, thereby maintaining distinct ionic and osmotic gradients that are essential for auditory function. ... The cochlear duct epithelium (CDE) constitutes a tight barrier that effectively separates the inner ear fluids, endolymph and ... Water permeability of the mammalian cochlea: functional features of an aquaporin-facilitated water shunt at the perilymph- ... endolymph barrier Pflugers Arch. 2014 Oct;466(10):1963-85. doi: 10.1007/s00424-013-1421-y. Epub 2014 Jan 3. ...
Compare endolymph. Source for information on perilymph: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... See also cochlea. Compare endolymph.. A Dictionary of Biology ×. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for ...
keywords = "Aquaporin, Cochlea, Endolymph, M{\e}ni{\`e}res disease, Perilymph, Water permeability", ... Eckhard A, Müller M, Salt A, Smolders J, Rask-Andersen H, Löwenheim H. Water permeability of the mammalian cochlea: functional ... Eckhard, A, Müller, M, Salt, A, Smolders, J, Rask-Andersen, H & Löwenheim, H 2014, Water permeability of the mammalian cochlea ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Water permeability of the mammalian cochlea: functional features of an aquaporin- ...
cochlea; Cochlear. = cochleariform; Cond. = condylar; Emin. = eminence; Endolymph. = endolymphatic; Eust. = eustachian; Ext. = ... T he cochlea is the most anterior and medial part of the vestibulocochlear labyrinth. It lies anteromedial to the vestibule and ... The position of the cochlea was determined on bone window CT scans. The position of the cochlear nucleus was identified on the ... If hearing is to be preserved, care should be taken to avoid injuring the cochlea and the semicircular canals. Such drilling is ...
Membranous labyrinth containing endolymph. _____ of cochlea: wider and floppier. lower frequencies ______ deafness: impairment ... of cochlea: narrow and stiff. more sensitive to higher frequencies. Communicate at the apical end via the helicotrema. Contain ... Ossicle that is attached to oval window of cochlea. Very slow pressure changes will dissipate through the _______ with little ... Serve as a compound lever which can amplify sound waves between the tympanic membrane and the oval window of cochlea. ...
disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear; elevated endolymph pressure within the cochlea and semicircular canals. ... cochlea. snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear; contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells. ... central cavity of the labyrinth, connecting thhe semicircular canals and the cochlea. contains two structures, the saccule and ... sensitive auditory receptor area found in the cochlea of the inner ear. ...
... that in vivo inoculation of adenovirus with the Math1 gene insert into the endolymph of the mature guinea pig cochlea results ... Cochleae receiving control inoculations did not exhibit any ectopic hair cells (data not shown; n = 12). These data demonstrate ... 2f), myosin VIIa antibody stains inner and outer hair cells (Hasson et al., 1995). In all of the cochleae that were inoculated ... 2f) and control-inoculated cochleae (Fig. 2e), with no axons in the regions of Hensen cells, inner sulcus, and interdental ...
Spiral ganglions from each cochlea project via the auditory nerve (VIII) to the ipsilateral cochlea nucleus.. Axons sent to the ... Scala media; contains endolymph with High K, Low Na. Scala vestibuli and tympani; contains perilymph, High Na, Low K. Stria ... K+ enters the endolymph. Hair cell depolarises. Depolarisation causes Ca2+ channels in the body of hair cell. Glutamate is ... Receptor sense organ of the cochlea which converted sound signals into nerve impulses via CNVIII.. It is sensory for when the ...
endolymph. which is inside cochlea and semicircular canals. 3 main parts of the inner ear(spaces). vestibule, semicircular ...
vestibule (balance), cochlea (hearing) 6 inner ear layer that contains endolymph fluid ...
What is Nerve of cochlea within spiral lamina? Meaning of Nerve of cochlea within spiral lamina medical term. What does Nerve ... Nerve of cochlea within spiral lamina explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of Nerve of cochlea within spiral ... the coiled portion of the membranous labyrinth located inside the cochlea; contains endolymph. ... redirected from Nerve of cochlea within spiral lamina). Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia. co·chle·ar nerve. [TA] the ...
Direct measurement of longitudinal endolymph flow rate in the guinea pig cochlea. Hear Res. 1986. 23(2):141-51. [Medline]. ... flow from endolymph to perilymph). This is manifested by a standing current that can be recorded within the cochlea (see the ... Endolymph contains an electrolyte composition similar to that found in intracellular fluids; that is, it is high in K+ and low ... The cochlea consists of 3 fluid-filled ducts or scalae (see the image below). These ducts are functionally divided into 2 ...
Synonym(s): endolymph. Scarpa membrane - closes the fenestra cochleae or rotunda. Synonym(s): secondary tympanic membrane ... a semilunar opening at the apex of the cochlea through which the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani of the cochlea ... Synonym(s): endolymph. Scarpa foramina - two openings in the line of the intermaxillary suture that transmit the nasopalatine ...
Ménières disease (endolymphatic hydrops) occurs when there is an elevated pressure in the endolymph in the cochlea. Its ... the cochlea or the nerve that transmits the impulses from the cochlea to the hearing centre in the brain. The most common ... Conductive hearing loss is present when the sound is not reaching the inner ear, the cochlea. This can be due to external ear ... It damages the cochlea with lesions and degrades central portions of the auditory system.[60] For some ototoxic chemical ...
Within the hearing organ, the cochlea, most of the genetic forms of hearing loss involve defects in sensory detection and to ... Within the hearing organ, the cochlea, most of the genetic forms of hearing loss involve defects in sensory detection and to ... Keywords: cochlea, organ of corti, hair cells, afferent neurons, stria vascularis, endolymph ... Also, fish do not have a cochlea; questions about the structures or tissues present only in the mammalian cochlea cannot be ...
Filled with the same fluids that fill the cochlea (i.e. paralymph and endolymph). Vestibular organs. Vestibular labyrinth: 3 ... Filled with endolymph. ~8 mm in diameter. Detection of angular acceleration due to lag of endolymph relative to bony structure ... Flow of endolymph is measured by sensory structure near opening of semicircular canal: "ampulla". Angular acceleration in a ... Hair cells (same as those found in cochlea) are deflected in response to head movement. Hair cells can be deflected in either ...
... demonstrate that macrophages contribute to the regulation of glial cell number during postnatal development of the cochlea and ... demonstrate that macrophages contribute to the regulation of glial cell number during postnatal development of the cochlea and ... The stria vascularis maintains the homeostasis of the endolymph in the inner ear. Maintenance of the stria vascularis is ... preserving the modiolus portion of the cochlea. For RNA isolations, the left and right ear cochlea preparations from a single ...
Now these canals are filled with endolymph. So youll recall from our discussions of the cochlea, endolymph is that fluid that ... And just as endolymph was critical for sensory transduction in the cochleas, so will it be critical for sensory transduction ... precursor called the otic placode that grew out the cochlea. So, its not surprising then that our cochlea should be right ... So, we have our, our labyrinth over here to the left-hand side and our cochlea here towards the right. And if we just look at ...
Conditional Manf inactivation demonstrated that MANF has a local function in the cochlea. Immunostainings revealed the ... the cells responsible for sound amplification in the cochlea. All OHCs were formed in Manf-inactivated mice, but progressive ... Here, we report that MANF is expressed in the hair cells and neurons and in selected non-sensory cells of the cochlea and that ... Marginal cells of the stria vascularis secrete ions into the endolymph. Strial whole mounts and sections from Manf cKO cochleas ...
filled with endolymph. 15. Inner Ear*Three Parts of Labyrinths * cochlea * functions in hearing ...
RCs reportedly regulate the ion composition of the endolymph and safeguard cochlear homeostasis (Jagger and Forge, 2013). ... To further examine how Nox3 expression in the cochlea changes over time, we used whole-mount cochleae and surface preparations ... Whole-mount inner ears or cochleae (with bone), surface preparations of cochleae (without bony structures), and 12 μm cryostat ... Cochleae of 6-month-old control (Nox3-Cre−/−;tdTomato+/+) and Nox3-Cre+/+;tdTomato+/+ (Nox3-KO) mice were fixed with 4% PFA in ...
In the cochlea, both the bony labyrinth and the cochlear duct are coiled in a shape resembling that of a snail shell. Resting ... The entire inner ear is bathed in a cushioning fluid, called the endolymph when it lies within the membranous labyrinth and the ... The motion of the oval window sets up a wave in the perilymph filling the scala vestibuli of the cochlea. This wave is ... The cochlear duct forms a shelf across the cochlea dividing it into two sections, the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. ...
... suggesting that these drugs enter cochlear hair cells from endolymph to exert their cytotoxic effect. We used zebrafish to ... Immunofluorescent detection of gentamicin in the cochlea also revealed widespread cellular labeling throughout the cochlea, ... Trafficking of systemic fluorescent gentamicin into the cochlea and hair cells J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2009 Jun;10(2):205-19. ... In murine cochleae, GTTR is preferentially taken up by the stria vascularis compared to the spiral ligament, peaking 3 h after ...
Cochlea: Spiral ganglion • Modiolus • Cochlear duct/scala media (Endolymph, Stria vascularis, Spiral ligament, Organ of Corti ... These nuclei also form the source of the olivocochlear bundle, which innervates the cochlea.[12] In the guinea pig, ascending ... These cells contain electromotile fibers, and act as mechanical amplifiers/attenuators within the cochlea. ... and it does not project to the cochlea or cochlear nucleus as many periolivary nuclei do.[23] ...
Mèniéres disease is thought to be caused by an accumulation of endolymph within the canals of the inner ear, a condition ... HEARING TESTS Because the cochlea and the vestibular organs are adjacent to one another, hearing dysfunction can often be ... Endolymph flows out of the peripheral vestiubular system into an endolymphatic sac and then diffuses through a membrane into ... Diuretics can be used to rid the body of excess endolymph. Salt-free diets can also help to prevent the accumulation of fluid ...
... the cochlea, which is dedicated to hearing, and (2) the vestibular system, which is dedicated to balance. The inner ear is ... Another fluid, called endolymph, is contained in the membranous labyrinth. The endolymph has concentrations of electrolytes ... The cochlea is a bony, spiral-shaped chamber that contains the cochlear duct of the membranous labyrinth. The sense of hearing ... The lateral wall of the cochlear duct is formed by the spiral ligament and the stria vascularis, which produces the endolymph. ...
B) Recordings of PP and EP of endolymph in Cld11+/+ and Cld11-/- cochlea. Cld11+/+ and Cld11-/- cochlea showed similar PPs (∼70 ... Importantly, in the endolymph compartment of Cld11-/- cochlea, the K+ concentration was maintained around the normal level (∼ ... The cochlea includes a rather peculiar compartment filled with endolymph. This compartment is characterized by high K+ ... From the viewpoint of compartmentalization, the cochlea is most intriguing. In particular, endolymph is unique in its high K+ ...
... transduction in the cochlea depends on maintenance of a high potassium concentration and a positive potential in the endolymph ... 8] noted that mGluR7 and Gipc3 show identical localization domains in the mouse cochlea and also share functional similarities ... Two classes of antioxidant enzymes are active in the cochlea: enzymes involved in glutathione (GSH) metabolism (e.g., ... which plays a role in potassium recycling in the inner ear and is expressed in hair cells of the cochlea and the vestibular ...
Endolymph and perilymph in the ear (cochlea).. The circulatory system consists of a number of organs that produce the blood ...
  • Endolymph is the fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The membranous labyrinth is contained within the bony labyrinth, and within the membranous labyrinth is a fluid called endolymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membranous labyrinth containing endolymph. (sporcle.com)
  • A disorder of the inner ear in which circulation of endolymph is impeded resulting in swelling (hydrops) of the membranous labyrinth. (sporcle.com)
  • The entire inner ear is bathed in a cushioning fluid, called the endolymph when it lies within the membranous labyrinth and the perilymph when it separates the bony and membranous labyrinths. (britannica.com)
  • Another fluid, called endolymph, is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (medscape.com)
  • The cochlea is a bony, spiral-shaped chamber that contains the cochlear duct of the membranous labyrinth. (medscape.com)
  • Beginning in the fifth week of development, the auditory vesicle also gives rise to the cochlear duct, which contains the spiral organ of Corti and the endolymph that accumulates in the membranous labyrinth. (medscape.com)
  • 4 Endolymph is the fluid within the membranous labyrinth, including the vestibule, semicircular canals, and scala media of the cochlea. (ajnr.org)
  • Endolymph fluid is found within the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, while perilymph is found within the osseous (bony) labyrinth. (hubpages.com)
  • Together with the cochlea, the vestibular system is carried by a system of tubes called the membranous labyrinth . (wikibooks.org)
  • A fluid called perilymph fills the space between the bone and the membranous labyrinth, while another one called endolymph fills the inside of the tubes spanned by the membranous labyrinth. (wikibooks.org)
  • The membranous labyrinth is a system of communicating sacs and ducts (tubes) filled with fluid (the endolymph). (medicinenet.com)
  • These two parts of the labyrinth are separated by a fluid ( perilymph ) and the membranous labyrinth also contains a fluid known as the endolymph . (healthhype.com)
  • Another fluid called endolymph is contained within the membranous labyrinth and separated from the perilymph fluid. (thoughtco.com)
  • Balance: Semicircular canals: angular acceleration of the endolymph in the semicircular canals stimulate the vestibular receptors of the endolymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bony labyrinth , a cavity in the temporal bone, is divided into three sections: the vestibule , the semicircular canals , and the cochlea . (britannica.com)
  • The bony labyrinth consists of a central chamber called the vestibule, the three semicircular canals, and the spirally coiled cochlea. (britannica.com)
  • The bony labyrinth can be subdivided into the vestibule, 3 semicircular canals, and the cochlea. (medscape.com)
  • The inner ear contains the otolith organs-the utricle and saccule -and the semicircular canals belonging to the vestibular system , as well as the cochlea of the auditory system . (wikipedia.org)
  • human cochlea and semicircular canals Dissection of the human cochlea and semicircular canals. (britannica.com)
  • The bony labyrinth has three parts: a central cavity (the vestibule), semicircular canals (which open into the vestibule) and the cochlea (a snail-shaped spiral tube). (medicinenet.com)
  • MRI has been optimized to directly visualize EH in the cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals, and its use is shifting from the research setting to the clinic. (nature.com)
  • Developing next to the hindbrain, the otic placode generates the entire inner ear including the cochlea, semicircular canals and endolymphatic duct and all associated sensory hair cells, the neurons that innervate them as well as endolymph secreting and supporting cells (Riley and Phillips, 2003 , Barald and Kelley, 2004 , Ohyama et al. (stembook.org)
  • The bony labyrinth is divided into three regions: the vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea. (thoughtco.com)
  • It is located between the semicircular canals and the cochlea. (thoughtco.com)
  • Using previously reported HYDROPS2-Mi2 MR imaging, the %EL volume values in the cochlea and the vestibule were measured separately by two observers. (go.jp)
  • The high intra-class correlation coefficients (0.991-0.997) between the endolymph volume ratios by two observers were observed in both the cochlea and the vestibule for values of the %EL volume , the %EL 3slices and the %EL 1slice . (go.jp)
  • in the vestibule, and if there are no strong compensatory mechanisms, it can be predicted that there may be an acidification of endolymph when SLC26A4 is deleted. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The vestibular system comprising the semi-circular canals and vestibule are involved in balance while the cochlea is responsible for the sense of hearing. (healthhype.com)
  • The inner ear, or labyrinth, contains the cochlea, which houses the sound-analyzing cells of the ear, and the vestibule, which houses the organs of equilibrium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The spiral canal of the cochlea is a section of the bony labyrinth of the inner ear that is approximately 30 mm long and makes 2¾ turns about the modiolus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cochlea, both the bony labyrinth and the cochlear duct are coiled in a shape resembling that of a snail shell. (britannica.com)
  • In mammals, the anatomy of the inner ear consists of the bony labyrinth, a system of passages making up the following 2 main functional parts: (1) the cochlea, which is dedicated to hearing, and (2) the vestibular system, which is dedicated to balance. (medscape.com)
  • The inner ear is the bony labyrinth, a system of passages comprising two main functional parts: the cochlea and the vestibular apparatus. (wikipremed.com)
  • Model showing the distribution of frequencies along the basilar membrane of the cochlea. (britannica.com)
  • The hair cells are located in the basilar membrane and are surrounded by endolymph, not perilymph. (wisegeek.com)
  • As the cochlea spirals, the basilar membrane becomes less stiff and wider, so lower frequency sound waves are funneled further along the basilar membrane. (hubpages.com)
  • The motion of the stapes against the oval window sets up waves in the fluids of the cochlea, causing the basilar membrane to vibrate. (britannica.com)
  • In the cochlea (the specialized auditory end organ of the inner ear), the frequency of a pure tone is reported by the location of the reacting neurons in the basilar membrane, and the loudness of the sound is reported by the rate of discharge of nerve impulses. (britannica.com)
  • Vibrations of the endolymph cause vibrations of the basilar membrane. (biology-pages.info)
  • In mammals , the auditory hair cells are located within the organ of Corti on a thin basilar membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear . (statemaster.com)
  • Scala media is a endolymph filled cavity inside the cochlea, located in between the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli, separated by the basilar membrane and Reissners membrane(the vestibular membrane) respectively. (statemaster.com)
  • The basic principles of this local control are illustrated in the images below and are outlined as follows: First, an anatomic barrier exists between perilymph and endolymph, and it consists of Reissner membrane, the stria vascularis, and the reticular lamina formed by tight junctions between the apices of hair cells and the adjacent supporting cells (see the image above). (medscape.com)
  • Third, electrolytes (eg, K + ) that flow into perilymph are returned to the endolymph via the spiral ligament and stria vascularis (see the second image below). (medscape.com)
  • In the spiral ligament and stria vascularis reside the enzyme systems and cellular organelles necessary for the maintenance of the differences in electrolyte content between the perilymph and endolymph. (medscape.com)
  • They serve to transport K + through the spiral ligament and stria vascularis, and they secrete it into the endolymph. (medscape.com)
  • In murine cochleae, GTTR is preferentially taken up by the stria vascularis compared to the spiral ligament, peaking 3 h after intra-peritoneal injection, following GTTR kinetics in serum. (nih.gov)
  • These conditions are thought to be generated by the stria vascularis, which is adjacent to the endolymph compartment. (biologists.org)
  • although no obvious gross morphological malformations were detected in Cld11 -/- cochlea, freeze-fracture replica electron microscopy showed that TJs disappeared from basal cells of the stria vascularis. (biologists.org)
  • These findings indicated that the establishment of the stria vascularis compartment, especially the basal cell barrier, is indispensable for hearing ability through the generation/maintenance of EP but not of a high K + concentration in the endolymph. (biologists.org)
  • The lateral wall of the cochlear duct is formed by the spiral ligament and the stria vascularis, which produces the endolymph. (medscape.com)
  • The K + circulation in the cochlea is thought to be tightly regulated in the inner compartment of the cochlea by a transport network in the stria vascularis of the cochlea ( Wangemann 2006 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The stria vascularis is the major anatomical site within the cochlea that is highly invovled in the metabolic activity associated with perilymph production and maintenance. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • The stria vascularis is important for endolymph production and maintenance. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Ischemia of the highly metabolic cochlea and Organ of Corti results in decreased oxygenation of the stria vascularis and a failure to maintain endolymph. (audiology.org)
  • The cochlear duct epithelium (CDE) constitutes a tight barrier that effectively separates the inner ear fluids, endolymph and perilymph, thereby maintaining distinct ionic and osmotic gradients that are essential for auditory function. (nih.gov)
  • Endolymph has a high positive potential (80-120 mV in the cochlea), relative to other nearby fluids such as perilymph, due to its high concentration of positively charged ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years, cochlear fluids were thought to be generated by filtration of blood or cerebrospinal fluid, which then flowed longitudinally down the length of the cochlea to be absorbed through the endolymphatic sac. (medscape.com)
  • The endolymph has concentrations of electrolytes that differ from those of typical body fluids. (medscape.com)
  • What are the two primary fluids contained within the cochlea? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Endolymph and perilymph fluids have different compositions. (hubpages.com)
  • If endolymph and perilymph fluids mix (as in Meniere's Disease or endolymphatic sac disorders), damage to the hair cells will occur and deafness may result. (hubpages.com)
  • Together, the middle ear structures function as a transformer of sound energy from the air (in the EAC ) to the fluids of the inner ear (cochlea). (apologeticspress.org)
  • activities in the cochlear fluids are considered to be essential to maintain the function of the cochlea. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The inner hair cells transform the sound vibrations in the fluids of the cochlea into electrical signals that are then relayed via the auditory nerve to the auditory brainstem and to the auditory cortex . (statemaster.com)
  • The entire inner ear is filled with fluid, with a membranous separation of the two primary inner ear fluids, called endolymph and perilymph. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • The major cation in endolymph is potassium, with the values of sodium and potassium concentration in the endolymph being 0.91 mM and 154 mM, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high potassium content of the endolymph means that potassium, not sodium, is carried as the de-polarizing electric current in the hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas the perilymph is rich in sodium ions, the endolymph is rich in potassium ions, which produces an ionic, electrical potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endolymph is very high in potassium , with almost no sodium at all, and as a result it behaves differently within the ear. (wisegeek.com)
  • The high potassium in the endolymph acts as a depolarizing agent for the hair cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • Potassium recycling back to the endolymph, Steel pointed out, is critical to the entire machinery of hearing. (bioworld.com)
  • A further feature of the cochlea is a metabolically driven circulation of potassium ions (i.e. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Endolymph contains a high concentration of potassium ions and also contains calcium ions [ 3 ]. (plos.org)
  • This allows potassium and calcium ions from the endolymph to enter the hair cell, causing the hair cell to signal to synapsing neurons of the auditory nerve [ 3 ]. (plos.org)
  • Endolymph is high in potassium & low in sodium. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Gap junctions, which are composed of connexins, help mediate the potassium circulation in the cochlea, to maintain a high potassium level in the endolymph for normal auditory physiology [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • May play a critical role in the physiology of hearing by participating in the recycling of potassium to the cochlear endolymph. (abcam.com)
  • The most dramatic difference in the composition of endolymph from other lymph in the body is its high concentration of potassium (K + ) ions. (biology-pages.info)
  • The potassium that enters the hair cells must be removed from them and recycled back to the endolymph for hearing to continue. (biology-pages.info)
  • This suggests that Na,K-ATPase consisting of the .alpha.1 and .beta.2 subunits plays a critical role in the maintenance of high extracellular K+ levels in the cochlear endolymph and appears to transport K+ ions against very low levels of intracellular potassium. (eurekamag.com)
  • The water permeability coefficients of the CDE emphasise the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of water dynamics in the cochlea in particular for endolymphatic hydrops and Ménière's disease. (nih.gov)
  • A condition where the volume of the endolymph is greatly enlarged is called endolymphatic hydrops and has been linked to Ménière's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endolymphatic hydrops is a disorder in which an excessive amount of endolymph fluid causes an increase in the pressure of the endolymphatic system of the inner ear. (go.jp)
  • In cochlea, endolymphatic hydrops can cause stretching in the scala media , a tubular construction that, along with two other similar structures, the scala vestibuli and scala tympani , runs through the cochlea from the base to the top. (go.jp)
  • We measured two healthy and two diseased cochlea using conventional area calculation, as well as our method, and present results that show that our technique correlates with established standards for measuring the degree of endolymphatic hydrops in cochlea ( R =0.977, p =0.5×10 −7 ). (go.jp)
  • A characteristic sign of MD is endolymphatic hydrops (EH), a disorder in which excessive endolymph accumulates in the inner ear and causes damage to the ganglion cells. (nature.com)
  • We demonstrate that in vivo inoculation of adenovirus with the Math1 gene insert into the endolymph of the mature guinea pig cochlea results in Math1 overexpression in nonsensory cochlear cells, as evident from the presence of Math1 protein in supporting cells of the organ of Corti and in adjacent nonsensory epithelial cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • A core component of the cochlea is the Organ of Corti, the sensory organ of hearing, which is distributed along the partition separating the fluid chambers in the coiled tapered tube of the cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor sense organ of the cochlea which converted sound signals into nerve impulses via CNVIII. (brainscape.com)
  • Within the hearing organ, the cochlea, most of the genetic forms of hearing loss involve defects in sensory detection and to some extent, signaling to the brain via the auditory cranial nerve. (frontiersin.org)
  • Keithley, 2020 ), which can affect the function of the delicate bones and tympanic membrane that mediate the transfer of sound to the hearing organ within the skull, the cochlea. (frontiersin.org)
  • The nerve pathways from the organ of Corti (OC) in the cochlea to the auditory area in the brain are compromised in sensorineural HL (SNHL). (jneurosci.org)
  • Hair cells project actin-filled stereocilia from the organ of Corti into the endolymph [ 3 ]. (plos.org)
  • The cochlea is a spiral organ shaped like a nautilus shell in the inner ear. (hubpages.com)
  • The cochlea contains the organ of Corti, with 'hair cells' that detect sound waves in fluid that fills the inner ear organs. (hubpages.com)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of sensory hair cells from the organ of Corti, in the cochlea of the inner ear. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The cochlea contains the sensory organ of hearing. (britannica.com)
  • The organ of Corti lies within the middle chamber of the cochlea. (biology-pages.info)
  • Detection of a given frequency is a function of the location of the hair cells along the organ of Corti with the highest frequencies detected near the base of the cochlea, and the remainder of the sound spectrum detected in a progressive fashion with the lowest frequencies detected by hair cells near the tip. (biology-pages.info)
  • The smaller of the two sacs, the sacculus (literally, the little sac) is connected with a membranous tube in the cochlea containing the organ of Corti. (medicinenet.com)
  • The organ of Corti within the cochlea contains nerve fibers that extend to form the auditory nerve. (thoughtco.com)
  • The cochlea appears in the mammals under two types in addition to the peculiar type of the organ as found in the monotremes. (edu.au)
  • There were no exceptions in the case of the ungulates, the least flattened cochlea being possessed by the pig, but the difference between it and the same organ in the other ungulates was found to be slight. (edu.au)
  • The cochlea is the organ of hearing and allows for perception of sound. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • The scala vestibuli and scala tympani contain perilymph and the scala media contains endolymph [ 3 ]. (plos.org)
  • The ossicles are essential for efficient coupling of sound waves into the cochlea, since the cochlea environment is a fluid-membrane system, and it takes more pressure to move sound through fluid-membrane waves than it does through air. (wikipedia.org)
  • In first steps in hearing, the cochlea converts sound waves coming from the outside of the ear into electrical activity of the auditory nerve. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The sound waves travel through the cochlea and excite hair cells at specific locations along the cochlea, and the information from these cells is picked up by the auditory nerve and carried to the brain. (hubpages.com)
  • Hearing occurs when sound waves are changed to neural signals inside the cochlea of the inner ear. (blausen.com)
  • The arrangement of these bones forms a lever system that amplifies the energy of the sound waves before it reaches the cochlea. (blausen.com)
  • The exquisite sensitivity of the cochlea, which mediates the transduction of sound waves into nerve impulses, depends on the endolymph ionic composition and the endocochlear potential. (inserm.fr)
  • The sound waves cause the tympanum to vibrate and the three small bones of the middle ear , the anvil, hammer and stirrup , transfer the vibrations of the tympanum to the oval window of the Cochlea . (everything2.com)
  • The electric potential of endolymph is ~80-90 mV more positive than perilymph due to a higher concentration of K compared to Na. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electric potential of endolymph is of about 80 mV more positive than perilymph. (wikibooks.org)
  • These hair cells are in a fluid called endolymph, while the rest of the surrounding cells are surrounded by a fluid called perilymph. (hubpages.com)
  • These cells are surrounded by a fluid called the endolymph. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The cochlea is a tube, about 3.5 cm long, that is coiled like a snail shell and filled with a special fluid called endolymph . (biology-pages.info)
  • It has long been known that those with Meniere's disease have poor regulation of an inner ear fluid called endolymph. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • Inside the cochlea, aging typically leads to loss of the sensory receptors for sound known as hair cells owing to a tuft of "hairs" or microvilli-like protrusions at the apical surface. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we report that MANF is expressed in the hair cells and neurons and in selected non-sensory cells of the cochlea and that Manf inactivation triggers upregulation of the ER chaperones in these cells. (nature.com)
  • In fact, we're all born with these microscopic, battery-like contrivances on the sensory hair cells of our inner ears' cochlea. (bioworld.com)
  • There is a fluid space - the endolymph fluid bathing the sensory hair cells of the cochlea," explained British hearing geneticist Karen Steel, "that is normally maintained at a high electrical resting potential. (bioworld.com)
  • And some of those sensory hair cells within the cochlea have synapses with neurons of the cochlear nerve, which terminates in the brain. (bioworld.com)
  • The sensory cells of the cochlea are called "hair cells," so named for their hair-like projections which protrude into the fluid filled space (endolymph) in V-shapes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Acute disruption of the reticular lamina and the apical membranes of sensory and supporting cells from noise appears to be a major mechanism to account for degeneration in the cochlea that spreads or continues for days to weeks post-exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Sensory responses in the cochlea of mammals have been measured electrophysiologically by placing an electrode on the round window membrane. (britannica.com)
  • In addition, we demonstrated that ATP-dependent Ca2+ signaling activity in cochlear non-sensory cells is spatially graded from the apex to the base of the cochlea during the first postnatal week. (unipd.it)
  • The [Ca 2+ ] of vestibular endolymph (ca. 250 μM) is lower than perilymph (ca. 1 mM) and it has a critical role in sensory transduction through hair cells ( 20 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bottom: Since head acceleration exceeds endolymph acceleration, the relative flow of endolymph in the canal is opposite to the direction of head acceleration. (wikibooks.org)
  • Histopathological studies have associated MD with the accumulation of endolymph in the cochlea and the vestibular organs. (medworm.com)
  • In most patients, the clinical symptoms of MD present after considerable accumulation of endolymph has occurred. (nature.com)
  • Perilymph and endolymph have unique ionic compositions suited to their functions in regulating electrochemical impulses of hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the immunohistochemical studies on the human cochlea, ZO-1 was expressed in tissues lining scala media, thus contributing to the formation of a closed compartment system, important for the maintenance of the specific ionic composition of the endolymph. (diva-portal.org)
  • Water permeability of the mammalian cochlea: functional features of an aquaporin-facilitated water shunt at the perilymph-endolymph barrier. (nih.gov)
  • Hair cell loss in the mammalian cochlea is irreversible and results in permanent hearing loss. (jneurosci.org)
  • There are two distinct types of hair cells in the mammalian cochlea. (rochester.edu)
  • Two compartments within the cochlea, the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli, are filled with perilymph. (wisegeek.com)
  • The motion of the oval window sets up a wave in the perilymph filling the scala vestibuli of the cochlea. (britannica.com)
  • b Schematic cross-sectional view of the guinea pig cochlear duct in the half-turn V. The cochlear duct epithelium and interepithelial tight junctions constitute the cochlear "perilymph-endolymph barrier" (PEB, red line ) that encloses the endolymph in the SM. (nih.gov)
  • T he cochlea is the most anterior and medial part of the vestibulocochlear labyrinth. (thejns.org)
  • labyrinth is filled with endolymph. (sporcle.com)
  • The other main parts of the labyrinth are the semi-circular canals and cochlea . (healthhype.com)
  • When the entire labyrinth is affected (pan-labyrinthine), the cochlea is also involved and then hearing may be affected to varying degrees (sensorineural hearing loss). (healthhype.com)
  • Moreover, increased Nox3 expression in supporting cells and outer hair cells, especially at the basal turn of the cochlea, played essential roles in ROS-related SNHL. (jneurosci.org)
  • RESULTS: Mild EH was found, particularly in the upper turn of the cochlea. (diva-portal.org)
  • We set out to determine the outcome of overexpression of Math1 in nonsensory cells of the cochlea on the phenotype of these cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Histologic changes associated with aging occur throughout the auditory system from the hair cells of the cochlea to the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe of the brain. (physio-pedia.com)
  • For a normal adult, describe the structure and length of the cochlea. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Four rows of hair cells (called stereocilia) are located along the length of the cochlea. (hubpages.com)
  • There are approximately 20,000 hair cells located along the entire length of the cochlea, which detect a wide range of frequencies: the human ear has the capability of detecting sounds from approximately 200Hz-20,000Hz. (hubpages.com)
  • Scarpa membrane - closes the fenestra cochleae or rotunda. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This wave is transmitted across Reissner's membrane (the roof of the cochlear duct) into the endolymph of the cochlear duct. (britannica.com)
  • Unlike the outer hair cells that are attached to the overlying tectorial membrane, the inner hair cell bundles stand freely in the endolymph fluid. (rochester.edu)
  • What is the correct order of the ossicles in relationship to the tympanic membrane & moving medial towards the cochlea? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • The cochlea lies just behind a membrane called the oval window, which separates the middle ear bones from the inner ear. (hubpages.com)
  • The stapes fits into the membrane-covered oval window at the base of the cochlea. (blausen.com)
  • The stapes sits atop the round window, which is a small membrane-covered hole in the base of the cochlea. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Vibrations of the innermost ossicle, the stirrup, are transmitted through a flexible membrane, the oval window to the cochlea of the inner ear. (biology-pages.info)
  • Pumping of K + into the endolymph occurs against a concentration gradient and thus requires energy expenditure. (medscape.com)
  • Importantly, in the endolymph compartment of Cld11 -/- cochlea, the K + concentration was maintained around the normal level (∼150 mM), whereas the EP was suppressed down to ∼30 mV. (biologists.org)
  • The low Ca 2+ concentration of mammalian endolymph in the inner ear is required for normal hearing and balance. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • [ 1 ] In contrast, the composition of perilymph resembles that of extracellular fluid and is high in Na + and low in K + . These differences in electrolyte concentrations remain fairly constant throughout the cochlea, although slight differences are noted in the electrolyte composition of scala vestibuli and scala tympani and between the basal and apical portions of scala media. (medscape.com)
  • Within the scala media in the middle of the cochlea, there is also extracellular fluid, known as endolymph . (wisegeek.com)
  • In an endolymph-like extracellular environment, clearance of GTTR was attenuated from KPT2-TRPV4 cells in a TRPV4-dependent fashion. (biologists.org)
  • The cochlea (plural is cochleae) is a spiraled, hollow, conical chamber of bone, in which waves propagate from the base (near the middle ear and the oval window) to the apex (the top or center of the spiral). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nox3-expressing cells in the cochlea included various types of supporting cells, outer hair cells, inner hair cells, and spiral ganglion neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Air movement against the eardrum initiates action of the ossicles of the ear, which, in turn, causes movement of fluid in the spiral cochlea. (britannica.com)
  • Our knowledge of the fine structure of the Human Spiral Ganglion (HSG) is still inadequate and new treatment techniques for deafness using electric stimulation, call for further information and studies on the neuronal elements of the human cochlea. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cochlea - shaped like a spiral, this structure contains fluid-filled compartments which sense pressure changes. (thoughtco.com)
  • As the vibrations of the stapes cause it to "hit" on the cochlea's round window, small frequency-specific disturbances are transmitted into the fluid-filled spaces in the cochlea. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The mechanical vibrations of the stapes footplate at the oval window creates pressure waves in the perilymph of the scala vestibuli of the cochlea. (britannica.com)
  • The stapes (stirrup) ossicle bone of the middle ear transmits vibrations to the fenestra ovalis (oval window) on the outside of the cochlea, which vibrates the perilymph in the vestibular duct (upper chamber of the cochlea). (wikipedia.org)
  • The stapes, in turn, is in contact with the oval window of the cochlea (see Figure 3). (apologeticspress.org)
  • The stapes' foot plate rests in the oval window of the cochlea and acts like a piston. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The stapes then transfers the energy to the oval window of the cochlea . (everything2.com)
  • The cochlea is a portion of the inner ear that looks like a snail shell (cochlea is Greek for snail. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cochlea is a structure which is shaped much like a snail shell. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, it now appears that substantial longitudinal flow of perilymph or endolymph does not occur. (medscape.com)
  • The vestibular wall separates the cochlear duct from the perilymphatic scala vestibuli, a cavity inside the cochlea. (medscape.com)
  • The cochlea is a fluid filled cavity in the inner ear . (everything2.com)
  • The traveling wave in the perilymph of the scala vestibuli displaces the endolymph in the scala media. (wisegeek.com)
  • The scala media is isolated from the perilymphatic space and contains endolymph. (medscape.com)
  • Expressed in the heart and fetal cochlea. (abcam.com)
  • This gene is expressed in fetal cochlea and many other tissues, and is thought to be involved in the development and maintenance of the inner ear or the contents of the perilymph and endolymph. (jax.org)
  • The cochlea consists of 3 fluid-filled ducts or scalae (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Venous blood from the human cochlea is drained through the ICV. (diva-portal.org)
  • The immunostaining patterns of the tight junctional protein ZO-1 and the gap junctional proteins Cx26 and Cx43 in the human cochlea were also studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • deafness: impairment of the cochlea or auditory nerve. (sporcle.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that macrophages contribute to the regulation of glial cell number during postnatal development of the cochlea and that glial cells play a critical role in hearing onset and auditory nerve maturation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Scarpa hiatus - a semilunar opening at the apex of the cochlea through which the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani of the cochlea communicate with one another. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is located at the apex of the cochlea and where the perilymph from the scala tympani and scala vestibuli communicate. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Low frequency sounds are detected near the apex of the cochlea. (hubpages.com)
  • Aminoglycosides enter inner ear hair cells across their apical membranes via endocytosis, or through the mechanoelectrical transduction channels in vitro, suggesting that these drugs enter cochlear hair cells from endolymph to exert their cytotoxic effect. (nih.gov)
  • citation needed] Hearing: Cochlear duct: fluid waves in the endolymph of the cochlear duct stimulate the receptor cells, which in turn translate their movement into nerve impulses that the brain perceives as sound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the hair cells are at a negative potential of about -50 mV, the potential difference from endolymph to hair cell is on the order of 150 mV, which is the largest electrical potential difference found in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • We conclude that nonsensory cells in the mature cochlea retain the competence to generate new hair cells after overexpression of Math1 in vivo and that Math1 is necessary and sufficient to direct hair cell differentiation in these mature nonsensory cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • The discovery of developmental genes that encode hair cell differentiation facilitates the design of interventions to promote generation of new hair cells in cochleae with hair cell loss. (jneurosci.org)
  • Overexpression of Math1 in cultures of immature rat cochleae results in the production of ectopic hair cells derived from nonsensory epithelial precursors ( Zheng and Gao, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The inner hair cells provide the main neural output of the cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nox3 expression increased with cisplatin, age, and noise insults in specific cell types in the cochlea and resulted in the loss (apoptosis) of outer hair cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • If so, this will facilitate electrophoretically driven aminoglycoside entry into hair cells from endolymph. (nih.gov)
  • However, Manf inactivation resulted in the death of only outer hair cells (OHCs), the cells responsible for sound amplification in the cochlea. (nature.com)
  • When vibrations hit the cochlea, they cause the perilymph to move, stimulating the auditory hair cells inside the ear. (wisegeek.com)
  • The cochlea contains many thousands of hair cells organized in extensive arrays, embedded in an electrically coupled system of supporting cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The cochlea also contains a specific population of hair cells, the outer hair cells (OHCs), which is thought to amplify the BM motion. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This pump is expressed in cochlear hair cells [ 4 ] and exports calcium into the endolymph (reviewed in 5 ). (plos.org)
  • The fluid inside the cochlea (endolymph) is more positively charged than perilymph fluid, and helps to regulate the electrochemical signals required by the outer hair cells. (hubpages.com)
  • If you read the 'About' page, or anything about me, you probably noticed that I work on hair cell regeneration in the cochlea. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Inner hair cells send auditory information to the brain, while outer hair cells act to stabilize or intensify the vibrations transmitted throughout the cochlea. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The cochleae from these 0-day animals had several focal lesions in which nearly all outer hair cells had just degenerated. (cdc.gov)
  • The pathologic basis for presbycusis appears to be one of gradual devascularization of the cochlea and loss of functioning hair cells. (amazonaws.com)
  • They derive their name from the tufts of stereocilia that protrude from the apical surface of the cell, a structure known as the hair bundle, into the scala media , a fluid-filled tube within the cochlea. (statemaster.com)
  • Structure and function It has highly specialized structures that respond to fluid-borne vibrations in the cochlea with a shearing vector in the hairs of some cochlear hair cells. (statemaster.com)
  • Research of the past decades has shown that outer hair cells do not send neural signals to the brain, but that they mechanically amplify low-level sound that enters the cochlea . (statemaster.com)
  • [1] When the head changes position, the endolymph in the canals lags behind due to inertia and this acts on the cupula which bends the cilia of the hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. (wikipremed.com)
  • FXYD6 is expressed in various epithelial cells bordering the endolymph space and in the auditory neurons. (inserm.fr)
  • These structures divide the outer tube of the cochlea into two separate chambers. (biology-pages.info)
  • deafness: impairment of sound transmission prior to cochlea. (sporcle.com)
  • Vice versa, we found defective gap junction coupling and intercellular IP3-dependent Ca2+ signaling the cochlea of mice with targeted ablation Cx26 or Cx30, as well as in mice knock in for a point mutation (Cx30T5M) associated with human congenital deafness. (unipd.it)
  • The cochlea includes a rather peculiar compartment filled with endolymph. (biologists.org)
  • The cochleae from these animals had multiple lesions in the basal turn, all of which were healed by phalangeal scars or squamous epithelial cells. (cdc.gov)
  • A Ca 2+ absorption system in inner ear epithelial cells must be present to maintain the low [Ca 2+ ] of vestibular endolymph. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS) data from the guinea pig cochlea to demonstrate the anatomical relations of the cochlear fluid spaces. (nih.gov)
  • Ion transport in guinea pig cochlea. (wikipedia.org)