The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
A fetal heart structure that is the bulging areas in the cardiac septum between the HEART ATRIA and the HEART VENTRICLES. During development, growth and fusion of endocardial cushions at midline forms the two atrioventricular canals, the sites for future TRICUSPID VALVE and BICUSPID VALVE.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A condition characterized by the thickening of ENDOCARDIUM due to proliferation of fibrous and elastic tissue, usually in the left ventricle leading to impaired cardiac function (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE). It is most commonly seen in young children and rarely in adults. It is often associated with congenital heart anomalies (HEART DEFECTS CONGENITAL;) INFECTION; or gene mutation. Defects in the tafazzin protein, encoded by TAZ gene, result in a form of autosomal dominant familial endocardial fibroelastosis.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
A spectrum of septal defects involving the ATRIAL SEPTUM; VENTRICULAR SEPTUM; and the atrioventricular valves (TRICUSPID VALVE; BICUSPID VALVE). These defects are due to incomplete growth and fusion of the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS which are important in the formation of two atrioventricular canals, site of future atrioventricular valves.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease in which the ventricular walls are excessively rigid, impeding ventricular filling. It is marked by reduced diastolic volume of either or both ventricles but normal or nearly normal systolic function. It may be idiopathic or associated with other diseases (ENDOMYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS or AMYLOIDOSIS) causing interstitial fibrosis.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
A congenital cardiomyopathy that is characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the RIGHT VENTRICLE wall and loss of myocardial cells. Primary injuries usually are at the free wall of right ventricular and right atria resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.

Effect of warfarin on the induction and course of experimental endocarditis. (1/971)

The effect of warfarin treatment on an experimental endocarditis was studied in rabbits. Warfarin had no effect on the induction of a Streptococcus sanguis infection in catheter-induced endocardial vegetations, and the course of this infection was also unaltered. However, warfarin treatment resulted in rapidly progressive bacteremia, probably due to impaired circulation in clearing organs such as the lungs, liver, and spleen. Warfarin also reduced the survival time of the infected rabbits, in which pulmonary edema and extensive lung hemorrhages may have been a contributory factor.  (+info)

Enteroviral RNA replication in the myocardium of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. (2/971)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies dealing with the detection of enteroviral RNA in human endomyocardial biopsies have not differentiated between latent persistence of the enteroviral genome and active viral replication. Enteroviruses that are considered important factors for the development of myocarditis have a single-strand RNA genome of positive polarity that is transcribed by a virus-encoded RNA polymerase into a minus-strand mRNA during active viral replication. The synthesis of multiple copies of minus-strand enteroviral RNA therefore occurs only at sites of active viral replication but not in tissues with mere persistence of the viral genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated enteroviral RNA replication versus enteroviral RNA persistence in endomyocardial biopsies of 45 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, we established a highly sensitive assay to specifically detect plus-strand versus minus-strand enteroviral RNA in the biopsies. Plus-strand enteroviral RNA was detected in endomyocardial biopsies of 18 (40%) of 45 patients, whereas minus-strand RNA as an indication of active enteroviral RNA replication was detected in only 10 (56%) of these 18 plus-strand-positive patients. Enteroviral RNA was not found in biopsies of the control group (n=26). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that a significant fraction of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis had active enteroviral RNA replication in their myocardium (22%). Differentiation between patients with active viral replication and latent viral persistence should be particularly important in future studies evaluating different therapeutic strategies. In addition, molecular genetic detection of enteroviral genome and differentiation between replicating versus persistent viruses is possible in a single endomyocardial biopsy.  (+info)

Regional electrophysiological effects of hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia and hyponatraemia in isolated rabbit hearts in normal and ischaemic conditions. (3/971)

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to establish an isolated working heart model for electrophysiological recordings from the epicardium and endocardium and to examine regional effects of changes in ion concentrations in normal and ischaemic conditions. METHODS: Monophasic action potential duration (MAPD90), effective refractory period (ERP) and conduction delay were measured simultaneously in the epicardium and endocardium of rabbit hearts paced at 3.3 Hz, subjected to 30 min of regional ischaemia and 15 min of reperfusion. The hearts were exposed before and throughout ischaemia and reperfusion to hypokalaemia (K+ = 2 mM), hypomagnesaemia (Mg2+ = 0.5 mM) or hyponatraemia (Na+ = 110 mM). RESULTS: In the control hearts, no regional electrophysiological differences were seen before ischaemia, but ischaemia-induced MAPD90 shortening and postrepolarisation refractoriness were greater in the epicardium than in the endocardium and conduction delay increased only in the epicardium. Hypokalaemia shortened ERP in the epicardium (but not endocardium) and increased conduction delay in all areas before ischaemia, but it had no effects during ischaemia. During reperfusion hypokalaemia increased the incidence of recurrent tachyarrhythmias. Hypomagnesaemia had no effect before ischaemia, increased epicardial (but not endocardial) MAPD90 shortening during ischaemia, although it had no pro-arrhythmic action. Hyponatraemia increased conduction delay in all areas before ischaemia and produced asystole or severe bradycardia in all hearts. During ischaemia, hyponatraemia decreased ERP shortening and inducibility of arrhythmias in the epicardium (but not endocardium). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the more pronounced effect of ischaemia upon the epicardium than the endocardium can be explained by the contact of the endocardium with intracavitary perfusate. We also conclude that changes in ion concentrations may have differential regional electrical effects in normal or ischaemic conditions.  (+info)

Requirement of type III TGF-beta receptor for endocardial cell transformation in the heart. (4/971)

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling is mediated by a complex of type I (TBRI) and type II (TBRII) receptors. The type III receptor (TBRIII) lacks a recognizable signaling domain and has no clearly defined role in TGF-beta signaling. Cardiac endothelial cells that undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transformation express TBRIII, and here TBRIII-specific antisera were found to inhibit mesenchyme formation and migration in atrioventricular cushion explants. Misexpression of TBRIII in nontransforming ventricular endothelial cells conferred transformation in response to TGF-beta2. These results support a model where TBRIII localizes transformation in the heart and plays an essential, nonredundant role in TGF-beta signaling.  (+info)

Bulbus arteriosus of the antarctic teleosts. I. The white-blooded Chionodraco hamatus. (5/971)

The bulbus arteriosus of teleost fish is a thick-walled chamber that extends between the single ventricle and the ventral aorta. The functional importance of the bulbus resides in the fact that it maintains a steady blood flow into the gill system through heart contraction. Despite of this, a thorough study of the structure of the bulbus in teleost fish is still lacking. We have undertaken a morphologic study of the bulbus arteriosus in the stenothermal teleosts of the Antarctic sea. The structural organization of the bulbus arteriosus of the icefish Chionodraco hamatus has been studied here by conventional light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The inner surface of the bulbus shows a festooned appearance due to the presence of longitudinal, unbranched ridges that extend between the ventricle and the arterial trunk. The wall of the bulbus is divided into endocardial, subendocardial, middle, and external layers. Endocardial cells show a large number of moderately-dense bodies. The endocardium invaginates into the subendocardium forming solid epithelial cords that contain numerous secretory vacuoles. Cells in the subendocardium group into small domains, have some of the morphological characteristics of smooth muscle cells, and appear enmeshed in a three-dimensional network of matrix filaments. Cells in the middle layer are typical smooth muscle cells. They appear arranged into layers and are surrounded by a filamentous meshwork that excludes collagen fibers. Orientation of this meshwork occurs in the vicinity of the smooth muscle cells. Elastin fibers are never observed. The external layer is formed by wavy collagen bundles and fibroblast-like cells. This layer lacks blood vessels and nerve fibers. The endocardium and the endocardium-derived cords are secretory epithelia that may be involved in the formation ofmucins or glycosaminoglycans. These mucins may have a protecting effect on the endocardium. The subendocardium and the middle layer appear to be formed by the same cell type, smooth muscle, with a gradient of differentiation from the secretory (subendocardium) to the contractile (middle layer) phenotype. Despite the absence of elastin fibers, the filamentous matrix could maintain the elastic properties of the bulbus wall. Smooth muscle cells appear to be actively involved in bulbus wall dynamics. The restriction of collagen to the external layer suggests that it may control wall dilatation and bulbus compliance. When comparison was possible, structural differences between C. hamatus and temperate teleosts seemed to be not species-related, but of phenotypic adaptative significance. This is remarkable since Antarctic fishes have lived isolated in freezing waters for the last two million years.  (+info)

Fas expression and apoptosis correlate with cardiac dysfunction in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (6/971)

Fas is a transmembranous glycoprotein that mediates apoptosis. To elucidate the roles of Fas and of myocyte apoptosis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the expression of Fas and the fragmentation of DNA were compared in endomyocardial biopsy specimens obtained from patients with DCM. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed on 19 subjects (16 with DCM and 3 control subjects) who also underwent cardiac catheterization and echocardiography. Fas and bcl-2 expression were assayed immunohistochemically, and in situ TdT staining was performed to estimate the number of apoptotic cells. Samples from the DCM patients stained more intensely with anti-Fas antibody than those from control patients (p<0.05). The percentage of in situ TdT-positive cells was significantly higher in the DCM group than in the control group (p<0.05). A correlation between Fas expression and in situ TdT staining was observed in 67% of myocytes in the DCM group. Moreover, the percentage of in situ TdT staining was significantly higher in subjects with severely impaired left ventricular systolic function than in those whose systolic function was mild to moderately impaired, or who had normal systolic function (p<0.05). The samples showed little expression of bcl-2. These results suggest that Fas expression and apoptosis may be involved in the progression of cardiac dysfunction in DCM.  (+info)

Tracheal aspirate as a substrate for polymerase chain reaction detection of viral genome in childhood pneumonia and myocarditis. (7/971)

BACKGROUND: Infectious respiratory disorders are important causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Viral causes are common and may lead to rapid deterioration, requiring mechanical ventilation; myocardial dysfunction may accompany respiratory decompensation. The etiologic viral diagnosis may be difficult with classic methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method for identification of causative agents. METHODS AND RESULTS: PCR was used to amplify sequences of viruses known to cause childhood viral pneumonia and myocarditis. Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify specific sequences of DNA virus (adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein-Barr virus) and RNA virus (enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, and influenza B) genomes. Tracheal aspirate samples were obtained from 32 intubated patients and nucleic acid extracted before PCR. PCR results were compared with results of culture, serology, and antigen detection methods when available. In cases of myocarditis (n=7), endomyocardial biopsy samples were analyzed by PCR and compared with tracheal aspirate studies. PCR amplification of viral genome occurred in 18 of 32 samples (56%), with 3 samples PCR positive for 2 viral genomes. Amplified viral sequences included RSV (n=3), enterovirus (n=5), cytomegalovirus (n=4), adenovirus (n=3), herpes simplex virus (n=2), Epstein-Barr virus (n=1), influenza A (n=2), and influenza B (n=1). All 7 cases of myocarditis amplified the same viral genome from heart as found by tracheal aspirate. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool in cases of viral pneumonia with or without myocarditis, and tracheal aspirate appears to be excellent for analysis.  (+info)

Oxidized low-density lipoproteins induce apoptosis in aortic and endocardial endothelial cells. (8/971)

AIM: To examine whether oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) might induce apoptosis in bovine aortic and endocardial endothelial cells (BAEC and BEEC). METHODS: Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were isolated from healthy human plasma by ultracentrifugation and oxidized by CuSO4 10 mumol.L-1. BAEC and BEEC were incubated in a medium containing ox-LDL, LDL, or phosphate-buffer solution (PBS) as control. DNA fragmentation was visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and determined quantitatively using Hoechst-33258 fluorochrome. RESULTS: Ox-LDL, not LDL, elicited typical apoptotic changes and DNA fragmentation in BAEC and BEEC. In BAEC, dextran sulfate, and cicloheximide (Cic) exhibited no effect on DNA fragmentation induced by ox-LDL. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) 20 mumol.L-1 completely inhibited Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation of LDL as well as the apoptosis-inducing effect of Cu(2+)-exposed LDL. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) did not elicit DNA fragmentation in BAEC and in BEEC. DNA fragmentation induced by ox-LDL in BAEC and in BEEC was blocked by chelating the calcium of the culture medium by egtazic acid. CONCLUSION: Ox-LDL induces apoptosis in BAEC and BEEC without involving the LPC.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Endocardial cushion tissue development. T2 - structural analyses on the attachment of extracellular matrix to migrating mesenchymal cell surfaces.. AU - Markwald, R. R.. AU - Krook, J. M.. AU - Kitten, G. T.. AU - Runyan, R. B.. PY - 1981/12/1. Y1 - 1981/12/1. N2 - The progressive growth and eventual fusion of the atrioventricular (AV) endocardial cushions is of critical importance to normal embryonic heart development. Failure to do so would result in septal and AV valvular defects. A central feature in initial cushion growth is the migration of cushion tissue (CT) cells through an heterogeneous extracellular matrix (ECM) which has previously been shown (in particular hyaluronate) to modify migratory behavior. Attention was directed to migrating CT cells to determine if (1) their surfaces physically attach to or bind ECM and (2) are modified to suggest a morphological basis for cell:matrix interaction. The migratory appendages (filopodia) of CT cells maintained in organ culture ...
Attempts to accurately map the LV endocardial surface originated with single catheters used to sequentially map point by point.3 Anatomic location has been crudely assessed by use of fluoroscopy. Attempts to increase the number of simultaneously mapped sites include increasing the number of electrodes on each catheter, increasing the number of catheters,4 and creating different catheter shapes.5 6 None of these techniques allow for rapid and anatomically accurate mapping of the entire endocardial surface. Furthermore, the ability to guide an additional EP catheter to a specific site can be impeded by the presence of other catheters used in the mapping process.5 Using a special catheter containing a magnetic field sensor along with a magnetic field emitter located beneath the patient table (Carto, Biosense), Gepstein et al7 created anatomically accurate global activation maps. Activation maps were sequentially constructed by use of contact electrograms from the catheter tip. The obvious ...
The objectives of this study were to measure action potential parameters in enzyme-dissociated, adult rat ventricular myocytes stimulated at 1 Hz, to compare these measurements with those obtained from intact ventricular tissue, and to determine myocyte and tissue responses at stimulus frequencies between 0.1 and 5 Hz. Action potentials were characterized in terms of amplitude, overshoot, resting potential, duration at 25% and 75% repolarization (APD25, APD75), and Vmax. Based on statistical differences in APD25 and APD75, myocyte action potentials were classified as type I (3.1 +/- 1.0 and 21.5 +/- 3.6 msec), type II (7.4 +/- 1.1 and 38.2 +/- 6.7 msec), or type III (14.5 +/- 1.9 and 46.0 +/- 4.1 msec). Action potentials corresponding to type I were found in right ventricular endocardium and right papillary muscles, and those corresponding to types II and III in the left ventricular endocardium [apex, middle (II); base (III)] and left papillary muscles (II). Myocytes and papillary muscles ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of natriuretic peptide in ventricular myocardium of failing human hearts and its correlation with the severity of clinical and hemodynamic impairment. AU - Arbustini, Eloisa. AU - Pucci, Angela. AU - Grasso, Maurizia. AU - Diegoli, Marta. AU - Pozzi, Roberto. AU - Gavazzi, Antonello. AU - Graziano, Gabriella. AU - Campana, Carlo. AU - Goggi, Claudio. AU - Martinelli, Luigi. AU - Silini, Enrico. AU - Specchia, Giuseppe. AU - Vigano, Mario. AU - Solcia, Enrico. PY - 1990/10/15. Y1 - 1990/10/15. N2 - Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was immunohistochemically investigated in (1) right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy specimens from 87 apparently healthy donor hearts taken from victims of cerebral accidents; (2) 1 normal heart not suitable for transplantation (HBsAg carrier); (3) right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy specimens from 151 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DC); and (4) 57 explanted hearts, 26 with DC and 31 with ischemic heart disease. No ANP ...
The embryonic heart is composed of two cell layers: the myocardium, which contributes to cardiac muscle tissue, and the endocardium, which covers the inner lumen of the heart. Whereas significant progress has been made toward elucidating the embryonic origins of the myocardium, the origins of the endocardium remain unclear. Here, we have identified an endocardium-forming field medial to the cardiac crescent, in a continuum with the endothelial plexus. In vivo live imaging of quail embryos revealed that endothelial progenitors, like second/anterior heart field progenitors, migrate to, and enter, the heart from the arterial pole. Furthermore, embryonic endothelial cells implanted into the cardiac crescent contribute to the endocardium, but not to the myocardium. In mouse, lineage analysis focusing on endocardial cells revealed an unexpected heterogeneity in the origins of the endocardium. To gain deeper insight into this heterogeneity, we conditionally ablated Flk1 in distinct cardiovascular ...
Background- Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) represents the gold standard for diagnosing myocarditis and nonischemic cardiomyopathies. This study focuses on the risk of complications and the respective diagnostic performance of left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV), or biventricular EMB in patients with suspected myocarditis and/or cardiomyopathy of unknown origin.. Methods and Results- In this 2-center study, 755 patients with clinically suspected myocarditis (n=481) and/or cardiomyopathy of nonischemic origin including those with infiltrative or connective tissue disease (n=274) underwent either selective LV-EMB (n=265; 35.1%), selective RV-EMB (n=133; 17.6%), or biventricular EMB (n=357; 47.3%) after coronary angiography and exclusion of significant coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance, including late gadolinium enhancement, imaging was performed in 540 patients (71.5%). The major complication rate for LV-EMB was 0.64% and for RV-EMB, 0.82%. Considering postprocedural ...
In the present study, it is noteworthy that only focal or little immunoreactive vWF was found in the endocardium of noncardiac patients with none of the clinical high-risk predictors for thromboembolism, whereas vWF was apparent in the endothelium of intramyocardial vessels of the same cases. We confirmed that immunoreactivity for other endothelial cell markers, CD31, CD34 and eNOS, was maintained in the endocardial endothelium as well as in the vessel endothelium. Our observations suggest that in noncardiac patients, the endocardial endothelium of the atrial appendage is selectively deficient in vWF, which has been used as an endothelial cell marker in human vessels (19,20). However, this is not surprising because Yamamoto et al. (21)have recently reported that vWF is differentially expressed in endothelial cells among different tissues or organs in mice.. On the other hand, increased immunoreactivity for vWF in the endocardium was found particularly in the left, compared with the right, atrial ...
Endocardial and myocardial progenitors originate in distinct regions of the anterior lateral plate mesoderm and migrate to the midline where they coalesce to form the cardiac tube. Endocardial progenitors acquire a molecular identity distinct from other vascular endothelial cells and initiate expression of specific genes such as nfatc1. Yet the molecular pathways and tissue interactions involved in establishing endocardial identity are poorly understood. The endocardium develops in tight association with cardiomyocytes. To test for a potential role of the myocardium in endocardial morphogenesis, we used two different zebrafish models deficient in cardiomyocytes: the hand2 mutant and a myocardial-specific genetic ablation method. We show that in hand2 mutants endocardial progenitors migrate to the midline but fail to assemble into a cardiac cone and do not express markers of differentiated endocardium. Endocardial differentiation defects were rescued by myocardial but not endocardial-specific ...
Figure 2: (a), (b) Clinical MRI scan of an infarcted patient heart and the corresponding segmentation. (c) 3D geometric model of the patient heart with the epicardium and the infarct border zone rendered semitransparent. (d) Estimated fiber orientations. (e) Simulated activation map of ventricular tachycardia (VT) revealing reentry on the left ventricular endocardium. VT frequency is 3.05 Hz. Figure modified from [29 ...
A prolongation of the ventricular effective refractory period in response to cholinergic agonists or vagal stimulation has been demonstrated in a number of in vivo animal models. However, exposure of isolated myocardial tissues obtained from these hearts to as much as 10(-4) M acetylcholine has been shown to produce essentially no change in action potential duration or effective refractory period. The discrepancy between the in vivo and in vitro findings generally has been explained on the basis of accentuated antagonism, whereby parasympathetic agonists exert their influence through antagonism of the effects of beta-adrenergic tone in vivo. The fact that acetylcholine exerts little if any direct effect on the electrical activity of ventricular myocardium, although well accepted, is based exclusively on studies performed using endocardial preparations. Our recent demonstration of major electrophysiological differences between canine ventricular endocardium and epicardium prompted us to examine ...
Average visual score for endocardial border delineation for short-axis and long-axis cine-imaging at rest and maximum dobutamine stress. Values are expressed as
Atrial focal activity has been demonstrated by high-density epicardial mapping (11-13), but to date this has not been feasible by endocardial mapping with conventional catheters. Using a novel multispine mapping catheter applied to the atrial endocardium, we have been able to map both the direction of wave front propagation and the site of earliest local atrial activation during AF. A centrifugal activation pattern is described by activation spreading from center to periphery in all five spines of this mapping catheter, excluding any entry of wave fronts from outside the mapping area; under such circumstances, the center of the mapping area most likely represents a focal source of activity. This has been confirmed in patients with focal atrial tachycardia where sites demonstrating an identical pattern of centrifugal activation were successful targets for catheter ablation (15). Although a centrifugal activation pattern may reflect endocardial breakthrough from the epicardium (for example, if ...
BACKGROUND: Delayed ventricular arrhythmias during acute myocardial ischemia (1B arrhythmias) are associated with an increase in tissue impedance and are most likely sustained in a thin subepicardial layer. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that heterogeneous uncoupling between depolarized midmyocardium and surviving subepicardium results in heterogeneous refractoriness in the latter, providing the reentry substrate after a premature beat. METHODS: A 3-dimensional bidomain slab was constructed comprising a normal subepicardial layer coupled to a slightly depolarized (-80 to -60 mV) but inexcitable midmyocardium. Experimentally measured tissue impedance served as input for the model. Four stages of heterogeneous uncoupling between the 2 layers were simulated, each corresponding to an experimental ischemic impedance value. Effective refractory periods (ERP), conduction velocities, and inducibility of reentry were examined. RESULTS: Heterogeneous uncoupling resulted in
Endocardium The inner surfaces of the heart s chambers are lined with a thin sheet of shiny, white tissue known as the endocardium. The same type of tissue, more broadly referred to as endothelium, also lines the body s blood vessels, forming one continuous lining throughout the circulatory system. This lining helps blood flow smoothly and prevents blood clots from forming inside the circulatory system.. ...
1. We have investigated whether porcine endocardial cells in culture express the inducible, Ca(2+)-independent form of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. 2. NO synthase activity in cytosolic extracts of endocardial cells was measured by estimation of the rate of formation of L-[14C]-citrulline from L-[14C]-arginine. 3. Treatment of the cells in culture with lipopolysaccharide or cytokines induced a Ca(2+)-independent NO synthase activity in the cell cytosol. The combination of tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha, 10 ng ml-1) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta, 10 ng ml-1) induced the greatest enzyme activity. 4. The increased Ca(2+)-independent NO synthase activity following exposure to cytokines was paralleled by an increase in guanosine 3:5-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) levels in the endocardial cell cytosol. 5. Simultaneous addition of dexamethasone (0.01-1 microM) or cycloheximide (0.03-3 microM) inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner TNF alpha- and IL-1 beta-induced expression of ...
The heart is composed of diverse muscle and non-muscle cell lineages. Until recently, it has been believed that cardiac progenitor cells commit early during development to exclusively generate cardiomyocytes, whereas other heart lineages such as endocardial cells are specified independently. However, a growing body of evidence from multiple laboratories suggest that, with respect to lineage diversification, there may be a single stem/progenitor cell that can generate all major cell types during heart formation (Kattman et al., 2006; Moretti et al., 2006; Wu et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2008). However, signaling pathways that direct the formation of these cell lineages remain to be elucidated.. Although it is difficult to study cardiovascular lineage formation in mammals due to embryo inaccessibility, the zebrafish offers an advantageous in vivo system to dissect the mechanisms of cardiovascular lineage formation. Similar to mammalian embryos, zebrafish endocardial, myocardial and vascular ...
Endocardial cell epithelial-mesenchymal transformation requires Type III TGFβ receptor interaction with GIPC.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
The endocardium is less dependent on the epicardial vessels because of it has multiple anastomoses and feeds through diffusion of oxygen and nutrients from the ventricular lumen. However, the endocardium is very sensitive to demand mismatches, especially in the context of existing stenosis, because the inner most portion of the heart also squeezes the tightest. When intramural wall pressure increases, it is akin to squeezing your hand until it turns white - there is no nutrient delivery. The first phase of injury is delayed repolarization of the endocardium, which causes a large, fat Tw. This is the pathophysiology of the hyperacute Tw or pseudonormalization. The second phase of injury is incomplete return to resting membrane potential, which causes TP elevation and the illusion of ST depression. This is also why ST depressions are very inaccurate at localizing or predicting critical coronary occlusion - the endocardium is less dependent on the epicardial vessels ...
Results Compared with normal subjects, peak subendocardial LV twist was significantly impaired in patients with STEMI (11.2±6.0° vs 15.3±2.7°, p,0.001). In patients with chronic HF, peak subendocardial LV twist was even more impaired (4.6±3.4°, p,0.001 vs normal subjects and patients with STEMI). Conversely, peak subepicardial LV twist was not statistically different between normal subjects and patients with STEMI (8.9±1.9° vs 8.4±4.4°, p=0.98), whereas it was significantly impaired in patients with chronic HF (2.6±2.5°, p,0.001 vs normal subjects and patients with STEMI). Peak subendocardial LV twist was not statistically different between large and small STEMI, whereas peak subepicardial LV twist was significantly lower in large STEMI than in small STEMI (7.1±4.8° vs 9.6±3.6°, p=0.025). ...
In this case, the thrombus in the circumflex on day 1 was non-occlusive, resulting in subendocardial ischemia that manifested as ST depression in many leads. It is tempting to say that the ST depression was posterior STEMI on these initial ECGs, but that is not so. The ST depression was not V1-V3 (as in posterior STEMI), but rather V3-V6 (which is what is seen in subendocardial ischemia). Furthermore, there was ST depression in I, II, III, and aVF. The ST depression vector was inferior and anterior, with a reciprocal ST elevation vector that is superior (resulting in STE in aVR). ...
It is possible that the eye/head phenotype is a secondary phenotype. What is the timing of the different organs development during zebrafish embryogenesis? Would this help to determine the likelihood of a secondary phenotype? Are there other mutations that affect heart development but not development of these other tissues? (Kimberly) - The terms including development, morphogenesis, formation are confusing. What is the difference? Which one should we use in this context? - Statements from paper: Figure 1. (i-k) Both the myocardium (green) and the endocardium (red) are substantially smaller in the mutant and the morphant, and no cavity is visible inside the heart lumen. Figure 4. (a,f) The endocardium of the mutant was extremely shrunken and the space between the myocardium and endocardium was much wider than that of the wild-type. Example: ...
Layers of the Heart The heart wall has three layers, going from innermost to outermost: Endocardium Myocardium Pericardium ENDOCARDIUM The endocardium...
The Purkinje network has the potential to influence myocardial AP morphology and rate-dependent behaviour, and furthermore to underlie enhanced transmural APD heterogeneities and spatial gradients of APD in non-failing and failing myocardium.
Previous Next TOPICS: ST elevation, ST depression, subendocardial ischemia, transmural ischemia, peaked T waves, inverted T waves, pathologic Q waves,
Five different sildenafil stada aussehen viruses (hepatitis viruses a, b, and syphilis. Initial troponin i peaks at 35 days; rv function with advancing gestation. In patients with atrial systole, indicative of non occlusive and nonregional subendocardial ischemia in an emergency condition in both, as meckel-gruber syn- drome featuring facial and upper parts of the 4-agonist. Furthermore, x descent (mainly during inspiration), and a more detailed visualization of both hgbs and hgbc, in which the infection and pulmonary arterial wedging is difficult to love toddlers at times of gestation. These patients have pleuropericardial involvement during these manipulations, as it avoids aortic manipulation. Om branch. Infants rarely need fluid restrictions b. Information for families, who need and desire parental guidance during the immediate family, the surrounding environment schools when children enter school, is characterized by medial adduction of the potential development of psychosocial, ...
MalaCards based summary : Endocardium Disease, also known as abnormality of the endocardium, is related to endocarditis and endocardial fibroelastosis. An important gene associated with Endocardium Disease is CRP (C-Reactive Protein), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Selenium Micronutrient Network and Overview of nanoparticle effects. Affiliated tissues include innermost layer of tissue, heart and bone, and related phenotypes are cardiovascular system and muscle ...
Fifteen patients with right ventricular tachycardia without evidence of coronary artery disease or dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were evaluated, by means of electrophysiologic study and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. Six cases were
The term endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) was introduced by Weinberg and Himmelfarb in 1943. Endocardial fibroelastosis refers to a pronounced, diffuse thickening of the ventricular endocardium and presents as unexplained heart failure in infants and children.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purkinje-muscle coupling and endocardial response to hyperkalemia, hypoxia, and acidosis. AU - Gilmour, R. F.. AU - Evans, J. J.. AU - Zipes, D. P.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - Previously we found that combined hyperkalemia, hypoxia, and acidosis depressed the electrical activity of canine epicardium more than that of endocardium or Purkinje fibers. In this study, we determined whether the resistance of endocardium to these components of ischemia was due to electrotonic interactions with Purkinje fibers. The effects of combined hyperkalemia, hypoxia, and acidosis were tested on endocardial cells that were electrically uncoupled from Purkinje cells (uncoupled endocardium), due to their location or to prior exposure to elevated [Ca2+]. During control, action potentials in uncoupled endocardium had shorter durations than endocardium coupled to Purkinje (coupled endocardium), but had similar amplitudes, upstroke velocities, and resting potentials. During combined hyperkalemia, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is the chest pain in cardiac syndrome X due to subendocardial ischaemia?. AU - Camici, Paolo G.. PY - 2002/11/1. Y1 - 2002/11/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036874995&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036874995&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 12506518. AN - SCOPUS:0036874995. VL - 3. SP - 623. EP - 625. JO - Italian Heart Journal. JF - Italian Heart Journal. SN - 1129-471X. IS - 11. ER - ...
Chronotropic doses of dobutamine have been shown to increase transmural WT, even in perfusion beds subtended by coronary stenoses that range from 30% to 80% in diameter (8). If the stenosis is more severe or if higher doses of dobutamine are used, WT becomes abnormal (2). Transmural myocardial blood flow responses, however, are different, with decreases in myocardial blood flow observed even in milder non-flow limiting stenoses (2). As the stenosis becomes more severe, a marked decrease in subendocardial blood flow has been observed (9-11), with a marked decrease in endocardial/epicardial flow ratios. In this study, RTMCE detected this decrease in endocardial to epicardial blood flow abnormality in 45 of the 55 patients with LAD stenoses ,50%.. Another pertinent pharmacologic property of dobutamine is its ability to recruit the subepicardial layers to thicken. The subendocardium is responsible for over 40% of WT under resting conditions (12,13), and thus resting WT might be abnormal even when ...
Malignant neoplasm of pericardium|Malignant tumor of endocardium|Malignant tumor of endocardium (disorder)|Malignant tumor of heart|Malignant tumor of heart (disorder)|Malignant tumor of myocardium|Malignant tumor of myocardium (disorder)|Malignant tumour of endocardium|Malignant tumour of heart|Malignant tumour of myocardium|Primary malignant neoplasm of endocardium|Primary malignant neoplasm of endocardium (disorder)|Primary malignant neoplasm of epicardium|Primary malignant neoplasm of epicardium (disorder)|Primary malignant neoplasm of heart|Primary malignant neoplasm of heart (disorder)|Primary malignant neoplasm of myocardium|Primary malignant neoplasm of myocardium (disorder)|Primary malignant neoplasm of pericardium|Primary malignant neoplasm of pericardium (disorder)
Both the in vitro and in vivo data substantiate the specificity of the NFATc1-DTR transgene within the endocardium; however, the lineage of NFATc1-DTR+ cells was unknown. To ensure that only endocardial cells were ablated during DT treatment and to rule out the possibility that regulatory elements of Nfatc1 promoted the expression of DTR in additional cardiac progenitors, which would result in the ablation of both cardiomyocytes and endocardial cells, we used an NFATc1-Cre BAC transgenic mouse line in which Cre recombinase is specifically expressed in endocardial cells as described above. Whole-mount X-gal staining of E10.0 embryos from a mating between NFATc1-Cre and Rosa26lacZ reporter mice revealed the presence of β-galactosidase (β-gal)-positive cells predominantly in the endocardium of the heart (Fig. 9G,H). Endocardial-specific expression of NFATc1-Cre was more apparent following Eosin staining of sectioned E10.0 NFATc1-Cre; Rosa26lacZ embryos, which revealed expression of β-gal within ...
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) with adenosine-stress myocardial perfusion is gaining importance for the detection and quantification of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there is little knowledge about patients with CMR-detected ischemia, but having no relevant stenosis as seen on coronary angiography (CA). The aims of our study were to characterize these patients by CMR and CA and evaluate correlations and potential reasons for the ischemic findings. 73 patients with an indication for CA were first scanned on a 1.5T whole-body CMR-scanner including adenosine-stress first-pass perfusion. The images were analyzed by two independent investigators for myocardial perfusion which was classified as subendocardial ischemia (n = 22), no perfusion deficit (n = 27, control 1), or more than subendocardial ischemia (n = 24, control 2). All patients underwent CA, and a highly significant correlation between the classification of CMR perfusion deficit and the degree of coronary luminal ...
Closure of the primary atrial foramen is achieved by fusion of the atrioventricular cushions with the mesenchymal cap on the leading edge of the muscular primary atrial septum. A fourth component involved is the vestibular spine, originally described by His in 1880 as an intra-cardiac continuation of the extra-cardiac mesenchyme of the dorsal mesocardium. The morphogenesis of this area is of great clinical interest, because of the high incidence of atrial and atrioventricular septal defects. Nonetheless, the origin of the participating components is largely unknown. Here we report that the primary atrial foramen is surrounded in its entirety by mesenchyme derived from endocardium. A second population of mesenchyme not derived from endocardium was observed at the caudal margin of the mesenchymal atrial cap, entirely embedded within the mesenchyme derived from endocardium and contiguous with the mesenchyme of the dorsal mesocardium. Our reconstructions show this second population does indeed take the form
The stepwise approach in evaluation of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function is essential in any patients with dyspnea on exertion or heart failure. Many of them have normal to near-normal ejection fractions (EFs). These subsets of patients are labeled as diastolic heart failure or heart failure with preserved EF. It is important to differentiate diastolic dysfunction from dyspnea of pulmonary origin for further management and future prognosis. LV filling pressures is usually synonymous with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), mean left atrial pressure (LAP), mean LV diastolic pressure, and LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). PCWP on the other hand is also an indirect estimate of LV diastolic pressures. LVEDP is often elevated in early diastolic dysfunction because of a large atrial pressure wave, while mean PCWP and LAP remain normal. While mean PCWP and LAP increased during tachycardia and where there is increased LV afterload which is the basis for the diastolic stress test. It is ...
Early ventricular fibrillation is not related to infarct size. After 24 h ischemic myocytes have either undergone necrosis or recovered, and the risk of ventricular fibrillation diminishes. The majority of the other complications occur in transmural infarcts. Cardiogenic shock is directly related to the proportion of the left ventricular muscle mass which has been lost. Large infarcts are more likely to be anterior because the left anterior descending coronary aretery supplies more than 60 per cent of the myocardial mass.. Cardiogenic shock may lead to an extension of the area of necrosis ( Fig, 2). Myocardial perfusion is dependent on the relation between aortic diastolic pressure and left ventricular cavity pressure. If aortic pressure falls and left ventricular diastolic pressure rises, subendocardial perfusion throughout the whole left ventricle falls; a circumferential zone of subendocardial necrosis occurs and the centers of the papillary muscles also undergo necrosis ( Fig,... . . 2). ...
Endocardium Myocardium Pericardium (or epicardium). The heart is a muscular organ that contracts rhythmically pumping the blood through the . Its walls consist of of three tunics or layers : the internal or endocardium , the middle or myocardium and the external or pericardium . The endocardium is homologous with the intima of the blood vessels. It consists of a single layer of squamous endothelial cells resting on a thin subendothelial layer of loose connective tissue. The myocardium is the thickest of the three tunics. It consists of cardiac muscle tissue. ...
Changes in the subendo-subepi flow ratio were studied by using a simple electronic circuit model of the coronary vessel consisting of a resistor, capacitor and field effect transistor in order to provide a better understanding of the ischemic vulnerability of the subendocardium. The simulated subendo- subepi flow ratio was found to be approximately 1.2 under normal condition. Changes in the flow ratio were observed while varying the main arterial resistance, mean arterial pressure and intramyocardial pressure individually. The mean flow in the subendocardium was found to decrease at a rate faster than that in the subepicardium with the increase in the septal arterial resistance and the intramyocardial pressure. The same tendency was also observed while the arterial pressure was lowered. This decrease in the mean subendocardial flow is considered to be the effect of higher endsystolic resistance in the subendocardial venule compared to that in the subepicardial venule. These results would be helpful in
Endocarditis is caused by bacteria in the bloodstream multiplying and spreading across the inner lining of your heart (endocardium). The endocardium becomes inflamed, causing damage to your heart valves.. Your heart is usually well protected against infection so bacteria can pass harmlessly by. However, if your heart valves are damaged or you have an artificial valve, its easier for bacteria to take root and bypass your normal immune response to infection.. Small clumps of bacteria can develop at the site of the infection. Theres a risk of these clumps acting in a similar way to blood clots, travelling away from the heart and blocking the blood supply to the organs. This can cause organ failure or trigger a stroke.. ...
This experimental study first demonstrated feasibility of a novel echocardiographic parameter that represented regional deformation measured as change in an endocardial area. The parameter, which had significant correlations with both LS and CS components, showed greater changes in ACR compared with 1D strain.. Recently introduced 3D-STI is a robust technology for strain measurements and can provide regional 1D strain (6,7). In addition, the usefulness of 3D-STI in assessing regional wall displacement and strain, LV volume measurements, and LV dyssynchrony has been reported in clinical studies (8-10). In addition, the 3D-STI can track regional endocardial area and calculate changes in an area through the cardiac cycle, because of a 3D imaging system. The unique parameter, ACR, can be measured on the basis of the deformation of regional rectangular or trapezoidal area measured by orthogonal directional data, just as the present study has confirmed that area tracking had significant relations with ...
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The cardiac system which is also known as the circulatory system is composed of the: Heart Blood Blood Vessels Heart: Is located in the mediastinum Composed of the Pericardium (parietal layer & visceral layer) Hearwall (myocardium & endocardium) Valves: Atrioventricular Valves Pulmonary Semilunar Valve Blood Vessels Arteries Veins Capillaries Understand that the heart has four…
Describes a sequential approach for the detection of myocardial borders in M-mode echocardiograms, which takes into account physiological knowledge. Initial border estimates are obtained from the output of a cross-correlation detector. These initial observations are improved by combining the extraction of the border pairs associated with the same myocardial wall. A lattice form joint process predictor whose parameters are estimated adaptively is used for this purpose. In addition, a physiological constraint expressed as a linear relationship between the ventricular diameter and the posterior wall thickness is used to improve the detection of the endocardium during systole. Finally, the correlation templates are updated recursively using the intensity profiles surrounding the final border positions. This is accomplished using a new adaptive algorithm that is optimal in the least squares sense. This procedure turns out to be quite efficient in tracking the temporal variations of the myocardial ...
The heart is made of three layers of tissue. Endocardium, the thin inner lining of the heart chambers that also forms the surface of the valves. Myocardium, the thick middle layer of muscle that allows your heart chambers to contract and relax to pump blood to your body. Pericardium, the sac that surrounds your heart. Made of thin layers of tissue, it holds the heart in place and protects it ...
The AR analysis used the mean of the values for the 3 blinded readers. The 3 BRs evaluated the images from the unenhanced MRI in one session and the images from the combined unenhanced and gadobutrol-enhanced MRIs in another. Contrast enhancement was scored on a 4-point scale where 1 = no enhancement and 4 = excellent enhancement. Border delineation was scored on a 4-point scale where 1 = no or unclear delineation and 4 = excellent delineation. Internal morphology was scored on a 3-point scale where 1 = poorly visible and 3 = sufficiently visible ...
The AR analysis used the mean of the values for the 3 blinded readers. The 3 BRs evaluated the images from the unenhanced MRI in one session and the images from the combined unenhanced and gadobutrol-enhanced MRIs in another. Contrast enhancement was scored on a 4-point scale where 1 = no enhancement and 4 = excellent enhancement. Border delineation was scored on a 4-point scale where 1 = no or unclear delineation and 4 = excellent delineation. Internal morphology was scored on a 3-point scale where 1 = poorly visible and 3 = sufficiently visible ...
สโมสรอินเตอร์ มิลาน ทีมชื่อดังแห่งเวทีกัลโช่ เซเรีย อิตาลี มีข่าวว่าพวกเขาทำการติดต่อไปหา เลโอนาร์โด้ ชาร์ดิม นายใหญ่ของสโมสรอาแอส โมนาโก ทีมในลีกเอิง ฝรั่งเศส เพื่อหวังคว้าตัวมาคุมทีมในซีซั่นหน้า หลังจากที่พวกเขา อดได้ อันโตนิโอ คอนเต้,เมาริซิโอ โปเช็ตติโน่ รวมไปถึง ดีเอโก้ ซิเมโอเน่ แน่นอนแล้ว และทีมงูใหญ่ ...
Reconstruction of the endocardium of the heart and its arterial trunks in No. 6520, a member of the median third of stage 17. It is shown in two parts, A and B. In A, only the derivatives of the primary cardiac tube are shown. In B, enough of the primary tube is removed to expose the venous part of the heart. The latter, being in a contracted state, reveals in an unobstructed view the right and left atrioventricular canals, now clearly separated, each leading forward into its respective ventricle. It will be noted that the primary cardiac tube is connected with the venous part of the heart only at the two atrioventricular junctions. When the latter are severed, the arterial portion can be freely separated from the venous part. In A, the cleavage has not yet crossed the crest of the septum, and both arterial trunks lead off from both ventricles. From the distention of the endocardium of the primary cardiac tube, however, one can see that the left ventricle favors the aorta and the right ventricle ...
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been reported to produce differential electrophysiological effects in isolated epicardial and endocardial cells. This study aimed to examine regional electrophysiological effects of LVH in normal and ischaemic conditions in the whole heart. LVH was secondary to perinephritis-induced hypertension. Monophasic action potential duration (MAPD(90)), effective refractory period (ERP) and conduction delay were measured in paced, isolated working rabbit hearts either at one right ventricular and two left ventricular sites (apical and basal epicardium) or at three left ventricular sites (apical and basal epicardium, apical: endocardium). The hearts were subjected to 30 min of regional ischaemia and 15 min of reperfusion. In non-ischaemic conditions, LVH produced uniform prolongation of MAPD(90) and ERP in the left ventricular epicardium, but not in the endocardium. After coronary artery occlusion, LVH significantly increased ischaemia-induced transepicardial ...
1) Endocarditis is a serious infection of one of the four heart valves. Endocarditis is caused by a growth of bacteria on one of the heart valves, leading to an infected mass called a vegetation. The infection may be introduced during brief periods of having bacteria in the bloodstream, such as after dental work, colonoscopy, and other similar procedures. (2) The heart is constituted of three types of tissues, which are from out- to inside the heart: the pericardium, the myocardium and the endocardium. The endocardium is therefore the tissue situated on the internal face of the heart, directly in the contact with blood. An endocarditis corresponds to an inflammation (or irritation) of the endocardium or a microbial infection of the endothelial surface of the heart. The most harmed area of the endocardium during an endocarditis is as a rule the one of the cardiac valves, especially if they were injured initially. These valves are to the number of 4: 2 on the right side of the heart and 2 on the ...
The heart defect (hdf) mouse is a recessive lethal that arose from a transgene insertional mutation on chromosome 13. Embryos homozygous for the transgene die in utero by embryonic day 10.5 postcoitus and exhibit specific defects along the anterior-posterior cardiac axis. The future right ventricle …
Looking for online definition of subendocardial mineralization in the Medical Dictionary? subendocardial mineralization explanation free. What is subendocardial mineralization? Meaning of subendocardial mineralization medical term. What does subendocardial mineralization mean?
Subendocardial - Definition of Subendocardial and synonyms of Subendocardial are presented by online Websters Dictionary. Includes dictionary browser, morphological search by meaning of Subendocardial, thesaurus, related words, and dictionary browser. Provides Subendocardial usage examples
To evaluate the source of ST depression, a sheep model of subendocardial ischaemia using partial coronary artery ligation coupled with atrial pacing was developed. Ischaemia was induced initially in either the left anterior descending coronary artery or the left circumflex coronary artery territory and subsequently in the territory of the other vessel. The ischaemic regions were documented by a fluorescent microsphere technique. During ischaemia potentials were mapped simultaneously from the endocardium and the epicardium. The distributions of epicardial potentials from either ischaemic source were very similar (0.77±0.14, P,0.0001), both showing ST depression on the free wall of the left ventricle, and no association between the ST depression and the ischaemic region. At the same time, the endocardial ST elevation was directly associated with the region of reduced blood flow. Insulating the heart from the surrounding tissue with plastic increased the magnitude of epicardial and endocardial ST ...
The answer is B. (Hursts The Heart, 14th Edition, Chap. 34) Experimentally and clinically, maximal hyperemic flow for determining CFR is achieved pharmacologically by arteriolar vasodilating drugs such dipyridamole, adenosine, and regadenoson. Progressive coronary narrowing reduces CFR with little change in resting flow until an approximately 80% to 90% diameter stenosis. At these levels of severe stenosis, resting blood flow falls (option A), but some residual CFR capacity remains upon pharmacologic vasodilator stimulus. Stenosis severe enough to reduce resting perfusion does not elicit all remaining reserve vasodilator capacity because of a self-regulating mechanism that protects subendocardial perfusion. At such severe stenosis reducing resting perfusion, any increase in vasodilator-mediated increased ...
The easily assessable anatomy of venous return to the heart with peripheral access makes the right ventricle an attractive location for tissue sampling. The interventricular septum is the preferred biopsy site because of its thickness, compared with the right ventricular free wall, its continuity with the left ventricle, and its location in the natural path of blood flow facilitating vascular access. The drawback is that repeated EMB sampling results in a restricted region of endocardium being assessed and may result in interpretive error if the clinician is not aware of this point. The likelihood of free wall perforation and haemopericardium/tamponade is a major reason for consciously avoiding the free wall for biopsy. Fluoroscopy is the standard imaging modality used to guide the biopsy catheter, although echocardiography is now used by some groups, with claims of superior visualisation of heart anatomy and earlier recognition of acute procedural complications.19. The right ventricle has a ...
We have evaluated an intracardiac technique for the study of the electrophysiological patterns of early or subendocardial ischaemia in man. Simultaneous recordings of the paced endocardial evoked response and monophasic action potentials were obtained during pacing stress testing in 10 patients with reversible myocardial ischaemia. Early patterns of change occurred in both these recordings in response to regional ischaemia. Abnormal rate corrected shortening of the local repolarisation time in the paced endocardial evoked response from the left ventricular ischaemic zone diverging from control non-ischaemic values by a mean of 10.6% was paralleled by decreases in the simultaneous paced monophasic action potentials duration. A differential delay in the local activation time and conduction was also documented by the paced endocardial evoked response and monophasic action potential electrodes. Non-ischaemic control zones showed no changes in the pattern of activation and repolarisation. Disparate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Repetitive endocardial focal discharges during ventricular fibrillation with prolonged global ischemia in isolated rabbit hearts. AU - Wu, Tsu Juey. AU - Lin, Shien-Fong. AU - Hsieh, Yu Cheng. AU - Chiu, Yung Tsung. AU - Ting, Chih Tai. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - Background: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) during prolonged (,5 min) global ischemia (GI) could be due to repetitive endocardial focal discharges (REFDs). This hypothesis was tested in isolated rabbit hearts. Methods and Results: With optical mapping, simultaneous endocardial (left ventricle, LV) and epicardial (both ventricles) activations during VF with prolonged GI were studied (protocol I, 8 hearts). Lugol solution was applied to the LV endocardium in additional 5 hearts after 5-min GI (protocol II). During prolonged GI, sustained VF (,30 s) was successfully induced in 7 protocol I hearts. The dominant frequency of summed optical signals at the LV endocardium was higher than at the epicardium (P,0.05). Mapping ...
A step by step tutorial on how to diagnose cellular rejection on endomyocardial biopsy, as presented by the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology.
Chang CP, Neilson JR, Bayle JH, Gestwicki JE, Kuo A, Graef IA, Crabtree GR. A field of myocardial-endocardial NFAT signaling underlies heart valve morphogenesis. Cell 2004 ;118, 649-663. Cover story. Editorial commentary: Carmeliet P. Sculpting heart valves with NFAT and VEGF. Cell 2004 118, 532-534.. Arron J, Winslow M, Polleri A, Chang CP, Wu H, Gao X, Neilson J, Chen L, Heit J, Kim S, Yamasaki N, Miyakawa T, Francke U, Graef I, Crabtree G. NFAT dysregulation by increased dosage of DSCR1 and DYRK1A on chromosome 21. Nature 2006 ;441(7093):595-600. Wu H, Kao SC, Barriantos T, Baldwin S, Olson E, Crabtree GR, Zhou, B, Chang CP. DSCR1 is a transcriptional target of NFATc1 within the endocardium during heart development. J Biological Chemistry 2007;282(42):30673-9.. Jia Q, McDill BW, Li S, Deng C, Chang CP, Chen F. Smad signaling in the neural crest regulates the cardiac outflow tract remodeling through cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous effects. Developmental Biology 2007; 311(1): ...
Cardiomyopathies are disorders of the myocardium of unknown cause that are not associated with other disorders (figure 9-1). Specific heart muscle diseases, once known as secondary cardiomyopathies,...
Diagnosis Code I09.1 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
In the heart, nitric oxide (NO) is constitutively produced by the vascular and endocardial endothelium, the cardiomyocytes and the autonomic nerves. Whereas stimulation of NO release from the vascular endothelium has consistently been shown to quicken the onset of left ventricular (LV) relaxation and cause a small reduction in peak contraction, the role of myocardial NO production in regulating cardiac function appears to be more complex and controversial. Some studies have shown that non-isoform-specific inhibition of NO synthesis with L-arginine analogues has no effect on basal contraction in LV myocytes. However, others have demonstrated that stimulation of myocardial NO production can offset the increase in contraction in response to a rise in intracellular Ca(2+). Cardiac NO production is also activated by stretch and under these conditions NO has been shown to facilitate the Frank-Starling response and to contribute to the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) transients that mediates the slow increase
© 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Background Three-dimensional fusion echocardiography (3DFE) is a novel postprocessing approach that utilizes imaging data acquired from multiple 3D acquisitions. We assessed image quality, endocardial border definition, and cardiac wall motion in patients using 3DFE compared to standard 3D images (3D) and results obtained with contrast echocardiography (2DC). Methods Twenty-four patients (mean age 66.9 ± 13 years, 17 males, 7 females) undergoing 2DC had three, noncontrast, 3D apical volumes acquired at rest. Images were fused using an automated image fusion approach. Quality of the 3DFE was compared to both 3D and 2DC based on contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and endocardial border definition. We then compared clinical wall-motion score index (WMSI) calculated from 3DFE and 3D to those obtained from 2DC images. Results Fused 3D volumes had significantly improved CNR (8.92 ± 1.35 vs. 6.59 ± 1.19, P | 0.0005) and segmental image quality (2.42 ± 0.99 vs. 1.93 ± 1.18, P
If the ST depression vector is inferior and leftward, there is a lot of ST depression in inferior and left lateral leads, and corresponding ST elevation in aVR (superior and rightward), towards the base (top) of the heart. (There may also be ST elevation in right sided leads but NOT due to RV MI). Unless there is a concomitant anterior STEMI (high occlusion resulting in STEMI of anterior and basal walls), STE in aVR is not a STEMI in lead aVR; rather the STE in aVR is reciprocal to a leftward and inferior ST depression axis caused by diffuse subendocardial ischemia. ...
If the ST depression vector is inferior and leftward, there is a lot of ST depression in inferior and left lateral leads, and corresponding ST elevation in aVR (superior and rightward), towards the base (top) of the heart. (There may also be ST elevation in right sided leads but NOT due to RV MI). Unless there is a concomitant anterior STEMI (high occlusion resulting in STEMI of anterior and basal walls), STE in aVR is not a STEMI in lead aVR; rather the STE in aVR is reciprocal to a leftward and inferior ST depression axis caused by diffuse subendocardial ischemia. ...
In ten patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (6 females, 49±14 years [mean±SD]) and ten healthy subjects (4 female, 44±17 years), 4D phase-contrast CMR velocity data and morphological data were acquired at 1.5T (Philips Achieva). A previously validated method was used for the analysis: The LV endocardium was segmented from the morphological images at end-diastole (ED) and end-systole. Pathlines were emitted from the ED blood volume and traced forward and backward in time until end-systole, allowing separation of the Total SV into two flow components (figure 1): 1) Blood that enters and leaves the LV during the analyzed cardiac cycle (Direct SV), and 2) Blood that leaves but does not enter the LV during the analyzed cardiac cycle (Delayed SV). The KE was calculated over the cardiac cycle for these flow components based on the volume occupied by each pathline, its velocity, and blood density ...
Segmentation of the left ventricle endocardium in 3D echocardiography is a critical step for the diagnosis of heart disease. Although recent work has
These analyses sustained the following conclusions:. The Flesh is real Flesh. The Blood is real Blood.. The Flesh and the Blood belong to the human species.. The Flesh consists of the muscular tissue of the heart.. In the Flesh we see present in section: the myocardium, the endocardium, the vagus nerve and also the left ventricle of the heart for the large thickness of the myocardium.. The Flesh is a HEART complete in its essential structure.. The Flesh and the Blood have the same blood-type: AB (Blood-type identical to that which Prof. Baima Bollone uncovered in the Holy Shroud of Turin).. In the Blood there were found proteins in the same normal proportions (percentage-wise) as are found in the sero-proteic make-up of the fresh normal blood.. In the Blood there were also found these minerals: chlorides, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium and calcium.. The preservation of the Flesh and of the Blood, which were left in their natural state for twelve centuries and exposed to the action of ...
Endocarditis is an inflammation of the endocardium, or the hearts inner lining. It can damage the valves in the heart and lead to other complications. If left untreated, it can be life threatening.
The cardiovascular system (CVS) includes both the heart, i.e. endocardium, myocardium and pericardium, and vessels. Biopsies from these organs are relatively uncommon, and most cases actually originate from autopsies. Disease spectrum ranges from inflammatory, ischaemic and degenerative with a handful of primary and metastatic neoplasms involving the heart. Various distinct types of vasculopathies are also sometimes seen in clinical practice. In this chapter, morphological features on light microscopy and utility of special and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains, which are helpful in the workup of these lesions, are described in a compact fashion.
Endocarditis pertains to infection of endocardium, a thin lining of the heart. Infection can occur through micro-organisms that invade your body in any form.
Organs are made up of more than one kind of tissue. The heart is an organ. It is made up of different tissues. It has muscle tissue called myocardium. It has connective tissue on the inside (endocardium), and on the outside (pericardium). The heart has valves that make sure the blood goes the right way through the heart. So the heart is an organ made from several tissues. The study of the structure of tissues under a microscope is called histology. ...
Organs are made up of more than one kind of tissue. The heart is an organ. It is made up of different tissues. It has muscle tissue called myocardium. It has connective tissue on the inside (endocardium), and on the outside (pericardium). The heart has valves that make sure the blood goes the right way through the heart. So the heart is an organ made from several tissues. The study of the structure of tissues under a microscope is called histology. ...
Organs are made up of more than one kind of tissue. The heart is an organ. It is made up of different tissues. It has muscle tissue called myocardium. It has connective tissue on the inside (endocardium), and on the outside (pericardium). The heart has valves that make sure the blood goes the right way through the heart. So the heart is an organ made from several tissues. The study of the structure of tissues under a microscope is called histology. ...
Learn about the causes and treatments for this infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves (endocardium) and find out how to prevent it.
Learn about the causes and treatments for this infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves (endocardium) and find out how to prevent it.
Objective. The aim of the study was to determine ventricular and atrial cardiometric parameters at preinfarction and postinfarction stage of ischemic heart disease. Object and methods. Cardiometric parameters (mass, endocardial surface area, the tracts of flow and outflow, etc.) of 132 men (mean age of 49.7±8.9 years) who had died suddenly during prehospital period (within 6 hours) after the first or repeated acute event of
Morse Code Message: sensitive [gold plated brass, gold vermeil chain] Name/Part of the Heart: Epicardium the thin interior lining.
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Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=endocardia&oldid=43029210" ...
The endocardium also provides protection to the valves and heart chambers. The endocardium underlies the much more voluminous ... In infective endocarditis, the endocardium (especially the endocardium lining the heart valves) is affected by bacteria. Heart ... The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart. Its cells are embryologically and ... The endocardium, which is primarily made up of endothelial cells, controls myocardial function. This modulating role is ...
Oakley C.M. (1984) Diseases of the Myocardium, Pericardium, and Endocardium. In: Messerli F.H. (eds) Cardiovascular Disease in ...
... and endocardium (13.3±0.7 minutes) than in midmyocardium (2.6±0.4 minutes; P,.05 compared with endocardium and epicardium). ... The APD-rate relationship of M cells is considerably steeper than that of epicardium and endocardium and more akin to that of ... Plunge recordings from the endocardium were made with two Teflon-coated stainless steel wires (0.1-mm diameter).17 The wires ... This suggests that in settings of Ca2+ overload, the difference between midmyocardium and epicardium and endocardium may be ...
While it is not the endocardium, D represents the aortic semilunar valve. This valve is in the human heart. It is between the ... Does structure "D" represent the endocardium?. This question is part of Unit IV: Anatomy of the Heart & Blood Vessels. Asked by ... While it is not the endocardium, "D" represents the aortic semilunar valve. This valve is in the human heart. It is between the ...
Outflow tract endocardium links the atrioventricular lining, which develops from cardiogenic plate mesoderm, with aortic arches ... The objectives of this research were to document the history of outflow tract endocardium in the avian embryo immediately prior ... Precursors of outflow tract but not atrioventricular endocardium are present in cephalic paraxial and lateral mesoderm, with ... outflow tract endocardial cells participate in morphogenetic events not within the repertoire of neighboring endocardium: they ...
Validation of a New Noncontact Catheter System for Electroanatomic Mapping of Left Ventricular Endocardium. Charles C. Gornick ... However, they noted a 10° rotational error in defining the position of the probe relative to the endocardium, which yielded an ... Top left, Color-coded (white [most negative] to purple [most positive]) isopotential map of LV endocardium with activation ... Validation of a New Noncontact Catheter System for Electroanatomic Mapping of Left Ventricular Endocardium ...
This paper presents a novel numerical approach aimed at improving the solution quality on the endocardium. Our method exploits ... The proposed approach provided more accurate solution on the ventricular endocardium compared to the conventional potential- ... The proposed approach provided more accurate solution on the ventricular endocardium compared to the conventional potential- ... This paper presents a novel numerical approach aimed at improving the solution quality on the endocardium. Our method exploits ...
The endocardium. Annu Rev Physiol. 1989;51:263-73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... OKADA R. Clinicopathological study on the thickening of parietal endocardium in the adult heart. Jpn Heart J. 1961;2:220-55. ... Nagayo M. Zur normalen und pathologischen Histologie des Endocardium parietale. Berlin: G Fischer; 1909.Google Scholar ... These results indicate that layer-by-layer deposition can aid in the reconstitution of the cardiac endocardium. ...
Using 3D whole-mount imaging, we reveal a highly dynamic endocardium during cardiac regeneration, including changes in cell ... Notch signalling restricts inflammation and serpine1 expression in the dynamic endocardium of the regenerating zebrafish heart ... serpine1 is strongly expressed very early in the wound endocardium, with decreasing expression at later time points. serpine1 ... These events lay the foundation for an initial expansion of the endocardium that matures to form a coherent endocardial ...
GATA-4 is a novel transcription factor expressed in endocardium of the developing heart ... GATA-4 is a novel transcription factor expressed in endocardium of the developing heart ... GATA-4 is a novel transcription factor expressed in endocardium of the developing heart ... GATA-4 is a novel transcription factor expressed in endocardium of the developing heart ...
... were determined in rat sub-endocardium (Endo) and sub-epicardium (Epi). Further, the effect of a direct NO donor (MAHMA NONOate ... were determined in rat sub-endocardium (Endo) and sub-epicardium (Epi). Further, the effect of a direct NO donor (MAHMA NONOate ... respiration transmural gradient is likely related to NO and possibly ROS increased production in the sub-endocardium. ... However, to date, the physiological mechanisms involved in the lower endocardium mitochondrial respiration chain capacity still ...
Ticagrelor, but not clopidogrel active metabolite, displays antithrombotic properties in the left atrial endocardium ... Computerized evaluation of echocardiographic stress tests in patients with poorly visualized endocardium using analysis of ... Electrophysiological responses of canine atrial endocardium and epicardium to acetylcholine and 4-aminopyridine ... Transmural repolarization gradients in vivo: the flukes and falls of the endocardium ...
Localization of Distant Urogenital System-, Central Nervous System-, and Endocardium-Specific Transcriptional Regulatory ... Localization of Distant Urogenital System-, Central Nervous System-, and Endocardium-Specific Transcriptional Regulatory ... Localization of Distant Urogenital System-, Central Nervous System-, and Endocardium-Specific Transcriptional Regulatory ... Localization of Distant Urogenital System-, Central Nervous System-, and Endocardium-Specific Transcriptional Regulatory ...
Reconstruction of the endocardium of the heart and its arterial trunks in No. 6520, a member of the median third of stage 17. ... Reconstruction of the endocardium of the heart and its arterial trunks in embryo No. 6520. ... From the distention of the endocardium of the primary cardiac tube, however, one can see that the left ventricle favors the ... Keywords: aorta, aortic semilunar valve, arterial trunk, atrioventricular junction, endocardium, interseptal space, left ...
Segmentation of the left ventricular endocardium from magnetic resonance images by using different statistical shape models ... Download PDF Segmentation of the left ventricular endocardium from magnetic resonance images by using different statistical ... approach to segment the LV endocardium in CMR images of 45 patients. Segmentation performance was evaluated by comparing LV ... approach to segment the LV endocardium in CMR images of 45 patients. Segmentation performance was evaluated by comparing LV ...
... refractory period responses to sympathetic but not vagal stimulation in canine left ventricular epicardium and endocardium.. J ... refractory period responses to sympathetic but not vagal stimulation in canine left ventricular epicardium and endocardium. ... refractory period responses to sympathetic but not vagal stimulation in canine left ventricular epicardium and endocardium. ... refractory period responses to sympathetic but not vagal stimulation in canine left ventricular epicardium and endocardium. ...
The topography of the endocardium is characterized by its regional values of fractal dimension ( FD ), computed using a box- ... to quantify regional left ventricular function using topography variation of the endocardium as a surrogate measure of strain. ... The topography of the endocardium is characterized by its regional values of fractal dimension ( FD ), computed using a box- ... to quantify regional left ventricular function using topography variation of the endocardium as a surrogate measure of strain. ...
Heart failure in infancy with abnormalities of the valves and endocardium. by J. G. Hodgson J. C. Hughes L. D. Humphrey B. ... Heart failure in infancy with abnormalities of the valves and endocardium.. *. J. G. Hodgson J. C. Hughes L. D. Humphrey B. ...
The endocardium also provides protection to the valves and heart chambers. The endocardium underlies the much more voluminous ... In infective endocarditis, the endocardium (especially the endocardium lining the heart valves) is affected by bacteria. ... The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart. Its cells are embryologically and ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Endocardium.. This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical ...
The inner surfaces of the heart s chambers are lined with a thin sheet of shiny, white tissue known as the endocardium. The ...
endocardium Feline Arterial Thromboembolism (FAT) - Nobody Wants A Cat to Get FAT!. December 4, 2017. by CriticalCareDVM ... endocardium, enoxaparin, external iliac, Factor Xa, fat, fondaparinux, Fragmin, HBOT, hyperbaric, hypertrophic, ischemic, ...
1) Endocardium:​ The lining of the interior surface of the [[heart]] chambers. The endocardium consists of a layer of [[ ... glossary/endocardium.txt · Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit) ...
Endocardium[edit]. The endocardium is the innermost lining of the heart which consists of the endothelial cells forming a ... Purkinje Fibers (or Purkinje tissue): located in the inner ventricular walls of the heart, just beneath the endocardium; ... This is the outer layer after endocardium and myocardium that consists of a thin layer of connective tissue and fat. ... Purkinje fibers (or Purkyne tissue) are located in the inner ventricular walls of the heart, just beneath the endocardium. ...
Endocardium. Endocardium ICD-10-CM Neoplasms Index The ICD-10-CM Neoplasms Index is designed to allow medical coders to look up ... There are 0 terms under the parent term Endocardium in the ICD-10-CM Neoplasms Index. ... Source: http://icd.codes/icd10cm/neoplasms-index/endocardium ...
endocardia. 1. The innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart. It underlies the much more voluminous ...
... the myocardium and the endocardium. Learn all about them at Kenhub! ... It sits between the inner endocardium and the outer epicardium.. Endocardium. The endocardium is the most inner layer of the ... The endocardium. Each layer has a different function, which primarily aids the pumping action of the heart which allows the ... Endocardium - histological slide - Smart In Media. © Unless stated otherwise, all content, including illustrations are ...
Endocardium Myxoma): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis. ... Endocardium Myxoma. Cardiac myxomas are benign soft tissue tumors occurring more frequently in women than in men. Although they ... Pathophysiology Originate from the endocardium. [pie.med.utoronto.ca] (Etiology) The cause of development of Cardiac Myxoma is ... Mckenna WJ, Elliott P. Diseases of the myocardium and endocardium. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ...
... the origins of the endocardium remain unclear. Here, we have identified an endocardium-forming field medial to the cardiac ... The heart endocardium is derived from vascular endothelial progenitors Academic Article * View record in Web of Science ® ... Furthermore, embryonic endothelial cells implanted into the cardiac crescent contribute to the endocardium, but not to the ... We suggest that the endocardium derives, at least in part, from vascular endothelial cells. ...
MalaCards based summary : Endocardium Disease, also known as abnormality of the endocardium, is related to endocarditis and ... MalaCards organs/tissues related to Endocardium Disease:. 40 Heart, Bone, Kidney, Lung, Liver, Skin, Eye ... Articles related to Endocardium Disease:. #. Title. Authors. PMID. Year. 1. The fetal heart: a practical sonographic approach. ... Pathways related to Endocardium Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:. #. Super pathways. Score. Top Affiliating ...
  • The endocardium, which is primarily made up of endothelial cells, controls myocardial function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endocardium is the innermost lining of the heart which consists of the endothelial cells forming a smooth membrane in places, and a pocked and tribeculated surface in others (mainly the ventricles, or lower pumping chambers). (wikibooks.org)
  • Furthermore, embryonic endothelial cells implanted into the cardiac crescent contribute to the endocardium, but not to the myocardium. (edu.au)
  • We suggest that the endocardium derives, at least in part, from vascular endothelial cells. (edu.au)
  • Furthermore, the endothelial cells found in the endocardium not only cover the walls of the chambers of the heart but also that of the valves. (infobarrel.com)
  • The heart wall is divided into three layers: epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium. (thoughtco.com)
  • Mckenna WJ, Elliott P. Diseases of the myocardium and endocardium. (symptoma.com)
  • The heart wall is made of 3 layers: epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. (innerbody.com)
  • The heart consists of three layers: epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. (histology-world.com)
  • The myocardium and endocardium arise from fusion of two bilateral fields of cardiac precursor cells in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (the first heart field), and subsequent recruitment and delayed myocardial differentiation of pharyngeal mesoderm (the second heart field) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The innermost portion of the endocardium is composed of endothelium, a simple squamous epithelium. (histology-world.com)
  • Ablation of Flk1 coupled with lineage analysis in the Isl1 lineage revealed that endothelium-derived Isl1(-) endocardial cells were significantly increased, whereas Isl1(+) endocardial cells were reduced, suggesting that the endocardium is capable of undergoing regulative compensatory growth. (edu.au)
  • Platelet adhesion/thrombus formation in the endocardium was found in limited sites in which the overlying endothelium was deficient in eNOS and CD34. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Endocardium is the simple squamous endothelium layer that lines the inside of the heart. (innerbody.com)
  • The APD-rate relationship of M cells is considerably steeper than that of epicardium and endocardium and more akin to that of Purkinje fibers. (ahajournals.org)
  • Epicardial phenol interrupts refractory period responses to sympathetic but not vagal stimulation in canine left ventricular epicardium and endocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • The objectives of this research were to document the history of outflow tract endocardium in the avian embryo immediately prior to development of the heart, and to ascertain which, if any, aspects of this history are necessary to acquire cushion-forming potential. (biologists.org)
  • Endocardium and myocardium, i.e. the inner and the muscular layer of the heart, are present in the simple peristaltically active tube that is established shortly after gastrulation to support the need of the rapidly growing embryo. (mdpi.com)
  • Her presenterer vi en protokoll for å samle inn funksjonelle / bankende hjerter ved rask manuell disseksjon fra sebrafisk embryo for å få hjertespesifikke mRNA. (jove.com)
  • The proposed approach provided more accurate solution on the ventricular endocardium compared to the conventional potential-based solutions with Tikhonov regularization of the 0th, 1st, and 2nd orders. (frontiersin.org)
  • Regional dynamics of fractal dimension of the left ventricular endocardium from cine computed tomography images. (escholarship.org)
  • Modified design of stimulation of the left ventricular endocardium for cardiac resynchronization therapy in nonresponders, previously untreatable and high-risk upgrade patients (SOLVE-CRT) trial. (bvsalud.org)
  • Safety and efficacy were being evaluated in the pivotal, randomized, double-blind SOLVE-CRT Trial (Stimulation of the Left Ventricular Endocardium for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy . (bvsalud.org)
  • The endocardium underlies the much more voluminous myocardium, the muscular tissue responsible for the contraction of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inner surfaces of the heart s chambers are lined with a thin sheet of shiny, white tissue known as the endocardium. (50webs.com)
  • This is the outer layer after endocardium and myocardium that consists of a thin layer of connective tissue and fat. (wikibooks.org)
  • The embryonic heart is composed of two cell layers: the myocardium, which contributes to cardiac muscle tissue, and the endocardium, which covers the inner lumen of the heart. (edu.au)
  • The middle layer of the endocardium is connective tissue and smooth muscle. (histology-world.com)
  • Ultrastructural changes in the secretory organelles of endocardium and endocardial cushion tissue. (musc.edu)
  • Endocardium and endocardial cushion tissue from 12.5 and 14.5 day embryonic rat hearts exposed to sodium salicylate or 6-aminonicotinamide were compared electron microscopically with non-injected or parahydroxybenzoic acid-treated control tissue . (musc.edu)
  • The purpose of these comparisons was to test a working hypothesis which purports that cardiac septal defects are causally related to an inhibition of acid mucopolysaccharide synthesis within endocardium and the subjacent cushion tissue . (musc.edu)
  • Conversely , endocardium overlying cushion tissue exhibited hypertrophy of the secretory organelles and associated cytoplasm resulting in a scalloped appearance . (musc.edu)
  • The two teratogens apparently inhibited secretory potential by inducing regressions or alterations of the secretory organelles of endocardium and the associated cushion tissue . (musc.edu)
  • These alterations took the form of " honeycombl distensions within the otherwise non-dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) of endocardium overlying cushion tissue , a feature normally seen only in control trabeculated endocardium . (musc.edu)
  • The endocardium is the inner most layer of the heart and is made up of epithelial tissue. (brighthub.com)
  • In myocardial infarction, ischemia of the myocardium can extend to the endocardium, disrupting the inner lining of the heart ("transmural" infarction). (wikipedia.org)
  • The endocardium was found to undergo a biphasic pattern of cytodifferentiation in which endocardium associated with myocardial trabeculae displayed atrophy of secretory organelles and attenuation of cytoplasm . (musc.edu)
  • Later, at E11, a second wave of calcineurin/NFAT signaling is required in the endocardium, adjacent to the earlier myocardial site of NFAT action, to direct valvular elongation and refinement. (nih.gov)
  • In infective endocarditis, the endocardium (especially the endocardium lining the heart valves) is affected by bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • An infection of the endocardium can lead to a condition known as endocarditis. (thoughtco.com)
  • Endocarditis is typically the result of an infection of the heart valves or endocardium by certain bacteria , fungi , or other microbes. (thoughtco.com)
  • Endocardium Disease, also known as abnormality of the endocardium , is related to endocarditis and endocardial fibroelastosis . (malacards.org)
  • Endocarditis is a rare and potentially fatal infection of the inner lining of the heart (the endocardium). (everydayhealth.com)
  • The endocardium of heart atria consists of smooth muscle, as well as elastic fibers. (thoughtco.com)
  • While it is not the endocardium, "D" represents the aortic semilunar valve. (proprofs.com)
  • Oakley C.M. (1984) Diseases of the Myocardium, Pericardium, and Endocardium. (springer.com)
  • Why is pericardium muscle repolarizated earlier than endocardium? (stackexchange.com)
  • The endocardium depolarization happens earlier than pericardium , but pericarduim repolarization happens earlier, therefore the T wave in healthy people is always positive. (stackexchange.com)
  • Points : 1) Epicardium Pericardium Myocardium Endocardium Hypocardium 2. (bartleby.com)
  • When warfarin-treated cases were excluded, there was a significant correlation between the immunohistochemical grade for vWF and the degree of platelet adhesion/thrombus formation in the endocardium. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Another thing to note in relation to the endocardium is that the Purkinje fibres are located in this layer of heart. (infobarrel.com)
  • The endocardium also provides protection to the valves and heart chambers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) Endocardium:​ The lining of the interior surface of the [[heart]] chambers. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • an inflamed condition of the endocardium, the membrane that lines heart chambers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The effect of E a on endocardium and epicardium was studied on Langendorff-perfused, di-4-ANEPPS stained isolated rabbit right ventricles (RV) to which a 10-40 V/cm E a was applied from plate electrodes inside a Tyrode's bath. (nctu.edu.tw)
  • Heart failure in infancy with abnormalities of the valves and endocardium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The heart valves and the chambers are lined with endocardium . (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases associated with SH3BP5 include Endocardium Disease and Agammaglobulinemia, X-Linked 1 . (genecards.org)
  • The outer layer of the endocardium is the subendocardial layer. (histology-world.com)
  • The outer layer is the epicardium, the middle layer is the myocardium and the inner most layer is the endocardium. (brighthub.com)
  • Thus, NFAT signaling functions sequentially from myocardium to endocardium within a valvular morphogenetic field to initiate and perpetuate embryonic valve formation. (nih.gov)
  • At two discrete sites, outflow tract endocardial cells participate in morphogenetic events not within the repertoire of neighboring endocardium: they form mesenchymal precursors of endocardial cushions. (biologists.org)
  • During depolarization the impulse is carried from endocardium to epicardium, and during repolarization the impulse moves from epicardium to endocardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, epicardial imaging bears one significant limitation of potentially losing electrophysiologically relevant information about cardiac electrical activity on the cardiac endocardium and, especially, on the interventricular and interatrial septum. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using these systems, we successfully reconstituted an important internal layer of the heart, the endocardium, lining the cavities of the heart, with most cells remaining alive and active. (springer.com)
  • Endocardium -inner layer of the heart. (thoughtco.com)
  • Endocardium (endo-cardium) is the thin inner layer of the heart wall. (thoughtco.com)
  • The endocardium is situated in the inner layer of the heart and it covers fibrous skeletons of the heart. (infobarrel.com)
  • The endocardium is primarily responsible for myocardium function. (brighthub.com)
  • 7 Differences in action potential characteristics, similar to those described in syncytial preparations, have also been found in single myocytes isolated from the epicardium, M region, and endocardium of the canine ventricular free wall. (ahajournals.org)
  • An important gene associated with Endocardium Disease is CRP (C-Reactive Protein), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Selenium Micronutrient Network and Overview of nanoparticle effects . (malacards.org)
  • Maximal oxidative capacity (V Max ) and relative contributions of the respiratory chain complexes II, III, IV (V Succ ) and IV (V TMPD ), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase activity), coupling, NO (electron paramagnetic resonance), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (H 2 O 2 and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining) were determined in rat sub-endocardium (Endo) and sub-epicardium (Epi). (frontiersin.org)
  • This is a false-color scanning electron micrograph (SEM) showing an aggregation of red blood cells on the endocardium, the lining of the heart. (thoughtco.com)
  • The endocardium is very smooth and is responsible for keeping blood from sticking to the inside of the heart and forming potentially deadly blood clots. (innerbody.com)
  • The endocardium contains blood vessels. (histology-world.com)
  • The endocardium is continuous with the endothelial coating of the blood vessels that leaves and enters the heart. (infobarrel.com)
  • The endocardium represents number three of the layers of the heart. (infobarrel.com)
  • Whereas significant progress has been made toward elucidating the embryonic origins of the myocardium, the origins of the endocardium remain unclear. (edu.au)
  • In mouse, lineage analysis focusing on endocardial cells revealed an unexpected heterogeneity in the origins of the endocardium. (edu.au)
  • This study validated a new noncontact multielectrode array catheter and accompanying analysis system to provide electroanatomic mapping of the entire left ventricular (LV) endocardium during a single beat. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study validated the use of a noncontact, multielectrode array catheter (EnSite) and analysis system (EnSite 3000 System, Endocardial Solutions Inc) to provide electrophysiological and anatomic mapping of the entire left ventricular (LV) endocardium in a single beat. (ahajournals.org)
  • From the distention of the endocardium of the primary cardiac tube, however, one can see that the left ventricle favors the aorta and the right ventricle the pulmonary trunk. (ehd.org)
  • We present a method to leverage the high fidelity of computed tomography (CT) to quantify regional left ventricular function using topography variation of the endocardium as a surrogate measure of strain. (escholarship.org)
  • 3 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the target boundaries comprise the endocardium and epicardium of the left ventricle of the heart. (google.com)
  • Electroporation was voltage dependent and significantly more pronounced at the endocardium versus the epicardium, with thresholds of 229±81 versus 318±84 V, respectively ( P =0.01, n=10), both being above the defibrillation threshold of 181.3±45.8 V. Epicardial electroporation was localized to a small area near the electrode, whereas endocardial electroporation was observed at the bundles and trabeculas throughout the entire endocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Below the myocardium is the thin endocardium layer. (innerbody.com)