Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Endocardial Cushions: A fetal heart structure that is the bulging areas in the cardiac septum between the HEART ATRIA and the HEART VENTRICLES. During development, growth and fusion of endocardial cushions at midline forms the two atrioventricular canals, the sites for future TRICUSPID VALVE and BICUSPID VALVE.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Endocardial Fibroelastosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of ENDOCARDIUM due to proliferation of fibrous and elastic tissue, usually in the left ventricle leading to impaired cardiac function (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE). It is most commonly seen in young children and rarely in adults. It is often associated with congenital heart anomalies (HEART DEFECTS CONGENITAL;) INFECTION; or gene mutation. Defects in the tafazzin protein, encoded by TAZ gene, result in a form of autosomal dominant familial endocardial fibroelastosis.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Epicardial Mapping: Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Atrial Appendage: Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Purkinje Fibers: Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.Endocardial Cushion Defects: A spectrum of septal defects involving the ATRIAL SEPTUM; VENTRICULAR SEPTUM; and the atrioventricular valves (TRICUSPID VALVE; BICUSPID VALVE). These defects are due to incomplete growth and fusion of the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS which are important in the formation of two atrioventricular canals, site of future atrioventricular valves.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Flecainide: A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Endomyocardial Fibrosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Receptor, TIE-2: A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).4-Aminopyridine: One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.LIM-Homeodomain Proteins: A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease in which the ventricular walls are excessively rigid, impeding ventricular filling. It is marked by reduced diastolic volume of either or both ventricles but normal or nearly normal systolic function. It may be idiopathic or associated with other diseases (ENDOMYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS or AMYLOIDOSIS) causing interstitial fibrosis.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia: A congenital cardiomyopathy that is characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the RIGHT VENTRICLE wall and loss of myocardial cells. Primary injuries usually are at the free wall of right ventricular and right atria resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.

Effect of warfarin on the induction and course of experimental endocarditis. (1/971)

The effect of warfarin treatment on an experimental endocarditis was studied in rabbits. Warfarin had no effect on the induction of a Streptococcus sanguis infection in catheter-induced endocardial vegetations, and the course of this infection was also unaltered. However, warfarin treatment resulted in rapidly progressive bacteremia, probably due to impaired circulation in clearing organs such as the lungs, liver, and spleen. Warfarin also reduced the survival time of the infected rabbits, in which pulmonary edema and extensive lung hemorrhages may have been a contributory factor.  (+info)

Enteroviral RNA replication in the myocardium of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. (2/971)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies dealing with the detection of enteroviral RNA in human endomyocardial biopsies have not differentiated between latent persistence of the enteroviral genome and active viral replication. Enteroviruses that are considered important factors for the development of myocarditis have a single-strand RNA genome of positive polarity that is transcribed by a virus-encoded RNA polymerase into a minus-strand mRNA during active viral replication. The synthesis of multiple copies of minus-strand enteroviral RNA therefore occurs only at sites of active viral replication but not in tissues with mere persistence of the viral genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated enteroviral RNA replication versus enteroviral RNA persistence in endomyocardial biopsies of 45 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, we established a highly sensitive assay to specifically detect plus-strand versus minus-strand enteroviral RNA in the biopsies. Plus-strand enteroviral RNA was detected in endomyocardial biopsies of 18 (40%) of 45 patients, whereas minus-strand RNA as an indication of active enteroviral RNA replication was detected in only 10 (56%) of these 18 plus-strand-positive patients. Enteroviral RNA was not found in biopsies of the control group (n=26). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that a significant fraction of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis had active enteroviral RNA replication in their myocardium (22%). Differentiation between patients with active viral replication and latent viral persistence should be particularly important in future studies evaluating different therapeutic strategies. In addition, molecular genetic detection of enteroviral genome and differentiation between replicating versus persistent viruses is possible in a single endomyocardial biopsy.  (+info)

Regional electrophysiological effects of hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia and hyponatraemia in isolated rabbit hearts in normal and ischaemic conditions. (3/971)

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to establish an isolated working heart model for electrophysiological recordings from the epicardium and endocardium and to examine regional effects of changes in ion concentrations in normal and ischaemic conditions. METHODS: Monophasic action potential duration (MAPD90), effective refractory period (ERP) and conduction delay were measured simultaneously in the epicardium and endocardium of rabbit hearts paced at 3.3 Hz, subjected to 30 min of regional ischaemia and 15 min of reperfusion. The hearts were exposed before and throughout ischaemia and reperfusion to hypokalaemia (K+ = 2 mM), hypomagnesaemia (Mg2+ = 0.5 mM) or hyponatraemia (Na+ = 110 mM). RESULTS: In the control hearts, no regional electrophysiological differences were seen before ischaemia, but ischaemia-induced MAPD90 shortening and postrepolarisation refractoriness were greater in the epicardium than in the endocardium and conduction delay increased only in the epicardium. Hypokalaemia shortened ERP in the epicardium (but not endocardium) and increased conduction delay in all areas before ischaemia, but it had no effects during ischaemia. During reperfusion hypokalaemia increased the incidence of recurrent tachyarrhythmias. Hypomagnesaemia had no effect before ischaemia, increased epicardial (but not endocardial) MAPD90 shortening during ischaemia, although it had no pro-arrhythmic action. Hyponatraemia increased conduction delay in all areas before ischaemia and produced asystole or severe bradycardia in all hearts. During ischaemia, hyponatraemia decreased ERP shortening and inducibility of arrhythmias in the epicardium (but not endocardium). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the more pronounced effect of ischaemia upon the epicardium than the endocardium can be explained by the contact of the endocardium with intracavitary perfusate. We also conclude that changes in ion concentrations may have differential regional electrical effects in normal or ischaemic conditions.  (+info)

Requirement of type III TGF-beta receptor for endocardial cell transformation in the heart. (4/971)

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling is mediated by a complex of type I (TBRI) and type II (TBRII) receptors. The type III receptor (TBRIII) lacks a recognizable signaling domain and has no clearly defined role in TGF-beta signaling. Cardiac endothelial cells that undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transformation express TBRIII, and here TBRIII-specific antisera were found to inhibit mesenchyme formation and migration in atrioventricular cushion explants. Misexpression of TBRIII in nontransforming ventricular endothelial cells conferred transformation in response to TGF-beta2. These results support a model where TBRIII localizes transformation in the heart and plays an essential, nonredundant role in TGF-beta signaling.  (+info)

Bulbus arteriosus of the antarctic teleosts. I. The white-blooded Chionodraco hamatus. (5/971)

The bulbus arteriosus of teleost fish is a thick-walled chamber that extends between the single ventricle and the ventral aorta. The functional importance of the bulbus resides in the fact that it maintains a steady blood flow into the gill system through heart contraction. Despite of this, a thorough study of the structure of the bulbus in teleost fish is still lacking. We have undertaken a morphologic study of the bulbus arteriosus in the stenothermal teleosts of the Antarctic sea. The structural organization of the bulbus arteriosus of the icefish Chionodraco hamatus has been studied here by conventional light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The inner surface of the bulbus shows a festooned appearance due to the presence of longitudinal, unbranched ridges that extend between the ventricle and the arterial trunk. The wall of the bulbus is divided into endocardial, subendocardial, middle, and external layers. Endocardial cells show a large number of moderately-dense bodies. The endocardium invaginates into the subendocardium forming solid epithelial cords that contain numerous secretory vacuoles. Cells in the subendocardium group into small domains, have some of the morphological characteristics of smooth muscle cells, and appear enmeshed in a three-dimensional network of matrix filaments. Cells in the middle layer are typical smooth muscle cells. They appear arranged into layers and are surrounded by a filamentous meshwork that excludes collagen fibers. Orientation of this meshwork occurs in the vicinity of the smooth muscle cells. Elastin fibers are never observed. The external layer is formed by wavy collagen bundles and fibroblast-like cells. This layer lacks blood vessels and nerve fibers. The endocardium and the endocardium-derived cords are secretory epithelia that may be involved in the formation ofmucins or glycosaminoglycans. These mucins may have a protecting effect on the endocardium. The subendocardium and the middle layer appear to be formed by the same cell type, smooth muscle, with a gradient of differentiation from the secretory (subendocardium) to the contractile (middle layer) phenotype. Despite the absence of elastin fibers, the filamentous matrix could maintain the elastic properties of the bulbus wall. Smooth muscle cells appear to be actively involved in bulbus wall dynamics. The restriction of collagen to the external layer suggests that it may control wall dilatation and bulbus compliance. When comparison was possible, structural differences between C. hamatus and temperate teleosts seemed to be not species-related, but of phenotypic adaptative significance. This is remarkable since Antarctic fishes have lived isolated in freezing waters for the last two million years.  (+info)

Fas expression and apoptosis correlate with cardiac dysfunction in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (6/971)

Fas is a transmembranous glycoprotein that mediates apoptosis. To elucidate the roles of Fas and of myocyte apoptosis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the expression of Fas and the fragmentation of DNA were compared in endomyocardial biopsy specimens obtained from patients with DCM. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed on 19 subjects (16 with DCM and 3 control subjects) who also underwent cardiac catheterization and echocardiography. Fas and bcl-2 expression were assayed immunohistochemically, and in situ TdT staining was performed to estimate the number of apoptotic cells. Samples from the DCM patients stained more intensely with anti-Fas antibody than those from control patients (p<0.05). The percentage of in situ TdT-positive cells was significantly higher in the DCM group than in the control group (p<0.05). A correlation between Fas expression and in situ TdT staining was observed in 67% of myocytes in the DCM group. Moreover, the percentage of in situ TdT staining was significantly higher in subjects with severely impaired left ventricular systolic function than in those whose systolic function was mild to moderately impaired, or who had normal systolic function (p<0.05). The samples showed little expression of bcl-2. These results suggest that Fas expression and apoptosis may be involved in the progression of cardiac dysfunction in DCM.  (+info)

Tracheal aspirate as a substrate for polymerase chain reaction detection of viral genome in childhood pneumonia and myocarditis. (7/971)

BACKGROUND: Infectious respiratory disorders are important causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Viral causes are common and may lead to rapid deterioration, requiring mechanical ventilation; myocardial dysfunction may accompany respiratory decompensation. The etiologic viral diagnosis may be difficult with classic methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method for identification of causative agents. METHODS AND RESULTS: PCR was used to amplify sequences of viruses known to cause childhood viral pneumonia and myocarditis. Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify specific sequences of DNA virus (adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein-Barr virus) and RNA virus (enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, and influenza B) genomes. Tracheal aspirate samples were obtained from 32 intubated patients and nucleic acid extracted before PCR. PCR results were compared with results of culture, serology, and antigen detection methods when available. In cases of myocarditis (n=7), endomyocardial biopsy samples were analyzed by PCR and compared with tracheal aspirate studies. PCR amplification of viral genome occurred in 18 of 32 samples (56%), with 3 samples PCR positive for 2 viral genomes. Amplified viral sequences included RSV (n=3), enterovirus (n=5), cytomegalovirus (n=4), adenovirus (n=3), herpes simplex virus (n=2), Epstein-Barr virus (n=1), influenza A (n=2), and influenza B (n=1). All 7 cases of myocarditis amplified the same viral genome from heart as found by tracheal aspirate. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool in cases of viral pneumonia with or without myocarditis, and tracheal aspirate appears to be excellent for analysis.  (+info)

Oxidized low-density lipoproteins induce apoptosis in aortic and endocardial endothelial cells. (8/971)

AIM: To examine whether oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) might induce apoptosis in bovine aortic and endocardial endothelial cells (BAEC and BEEC). METHODS: Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were isolated from healthy human plasma by ultracentrifugation and oxidized by CuSO4 10 mumol.L-1. BAEC and BEEC were incubated in a medium containing ox-LDL, LDL, or phosphate-buffer solution (PBS) as control. DNA fragmentation was visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and determined quantitatively using Hoechst-33258 fluorochrome. RESULTS: Ox-LDL, not LDL, elicited typical apoptotic changes and DNA fragmentation in BAEC and BEEC. In BAEC, dextran sulfate, and cicloheximide (Cic) exhibited no effect on DNA fragmentation induced by ox-LDL. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) 20 mumol.L-1 completely inhibited Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation of LDL as well as the apoptosis-inducing effect of Cu(2+)-exposed LDL. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) did not elicit DNA fragmentation in BAEC and in BEEC. DNA fragmentation induced by ox-LDL in BAEC and in BEEC was blocked by chelating the calcium of the culture medium by egtazic acid. CONCLUSION: Ox-LDL induces apoptosis in BAEC and BEEC without involving the LPC.  (+info)

  • In mouse, lineage analysis focusing on endocardial cells revealed an unexpected heterogeneity in the origins of the endocardium. (edu.au)
  • Ablation of Flk1 coupled with lineage analysis in the Isl1 lineage revealed that endothelium-derived Isl1(-) endocardial cells were significantly increased, whereas Isl1(+) endocardial cells were reduced, suggesting that the endocardium is capable of undergoing regulative compensatory growth. (edu.au)
  • Here, we have identified an endocardium-forming field medial to the cardiac crescent, in a continuum with the endothelial plexus. (edu.au)
  • Furthermore, embryonic endothelial cells implanted into the cardiac crescent contribute to the endocardium, but not to the myocardium. (edu.au)
  • Whereas significant progress has been made toward elucidating the embryonic origins of the myocardium, the origins of the endocardium remain unclear. (edu.au)
  • FLK1 is required in vivo for formation of the endocardium in the Mesp1 and Tie2 lineages, but not in the Isl1 lineage. (edu.au)
  • We suggest that the endocardium derives, at least in part, from vascular endothelial cells. (edu.au)
  • In myocardial infarction, ischemia of the myocardium can extend to the endocardium, disrupting the inner lining of the heart ("transmural" infarction). (wikipedia.org)
  • The endocardium was found to undergo a biphasic pattern of cytodifferentiation in which endocardium associated with myocardial trabeculae displayed atrophy of secretory organelles and attenuation of cytoplasm . (musc.edu)
  • Later, at E11, a second wave of calcineurin/NFAT signaling is required in the endocardium, adjacent to the earlier myocardial site of NFAT action, to direct valvular elongation and refinement. (nih.gov)
  • While it is not the endocardium, "D" represents the aortic semilunar valve. (proprofs.com)
  • When warfarin-treated cases were excluded, there was a significant correlation between the immunohistochemical grade for vWF and the degree of platelet adhesion/thrombus formation in the endocardium. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The effect of E a on endocardium and epicardium was studied on Langendorff-perfused, di-4-ANEPPS stained isolated rabbit right ventricles (RV) to which a 10-40 V/cm E a was applied from plate electrodes inside a Tyrode's bath. (nctu.edu.tw)
  • From the distention of the endocardium of the primary cardiac tube, however, one can see that the left ventricle favors the aorta and the right ventricle the pulmonary trunk. (ehd.org)
  • Diseases associated with SH3BP5 include Endocardium Disease and Agammaglobulinemia, X-Linked 1 . (genecards.org)
  • Whereas significant progress has been made toward elucidating the embryonic origins of the myocardium, the origins of the endocardium remain unclear. (edu.au)
  • Maximal oxidative capacity (V Max ) and relative contributions of the respiratory chain complexes II, III, IV (V Succ ) and IV (V TMPD ), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase activity), coupling, NO (electron paramagnetic resonance), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (H 2 O 2 and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining) were determined in rat sub-endocardium (Endo) and sub-epicardium (Epi). (frontiersin.org)