Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Haemosporida: An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Plasmodium malariae: A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Dihydropteroate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Merozoite Surface Protein 1: A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.AfricaHelminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Plasmodium yoelii: A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.CambodiaTheileria: A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Trichuris: A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.Nippostrongylus: A genus of intestinal nematode parasites belonging to the superfamily HELIGMOSOMATOIDEA, which commonly occurs in rats but has been experimentally transmitted to other rodents and rabbits. Infection is usually through the skin.Hymenolepis nana: The smallest species of TAPEWORMS. It is the only cestode that parasitizes humans without requiring an intermediate host.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Hymenolepis diminuta: A species of tapeworm (TAPEWORMS) infecting RATS and MICE but rarely causing disease in humans. Its life cycle involves RODENTS as the definitive host and BEETLES as the intermediate host.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Trichuriasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.SesquiterpenesTrichostrongylus: A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the digestive tract of herbivorous animals. They cause incidental infections in humans from the following species: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. orientalis, T. axei, and T. probolurus.Hymenolepiasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.Opisthorchiasis: Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.Amodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Theileriasis: Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Schizonts: Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Primaquine: An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Ascaris lumbricoides: A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Malaria, Avian: Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.VietnamCameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Nematospiroides dubius: A species of intestinal nematode parasites which occur most commonly in mice. Infection is by ingesting larvae. This particular species is used extensively in immunological research.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Suburban Population: The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Mice, Inbred BALB CIndonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Myanmar: A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Plasmodium ovale: A species of protozoan parasite causing MALARIA. It is the rarest of the four species of PLASMODIUM infecting humans, but is common in West African countries and neighboring areas.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Insecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Plasmodium knowlesi: A protozoan parasite from Southeast Asia that causes monkey malaria. It is naturally acquired by man in Malaysia and can also be transmitted experimentally to humans.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.BrazilPlasmodium chabaudi: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles stephensi.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.IndiaMalawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.ColombiaNigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Goiter, Endemic: A form of IODINE deficiency disorders characterized by an enlargement of the THYROID GLAND in a significantly large fraction of a POPULATION GROUP. Endemic goiter is common in mountainous and iodine-deficient areas of the world where the DIET contains insufficient amount of iodine.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Disease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Mice, Inbred C57BLLeishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.PeruMerozoites: Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Aotidae: A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
From Genetic resistance to malaria: "Where this parasite [p. falciparum] is endemic, young children have repeated malaria ... Repeated malaria infections strengthen adaptive immunity and broaden its effects against parasites expressing different to the ... The medical community did not know the natural history of yellow fever, a viral infection spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito ... that people of our colour were not liable to take the infection. Upon which we and a few others met and consulted how to act on ...
Prevention and treatment of malaria are essential components of prenatal care in areas where the parasite is endemic. While the ... PAM is caused primarily by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous of the four species of malaria-causing ... "CDC-Malaria-Malaria Parasites". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Perlmann, P; Troye-Blomberg, M (2000). "Malaria ... falciparum parasites was the var2csa gene. Parasite clones where the var2csa gene was disrupted lost the ability to adhere to ...
Malaria is caused by a protozoan called Plasmodium falciparum. P. falciparum parasites are transmitted mainly by the Anopheles ... In just this area, P. falciparum infections comprise an estimated 200 million clinical cases and 1 million annual deaths. 75% ... The occurrence of this phenomenon in endemic areas makes mosquito-borne viruses difficult to treat. Dengue fever is caused by ... Data has shown that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum alters the mosquito vector's feeding behavior by increasing ...
"Four distinct pathways of hemoglobin uptake in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ... It accounts for 80% of malaria deaths. Therefore, mutations that protect against malaria infection and lethality pose a ... controlled innate resistance is reflected in the probability of survival of young children in areas where malaria is endemic. ... Development of genetic resistance to malaria[edit]. Microscopic parasites, like viruses, protozoans that cause malaria, and ...
Bezon, A (1955). "[Possible resistance of subjects with sickle cell trait to endemic falciparum malaria]". Medecine Tropicale ... "Evidence for reactive oxygen intermediates causing hemolysis and parasite death in malaria". Infection and Immunity. 39 (1): 1- ... Under experimental infection, volunteers indicated partial resistance to malaria. Then he found children naturally infected ... Because the region was malaria endemic, acquiring a genetic mutation, but not the lethal form, could confer resistance to ...
... a marked in vivo resistance to infection by the causative pathogen of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum. Unlike those with the ... where malaria in endemic, is a good example of natural selection. The reasons behind the resistance to malaria become clear ... This parasite is an obligate intracellular parasite, which must enter the cells of the host it is invading. The band 3 proteins ... It is common in some communities in Malaysia and Papua New Guinea, as it confers some resistance to cerebral Falciparum Malaria ...
RTS,S/AS01 (commercial name Mosquirix), was engineered using genes from the outer protein of P. falciparum malaria parasite and ... 2014). "Antibodies to PfSEA-1 block parasite egress from RBCs and protect against malaria infection". Science. AAAS. 344 (6186 ... November 2007). "Safety of the RTS,S/AS02D candidate malaria vaccine in infants living in a highly endemic area of Mozambique: ... Over a span of 42 weeks, 24 of 26 tests on the volunteers showed that they were protected from malaria infection. "Malaria ...
Most adults from endemic areas have a degree of long-term infection, which tends to recur, and also possess partial immunity ( ... Once the malaria parasite enters the erythorocytic stage, it can adversely affect blood cells, making it possible to contract ... Specific regimens are recommended by the WHO, UK HPA and CDC for prevention of P. falciparum infection. HPA and WHO advice are ... Malaria prophylaxis is the preventive treatment of malaria. Several malaria vaccines are under development. Risk management ...
Anopheles subpictus carry human malaria parasites in an urban area of Western India and may facilitate perennial malaria ... Spatial and temporal variation in abundance of Anopheles (Diptera:Culicidae) in a malaria endemic area in Papua New Guinea.. ... "Prevalence of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in epidemic-prone border areas of Bangladesh". Malaria ... Female is blood sucking and involved in transmitting Plasmodium falciparum, thus an important malarial vector. It is considered ...
The results showed Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in endemic Africa halved and the incidence of clinical disease ... Malaria intervention coverage indicator data Parasite rate data Annual Parasite Incidence data Treatment-seeking data Satellite ... "A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010". Malaria Journal. 10 (378). doi:10.1186/1475-2875-10-378. ... The initial focus of MAP centred on predicting the endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly form of the malaria ...
One particular research focus of the institute is the biology of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The service ... The Institute additionally offers an MSc in Infection Biology and Epidemiology. In postgraduate teaching and training, and ... the need to combine sound interdisciplinary research within the context of the social and cultural conditions of an endemic ... Infection Biology Swiss TPH - Medical Services Swiss Centre for International Health Swiss TPH - Medicines Research Science and ...
"Co-infection of helminths and malaria: modulation of the immune responses to malaria". Parasite Immunol. 28 (10): 497-506. doi: ... "Increased frequency of malaria attacks in subjects co-infected by intestinal worms and Plasmodium falciparum malaria". Trans. R ... However, in most endemic areas, adult women are the most severely affected by anemia, mainly because they have much higher ... Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite in the roundworm group. Initially there may be itching and ...
Mason Dentinger, Rachel (26 August 2015). "Patterns of Infection and Patterns of Evolution: How a Malaria Parasite Brought " ... In 1957, it was suggested by Garnham et al.[8] that P. knowlesi could be the fifth species capable of causing endemic malaria ... Although the infecting parasite was initially identified as P. falciparum, one day later it was then identified as P. malariae ... Plasmodium knowlesi is a primate malaria parasite commonly found in Southeast Asia.[1] It causes malaria in long-tailed ...
Epidemiologically, this is important as tungiasis often causes secondary infections. Tungiasis had been endemic in pre- ... This is most likely because the parasite is ectoparasitic with visible symptoms. Identification of the parasite through removal ... Lecture on Malaria and the Sickle-Cell Connection. Human Biology 153. Stanford University. 6 Feb. 2009.[verification needed] ... By spraying DDT in homes, the Anopheles a genus of mosquitoes known to carry the deadly Plasmodium falciparum was mostly ...
Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species that causes malaria in humans. A gametocyte in Plasmodium ... Therefore, the presence of gametocytes in circulation of infected individuals is imperative for malaria to remain endemic in a ... These infections take their toll on poor countries in other ways because many hospitalizations are due to initial symptoms of ... which transmit malaria. Gametocytes, the precursors of male and female gametes, of malaria parasites are formed in the human ...
... provides a survival advantage over people with normal hemoglobin in regions where malaria is endemic. The ... both are toxic to malarial parasites. The sickle cell trait was found to be 50% protective against mild clinical malaria, 75% ... trait is known to cause significantly fewer deaths due to malaria, especially when Plasmodium falciparum is the causative ... Sudden deaths during physical exertion in African-American US army recruits Urinary tract infection Probable: complicated ...
... falciparum infections, and progressive alveolar capillary dysfunction is observed after the treatment of vivax malaria. ... "Four distinct pathways of hemoglobin uptake in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ... many persons in regions where lethal diseases are endemic come to inherit protective mutations. Mutations may have detrimental ... One of the key reasons for the high fatality rate in P. falciparum malaria is the occurrence of so-called cerebral malaria. ...
He described Proteosoma praecox, the malaria parasite of birds. In 1891 he performed the first inoculation of malaria parasites ... a malaria-endemic area, protected them from mosquito bites between dusk and dawn, and they did not get malaria (except five of ... Majori G (2012). "Short history of malaria and its eradication in Italy with short notes on the fight against the infection in ... He was the first to describe and establish the life cycle of the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and discovered ...
"Sir2a regulates rDNA transcription and multiplication rate in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum". doi:10.1038/ ... Identification of genes that may be associated with the levels of anopheles gambiae infections with plasmodium falciparum. ... It engaged about 49 Principal Investigators from 34 institutions in Europe, African malaria endemic countries (Sudan, Uganda, ... The consortium conducted research on malaria parasites and their interactions with both mammalian hosts and mosquito vectors. ...
Prevalence of babesiosis in malaria-endemic regions remains unknown due to the likelihood of misdiagnosis as malaria. As the ... As a protozoan parasite, the most effective way to identify Babesia infection is through blood sample testing. Babesia species ... because of its substantial similarity to the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This has resulted in many patients ... Too lethal of an infection would result in the host´s death and the parasite unable to spread, a loss from an evolutionary ...
Gardner M, Hall N, Fung E, et al. (2002). "Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum". Nature 370 ( ... 2009). "Transmission‐dependent tolerance to multiclonal Plasmodium falciparum infection". J Infect Dis 200 (7): 1166-1175. doi: ... S/AS02D candidate malaria vaccine in infants living in a highly endemic area of Mozambique: a double blind randomised ... "Ross and the Discovery that Mosquitoes Transmit Malaria Parasites". CDC Malaria website. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-06-15. ...
... of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite and a viral envelope protein of the hepatitis B virus (HBsAg), to which was added ... A Phase 2a Controlled Human Malaria Parasite Infection and Immunogenicity Study". J. Infect. Dis. 214 (5): 762-71. doi:10.1093/ ... Potential malaria vaccines have been an intense area of research since the 1960s. SPf66 was tested extensively in endemic areas ... Infection is prevented by inducing humoral and cellular immunity, with high antibody titers, that block the parasite from ...
... preventing malaria infections, and preventing the transmission of resistant parasites. Preventing malaria infections developing ... malaria in individuals with suspected or confirmed infection Prevention of infection in individuals visiting a malaria-endemic ... It is only used in combination with quinine in the treatment of acute cases of resistant P. falciparum infections and not as a ... Preventing the transmission of resistant parasites limits the risk of resistant malarial infections becoming endemic and can be ...
Malaria co-infectionEdit. Co-infection with hookworm and Plasmodium falciparum is common in Africa.[52] Although exact numbers ... "Co-infection of helminths and malaria: modulation of the immune responses to malaria". Parasite Immunol. 28 (10): 497-506. doi: ... However, in most endemic areas, adult women are the most severely affected by anemia, mainly because they have much higher ... Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite known as a hookworm.[1][5] Initially, itching and a rash ...
Cryptic and endemic malaria parasites in North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Science Advances 2 (2) Lutz ... The malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax exhibits greater genetic diversity than Plasmodium falciparum. Nat Genet 44(9):1046-1050 ... A study of ~3000 wild ape specimens collected from Central Africa has shown that Plasmodium infection is common and is usually ... On the diversity of malaria parasites in African apes and the origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos. PLoS Pathog 6(2): ...
It was first used to treat malaria in Rome in 1631. During the 17th century, malaria was endemic to the swamps and marshes ... Quinine is theorized to be toxic to the malarial pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum, by interfering with the parasite's ability to ... "Treatment with quinidine gluconate of persons with severe Plasmodium falciparum infection: discontinuation of parenteral ... Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.[2] This includes the treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium ...
From Genetic resistance to malaria: "Where this parasite [p. falciparum] is endemic, young children have repeated malaria ... Repeated malaria infections strengthen adaptive immunity and broaden its effects against parasites expressing different to the ... The medical community did not know the natural history of yellow fever, a viral infection spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito ... that people of our colour were not liable to take the infection. Upon which we and a few others met and consulted how to act on ...
Malaria is still one of the most considerable parasite infections of the human being. Pregnant women are at an increased risk ... In endemic areas infections with P. falciparum are very often polyclonal. They are described as multiple Infections or as the ... To investigate the diversity of P. falciparum and the multiplicity of infection in pregnant women a cross-sectional study was ... With age and parity multiplicity of infection as well as parasite density decreased. In addition a high correlation between the ...
... and clinical studies related to all aspects of malaria. ... Malaria Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access ... when the current trend of malaria infection dramatically dropped in most malaria endemic areas of the country. ... Although the two Plasmodium species, P. falciparum and P. vivax, are important parasites in malaria related problems in ... cause malaria infection. The major complications are caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax, with P. falciparum being the more ...
We analyzed 901 patient samples collected during 2006-2009 and found 2 samples showed possible mixed parasite infections of ... Comparison of parasites from Haiti with those from Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela reveals a geographically distinct population ... Our findings indicate low genetic diversity in the parasite population and low levels of chloroquine resistance in Haiti, ... falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter) gene mutation that confers chloroquine resistance has been detected ...
That is, they are able to limit blood parasite densities to extremely low levels and fail to show symptoms of infection. As the ... Individuals living in malaria-endemic areas eventually develop clinical immunity to Plasmodium falciparum. ... Changes in cytokine production associated with acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.. Rhee MS1, Akanmori BD, ... Cells from malaria-exposed donors living in an area of low malaria endemicity produce much higher levels of IFN-gamma and this ...
... and infections in pregnancy will be considered, among other subject areas. Emerging research on the microbiome is also ... Articles on the diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted diseases, genital and urinary tract infections, ... 6. Malaria. Plasmodium Falciparum (P. falciparum) is the most studied of all species of malaria parasites that infect humans. ... The frequency of P. falciparum malaria is greater in pregnant than nonpregnant women in highly endemic areas [21-24]; this ...
... falciparum infection in Europe affects (i) migrants from areas where malaria is endemic in whom malaria parasites were not ... Falciparum malaria in patient 9 years after leaving malaria-endemic area. Emerg Infect Dis 15:115-116. doi:10.3201/ ... Plasmodium falciparum malaria recrudescence occurring 2.5 years after leaving an endemic country. Neth J Med 71:426-428. ... Therefore, P. falciparum infection should not be excluded in patients with symptoms of malaria, even a long time after travel ...
Polymerase chain reaction detected more cases of P. falciparum infection than mRDT or microscopy. Using PCR as reference, the ... for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection among 316 primary schoolchildren in Kibiti district, in 2016. ... has been observed in sub-Saharan Africa over the past two decades and may affect the diagnostic performance of malaria rapid ... Plasmodium falciparum parasites with histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in two endemic regions of ...
Prevention and treatment of malaria are essential components of prenatal care in areas where the parasite is endemic. While the ... PAM is caused primarily by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous of the four species of malaria-causing ... "CDC-Malaria-Malaria Parasites". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Perlmann, P; Troye-Blomberg, M (2000). "Malaria ... falciparum parasites was the var2csa gene. Parasite clones where the var2csa gene was disrupted lost the ability to adhere to ...
We develop two neutral models that encompass malaria epidemiology but exclude competitive interactions between parasites. These ... The unique population structure we identify underlies the large transmission reservoir characteristic of highly endemic regions ... In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the var multigene family encoding for the major blood-stage antigen PfEMP1 has evolved ... Recurrent malaria infections in endemic regions do not generate sterilizing immunity toward subsequent infection7; this ...
Asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitemia in adults living in a malaria-endemic country is frequent. ... A total of 52% of the individuals had parasites detected by a subtelomeric variable open reading frame polymerase chain ... In malaria-endemic countries with stable transmission, semi-immunity is usually acquired after childhood. For adults, severe ... During a period of one year, we screened 497 afebrile males to investigate the prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum ...
As malaria endemic countries shift from control to elimination, the proportion of low density Plasmodium falciparum infections ... culture parasites, and archived whole blood samples. Full Text available with Trip Pro. Performance of an ultra-sensitive ... are unable to detect these infections. A novel ultra-sensitive HRP2-based Alere™ Malaria Ag P.f RDT (uRDT) was evaluated in ... Plasmodium falciparum HRP2-based rapid diagnostic test with recombinant HRP2, culture parasites, and archived whole blood ...
... falciparum is endemic (2). The last case of congenital P. malariae infection in the United States was reported in 1992 (3). ... If the infants smear is positive for malaria parasites, the mothers smears also should be examined for malaria parasites. If ... or previous malaria infection and would rule out maternal transmission of malaria. Positive results indicate infection at some ... In this case, the mothers serology demonstrates previous infection with malaria parasites at some time. The pattern of ...
Plasmodium infections in malaria-endemic regions often go unnoticed. Even in Africa, where P. falciparum accounts for nearly ... 200 result in a parasite infection, half of which will develop uncomplicated malaria, with two cases of severe malaria and one ... Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Nature. 419:498-511. View this article via: CrossRef ... Clearance of drug-resistant parasites as a model for protective immunity in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am. J. Trop. Med. ...
Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite densities do not differ between capillary and venous blood in asymptomatic subjects for ... However, parasites are known to sequester in the microvasculature and this phenomenon may alter accurate detection of parasites ... Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages among asymptomatic children aged from 4 to 15 years was 51.8% (2116/4087). ... Parasite densities were determined microscopically from capillary and venous blood for 137 naturally-infected gametocyte ...
New Multiplex Assay for Assessing Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection. Asymptomatic malaria infection in ... Lymphatic filariasis is caused primarily by Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) and can be co-endemic with certain filarial parasites in ... Parasite detection is required to diagnose malaria, parasite counting is required to monitor treatment for severe cases, and ... PATH and collaborators have developed a highly sensitive diagnostic test for Plasmodium falciparum malaria to use in the ...
Detection of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum parasites has been previously reported (9). Malaria infections have been ... Falciparum malaria in patient 9 years after leaving malaria-endemic area. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Jan;15(1):115-6. PMID:19116068 ... 21 cases of falciparum malaria) occurred in Oman which had been free of falciparum malaria (but not vivax) (6). Also, in ... Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurring 8 years after leaving an endemic area. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009 Jan;63(1):105-7 ...
The parasite that causes the disease, Plasmodium falciparum, is endemic in that country, where 20% of the people carry it in ... "These results provide evidence that HLA molecules influence the strains of parasites causing malaria infections," says Hill. It ... "Some malaria vaccine programs have been looking at inducing responses to the liver stage of the parasite, but these studies ... Malaria provides a rare opportunity to study the molecular arms race between parasite and host because researchers can link ...
Diagnosing infection levels of four human malaria parasite species by a polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction ... Consistent with these observations, an analysis of more than 40 P. falciparum strains characterized from malaria-endemic ... P. falciparum field samples were obtained from malaria-exposed study subjects living in three different malaria holoendemic ... throughout malaria-endemic regions is a tragic setback.. The molecular details contributing to CQR in P. falciparum are ...
... for the diagnosis of past Plasmodium falciparum infections. This meta-analysis was performed to determine... ... thus malaria due to P. falciparum is an important public health problem in both endemic and non-endemic settings [1]. A prompt ... Most of the RDTs for Plasmodium species are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) or parasite-specific ... Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in endemic countries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011 ...
... against malaria disease due to the parasite Plasmodium falciparum and also would provide protection against infection with ... When Administered to Children Aged 1 to 4 Years Living in a Malaria-endemic Region of Mozambique.. The safety and scientific ... Time to the first clinical episode of symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection detected over the 6-month ... Occurrence of episodes of asymptomatic and symptomatic infections of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Occurrence of solicited ...
Untreated Plasmodium falciparum infection can lead to coma, renal failure, pulmonary edema, and death. The diagnosis of malaria ... Demonstration of malaria parasites in blood films. Case Classification. Confirmed. An episode of microscopically confirmed ... Asymptomatic parasitemia can occur among persons who have been long-term residents of areas in which malaria is endemic. ... Introduced: malaria acquired by mosquito transmission from an imported case in an area where malaria is not a regular ...
A large survey of P. falciparum infection was conducted in asymptomatic individuals living in rural Gabon. Two hundred and ... The prevalence of P. falciparum in adults was 6.2% (269/4342) nationwide, with a maximum of 37.2% in one village; a linear ... The prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum carriage is poorly documented in Gabon. ... Plasmodium falciparum carriage remains high among adults in rural Gabon. Control measures must be adapted to the region and ...
Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of most severe malaria worldwide and is endemic in a large section of sub-Saharan ... of whole-genome-sequenced parasite samples taken from clinical isolates indicates that the degree of mixed infections varies ... J. C. Reeder et al., 2008 Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections are associated with severe malaria in children: a prospective ... 2005 The global distribution of clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 434: 214-217. ...
... in parasites sampled from volunteers with varying prior exposure to malaria, following experimental infection by sporozoites ( ... Previous studies have suggested that parasites expressing PfEMP1 subclasses group A and DC8, associated with severe malaria, ... antibodies to infected erythrocytes before challenge infection and 2) the apparent in vivo parasite multiplication rate. We ... expression of a DC8-like CIDRα1.1 domain was associated with higher apparent parasite multiplication rate in a manner that was ...
  • Congenital infection with Plasmodium malariae is particularly uncommon because distribution of this parasite is focal and sparse in areas where P. falciparum is endemic ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The last case of congenital P. malariae infection in the United States was reported in 1992 ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This report describes the investigation of a case of P. malariae in an infant with no travel history outside of the United States and suggests that health-care providers suspect malaria when treating a neonate or young infant with fever if the mother has traveled or lived in a malarious area. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the infant in this report could have been infected by the bite of a mosquito that had bitten a P. malariae -infected person (e.g., one of the parents or the visitor from Kinshasa), congenital transmission is a much more likely source of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • P. malariae can result in long-lasting infections and if untreated can persist asymptomatically in the human host for years, even a lifetime. (cdc.gov)
  • As reported by Ethiopia's Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) [ 13 ], in 2009, malaria was the first cause of outpatient visits, health facility admissions, and inpatient deaths, accounting for 12% of outpatient visits and 9.9% of admissions. (hindawi.com)
  • Pregnancy-related malaria causes around 100,000 infant deaths each year, due in large part to low birth weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malaria continues to be a tremendous public health burden worldwide, resulting in 700,000 ( 1 ) to 1.2 million deaths annually ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Malaria is a responsible for approximately 600 thousand deaths worldwide every year. (plos.org)
  • Worldwide, malaria is a leading cause of premature mortality, particularly in children under the age of five, with an estimated 207 million cases and more than half a million deaths in 2012, according to the World Malaria Report 2013 published by WHO. (wikipedia.org)
  • That's the official figure, anyway, but it's likely to be a substantial underestimate, since most malaria deaths are not formally registered, and many are likely to have escaped the estimators. (worldwatch.org)
  • Despite the deaths, and the fact that roughly 2.5 billion people (40 percent of the world's population) are at risk of contracting the disease, malaria is a relatively low public health priority on the international scene. (worldwatch.org)
  • It accounts for 80% of malaria deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • While an accurate assessment of the current health and economic losses attributable to antibiotic resistance is elusive, the estimated numbers, ranging up to 2 million serious infections, 23,000 deaths, and 35 billion dollars in the United States alone, are staggering ( CDC, 2013 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Malaria is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and causes up to one million deaths each year. (nature.com)
  • These complications of Plasmodium infection have been estimated to account for at least 1-2 million deaths yearly, mostly in African children under the age of five ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes 500 million clinical cases with approximately one million deaths each year. (prolekare.cz)
  • Malaria remains one of the most significant contributors to the global burden of infectious diseases, responsible for over 200 million cases and 400,000 deaths annually. (ufl.edu)
  • This results in 350 to 1,000 annual cases of malaria in Canada and 1 to 2 deaths per year. (shoppersdrugmart.ca)
  • In 2015, there were 149 to 303 million clinical cases of malaria, resulting in between 236 and 635 thousand deaths. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • It is estimated that globally 219 million cases of malaria lead to 435,000 deaths in 2017. (springer.com)
  • Malaria results in the death of ~0.5 million children a year, with drug resistance impacting the usefulness of successive generations of new medicines ( www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2017/en/ ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The 2018 World Malaria Report indicated that there was no progress from 2015 to 2017 despite approximately $9 billion in global investment towards control and elimination. (ufl.edu)
  • The malaria incidence decreased from 0.24/1000 cases in 2002 to 0.01/1000 in 2017. (springer.com)
  • During the period of study, 2002-2017, 134,273 malaria cases were reported by the Iranian health system. (springer.com)
  • Cory Gage, 23d Medical Support Squadron medical laboratory technician, places a blood specimen in an automated hematology analyzer, Aug. 29, 2017, at Moody Air Force Base, Ga. Moody's lab technicians process blood to check for a variety of cell abnormalities from infections to cancer. (health.mil)
  • Drug intake was monitored by nurses, and the routine parasitemia controls by blood smear showed no parasites at days 3, 7, 14, and 21 after treatment. (asm.org)
  • Causal prophylaxis and radical cure are achieved after P. berghei sporozoite infection with oral administration of a single dose (2.5 mg/kg) or 3 days treatment at reduced dose (0.625 mg/kg/day), eliminating parasitemia, and leading to 100% survival. (frontiersin.org)
  • There was no association between thalassemia hemoglobinopathy and malaria parasitemia, an indicator of malaria disease severity. (parasitol.kr)
  • Thalassemia had no significant association with P. vivax infection, but the parasitemia in patients with coexistence of P. vivax and thalassemia was about 2-3 times lower than those with coexistence of P. falciparum and thalassemia and malaria without thalassemia. (parasitol.kr)
  • Furthermore, the parasitemia of P. vivax in patients with coexistence of Hb E showed lower value than coexistence with other types of thalassemia and malaria without coexistence. (parasitol.kr)
  • Genotyping samples from longitudinal cohort studies for merozoite surface protein ( msp ) variants increases the information available in the data, allowing multiple infecting parasite clones in a single individual to be identified. (springer.com)
  • Because this process involves specific proteins produced by the infectious organism as well as the host cell, even a very small change in a critical protein may render infection difficult or impossible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apicoplast protein synthesis is a validated drug target in malaria because antibiotics that inhibit translation in prokaryotes also inhibit apicoplast protein synthesis and are sometimes used for malaria prophylaxis or treatment. (jove.com)
  • The team recently showed that the interaction between a parasite protein called RH5 and a receptor called basigin was essentially required for the invasion of red blood cells by the parasite that causes the deadliest form of malaria. (healthcanal.com)
  • The team investigated the question of host specificity by examining two important protein interactions involved in the invasion of red blood cells - the interactions between the parasite and host EBA175-Glycophorin A and RH5-basigin. (healthcanal.com)
  • They found that the EBA175 protein from chimpanzee-specific malaria parasites could bind to human Glycophorin A, thereby ruling out this interaction as a specificity factor. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, the RH5 protein from P. falciparum did not bind to the gorilla basigin protein and only bound extremely weakly to chimpanzee basigin. (healthcanal.com)
  • Until recently, studying protein interactions between the malaria parasite and great apes has been challenging. (healthcanal.com)
  • Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a potentially important family of immune targets, which play a central role in the host-parasite interaction by binding to various host molecules. (pnas.org)
  • Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection, i.e. number of concurrent clones, was defined by PCR-based genotyping of the merozoite surface protein-2 (msp2), before and at the end of the malaria transmission season. (cdc.gov)
  • P. falciparum creates protein knobs on the surfaces of the red blood cells it attacks. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The role of T cells in pathogenesis and protective immunity to murine malaria' Immunology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Dr. Odile Mercereau-Puijalon, Head of the Parasite Molecular Immunology Unit at the Pasteur Institute, commented, "The large numbers of P. vivax parasitized red blood cells in Duffy-negative patients shows an efficient invasion process in cells considered to be resistant to infection. (scienceblog.com)
  • We suggest ways in which advances in immunology and genomics-based technology can further improve our understanding of the B cell response in malaria and perhaps illuminate new pathways to the development of effective vaccines. (jimmunol.org)
  • There is no need for anybody who lives in Nigeria to take the so called "Sunday-Sunday medicine to prevent malaria. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • This mechanism could enable pyrethroid-treated nets to prevent malaria transmission despite increasing vector resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To find out if Lariam is recommended to prevent malaria in the country you're visiting, you can search NetDoctor for individual countries, check the National Travel Health Network and Centre , or talk to your pharmacist, doctor or travel health clinic. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • For this reason, if you need to take Lariam to prevent malaria it's best to start taking it three weeks before you travel, so that if affected you have time to stop taking it and get a different preventative medicine. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • To prevent malaria it's important to take Lariam regularly once a week as directed below. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • How do I take Lariam to prevent malaria? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Who shouldn't take Lariam to prevent malaria? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended by WHO to prevent malaria in African pregnant women. (jove.com)
  • Considering the potential ramifications of the establishment of endemicity of drug-resistant malaria parasites, several surveys have assessed the presence of CQR parasites in Haiti. (cdc.gov)
  • Cells from malaria-exposed donors living in an area of low malaria endemicity produce much higher levels of IFN-gamma and this response is also at least partially IL-12 dependent. (nih.gov)
  • In this minireview we consider the main factors that have facilitated the recent proliferation of malaria risk mapping efforts and describe the most prominent global-scale endemicity mapping endeavours of recent years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like most vector-borne diseases, malaria endemicity is partly determined by the local environment that houses its human and anopheline hosts and mediates the interactions between them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This represented a major synthesis of historical records, maps of various malaria metrics (such as parasite rate, vector distributions, entomological inoculation rate, sickle cell incidence) and expert opinion and yielded a global map of malaria endemicity at the assumed peak of transmission intensity around the start of the 20th century. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The digitised 'Lysenko' map of global malaria endemicity circa 1900. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Concurrently the World Health Organization (WHO) has begun a dialogue with scientists, clinicians, and manufacturers of malaria diagnostic test devices regarding the realistic possibilities for developing accurate, sensitive, and cost-effective rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. (asm.org)
  • Developed by Inverness Medical Professional Diagnostics, the BinaxNOW Malaria Test Kit ( FIGURE 1 ) is a rapid diagnostic test that uses whole blood collected by finger stick or venous draw. (uspharmacist.com)
  • On an individual level, P. vivax recurrences cannot be definitively classified into re-infections, recrudescences or relapses, but a probabilistic relapse phenotype can be assigned to each P. vivax sample, allowing investigation of the association between epidemiological covariates and the incidence of relapses. (springer.com)
  • In Central America, for example, between 2000-2008, all countries decreased malaria incidence by over 50% and some of the countries in the region, such as Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua, have decreased malaria incidence by more than 90% (WHO 2010). (bioline.org.br)
  • The incidence of malaria in Myanmar has decreased remarkably in recent years, but malaria is still one of the major public health concerns in the country. (springermedizin.de)
  • Unacceptable uncertainty in the clinical burden of malaria in only four countries confounds our ability to evaluate needs and monitor progress toward international targets for malaria control at the global scale. (prolekare.cz)