Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Support Vector Machines: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Inbred BALB CCeratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Mice, Inbred C57BLKanamycin Kinase: A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein: An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS. The protein may play a role in cell-cell adhesion and is the primary site for the attachment of ADENOVIRUSES during infection.Adenoviruses, Simian: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS associated with respiratory and enteric infections in primate hosts.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Simuliidae: Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Spumavirus: Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
It contained three bacterial genes, two CP4 EPSPS genes, and a gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) from Escherichia coli as ... Genetically modified plants can also be developed using gene knockdown or gene knockout to alter the genetic makeup of a plant ... The bacterium is a vector, enabling transportation of foreign genes into plants. This method works especially well for ... Genetically engineered crops have genes added or removed using genetic engineering techniques, originally including gene guns, ...
This indirect encoding is believed to make the genetic search more robust (i.e. reduce the probability of fatal mutations), and ... Gene expression programming - Like genetic programming, GEP also evolves computer programs but it explores a genotype-phenotype ... Evolution strategy - Works with vectors of real numbers as representations of solutions, and typically uses self-adaptive ... Genetic algorithm - This is the most popular type of EA. One seeks the solution of a problem in the form of strings of numbers ...
However, since the transferred genetic material does not encode any of the viral genes, these infections do not generate new ... Viral vector - commonly used tool to deliver genetic material into cells. Transduction, Genetic at the US National Library of ... Transduction with viral vectors can be used to insert or modify genes in mammalian cells. It is often used as a tool in basic ... The genes that get transferred (donor genes) depend on where the phage genome is located on the chromosome. Specialized ...
... of the proteins which are encoded by those genes via mass production method or manipulated as probable vectors to examine genes ... in the cells of patients for diagnosis and treatment of several genetic diseases and cancers. The biggest advantage for such ... They are also perfect candidates as gene vectors. They are utilized to investigate genes in cell cultures ... Inside the capsid is a linear single-stranded DNA genome in the size range 4-6 kb so the small genome of parvovirus can encode ...
... a fibrin-based scaffold has been used to target a vector encoding eNOS to the wound site. This enhances transfection efficiency ... RDEB is caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene which results in the reduction or loss of type VII collagen in the skin. One of ... While factors such as abnormal mechanical stresses, biochemical imbalances and nutritional and genetic deficiencies are all ... NFB is continuously developing new technologies for use in gene delivery and drug delivery using a wide range of clinically ...
... adjacent to exon 3 of the gene encoding growth hormone 1, the GH-1 gene. This mutated form of IVS3 causes exon 3 to be skipped ... Specifically, minigenes are used as splice reporter vectors (also called exon-trapping vectors) and act as a probe to determine ... applied to the study of a diverse array of genetic diseases due to the aforementioned abundance of alternatively spliced genes ... A minigene is a minimal gene fragment that includes an exon and the control regions necessary for the gene to express itself in ...
A potential obstacle to clinical translation of gene therapy is that viral vector-mediated manipulation of the genetic make-up ... Kv1.1 is a voltage-gated potassium channel encoded by the KCNA1 gene. It is widely expressed in the brain and peripheral nerves ... and extended gene expression. Lentiviral vectors have also shown promise. Among challenges to clinical translation of gene ... Gene therapy is being studied for some forms of epilepsy. It relies on viral or non-viral vectors to deliver DNA or RNA to ...
They developed a vector system for transferring foreign genes into the plant genome, by using the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium ... plants with insect tolerance by expressing genes encoding for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The ... Plant Genetic Systems (PGS), since 2002 part of Bayer CropScience, is a biotech company located in Ghent, Belgium. The focus of ... Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell at the University of Ghent who were among the first to assemble a practical system for genetic ...
If genetic material happens to be inserted in the middle of one of the original genes of the host cell, this gene will be ... Trans-acting elements are viral elements, which can be encoded on a different DNA molecule. For example, the viral structural ... A replication-defective vector deletes some essential genes. These deleted genes are still necessary in the body so they are ... These vectors show great promise for the development of "magic bullet" gene therapies. A replication-competent vector called ...
... a gene that encodes an enzyme for uracil synthesis, Lodish et al. 2007). An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, Griffiths et al ... cerevisiae vectors are shuttle vectors. Yeast shuttle vectors have components that allow for replication and selection in both ... Shuttle vectors are frequently used to quickly make multiple copies of the gene in E. coli (amplification). They can also be ... A shuttle vector is a vector (usually a plasmid) constructed so that it can propagate in two different host species [1]. ...
In the future, gene therapy may provide a way to cure genetic disorders, such as severe combined immunodeficiency, cystic ... One or more plasmids, generally referred to as packaging plasmids, encode the virion proteins, such as the capsid and the ... Identification: Viral vectors are often given certain genes that help identify which cells took up the viral genes. These genes ... Animal host vectors also play an important role. Gene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes responsible for ...
A genetic factor also appears to increase susceptibility to West Nile disease. A mutation of the gene CCR5 gives some ... these genes encode seven nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The RNA strand is held within a nucleocapsid ... Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, CDC. 30 April 2009. Archived from the original on 1 March 2013. Deas, Tia S; Bennett CJ; ... The genetic material of WNV is a positive-sense, single strand of RNA, which is between 11,000 and 12,000 nucleotides long; ...
Lastly, the "env" domain of the viral genome encodes for the glycoproteins and envelope on the surface of the virus. There are ... The virus contains a reverse transcriptase molecule found to perform transcription of the viral genetic material upon entering ... Lentiviral vectors in gene therapy is a method by which genes can be inserted, modified, or deleted in organisms using ... The vector targets the cells within the pancreas to add insulin secreting genes to help control diabetes mellitus. Vectors were ...
1989 December; 53(4): 491-516 Ferric C. Fang, R. H. D., Donald R. Helinski (1993). "Mutations in the gene encoding the ... "Improved Broad-Host-Range RK2 Vectors Useful for High and Low Regulated Gene Expression Levels in Gram-Negative Bacteria", ... C M Thomas, and C A Smith: "Incompatibility Group P Plasmids: Genetics, Evolution, and Use in Genetic Manipulation", Annual ... genes, which inactivate the kil genes. The kil and kor genes together are suspected to play a role in the broad host range of ...
Initially, the genetic algorithm is encoded with the neural network weights in a predefined manner where one gene in the ... input vector h t {\displaystyle h_{t}} : hidden layer vector y t {\displaystyle y_{t}} : output vector W {\displaystyle W} , U ... Typically, bipolar encoding is preferred to binary encoding of the associative pairs. Recently, stochastic BAM models using ... sequences of real-valued input vectors arrive at the input nodes, one vector at a time. At any given time step, each non-input ...
Genetic modification of plants is achieved by adding a specific gene or genes to a plant, or by knocking down a gene with RNAi ... Insect resistance is achieved through incorporation of a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes a protein that is ... Another limitation of viral vectors is that the virus is not usually passed on the progeny, so every plant has to be inoculated ... The plants resulting from adding a gene are often referred to as transgenic plants. If for genetic modification genes of the ...
The vector(also known as "destination vector"), where genes will be added, has an outward-facing BsaI restriction site with a ... In this process, one needs to make sure that the introduced mutation will not affect the genetic function encoded by the ... Each cloning allows 2-6 genes to be inserted in the same vector. Adding more genes in one cloning step is not recommended, for ... The upstream fusion site is compatible to a gene cloned in level 1 vector while the downstream fusion site has a universal ...
... the circular mtDNA chromosome contains 13 genes that encode proteins that are part of the electron transport chain and 24 genes ... The standard genetic code by which nuclear genes are translated is universal, meaning that each 3-base sequence of DNA codes ... making them valuable tools as cloning vectors in biotechnology applications. Circular bacterial plasmids are also the basis for ... "Motif analysis unveils the possible co-regulation of chloroplast genes and nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins". Plant ...
... of the proteins which are encoded by those genes via mass production method or manipulated as probable vectors to examine genes ... in the cells of patients for diagnosis and treatment of several genetic diseases and cancers. The biggest advantage for such ... They are also perfect candidates as gene vectors. They are utilized to investigate genes in cell cultures ... Replication as disease vector[edit]. To enter host cells, parvoviruses bind to a sialic acid-bearing cell surface receptor. ...
DNA and do not encode genes necessary to encase the genetic material for transfer to a new host; however, some classes of ... Gene therapyEdit. Main article: Vectors in gene therapy. Plasmids may also be used for gene transfer as a potential treatment ... The vector may also contain other marker genes or reporter genes to facilitate selection of plasmids with cloned inserts. ... Further information: Vector (molecular biology). Artificially constructed plasmids may be used as vectors in genetic ...
These variants can then be ligated into an expression vector, individual clones can be created, and the encoded protein ... Discovery of novel genes Cloning of full-length cDNA molecules for in vitro study of gene function Study of the repertoire of ... of transgenic animals through genetic engineering Study of the function of regulatory sequences in vitro Study of genetic ... In either case, the systems allow the movement of the vector from the phage into a live cell, where the vector can replicate ...
Genetic markers: Genetic markers for viral vectors allow for confirmation that the vector has integrated with the host genomic ... Transcription of the cloned gene is a necessary component of the vector when expression of the gene is required: one gene may ... and thus the shortest UTRs or none at all are encoded for in optimal expression vectors. Kozak sequence: Vectors should encode ... Plasmid Viral vector Cloning vector Expression vector Hybrid vector Minicircle Recombinant DNA Naked DNA Vector (epidemiology ...
When the gene encoding is restrictive as in permutation problems, mutations are swaps, inversions, and scrambles. The purpose ... is the length of the binary vector. Thus, a mutation rate of 1 {\displaystyle 1} per mutation and individual selected for ... Mutation is a genetic operator used to maintain genetic diversity from one generation of a population of genetic algorithm ... If it falls outside of the user-specified lower or upper bounds for that gene, the new gene value is clipped. This mutation ...
... a broad-host-range shuttle vector (see Replicative Plasmids below) is needed. Gene promoters, which control gene expression, ... Additionally, RSF1010 encodes its own replication machinery, so that it does not depend on its host to possess the necessary ... PCC6803 is considered a model organism, yet there exist few synthetic parts that can be used for genetic engineering. As ... all of which repress gene expression by a repressor molecule that binds the gene operator and blocks RNAP progression. Progress ...
VSVG is also a common coat protein for lentiviral vector expression systems used to introduce genetic material into in vitro ... 2005). "Altering the tropism of lentiviral vectors through pseudotyping". Curr Gene Ther. 5 (4): 387-98. doi:10.2174/ ... The genome of VSIV is on a single molecule of negative-sense RNA that has 11,161 nucleotides in length, that encodes five major ... The VSIV M protein is encoded by an mRNA that is 831 nucleotides long and translates to a 229 amino acid-protein. The predicted ...
This infection of vectors without a previous blood meal seems to play a role in single, sudden breakouts of the disease.[25] ... Bazin, Hervé (2011). Vaccination: a history from Lady Montagu to genetic engineering. Montrouge: J. Libbey Eurotext. p. 407. ... the enumeration corresponds to the arrangement of the protein coding genes in the genome.[23] Minimal yellow fever virus (YFV) ... single-stranded RNA is around 11,000 nucleotides long and has a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein. Host ...
A new dual-vector approach to enhance recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene expression through intermolecular cis ... Abstracts: Chromosome 5q deletion and epigenetic suppression of the gene encoding [alpha]-catenin (CTNNA1) in myeloid cell ... Genetic capsid modifications allow efficient re-targeting of adeno-associated virus type 2. Article Abstract:. The human ... Using this technique, a gene that is too large for AAV can be split into two parts and packaged into two split vectors. ...
Gene Expression * Genetic Therapy / methods* * Genetic Vectors / administration & dosage* * Humans * Injections * Insulin-Like ... Therefore, we analyzed the efficacy of a recombinant simian virus 40 vector (rSV40) encoding IGF-I (rSVIGF-I) to prevent ... Liver transduction with a simian virus 40 vector encoding insulin-like growth factor I reduces hepatic damage and the ... Gene Ther. 2007 Feb;14(3):203-10. doi: 10.1038/ Epub 2006 Oct 5. ...
... gene. Plasmid vectors analogous to pBin19, pBI121 and pBI101 were constructed carrying the gene encoding the wt NPTII enzyme ... present in the binary plasmid vector, pBin19, was replaced with the wild-type (wt) ... Modified Binary Plant Transformation Vectors With the Wild-Type Gene Encoding NPTII Gene. 1992 Dec 15;122(2):383-4. doi: ... gene. Plasmid vectors analogous to pBin19, pBI121 and pBI101 were constructed carrying the gene encoding the wt NPTII enzyme ...
The yeast genes encoding the enzymes are listed below each respective enzyme. Gene deletions that enhance or suppress toxicity ... and the kynurenine pathway gene deletion strains. pYES2 is the empty vector control. Shown are five-fold serial dilutions ... Genetic analysis of the kynurenine pathway on Htt103Q-mediated toxicity. a, Schematic representation of the kynurenine pathway ... Gene Ontology annotations from this paper - Gene Ontology. *Pharmacogenomic Annotation 11676916 for PMID:15806102 [PharmGKB] - ...
Genetic: Autologous CD34+ stem cells transduced with ARSA encoding lentiviral vector Phase 2 ... Intervention Details: Genetic: Autologous CD34+ stem cells transduced with ARSA encoding lentiviral vector Autologous ... MedlinePlus related topics: Genes and Gene Therapy Leukodystrophies Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: ... We are conducting a gene therapy clinical trial based on autologous HSC and advanced generation lentiviral vectors (LV) for ...
Genetic: Autologous CD34 positive cells transduced with WAS encoding lentiviral vector.. Interventional. Phase 2. * ... Genetic: Gene Therapy product CYL-02 = plasmid DNA pre-complexed to linear polyethylenimine encoding sst2 + dck::umk genes ... Gene Therapy for ADA-SCID. *Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Syndrome. *Genetic: gene transduced PBL and/or gene transduced HSC ... Gene Therapy for WAS. *Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome. *Genetic: Autologous CD34 positive cells transduced with a lentiviral vector ...
... encoding protein kinase C, on a high copy vector. We found some genetic interactions between ,i,LAS21,/i, and Ras/cAMP cascade ... Genetic footprinting : a genomic strategy for determining a genes function given its sequence SMITH V. ... Transformation in yeast: development of a hybrid cloning vector and isolation of the CAN1 gene. BROACH J. R. ... Exploring the metabolic and genetic control of gene expression on a genomic scale DERIST J. L. ...
Human glucokinase mutant encoded by the gene, the recombinant vectors carrying the gene, the hosts comprising the vectors, ... The human glucokinase mutant encoded by the gene has higher activity than that of the wild type human glucokinase, and thus ... 2 and the nucleotide sequence wherein the ORF region encodes the same amino acid sequence as the one encoded by ORF region ( ... The gene has the nucleotide sequence chosen from the nucleotide sequence listed as SEQ ID NO: ...
Other hybrid vectors form a polycation conjugate and incorporate an AAV rep gene in a single particle. These hybrid virus ... Also disclosed is the use of the hybrid vectors to produce large quantities of recombinant AAV. ... vectors are characterized by high titer transgene delivery to a host cell and the ability to stably integrate the transgene ... The present invention provides a hybrid vector construct which comprises a portion of an adenovirus, 5 and 3 ITR sequences ...
Lane 1, induced GbpB; lane 2, induced vector alone; lane 3, purified GbpB. ... Cloning of the Streptococcus mutans Gene Encoding Glucan Binding Protein B and Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Protein ... Cloning of the Streptococcus mutans Gene Encoding Glucan Binding Protein B and Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Protein ... Cloning of the Streptococcus mutans Gene Encoding Glucan Binding Protein B and Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Protein ...
Local alignment of two-base encoded DNA sequence ... plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression in ... The complete listing was divided into two groups depending upon whether or not the promoter had been defined by genetic ( ... Transposon vectors containing non-antibiotic resistance selection markers for cloning and stable chromosomal insertion of ... Whole methylome analysis by ultra-deep sequencing using two-base encoding by Christina A. Bormann Chung, Victoria L. Boyd, ...
... a gene that encodes an enzyme for uracil synthesis, Lodish et al. 2007). An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, Griffiths et al ... cerevisiae vectors are shuttle vectors. Yeast shuttle vectors have components that allow for replication and selection in both ... Shuttle vectors are frequently used to quickly make multiple copies of the gene in E. coli (amplification). They can also be ... A shuttle vector is a vector (usually a plasmid) constructed so that it can propagate in two different host species [1]. ...
These 5,183 genes represent the core set of genes, presumably encoding proteins that function in the diverse range of ... appear to be preferential sites for the integration of novel genetic material. A specialized cloning vector was developed for ... Analysis of polymorphic genes and variable segments associated with type III secreted effector-encoding genes. (A) Loss of ... The scale represents 5,613 genes (including 5,549 ORFs and 64 tRNA-encoding genes) organized according to the PAO1 chromosome. ...
... sequence encoding a domain or subdomain of native TNF.alpha. that binds to a TNF.alpha. receptor. The encoded chimeric TNF. ... encoding a chimeric TNF.alpha. and chimeric TNF.alpha. polypeptides. The former have a first nucleotide sequence encoding a ... of interest an isolated polynucleotide sequence encoding a chimeric TNF.alpha. that is expressed on the surface of the cell. ... domain or subdomain of a tumor necrosis factor ligand other than TNF.alpha., wherein the encoded domain or subdomain lacks a ...
J Vector Borne Dis. 2008, 45: 1-20. PubMed 8. Crompton PD, Pierce SK, Miller LH: Advances and challenges in malaria vaccine ... Genetic diversity and population structure of genes encoding vaccine candidate antigens of Plasmodium vivax. Zeitschrift:. ... Genetic diversity and population structure of genes encoding vaccine candidate antigens of Plasmodium vivax ... Barry AE, Schultz L, Buckee CO, Reeder JC: Contrasting population structures of the genes encoding ten leading vaccine- ...
It contained three bacterial genes, two CP4 EPSPS genes, and a gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) from Escherichia coli as ... Genetically modified plants can also be developed using gene knockdown or gene knockout to alter the genetic makeup of a plant ... The bacterium is a vector, enabling transportation of foreign genes into plants. This method works especially well for ... Genetically engineered crops have genes added or removed using genetic engineering techniques,[48] originally including gene ...
... genetic material encoding the therapeutic protein is transferred into the mammalian cells. Viral vector-mediated gene delivery ... Single vector through the delivery of multiple genes can therefore target several angiogenic pathways. Gene therapy by ... W. W. Spurbeck, C. Y. C. Ng, E. F. Vanin, and A. M. Davidoff, "Retroviral vector-producer cell-mediated in vivo gene transfer ... The most potent angiogenic factor to promote endothelial cell proliferation is VEGF-A. Encoded by a single gene, VEGF-A has ...
If genetic material happens to be inserted in the middle of one of the original genes of the host cell, this gene will be ... Trans-acting elements are viral elements, which can be encoded on a different DNA molecule. For example, the viral structural ... A replication-defective vector deletes some essential genes. These deleted genes are still necessary in the body so they are ... These vectors show great promise for the development of "magic bullet" gene therapies. A replication-competent vector called ...
The creation of chimeric genes was accomplished via standard genetic engineering methods. Flagellin PCR product was obtained ... Construction of expression vectors. The pQE30 plasmid (Qiagen) was used to construct vectors for the expression of fusion ... Nucleotide sequences encoding the HA2-2(76-130) consensus sequence and tandem copies of M2e were synthesized in vitro. In this ... E. coli strains transformed with the pQE30_Flg_HA2-2_4M2ehs, pQE30_FlgSh_HA2-2_4M2ehs, or pQE30_FliC vectors were cultured in ...
... mutations of genes encoding these channels are responsible for genetic epilepsy syndromes with varying degrees of severity1. ... Vector Rk4 ( Const Vector. 998 Words , 4 Pages Vector RK4(const Vector &X, const Vector &Xdot, double t, double h, int resting ... The main application of plasmids is as cloning vectors in gene cloning. In gene cloning, a fragment of DNA, containing the gene ... a viral vector is commonly used to transfer genetic material into a cell. Vectors were discovered and developed to synthesis ...
... gene family are shown to act as spore killers that enhance their own transmission into progenies by impeding the maturation of ... Gene deletion was constructed by PCR-based gene targeting. Integrating plasmids were based on pDUAL and related vectors ( ... A fungal gene reinforces Mendels laws by counteracting genetic cheating * SJ Saupe ... Both genes belong to the wtf gene family. Each gene is believed to encode two different proteins, one that acts as a poison and ...
The reagents have utility in preparing multiples of protein-forming genes, and in preparing large amounts of homogeneous DNAs ... Genetic reagents for generating plasmids containing multiples of a DNA segment are prepared by modification of the restriction ... This plasmid is thus a good vector for carrying multiple copies of large DNA segments, e.g., genes encoding useful proteins. ... That is that other genetic manipulations, e.g., changes in the RNA polymerase recognition sites of the gene, can be done prior ...
The cells were cultured and subjected to genetic modification by a retrovirus vector encoding human γc (Box 2).1,9 The vector ... Replication-defective: Virus or viral vector that is unable to reproduce itself because a gene or genes critical for ... vector-encoded γc mRNA transcripts were detected in peripheral blood cell mRNA, while integrated vector DNA was first detected ... The cells underwent gene transfer over 3 days during which the retroviral vector and cytokine mix were replaced every 24 hours. ...
The gene sequence encoding the BG505 NFL was cloned into the SUREtech vector (Selexis, USA). The SUREtechnology™ gene system ... Env gene expression was under the control of the EF1 alpha promoter. The SUREtechnology™ expression vectors bear unique genetic ... Antibody gene transfer with adeno-associated viral vectors as a method for HIV prevention. Immunol Rev (2017) 275(1):324-33. ... A native-like SOSIP.664 trimer based on an HIV-1 subtype B Env gene. J Virol (2015) 89(6):3380-95. doi:10.1128/JVI.03473-14 ...
Retroviral vector transduction of genes encoding TCRs with known antigen specificities also produces alloantigen-reactive Tregs ... Genetic reprograming of Tregs, possibly using clinical-grade lentiviral vectors, represents an attractive strategy to fine tune ... Gene transfer in humans using a conditionally replicating lentiviral vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2006) 103:17372-7. doi: ... CREB/ATF-dependent T cell receptor-induced FoxP3 gene expression: a role for DNA methylation. J Exp Med (2007) 204:1543-51. doi ...
  • Furthermore, P. aeruginosa possesses the largest proportion of regulatory genes (≈1 in 10) of all of the sequenced bacterial genomes ( 3 ). (
  • lactis DNA fragment was cloned into this vector, the resulting plasmid became integrated, after transformation, into the bacterial chromosome by homologous recombination in a Campbell-like manner. (
  • After extensive research on animals throughout the 1980s and a 1989 bacterial gene tagging trial on humans, the first gene therapy widely accepted as a success was demonstrated in a trial that started on 14 September 1990, when Ashi DeSilva was treated for ADA-SCID. (
  • TABLE 2.2 Genetic Markers in E. coli Host Strains supE) supF} hfIA recA recB) recCl sbcA sbcB recD loci lacZ hsdR hsdS hsdM mcrB Ion rpsL dam Bacterial genes encoding suppressor tRNAs for amber mutations. (
  • In this study we have constructed a robust in vivo bacterial platform for the production of bacterial sequence-free linear covalently closed (LCC) DNA vectors, termed DNA Ministrings, through the manipulation and application of bacteriophage-encoded recombination systems. (
  • The tel and telN prokaryotic telomerase (protelomerase) genes were amplified from PY54 and N15 lysates, respectively, and cloned into a bacterial vector that expresses the gene under control of the temperature sensitive bacteriophage λ CI857 repressor that confers conditional expression from λ pL/pR promoters. (
  • The amplification of this DNA vector through telN / tel or cre expressing Recombinant E. coli cells (R-cells) generated bacterial sequence-depleted (LCC) DNA Ministring and (CCC) Minicircle vectors, respectively, as evidenced by digestion patterns of the purified vector. (
  • The safety of the LCC DNA vector conformation, with respect to insertional genotoxicity, was assessed by forcing LCC pDNA vectors into bacterial and human genomic DNA. (
  • It is now apparent that successful genetic vaccination depends not only on the ability of injected cDNAs to be transcribed and translated, but also on the adjuvant properties of bacterial DNA ( 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). (
  • We became interested in the adjuvant properties of bacterial DNA and CpG ODN while studying the efficacy of genetic vaccines in a murine model of leishmaniasis. (
  • Efficient engineering of bacterial genomes to improve their biosynthetic capabilities largely depends on the available arsenal of tools and vectors. (
  • Here we report the results from a genome-wide loss-of-function suppressor screen in which we identified 28 gene deletions that suppress toxicity of a mutant Htt fragment. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis of strain-specific genes revealed no correlation between genome content and infection type. (
  • Clusters of strain-specific genes in the P. aeruginosa genome, termed variable segments, appear to be preferential sites for the integration of novel genetic material. (
  • These studies demonstrate that P. aeruginosa strains possess a highly conserved genome that encodes genes important for survival in numerous environments and allows it to cause a variety of human infections. (
  • Further studies of this organism have provided evidence for the evolution of the genome of individual clones (including deletions of genes) in a highly restricted niche ( 9 ). (
  • This is facilitated by transposons , retrotransposons , proviruses and other mobile genetic elements that naturally translocate DNA to new loci in a genome . (
  • Cosmid libraries are used for cloning genes with large introns and for sequencing larger chunks of the genome. (
  • Both killers belong to the previously uncharacterized wtf gene family with 25 members in the reference genome. (
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites which have evolved to transfer their genetic material to infected cells and use their biosynthetic machinery to replicate, encapsidate, and package their genome. (
  • Apart from comparing the genome homology, size and G + C content, we also showed the presence 10 different CRISPR-cas genes in the CNS strains. (
  • The study of particular transcriptomes therefore allows focusing on the subset of genes expressed in the relevant cell types or tissues without having to study the complete set of gene products that the organism's genome encodes. (
  • Thus SapTrap vectors introduce the possibility for high-throughput generation of CRISPR/Cas9 genome modifications. (
  • They have to be minimally toxic, regarding anti-vector immune responses, and should not be integrated into the host genome (2). (
  • Two other genes ( fleR and pilR ) whose products have a σ 54 interaction domain were identified in the genome sequence of L. pneumophila . (
  • In order to obtain support for our hypothesis and to further characterize the cascade of flagellar gene expression, we screened the genome sequence of L. pneumophila for a homolog of rpoN and for factors having a σ 54 interaction domain. (
  • Because these vectors do not integrate into the genome, there is no risk of insertional mutagenesis. (
  • While the 27 markers throughout the genome suggested a C57BL/6 genetic background, all 5 markers that determine C57BL/6J from C57BL/6N were found to be segregating. (
  • Because the PSA gene is not present in the murine genome, a matched set of murine cell lines has been developed that may be useful to study the biochemical functions of PSA and as an experimental target for PSA-directed immunotherapy. (
  • Genetic analysis of a PSA-secreting clone, PSA/MC-38, demonstrated that the PSA gene had been stably integrated into the MC-38 genome. (
  • The first therapeutic use of gene transfer as well as the first direct insertion of human DNA into the nuclear genome was performed by French Anderson in a trial starting in September 1990. (
  • Through careful genetic engineering, scientists are able to create viral vectors for therapeutic genes by replacing the DNA section encoding the infectious viral genome with the desired gene instead (Kay, Glorioso, & Naldini, 2001). (
  • Apart from the proper design of the nucleases to recognize and cut the selected site in the cell genome, two main goals need to be adequately addressed to optimize its function: the delivery of the tools into the desired cells and the selection of those where the gene editing process has occurred correctly. (
  • LCC integration-induced apoptotic cell death and natural elimination of the integrant from human cell population improves the safety profile of DNA Ministrings by eliminating integrants following the potential genotoxic side effects of undesired vector integration into the host genome. (
  • Schematic representation of the integrated MLV genome (∼9000 basepairs) with key cis ‐elements indicated in light green and genes encoding structural and enzymatic proteins indicated in blue. (
  • This allows the efficient elimination of the plasmid from its host by simply shifting the incubation temperature to non-permissive 37-39 °C. This property makes pSG5 derivatives ideal facultative suicide vectors required for selection of gene disruption/gene replacement, transposon delivery or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. (
  • Some of the other additional genes that are important are psi-sequence near the 5' end of the RNA-genome (essential for packaging viral RNA into virus capsid), the polypurine tract required for reverse transcription, and the long-terminal repeats (LTRs) which are part of the promoter for transcription of the viral genes. (
  • Autologous hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells collected from the bone marrow and transduced ex vivo with a Lentiviral vector encoding the human ARSA cDNA under the control of the human phosphoglyceratekinase (PGK) promoter. (
  • Ex-vivo culture and gene transfer procedures were performed at The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, in March 2002. (
  • Gene modified HSC when transplanted in the patient will produce NYSO-1 specific T cells in vivo which will target and eliminate melanoma tumor cells positive for NYSO-1. (
  • In this phase I study, we administered one or two cycles of four triweekly s.c./intradermal injections of ex vivo generated dendritic cells modified with a recombinant fowlpox vector encoding carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and a triad of costimulatory molecules [rF-CEA(6D)-TRICOM]. (
  • This system is highly robust and versatile, governing tightly controlled expression of transgenes and endogenous cellular genes (through shRNAs) in various primary and established cell lines in vitro, as well as in vivo in the central nervous system or in human cancer cells xenotransplanted into nude mice. (
  • The goal of this article is to provide a concise methodology for construction and manipulation of this conditional lentiviral-based system, and quantitative analyses of drug-inducible transgene expression and gene knockdown both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • We use the Drosophila melanogaster larval hematopoietic system as an in vivo model for the genetic and functional genomic analysis of oncogenic cell overproliferation. (
  • In cancer research this tool could be used to study gene function in tumor cells and for generating in vivo tumor models for drug screening and delivery. (
  • Using it we can control the gene expression in vivo in an extraordinary and sensitive way. (
  • Isolation of a functional human interleukin 2 gene from a cosmid library by recombination in vivo. (
  • HSC population is then the ideal target for the correction of hematopoietic genetic diseases and also for the knockout of the responsible genes to in vitro and in vivo model those hematopoietic diseases. (
  • The clinical protocols include primarily ex vivo gene transfer followed by introduction of the genetically modified cells into the body. (
  • Safety of such vaccines and improvement of immunogenicity was achieved by developing the regulated delayed lysis in vivo attribute to confer complete biological containment and delivery of either protective antigens or DNA vaccines encoding them. (
  • The bacteria used for the experiment was Escherichia coli and the genes introduces for the transformation were: gfp and bla by a pGLO™ plasmid. (
  • Three B. anthracis genes, capB , capC , and capA , were shown to be necessary and sufficient to drive the production of polyglutamate in Escherichia coli ( 24 , 25 ). (
  • Engineering a homo-ethanol pathway in Escherichia coli: increased glycolytic flux and levels of expression of glycolytic genes during xylose fermentation. (
  • Later work focused on establishing the molecular genetic bases for pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans, Shigella flexneri, Mycobacterium leprae, Salmonella enterica , Escherichia coli pathovars and Bordatella avium . (
  • The bla TEM-149 and bla TEM-149/T182M genes were cloned into pBC-SK, and the corresponding enzymes were purified from recombinant Escherichia coli HB101 by the same procedure. (
  • Bierman M, Logan R, O'Brien K, Seno ET, Nagaraja-Rao R, Schoner BE (1992) Plasmid cloning vectors for the conjugal transfer of DNA from Escherichia coli to Streptomyces spp. (
  • Also, recombination, natural selection, the degree of genetic differentiation as well as the predicted immunodominant regions in PfCelTOS were analyzed. (
  • Evidence for positive selection by host immunity and intragenic recombination were detected that are two key factors responsible for gene evolution and genetic diversity of pfceltos gene. (
  • The RAD54 gene has an essential role in the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) via homologous recombination in yeast as well as in higher eukaryotes. (
  • A 200 bp fragment of the gene containing the exon encoding the DNA-binding domain was replaced with a neomycin resistance cassette via homologous recombination. (
  • Gene targeting is particularly efficient in S. cerevisiae because DNA double-strand breaks are preferentially repaired by homologous recombination as opposed to nonhomologous end joining. (
  • The availability of these tools has allowed a precise gene editing, such as knockout of a specific gene or the correction of a defective gene by means of homologous recombination (HR), taking advantage of the endogenous cell repair machinery. (
  • This regulatory circuit was integrated into a RecA+ lacZ+ E. coli K-12 strain via homologous recombination, where successful recombinants were disrupted for the lacZ gene. (
  • The Gene Technology Act 2000 (the Act) in conjunction with the Gene Technology Regulations 2001 , an inter-governmental agreement and corresponding legislation that is being enacted in each State and Territory, comprise Australia's nationally consistent regulatory system for gene technology. (
  • The Regulator is supported by the Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (OGTR), an Australian Government regulatory agency located within the Health and Ageing portfolio. (
  • Bach F, Hancock W and Ferran C (1997) Protective genes expressed in endothelial cells: a regulatory response to injury. (
  • The interaction between miRNAs and specific oncogenes and cell cycle regulatory genes is not well understood. (
  • In addition, with the increasing numbers of parasite genes that have now been submitted to molecular dissection, it is also becoming evident that, among the various strategies for gene expression control, there is a predominance of regulatory pathways acting at the post-transcriptional level. (
  • A specialized cloning vector was developed for capture and analysis of these genomic segments. (
  • With this capture system a site associated with the strain-specific ExoU cytotoxin-encoding gene was interrogated and an 80-kb genomic island carrying exoU was identified. (
  • The acquisition of novel genetic material, such as the exoU genomic island, through horizontal gene transfer may enhance colonization and survival in different host environments. (
  • Particularly informative have been those studies that used genomic microarray hybridization technology to investigate the epidemiology of disease and correlate the loss of genes with changes in virulence. (
  • Their main application is in the construction of genomic libraries, where the large insert capacity is an advantage in minimising the number of clones required for a complete representative gene library. (
  • In principle, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 allows genetic tags to be inserted at any locus. (
  • In the treated patients, we will study the short-term and long-term safety of the administration of the autologous transduced HSC, their long-term engraftment, the expression of vector-derived ARSA, and the ability of the transduced cells to provide a clinical benefit to the patients. (
  • Our emerging clinical data demonstrates that these gene-modified T cells are very active in killing tumor cells initially, but they lose their ability to function within a few weeks. (
  • In this study, we investigated the DNA regions located near the heat-labile enterotoxin-encoding genes ( eltAB ) of several clinical isolates. (
  • Interestingly, the esp gene was not identified in any of 34 clinical E. faecium isolates or in 4 other less pathogenic enterococcal species tested. (
  • Recently, these features were harnessed in a clinical trial conducted by AveXis in SMA patients, where AAV9 was employed as a vehicle for one-time administration of the SMN gene, the causative gene in SMA. (
  • In an article appearing online today in the journal Nature Methods, researchers at the EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) unveil a powerful new tool that will facilitate genetic research and open up new avenues for the clinical treatment of genetic disease. (
  • An HIV-1 derived vector expressing an antisense gene against the HIV-1 envelope gene (termed VRX496) was transferred to autologous CD4 T-cells in the first described clinical trial using such vectors. (
  • Potential strategies to follow in a HSC gene editing clinical protocol. (
  • A single hybridizing clone contained a 3.5-kb insert with the 5′ promoter region, a 300-amino-acid (aa) ORF comprising a signal sequence, the N terminus of mature GbpB, peptide 3, and 89 amino acids more than the gene fragment reported in GenBank accession no. 4098503. (
  • The yeast component of a yeast shuttle vector includes an autonomously replicating sequence (ARS), a yeast centromere (CEN), and a yeast selectable marker (e.g. (
  • Comparative genomics based on the analysis of complete genomes of different strains of the same species can provide valuable insights into the acquisition or loss of genes through horizontal gene transfer and evolution of genes through changes at the nucleotide sequence level. (
  • The present invention is directed to an isolated polynucleotide sequence encoding a chimeric TNF.alpha. (
  • The former have a first nucleotide sequence encoding a domain or subdomain of a tumor necrosis factor ligand other than TNF.alpha. (
  • wherein the encoded domain or subdomain lacks a cleavage site, and a second nucleotide sequence encoding a domain or subdomain of native TNF.alpha. (
  • receptor, inducing activation of an immune system cell and treating neoplastic cells, by introducing into the cell of interest an isolated polynucleotide sequence encoding a chimeric TNF.alpha. (
  • Genes encoding LT ( 8 ) and cholera toxin ( 27 ) presumably have a common ancestor, since considerable amino acid and DNA sequence homologies are apparent ( 8 ). (
  • This plasmid contains elt genes of different origins which are flanked by partial IS 600 elements and a nearby complete IS 3411 sequence. (
  • 19. A two vector system in accordance with claim 18, wherein the second vector further comprises a Factor IX gene disrupting the sequence of the ROSA26 encoding homology arms. (
  • A motif of basic residues mediates binding to a consensus E-box (CANNTG) sequence present in promoters or enhancers of target genes. (
  • The genetic code stored in DNA in form of nucleotide sequence is "interpreted" by gene expression, and the properties of the expression products give rise to the organism's phenotype. (
  • A chromosomal gene with localized sequence identity to Streptococcus agalactiae rib and bca (encoding C alpha antigen) was identified from partial sequence information, and its preliminary characterization was reported ( 42 ). (
  • The transition from C to T in the SMN2 gene does not affect the sequence of amino acids but affects the splicing of exon 7, and 90% of the transcripts produced lack exon7 (SMNΔ7). (
  • c) SIN transfer vector in which expression of two genes separated by a 2A peptide sequence (2A) is directed by a single promoter. (
  • It has also been proposed that the LT genes are foreign genes which were acquired by horizontal gene transfer to form an enteropathogen ( 33 , 50 ). (
  • 7 It is now known that there are several natural mechanisms for flow of genes, or (horizontal gene transfer), and that these occur in nature on a large scale - for example, it is a major mechanism for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria, and it occurs between plant species. (
  • The patient's own white blood cells and stem cells from their blood are modified in the laboratory using genetic techniques to express a specific receptor against cancer cells. (
  • To investigate the genetic basis of olfactory modulation in mosquitoes, we assayed changes in CO 2 detection from receptor gene expression through physiological function to behaviour, associated with the onset of host seeking in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae . (
  • The gene encoding for a subunit of the CO 2 receptor, AgGr22 , was found significantly upregulated in host seeking females, consistent with a significant increase in sensitivity of CO 2 -responsive neurons (cpA) housed in capitate peg sensilla of the maxillary palp. (
  • Preclinical studies aimed at assessing efficacy and safety of ARSA gene transfer using the selected vector have been conducted in the murine model of the disease and in progenitors and mature hematopoietic cells from MLD patients. (
  • The murine Nodal gene has been described as being expressed in the mouse node during gastrulation. (
  • A retrovirally induced insertional mutation of the murine Nodal gene results in the absence of mesodermal cell types normally associated with the primitive streak, and is embryonic lethal. (
  • The term retroviral vector is used for a vector based on murine leukaemia virus. (
  • A vector has been constructed to allow genetic fusions of guest antigens via a hinge domain to the C terminus of the highly immunogenic C fragment of tetanus toxin. (
  • Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map in Man Using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms," American Journal of Human Genetics, 32(3), pp. 314-331, 1980. (
  • Genetic mutants induced by ethyl methanesulfonate in Saccharomyces. (
  • The polyglutamate system's requirement for the five cap genes, for capsulation and anchoring, was assayed in nonpolar mutants. (
  • Yeast mutants defective in one of these genes are hardly sensitive to ionizing radiation. (
  • Transgenic and gene targeted mice have contributed greatly to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying B-cell development. (
  • The efficiency of the lentiviral vector will make it easier to create transgenic animals used in studying human genetic diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's or Huntington's diseases. (
  • Dr. Curtiss also introduced use of transgenic plants as vaccine components and vectors. (
  • In addition to its use in treating HSV, this interaction is of great interest in genetic research as it is utilized in the transformation of embryonic stem cells to make transgenic test subjects (Kimball, 2005). (
  • Arrowsmith TJ, Malpartida F, Sherman DH, Birch A, Hopwood DA, Robinson JA (1992) Characterisation of actI -homologous DNA encoding polyketide synthase genes from the monensin producer Streptomyces cinnamonensis . (
  • They can also be used for in vitro experiments and modifications (e.g. mutagenesis, PCR) One of the most common types of shuttle vectors is the yeast shuttle vector . (
  • Almost all commonly used S. cerevisiae vectors are shuttle vectors. (
  • Suppression of Htt103Q toxicity in yeast gene deletion strains. (
  • b , Analysis of Htt103Q toxicity by cell viability (spotting assays) in the parental yeast strain (BY4741) and the kynurenine pathway gene deletion strains. (
  • Identification of genes controlling growth polarity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A possible role of N-glycosylation and involvement of the exocyst complex. (
  • Transformation in yeast: development of a hybrid cloning vector and isolation of the CAN1 gene. (
  • 9 Yeast Vectors" (accessed Sept. 30, 2007). (
  • Methylation, the addition of methyl groups to cytosine (C), plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression in both normal and dysfunctional cells. (
  • bacteria and gene regulation. (
  • Thus, we have defined a model system which provides an ideal paradigm for studying Ras/Raf signaling pathways and their effects on neuroendocrine cell-specific gene regulation. (
  • Our results confirmed a recently described model of the flagellar gene regulation cascade in L. pneumophila (K. Heuner and M. Steinert, Int. J. Med. (
  • Flagellar gene regulation was found to be different from that of Enterobacteriaceae but seems to be comparable to that described for Pseudomonas or Vibrio spp. (
  • For Pseudomonas aeruginosa it has been shown that σ 54 and a factor containing a σ 54 interaction domain are at the top of the cascade of flagellar gene regulation ( 2 , 7 , 8 , 25 ). (
  • In this paper we describe identification of the σ 54 factor and the transcriptional regulator FleQ and the role of this factor and this regulator in flagellar gene regulation in L. pneumophila . (
  • Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. (
  • Gene regulation may also serve as a substrate for evolutionary change, since control of the timing, location, and amount of gene expression can have a profound effect on the functions (actions) of the gene in a cell or in a multicellular organism. (
  • In addition to T. brucei, I will address studies on gene regulation in a few species of Leishmania and the results obtained by a much more limited group of laboratories studying gene expression in Trypanosoma cruzi . (
  • LT-encoding ETEC strains can be isolated from humans (LTh or LT-I) and animals (porcine LT [LTp] or LT-II) ( 2 , 40 ). (
  • Apart from the telomeric SMN1 gene, humans are unique in also having another copy of the SMN gene, the SMN2 gene [ 9 ]. (
  • Humans have two SMN genes, SMN1 and SMN2 . (
  • The first attempt at modifying human DNA was performed in 1980 by Martin Cline, but the first successful nuclear gene transfer in humans, approved by the National Institutes of Health, was performed in May 1989. (
  • Although both therapeutic microRNAs and ASOs are designed in the lab, therapeutic microRNAs are based on natural genes found in humans. (
  • This review focuses on the most recent studies regarding a subset of genes that are expressed differentially during the life cycle of three groups of parasites. (
  • DeBruyne LA, Li K, Bishop DK and Bromberg JS (2000) Gene transfer of virally encoded chemokine antagonists vMIP‐II and MC148 prolongs cardiac allograft survival and inhibits donor‐specific immunity. (
  • The engineering of virus vectors has allowed the development of gene vaccines for a wide range of infectious diseases and cancer. (
  • mRNA-based vaccines combine desirable immunological properties, excellent safety profiles, and flexibility that is not provided by genetic vaccines. (
  • The Curtiss group developed biological containment first for cloned genes and then for recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASVs) and most recently for cyanobacteria. (
  • DNA-based vaccines may be the first gene therapies to be successfully employed for the treatment or prevention of human diseases. (