A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A tentative species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS infecting primarily young chicks, but also found in turkeys, pheasants, and guinea fowl. It causes a fatal neuronal degeneration and is transmitted by mechanical contact.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus CARDIOVIRUS, family PICORNAVIRIDAE.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
A picornavirus infection producing symptoms similar to poliomyelitis in pigs.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Viruses infecting man and other vertebrates.
A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Dermatologic disorders attendant upon non-dermatologic disease or injury.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics. It is usually caused by coxsackieviruses B and sometimes by coxsackieviruses A; echoviruses; or other enteroviruses.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE causing encephalitis and myocarditis in rodents. ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS is the type species.
Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).

Genetic and phenotypic changes accompanying the emergence of epizootic subtype IC Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses from an enzootic subtype ID progenitor. (1/140)

Recent studies have indicated that epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses can evolve from enzootic, subtype ID strains that circulate continuously in lowland tropical forests (A. M. Powers, M. S. Oberste, A. C. Brault, R. Rico-Hesse, S. M. Schmura, J. F. Smith, W. Kang, W. P. Sweeney, and S. C. Weaver, J. Virol. 71:6697-6705, 1997). To identify mutations associated with the phenotypic changes leading to epizootics, we sequenced the entire genomes of two subtype IC epizootic VEE virus strains isolated during a 1992-1993 Venezuelan outbreak and four sympatric, subtype ID enzootic strains closely related to the predicted epizootic progenitor. Analysis by maximum-parsimony phylogenetic methods revealed 25 nucleotide differences which were predicted to have accompanied the 1992 epizootic emergence; 7 of these encoded amino acid changes in the nsP1, nsP3, capsid, and E2 envelope glycoprotein, and 2 were mutations in the 3' untranslated genome region. Comparisons with the genomic sequences of IAB and other IC epizootic VEE virus strains revealed that only one of the seven amino acid changes associated with the 1992 emergence, a threonine-to-methionine change at position 360 of the nsP3 protein, accompanied another VEE virus emergence event. Two changes in the E2 envelope glycoprotein region believed to include the major antigenic determinants, both involving replacement of uncharged residues with arginine, are also candidates for epizootic determinants.  (+info)

Role of interferon and interferon regulatory factors in early protection against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection. (2/140)

To investigate the role of type I interferon (IFN) and its regulatory transacting proteins, interferon regulatory factors (IRF-1 and IRF-2), in early protection against infection with virulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE), we utilized mice with targeted mutations in the IFN-alpha/beta receptor, IRF-1, or IRF-2 genes. IFN-alpha/beta-receptor knockout mice are highly susceptible to peripheral infection with virulent or attenuated VEE, resulting in their death within 24 and 48 h, respectively. Treatment of normal macrophages with anti-IFN-alpha/beta antibody prior to and during infection with molecularly cloned virulent VEE resulted in increased VEE replication. However, treatment with high doses of IFN or IFN-inducing agents failed to alter percentage mortality or average survival times in mice challenged with a low dose of virulent VEE. In IRF-1 and IRF-2 knockout mice (IRF-1(-/-) and IRF-2(-/-)), the 100% protection against virulent VEE that is conferred by attenuated VEE within 24 h in control C57BL/6 mice was completely absent in IRF-2(-/-) mice, whereas 50% of IRF-1(-/-) mice were protected. IRF-2(-/-) mice were deficient in clearing VEE virus from the spleen and the brain compared to the heterozygous IRF-2(+/-) knockout or C57BL/6 (+/+) mice. Furthermore, a distinct pattern of histopathological changes was observed in brains of IRF-2(-/-) mice after VEE exposure. Taken together, these findings imply that the altered immune response in IRF-1 and IRF-2 knockout mice results in altered virus dissemination, altered virus clearance, and altered virus-induced pathology. Thus, type I interferon, as well as IRF-1 and IRF-2, appears to play an important and necessary role in the pathogenesis of, and protection against, VEE infection.  (+info)

Geographic distribution of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IE genotypes in Central America and Mexico. (3/140)

Phylogenetic analysis of 20 strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus subtype IE isolated from 1961 to 1996 in Mexico and throughout Central America showed that VEE virus subtype IE was monophyletic with respect to other VEE virus subtypes. Nonetheless, there were at least three distinct geographically separated VEE virus IE genotypes: northwestern Panama, Pacific coast (Mexico/Guatemala), and Gulf/Caribbean coast (Mexico/Belize). Strains from the Caribbean coast of Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua may cluster with the Gulf/Caribbean genotype, but additional isolates from the region between Guatemala and Panama will be required to firmly establish their phylogenetic position. Viruses associated with two separate equine epizootics in Mexico in the 1990s were phylogenetically related to nonepizootic viruses from neighboring Guatemala and may represent the emergence or re-emergence of equine-virulent VEE virus subtype IE in Middle America.  (+info)

Limited potential for mosquito transmission of genetically engineered, live-attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vaccine candidates. (4/140)

In an attempt to improve the current live-attenuated vaccine (TC-83) for Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), specific mutations associated with attenuation of VEE virus in rodent models were identified. These mutations were inserted into full-length cDNA clones of the Trinidad donkey strain of VEE virus by site-directed mutagenesis, and isogenic virus strains with these mutations were recovered after transfection of baby hamster kidney cells with infectious RNA. We evaluated 10 of these strains for their ability to replicate in and be transmitted by Aedes taeniorhynchus, a natural vector of epizootic VEE virus. Two vaccine candidates, one containing a deletion of the PE2 furin cleavage site, the other a combination of three separate point mutations in the E2 glycoprotein, replicated in mosquitoes and were transmitted to hamsters significantly less efficiently than was either parental (wild type) VEE virus or TC-83 virus. Although the attenuated strains were transmitted to hamsters by mosquitoes, after intrathoracic inoculation, there was no evidence of reversion to a virulent phenotype. The mutations that resulted in less efficient replication in, or transmission by, mosquitoes should enhance vaccine safety and reduce the possibility of environmental spread to unintentional hosts.  (+info)

Association of Tonate virus (subtype IIIB of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex) with encephalitis in a human. (5/140)

Tonate virus, subtype IIIB of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex, was first isolated in 1973 in French Guiana, South America. However, very little is known about its pathogenicity; it was considered to be responsible for only mild dengue-like syndromes. In 1998, a 2-month-old boy living along the Oyapock river in French Guiana was hospitalized for fever and generalized status myoclonus, and despite treatment the patient died 72 h after admission. Testing showed the presence of IgM specific for viruses of the VEE complex. A sensitive seminested polymerase chain reaction derived from a previous study was developed to detect viruses from the VEE complex, since no virus could be recovered from clinical specimens cultured on mosquito cells or from intracerebral inoculation into newborn mice. The genome of a virus from the VEE complex was detected in postmortem brain biopsies, and Tonate virus was identified by direct sequencing. This is the first reported case of human encephalitis due to Tonate virus.  (+info)

Role of dendritic cell targeting in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus pathogenesis. (6/140)

The initial steps of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) spread from inoculation in the skin to the draining lymph node have been characterized. By using green fluorescent protein and immunocytochemistry, dendritic cells in the draining lymph node were determined to be the primary target of VEE infection in the first 48 h following inoculation. VEE viral replicon particles, which can undergo only one round of infection, identified Langerhans cells to be the initial set of cells infected by VEE directly following inoculation. These cells are resident dendritic cells in the skin, which migrate to the draining lymph node following activation. A point mutation in the E2 glycoprotein gene of VEE that renders the virus avirulent and compromises its ability to spread beyond the draining lymph blocked the appearance of virally infected dendritic cells in the lymph node in vivo. A second-site suppressor mutation that restores viral spread to lymphoid tissues and partially restore virulence likewise restored the ability of VEE to infect dendritic cells in vivo.  (+info)

A single-site mutant and revertants arising in vivo define early steps in the pathogenesis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. (7/140)

The early stages of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) pathogenesis in the mouse model have been examined using a genetic approach. Disease progression of a molecularly cloned single-site mutant was compared with that of the parental virus to determine the step in the VEE pathogenetic sequence at which the mutant was blocked. Assuming that such a block constitutes a genetic screen, isolates from different tissues thought to be distal to the block in the VEE pathogenetic sequence were analyzed to determine the pathogenetic step at which revertants of the mutant were selected. Directed mutation and analysis of reversion in vivo provide two powerful genetic tools for the dissection of the wild-type VEE pathogenetic sequence. Virus from the parental virulent clone, V3000, first replicated in the draining lymph node after subcutaneous inoculation in the left rear footpad. Movement of a cloned avirulent mutant, V3010 (E2 76 Glu to Lys), to the draining lymph node was impaired, replication in the node was delayed, and spread beyond the draining lymph node was sporadic. Serum, contralateral lymph node, spleen, and brain isolates from V3010 inoculated animals were invariably revertant with respect to sequence at E2 76 and/or virulence in mice. Revertants isolated from serum and contralateral lymph node retained the V3010 E2 Lys 76 mutation but also contained a second-site mutation, Glu to Lys at E2 116. Modification of the V3010 clone by addition of the second-site mutation at E2 116 produced a virus that bypassed the V3010 block at the draining lymph node but that did not possess full wild-type capacity for replication in the central nervous system or for induction of mortality. A control construct containing only the E2 116 reverting mutation on the V3000 background was identical to V3000 in terms of early pathogenetic steps and virulence. Therefore, analysis of mutant replication and reversion in vivo suggested (1) that the earliest steps in VEE pathogenesis are transit to the draining lymph node and replication at that site, (2) that the mutation in V3010 impairs transit to the draining lymph node and blocks dissemination to other tissues, and (3) that reversion can overcome the block without restoring full virulence.  (+info)

Pegylated alpha interferon is an effective treatment for virulent venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and has profound effects on the host immune response to infection. (8/140)

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a highly infectious alphavirus endemic in parts of Central and South America. The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes, and the natural reservoir is the small rodent population, with epidemics occurring in horses and occasionally humans. Following infection, VEEV replicates in lymphoid tissues prior to invasion of the central nervous system. Treatment of VEEV-infected BALB/c mice with polyethylene glycol-conjugated alpha interferon (PEG IFN-alpha) results in a greatly enhanced survival from either a subcutaneous or an aerosol infection. Virus is undetectable within PEG IFN-alpha-treated individuals by day 30 postinfection (p.i.). Treatment results in a number of changes to the immune response characteristics normally associated with VEEV infection. Increased macrophage activation occurs in PEG IFN-alpha-treated BALB/c mice infected with VEEV. The rapid activation of splenic CD4, CD8, and B cells by day 2 p.i. normally associated with VEEV infection is absent in PEG IFN-alpha-treated mice. The high tumor necrosis factor alpha production by macrophages from untreated mice is greatly diminished in PEG IFN-alpha-treated mice. These results suggest key immunological mechanisms targeted by this lethal alphavirus that can be modulated by prolonged exposure to IFN-alpha.  (+info)

The VEEV virus strains designated enzootic are those belonging the ID and IE varieties. The reasons for excluding ID and IE VEEVs from the select agent list are: (1) No subtype ID and IE VEEV have ever been documented to cause large equine epizootics; (2) While ID strains are the ancestral forms of the IC variety, inclusion of ID viruses because they might be precursors to IC viruses is not sufficient justification for making ID viruses select agents. The possibility of a ID virus mutating to a IC virus following a bioterrorism event is unlikely because ID viruses are unlikely to establish epidemic or epizootic transmission cycles in the U.S. Natural transmission cycles requiring specific mosquito vectors would likely be needed for any evolution from ID to IC to occur in nature in the US; and (3) The currently available humanized or human anti-VEEV monoclonal antibodies that could be produced for emergency use could also have prophylactic, and possibly therapeutic efficacy for all VEEV subtype 1 ...
Abstract The histopathology of fatal Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) in humans has not been well documented. To evaluate the spectrum of disease in man, the histologic slides of the 21 autopsied patients who died with documented VEE infection during the 1962-63 VEE epidemic in Zulia, Venezuela were reviewed. The main histopathologic lesion observed in multiple organs and tissues, especially the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs, was moderate to marked diffuse congestion and edema with hemorrhage. In the central nervous system (CNS), mild or focal mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates were present in the leptomeninges and perivascular spaces (65%). Meningoencephalitis associated with intense necrotizing vasculitis was observed in 2 patients (10%), and cerebritis was observed in 5 cases (25%). There was a striking depletion of lymphocytes with vascular thrombosis and necrosis of follicles in lymph nodes (77%), spleen (69%), and the gastrointestinal tract (90%). Widespread hepatocellular
Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus was isolated in 1993, 1994, and 1995 from human cases of acute, undifferentiated, febrile illness in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Two virus isolates were recovered in 1994 from Peruvian soldiers at a jungle outpost near Pantoja in northern Peru, and 10 isolates were obtained from military personnel and civilians in 1993-1995 in Iquitos, an urban center in northeastern Peru. The genetic relationship of these isolates to other VEE virus strains was determined by sequencing 856-867 nucleotide reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction fragments derived from the PE2 glycoprotein gene. The sequences were compared with those of other VEE virus strains, including representatives of the IAB, IC, ID, IE, II, and IIIC subtypes. The two Pantoja isolates were most closely related to subtype IC and ID viruses previously isolated in Colombia and Venezuela, and to the ID viruses isolated during the 1970s in Iquitos. All of the recent Iquitos isolates were similar to one
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution and spread of Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphavirus in the Americas. AU - Forrester, Naomi L.. AU - Wertheim, Joel O.. AU - Dugan, Vivian G.. AU - Auguste, Albert J.. AU - Lin, David. AU - Adams, A. Paige. AU - Chen, Rubing. AU - Gorchakov, Rodion. AU - Leal, Grace. AU - Estrada-Franco, Jose G.. AU - Pandya, Jyotsna. AU - Halpin, Rebecca A.. AU - Hari, Kumar. AU - Jain, Ravi. AU - Stockwell, Timothy B.. AU - Das, Suman R.. AU - Wentworth, David E.. AU - Smith, Martin D.. AU - Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.. AU - Weaver, Scott C.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2017 The Library of Science. All Rights Reserved. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2017/8. Y1 - 2017/8. N2 - Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphaviruses are important re-emerging arboviruses that cause life-threatening disease in equids during epizootics as well as spillover human infections. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of VEE complex alphaviruses by ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an emerging arboviral pathogen that affects the Americas. Outbreaks can involve hundreds- of- thousands of equines and humans, spread over large geographic regions, and can last several years. The principal vector in most major coastal outbreaks is the mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus. This species is more susceptible to most epidemic than to enzootic strains, and the adaptation of VEEV to this vector may be an important determinant of epidemic transmission. However, studies on the infection, dissemination, and transmission of VEEV regarding this important vector are lacking. \r\nThe major determinant of Ae. taeniorhynchus infection with VEEV is the E2 envelope glycoprotein, which interacts with cellular receptors. I therefore hypothesized that differential interactions of VEEV with receptors on midgut epithelial cells determine the ability of a representative epidemic versus a representative enzootic strain to infect this mosquito. In support of this ...
Quantifying the dose of an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes is essential for designing pathogenesis studies simulating natural infection of vertebrates. Titration of saliva collected in vitro from infected mosquitoes may not accurately estimate titers transmitted during blood feeding, and infection by needle injection may affect vertebrate pathogenesis. We compared the amount of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus collected from the saliva of Aedes taeniorhynchus to the amount injected into a mouse during blood feeding. Less virus was transmitted by mosquitoes in vivo (geometric mean 11 PFU) than was found for comparable times of salivation in vitro (mean saliva titer 74 PFU). We also observed slightly lower early and late viremia titers in mice that were needle injected with 8 PFU, which represents the low end of the in vivo transmission range. No differences in survival were detected, regardless of the dose or infection route.
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Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus that is naturally transmitted through mosquito vectors resulting in human infections. This virus is classified as a category B pathogen and a select agent as it is highly infectious and retains infectivity when transmitted as an aerosol. There is currently no therapeutic or vaccine candidate that is available to the civilian population for the treatment of VEEV exposures. With the ability of viruses to develop resistance to antiviral strategies that target viral components, it will be of strategic value to target specific host proteins to inhibit the viral life-cycle. Such host-based therapeutic candidates are also likely to find broad spectrum applicability in the treatment of infections by of other viral pathogens in addition to VEEV that employ the same host-based candidates. We show that inhibition of host kinases, AP2-associated protein kinase 1 (AAK1) and cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK), associated with ...
Induction and Characterization of Immune Responses in Small Animals Using a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEE) Replicon System, Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Envelope ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endemic Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in Northern Peru. AU - Aguilar, Patricia V.. AU - Greene, Ivorlyne P.. AU - Schneider, Lark L. AU - Medina, Gladys. AU - Moncayo, Abelardo C.. AU - Anishchenko, Michael. AU - Ludwig, George V.. AU - Turell, Michael J.. AU - OGuinn, Monica L.. AU - Lee, John. AU - Tesh, Robert B.. AU - Watts, Douglas M.. AU - Russell, Kevin L.. AU - Hice, Christine. AU - Yanoviak, Stephen. AU - Morrison, Amy C.. AU - Klein, Terry A.. AU - Dohm, David J.. AU - Guzman, Hilda. AU - Travassos Da Rosa, Amelia P A. AU - Guevara, Carolina. AU - Kochel, Tadeusz. AU - Olson, James. AU - Cabezas, Cesar. AU - Weaver, Scott C.. PY - 2004/5. Y1 - 2004/5. N2 - Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, ,70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a ...
COPENHAGEN, Denmark, January 24, 2019 - Bavarian Nordic A/S (OMX: BAVA, OTC: BVNRY) reports further progress in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against the equine encephalitis virus - a rare, but potentially deadly illness. The program, which is funded by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Project Management Office for Medical Countermeasure Systems (JPM-MCS) through a multi-year agreement of up to USD 36 million, aims to develop a vaccine against three separate strains of the equine encephalitis virus, Eastern (EEEV), Venezuelan (VEEV), and Western (WEEV), for which there are currently no preventative vaccines available. The vaccine is based on Bavarian Nordics proprietary, poxviral MVA-BN® platform, which due to its large genome is able to encode multiple antigens, thus providing the potential to protect against multiple diseases. Since award of the contract in March 2018, Bavarian Nordic has received incremental funding to support the preclinical development, GMP ...
The U.S. and Soviet Union both weaponized Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis during the Cold War, prompting VEEV to be added to the Select Agent list.
a. Clinical Syndrome. (1) Characteristics. Eight serologically distinct viruses belonging to the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex have been associated with human disease; the most important of these pathogens are designated subtype 1, variants A, B and C. These agents also cause severe disease in horses, mules, and donkeys (Equidae). Natural infections are acquired by…
The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential antibody escape mutations identified. The specific aims of this study were as follows: Aim 1: Generate mutant virus stocks containing the identified ...
Read Role of angiotensin II in experimental Venezuelan equine encephalitis in rats, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In 1993, an outbreak of encephalitis among 125 affected equids in coastal Chiapas, Mexico, resulted in a 50% case-fatality rate. The outbreak was attributed to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE, not previously associated with equine disease and death. To better understand the ecology of this VEEV strain in Chiapas, we experimentally infected 5 species of wild rodents and evaluated their competence as reservoir and amplifying hosts. Rodents from 1 species (Baiomys musculus) showed signs of disease and died by day 8 postinoculation. Rodents from the 4 other species (Liomys salvini, Oligoryzomys fulvescens, Oryzomys couesi, and Sigmodon hispidus) became viremic but survived and developed neutralizing antibodies, indicating that multiple species may contribute to VEEV maintenance. By infecting numerous rodent species and producing adequate viremia, VEEV may increase its chances of long-term persistence in nature and could increase risk for establishment in disease-endemic areas ...
REFERENCES 1. Figueiredo LT. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2007; 40:224-229. [ Links ] 2. Figueiredo ML, Figueiredo LT. Emerging alphaviruses in the Americas: Chikungunya and Mayaro. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop2014; 47:677-683. [ Links ] 3. Ortiz DI, Kang W, Weaver SC. Susceptibility of Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epidemic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtypes ID, IIIC, IIID) Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphaviruses. J Med Entomol 2008; 45:1117-1125. [ Links ] 4. Aitken TH, Anderson CR. Virus transmission studies with Trinidadian mosquitoes II. Further observations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1959; 8:41-45. [ Links ] 5. Alencar CHM, Albuquerque LM, Aquino TMF, Soares CB, Ramos Júnior AN, Lima JWO, et al. Potencialidades do Aedes albopictus como vetor de arboviroses no Brasil: um desafio para a atenção primária. Rev APS 2008; 11:459-467. [ Links ] 6. Vasconcelos PFC, Travassos da Rosa APA, Pinheiro FP, Shope RE, Travassos da Rosa JFS, Rodrigues SG, et ...
Definition of Venezuelan bolívar in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Venezuelan bolívar? Meaning of Venezuelan bolívar as a finance term. What does Venezuelan bolívar mean in finance?
Venezuelan Canadians are Canadian citizens of Venezuelan descent or a Venezuela-born person who resides in Canada. Venezuelan Canadians are one of more than ten Latino groups in Canada. The first Venezuelan immigrants came to Canada in the 1960s, but more than half arrived after the Venezuelan general strike of 2002-2003. Montreal, Quebec, with about 2,000, has the largest number, but in recent years, more and more families, now about 150, have settled in Calgary, Alberta[2] and Edmonton, Alberta. Smaller communities are found in Toronto, Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario and Vancouver, British Columbia.. ...
Definition of Venezuelan box in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Venezuelan box? Meaning of Venezuelan box as a finance term. What does Venezuelan box mean in finance?
Naiguatá sank following its purposeful ramming of the polar ice class cruise liner RCGS Resolute while in international waters on 30 March 2020.[10][11] According to RCGS Resolutes owner, the Coast Guard ship had fired shots[11] and ordered the cruise ship to follow it to Margarita Island, a Venezuelan harbour.[12] Naiguatá sank following the ramming, with RCGS Resolute informing the international Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre (MRCC) of the incident and offering assistance. After staying in the area for an hour, RCGS Resolute was informed through MRCC that assistance was not required as Naiguatás crew had been rescued by the Venezuelan Navy.[13]. Venezuelan president Nicolás Maduro accused the captain of the cruise ship of piracy and terrorism,[14] adding later that he did not rule out that RCGS Resolute was carrying mercenaries to attack onshore military bases.[15][16] The Venezuelan minister of defence said RCGS Resolutes action was an act of imperial ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV) are responsible for human diseases in the Americas, producing severe or mild illness with symptoms indistinguishable from dengue and other arboviral diseases. For this reason ...
Type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) have critical roles in inhibiting virus replication and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the molecular basis of restriction by ISGs, the antiviral mechanisms of many remain unclear. The 20 kDa ISG, ISG20, is a nuclear 3-5 exonuclease with preference for ssRNA, which has been implicated in the IFN-mediated restriction of several RNA viruses. While the exonuclease activity of ISG20 has been shown to degrade viral RNA in vitro, these findings have not been reconciled with proposed effects of ISG20 against RNA viruses that replicate in the cell cytoplasm. In the present study, we utilize a combination of an inducible, overexpression system for murine ISG20 and Isg20-/- mice to investigate mechanisms and consequences of ISG20-mediated restriction of alphaviruses. Overexpressed ISG20 primarily localized to Cajal bodies in the nucleus and potently restricted chikungunya virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replication by ...
Ichor Medical Systems Inc (Ichor) is a medical equipment company that commercializes electroporation technology for the delivery of vaccines and DNA drugs. The company electroporation technology is used for the treatment and prevention of debilitating diseases. Its trigrid provides DNA drugs and vaccines for melanoma, malaria, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, influenza, and for other disease. Ichors proprietary platform, TriGrid delivery system uses electrical fields to enhance DNA drug delivery capability by up to thousand fold compared to conventional injection. The company also offers clinical trials for developing products to treat diseases such as HIV, melanoma, malaria, HBV, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, breast cancer, and others. Ichor is headquartered in San Diego, California, the US.. Ichor Medical Systems Inc-Pharmaceuticals & Healthcare-Deals and ...
A postdoctoral position is available immediately to study the interactions between mosquito-borne viruses and their hosts, with particular focus on productive versus abortive interactions of eastern and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses with host cells and tissues and the effect of such interactions on cell responses and disease. The candidate should have a PhD degree and be familiar with basic techniques in molecular biology, cell biology and immunology. Research experience in RNA virology, immunology, viral pathogenesis and/or signal transduction is highly desirable. Individuals with experience working in BSL-3 containment are particularly encouraged to apply. Candidates must be authorized to work in the United States and will be required to obtain Department of Justice security clearance for work with Select Agents and Toxins, as required by Federal regulation. Interested individuals should submit a letter of application, curriculum vitae, and the name, address, e-mail and telephone ...
Schroeder CE, Yao TL, Sotsky J, Smith RA, Roy S, Chu YK, Guo HX, Tower NA, Noah JW, McKellip S, et al. Development of (E)-2-((1,4-Dimethylpiperazin-2-ylidene)amino)-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide , ML336: Novel 2-Amidinophenylbenzamides as Potent Inhibitors of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 ;57:8608-8621. ...
Schroeder CE, Yao TL, Sotsky J, Smith RA, Roy S, Chu YK, Guo HX, Tower NA, Noah JW, McKellip S, et al. Development of (E)-2-((1,4-Dimethylpiperazin-2-ylidene)amino)-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide , ML336: Novel 2-Amidinophenylbenzamides as Potent Inhibitors of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 ;57:8608-8621. ...
Exclusive Distribution by Biotecnologia3000 Will Generate Innovative Foods & Beverages. CLEVELAND, OH (October 15, 2013) -- Ganeden, a recognized world leader in the manufacturing and marketing of probiotics, announced today that GanedenBC30 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) is the first Bacillus coagulans to be approved by the Venezuelan Popular Power Ministry of Health for Food Applications, and will now be available in Venezuela as a result of an exclusive distribution partnership with Biotecnologia 3000 C.A.. The new relationship will provide Ganeden access to leading Venezuelan food and beverage manufacturers, while leveraging the extensive knowledge and experience that Biotecnologia3000 has with the Venezuelan market.. We are focused on expanding globally by establishing a strong foundation with partners who understand the importance of health and wellness, said Michael Bush, Ganedens VP of Business Development. Venezuela is a major player in the South American region of Latin America. ...
Venezuelan manufacturers and suppliers of emergency from around the world. Panjiva uses over 30 international data sources to help you find qualified vendors of Venezuelan emergency.
The Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana is the first full scientific account of a botanically rich and geologically ancient part of South America. The Venezuelan Guayana lies in the center of the Guayana Shield and is dominated by massive table mountains known as tepuis. From these imposing mountains fall the highest waterfalls in the world, such as Angel Falls on Auyán-tepui. It is a region of great beauty, still largely pristine, which includes other diverse habitats such as the swamps of the Orinoco Delta, the upland Gran Sabana, large extensions of lowland tropical forest, and the peculiar white-sand savannas and shrublands of the upper Río Negro. More information about the geography, history, vegetation, and conservation issues can be found in a summary of Volume 1. Botanical explorations in the Guayana Shield region have resulted in the recognition of hundreds of new species, dozens of new genera, and several new families of plants, many of them only known to occur there. Volumes 2 through 9 ...
Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro offered chocolate and little else at a meeting on Nov. 13 with investors holding some 60 billion dollars in Venezuelan junk bonds. The offer failed to appease lenders.
Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez has beaten his respiratory infection and his recovery continues to be favourable, the Venezuelan government has reported.
The Office of the Kentucky State Veterinarian reports that during the second week in June, government officials in Panama reported two confirmed equine cases of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE). The report cited two deceased hors
Yesterdays illegitimate elections confirm that Maduro is a dictator who disregards the will of the Venezuelan people, Mnuchin said.
U.S. prosecutors are investigating several high-ranking Venezuelan officials on suspicion that they have turned the country into a global hub for cocaine trafficking and money laundering.
Opposition leaders deridedanother currency devaluation by President Hugo Chavezsgovernment as evidence of economic incompetence, while someanxious Venezuelans packed stores in fear of price increases.
Venezuelan supermarkets are seeing shortages of certain products, and government and the private sector are arguing over the cause as the absence of president Hugo Chavez sows political instability.
Venezuelan President Hugo Chavezs staunch ally Diosdado Cabello was re-elected as head of the National Assembly Saturday, with the possibility of him becoming the caretaker president if Chavez cannot be sworn in for his new term Thursday, Jan.10.
A quick , refreshing and , at the same time, deep and insightful look to an almost recent and growing phenomenon, that is taking place in what once was a rich and promising country.
Steyermark, J.A.; Berry, P.E.; Yatskievych, K. & H., Bruce K. (eds.) (1997) Martinella. In: Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana (Vol. 3 Araliaceae-Cactaceae). [1] ...
The Canadian branch of the Motley Fool has been pitching a cloud computing stock that they say is breaking out right now, and the spiel is all about the next transition in cloud computing, from general cloud services to those that are specifically designed for one industry or customer group. So whats the stock? Well, […]. ...
Eesti Teadusinfosüsteem koondab informatsiooni teadus- ja arendusasutuste, teadlaste, teadusprojektide ning erinevate teadustegevuste tulemuste kohta.
Venezuelan equine encephalitis pathogen (VEEV) represents a continuing general public health threat in america. this may play a crucial role in the Molidustat power from the computer virus to build up a persistent, life-long contamination in mosquito vectors. These results demonstrate a fresh facet of VEEV-host cell relationships, as well as the results of the study tend applicable to additional NEW WORLD alphaviruses, such as for example eastern and traditional western equine encephalitis infections. (VEEV) is an associate from the genus within the family members. It circulates constantly in Central, South, and THE UNITED STATES and comes with an ability to trigger fatal Molidustat disease in human beings and horses. Alongside some other NEW WORLD alphaviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis computer virus (EEEV) and traditional western equine encephalitis computer virus (WEEV), VEEV represents a significant public health danger in america (47, 60-62). Infections within the VEEV ...
The encephalitogenic New World alphaviruses, including Venezuelan (VEEV), eastern (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis viruses, constitute a continuing public health threat in the United States. They circulate in Central, South, and North America and have the ability to cause fatal disease in humans and in horses and other domestic animals. We recently demonstrated that these viruses have developed the ability to interfere with cellular transcription and use it as a means of downregulating a cellular antiviral response. The results of the present study suggest that the N-terminal, ∼35-amino-acid-long peptide of VEEV and EEEV capsid proteins plays the most critical role in the downregulation of cellular transcription and development of a cytopathic effect. The identified VEEV-specific peptide CVEE33-68 includes two domains with distinct functions: the α-helix domain, helix I, which is critically involved in supporting the balance between the presence of the protein in the cytoplasm and ...
1. Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Joel Bozue CKC, Pamela J. Glass, editor: The Borden Institute, U.S. Army Medical Department Government Printing Office; 2018 August 1, 2018.. 2. Casals J, Buckley SM, Barry DW. Resistance to arbovirus challenge in mice immediately after vaccination. Appl Microbiol. 1973;25(5):755-62. Epub 1973/05/01. 4577178. 3. Baker EF Jr., Sasso DR, Maness K, Prichard WD, Parker RL. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis vaccine (strain TC-83): a field study. Am J Vet Res. 1978;39(10):1627-31. 717877.. 4. Cox HR, Olitsky PK. Active Immunization of Guinea Pigs with the Virus of Equine Encephalomyelitis: Iii. Quantitative Studies of Serum Antiviral Bodies in Animals Immunized with Active and Inactive Virus. J Exp Med. 1936;64(2):217-22. Epub 1936/07/31. doi: 10.1084/jem.64.2.217 19870531. 5. Morgan IM. Influence of Age on Susceptibility and on Immune Response of Mice to Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus. J Exp Med. 1941;74(2):115-32. Epub 1941/07/31. doi: ...
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Analysis of the CFTR gene in Venezuelan cystic fibrosis patients, identification of six novel cystic fibrosis-causing genetic variants Karen Sánchez,1 Elizabeth de Mendonca,1 Xiorama Matute,2 Ismenia Chaustre,2 Marlene Villalón,3 Howard Takiff4 1Unit of Genetic and Forensic Studies, Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), 2Hospital JM de los Ríos, 3Hospital José Ignacio Baldo, Algodonal, National Reference Unit, 4Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), Caracas, Venezuela. Abstract: The mutations in the CFTR gene found in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have geographic differences, but there are scant data on their prevalence in Venezuelan patients. This study determined the frequency of common CFTR gene mutations in a group of Venezuelan patients with CF. The 27 exons of the CFTR gene from 110 Venezuelan patients in the National CF Program were amplified and sequenced. A total of 36 different mutations were
##VEEV MARMOSET MODEL## Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a potentially re-emerging pathogen that has been responsible for several epizootics and epidemics. VEEV is also of interest due to its high infectivity when aerosolized, and its
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes acute hemorrhagic fever that is fatal in up to 90% of cases in both humans and nonhuman primates. No vaccines or treatments are available for human use. We evaluated the effects in nonhuman primates of vaccine strategies that had protected mice or guinea pigs from lethal EBOV infection. The following immunogens were used: RNA replicon particles derived from an attenuated strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) expressing EBOV glycoprotein and nucleoprotein; recombinant Vaccinia virus expressing EBOV glycoprotein; liposomes containing lipid A and inactivated EBOV; and a concentrated, inactivated whole-virion preparation. None of these strategies successfully protected nonhuman primates from robust challenge with EBOV. The disease observed in primates differed from that in rodents, suggesting that rodent models of EBOV may not predict the efficacy of candidate vaccines in primates and that protection of primates may require different mechanisms.
Stanford University scientists think a newly improved drug might help fight off viruses causing Ebola, dengue and Zika among others. Attempts to destroy viruses, including common cold viruses have failed up until now. Scientists at Stanford decided to solve this problem from a different angle by boosting the human bodys ability to resist the virus rather than directly fighting the virus. This work was published in Nature Chemical Biology. This approach has worked, in a lab dish at least, with a drug that fights two disease-causing viruses and potentially many more. Chaitan Khosla, a professor of chemistry and of chemical engineering who was one of the senior authors on the paper said, the drug could be effective against viruses that use RNA instead of DNA as their genetic material. Most of the really nasty viruses use RNA, Khosla said, including Ebola, dengue, Zika and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a mosquito-borne virus which infects horses but can also kill people. In ...
Stanford University scientists think a newly improved drug might help fight off viruses causing Ebola, dengue and Zika among others. Attempts to destroy viruses, including common cold viruses have failed up until now. Scientists at Stanford decided to solve this problem from a different angle by boosting the human bodys ability to resist the virus rather than directly fighting the virus. This work was published in Nature Chemical Biology. This approach has worked, in a lab dish at least, with a drug that fights two disease-causing viruses and potentially many more. Chaitan Khosla, a professor of chemistry and of chemical engineering who was one of the senior authors on the paper said, the drug could be effective against viruses that use RNA instead of DNA as their genetic material. Most of the really nasty viruses use RNA, Khosla said, including Ebola, dengue, Zika and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a mosquito-borne virus which infects horses but can also kill people. In ...
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What do you think of the Venezuela-Cuba collaboration?. The Venezuela-Cuba collaboration is based on human needs and not on profits. It is a beautiful example of international solidarity. This was a very heartening experience to witness first hand. It is well known that the Venezuelan government did not get a satisfactory response in 2003 when it appealed to the Venezuelan medical community to work in medically underserved areas in the country. The Cuban medical professionals on the other hand volunteered to be part of the humanitarian mission to deliver care to remote parts of Venezuela where doctors previously had seldom set foot. It is also well known that the Venezuelan government has been helping Cuba with its oil needs. There are more than 25,000 Cuban health professionals and about 10,500 Venezuelan health care professionals in the Barrio Adentro program. Recent statistics indicate 12,272 Cuban doctors and 1,935 Venezuelan doctors in the program.. I had the opportunity to tour a ...
Grieder will oversee the divisions grantmaking which exceeded $176 million in FY 2004 to support the 8 national primate research centers and their field stations, primate breeding and resource-related projects, development of mammalian and nonmammalian animal model resources, pre- and post-doctoral training and a variety of research projects. Since 1993, Grieder has been on the faculty and has conducted research at the medical school of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Her areas of expertise include viral-induced neuroimmunology and neurodegeneration, emerging viral threats and the molecular genetics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus, which is on the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions list of biowarfare agents ...
CV: PDF. Dr. Amy Vittor studies factors that drive the emergence of vector-borne diseases. She conducted her doctorate on malaria and deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon, showing that a strong positive association exists between the abundance of malaria vectors and anthropogenic land use change. During her medical training, she treated patients with HIV and tuberculosis in Botswana, Kenya and Panama, and conducted malaria bed net implementation research in a United Nations Millennium Village in Ethiopia with the Earth Institute at Columbia University. Driven by a desire to better understand why arboviruses emerge where and when they do, she turned her attention to arboviral transmission. She studied dengue epidemiology in Kenya with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Nairobi as a Fogarty International Clinical Fellow, and subsequently moved to Panama to examine the epidemiology of Venezuelan equine encephalitis and the emergent Madariaga encephalitis.. At present, her research ...
President Trump has signed an Executive Order limiting the Venezuelan governments access to the U.S. financial system. The new sanctions are the latest in a quick succession of U.S. sanctions measures issued in response to the deteriorating political situation in Venezuela. Notably, while previous U.S. sanctions directives targeted specific Venezuelan individuals and entities only, the new sanctions, for the first time, target the Venezuelan government and the Venezuelan state oil company, Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA).
Venezuelan refugee César has been deaf mute since birth. But a fast-food firm in Colombia looked beyond the challenges he faces.
Discussion. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is located on the Northern coast of South America; it covers 916,445km2 and has a population of 29,105,362 inhabitants, of which 2,903,285 are concentrated in the capital city, Santiago de León de Caracas.1 The city is comprised of five municipalities: Chacao, Sucre, El Hatillo, Baruta and Libertador. The HGO-BMFS is located in the north-western area of the city, in the district of Sucre. This district is subdivided into 13 sectors, one of which is Los Magallanes de Catia, hence the name of the hospital: Hospital de los Magallanes de Catia. Its construction was initiated by President Raul Leoni in 1968 and it was inaugurated by President Rafael Caldera in 1973.2. According to the Venezuelan Statistical Office, by 20011 the Sucre district had 352,040 inhabitants, of which 182,106 were females and 164,934 were males. The age of this population was between 15 and 60 years, with this range comprising at least 230,658 inhabitants.1,3. As for ...
The Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) on Friday called off next weeks meeting of its 48 member countries in China after Beijing refused to allow a representative of Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaido to attend, two sources with knowledge of the matter said. The decision was made in Washington on Friday at a meeting of the executive board of the IADB, Latin Americas largest development lender, after China refused to change its position, the sources said. The board would vote within 30 days to reschedule the annual meeting for another date and location, they said. On Thursday, the US threatened to derail the meeting
After two decades of sewing jackets and school uniforms, Venezuelan clothing designers Stalina Svieykowsky and Nelson Jimenez this month revamped their operations to make the country
Edward Simon: Venezuelan Suite jazz review by Angelo Leonardi, published on March 31, 2014. Find thousands reviews at All About Jazz!
Venezuelans took to the streets across their country to protest their government in what was dubbed the mother of all marches, leaving three people dead.
Looking for better living conditions and fleeing crisis in their country, thousands of Venezuelans are emigrating to Brazil in growing numbers.
When Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez died on Tuesday, schools were shut for seven days, his body lay in state at the Military Academy in Caracas, and supporters were called on to dress in the three colors of the Venezuelan flag. For 15 years, Chavez has been nearly synonymous with Venezuelas identity
The U.S. government on Thursday indicted Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro and more than a dozen other top Venezuelan officials on charges of narco-terrorism, the latest escalation of the Trump administrations pressure campaign aimed at ousting the socialist leader. The State Department
The case is one of several in which US prosecutors have linked individuals tied to Nicolas Maduros government to drug trafficking
The once impressive medical system has crumbled dramatically in Venezuelas ongoing crisis. Measles is resurgent; HIV patients arent getting drugs. Even catheters are in short supply.
Troops loyal to President Nicolas Maduro violently drove back foreign aid convoys from Venezuelas border on Saturday, killing two protesters and prompting opposition leader Juan Guaido to propose that...
Hospitals in Venezuela are rapidly decaying with a lack of resources such as medicine, endangering the lives of sick patients. CNNs Paula Newton reports.
BALTIMORE, Dec. 9, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Profectus BioSciences, Inc., a clinical-stage vaccine company developing innovative vaccines for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases and the...
Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaidos faltering efforts to oust President Nicolas Maduro are facing a new challenge in the form of an influence-peddling scandal that has left disillusioned Venezuelans wondering if Guaidos moment has passed. Guaido on Sunday said the opposition-controlled congress would investigate alleged ... ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM A92.2 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Vieja yo?: The Venezuelan soap played with this. Margot, is a HouseWife just turned 50 who has tried to be an actress for years, and thanks to her skills she ends fronting for an old man to discover who are the really truthful people in his company. Everybody keeps calling old hag (even her very unfaithful husband and her three kids), and everybody around treats her like she was truly an hideous old prune. Of course, she is interpreted by [[http://www.notas.com/html/html/Vieja%20yo%203%20MIMI%20LAZO%20Y%20ADRIAN%20DELGADO%204.JPG Mimi Lazo]], who is the Venezuelan poster lady for GrandmaWhatMassiveHotnessYouHave, and all the calling out is put in the mouth of people who are either envious of her luck and/or looks, or far older and uglier -- people who has other reasons to dislike her and just use the old hag card to hurt her. Unluckily, her younger {{Love Interest,s}} fell into the InformedAttractiveness, as he gained weight during the soap and put in clothing too formal for the poor man ...
On lattendait...le voilà!!! Pendant 6 mois, nos producteurs fromagers mont accueillie dans leur quotidien, une richesse que je souhaite aujourdhui vous partager à travers ce court-métrage. Un GRAND MERCI à tous ces producteurs pour leur accueil généreux mais aussi pour préserver par leur travail de précieux savoir-faire. MERCI aussi à vous qui mavez soutenu tout au long de ce beau périple. Enfin MERCI à Guillaume JUIN pour la réalisation de ce court-métrage que je vous laisse maintenant découvrir... Nhésitez pas à votre tour à le partager sur les réseaux sociaux et autour de vous par ce lien: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOj9UTx_r9A Bon visionnage ...
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a Supreme Court judge has proposed (or here) to add to the same set of revisions to the penal code a provision that those who take food, medicine or inexpensive goods without using violence and for necessary reasons would not be punished (the Jean Valjean law; Reuters UK publishes this in a section called Oddly Enough ...
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a Supreme Court judge has proposed (or here) to add to the same set of revisions to the penal code a provision that those who take food, medicine or inexpensive goods without using violence and for necessary reasons would not be punished (the Jean Valjean law; Reuters UK publishes this in a section called Oddly Enough ...
Venezuelans awakened on Monday to the prospect of another six years under President Hugo Chavez as the leftist presidents supporters celebrated his victory against a youthful rival and a galvanized opposition pledged to build on its gains.
The Venezuelan government released a gazette to implement fresh extension of the State of Economic Emergency Decree, with some new authorizations to tackle domestic and foreign forces attempt to overthrow the government.
Voracious inflation -- which the IMF said will climb to 720 percent this year -- means Venezuelans earning the minimum wage have to spend 10 percent of their income to buy a kilo of meat.
Doctors in Cuba detected and removed a cancerous tumor from Hugo Chavezs body, the Venezuelan president announced in a speech broadcast on state-run VTV Thursday night.
Francisco Pereira crafts strange creatures and vessels in bronze, extracting and blending familiar elements for something new entirely. In his world, animals that typically walk on all fours are bipeds, and their new, long legs give them an alien appearance. The Venezuelan sculptor works in scales vary greatly between works that tower over or are dwarfed by viewers. ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
... the eastern and western type of equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, and yellow fever virus. ... "Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by Aedes sollicitans and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae)". ... It is a carrier for encephalitic viruses including Venezuelan equine encephalitis and can transmit Dirofilaria immitis. It ... Kelser, R.A. (1937). "Transmission of the Virus of Equine Encephalomy-elîtis by Aëdes taeniorhynchus". www.cabdirect.org. ...
... cedecei for sympatric and allopatric Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis viruses". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine ... Everglades virus (EVEV) is an alphavirus included in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex. The virus circulates ...
Researchers have isolated the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus from a black-cowled oriole in Panama. Some females and ...
A genus of mosquito Mansonia, species of which are vectors of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis and Brugian filariasis, is ...
... in southeast Texas to combat Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis. Operation Ranch Hand was the name of the aerial application ...
... eastern equine MeSH C02.081.355.355 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C02.081.355.677 - encephalomyelitis, western ... encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C02.182.500.300.450.250 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C02.182.500.300. ... eastern equine MeSH C02.290.450.225 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C02.290.450.250 - encephalomyelitis, western ... encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C02.782.930.100.370.325 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C02.782.930.100. ...
Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Western equine encephalitis: a group of ... Various types of encephalomyelitis include: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or postinfectious encephalomyelitis, a ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Information Page at ... Encephalomyelitis disseminata, a synonym for multiple sclerosis. AntiMOG associated encephalomyelitis, one of the underlying ...
... may refer to: Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezuelan equine ...
Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis "PAHO: Equine Encephalitis in the Event of a Disaster". Retrieved 2007-03-17. "PAHO ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen that causes Venezuelan equine encephalitis or ... In the Americas, there have been 21 reported outbreaks of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus. Outbreaks of Venezuelan equine ... Outbreak of Venezuelan Equine Encephalities". Retrieved 2007-03-17. "PATHINFO: Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus". Archived ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Similar diseases that are spread by mosquitoes include: Western and Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... or based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons,[43] vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV)[45][48] or filovirus- ... Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus". Vaccine. 21 (25-26): 4071-4080. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00362-1. ...
... venezuelan equine MeSH B04.820.850.054.360 - encephalitis virus, western equine MeSH B04.820.850.054.813 - ross river virus ... encephalomyelitis virus, avian MeSH B04.820.565.400.410 - hepatitis a virus MeSH B04.820.565.400.410.500 - hepatitis a virus, ... venezuelan equine MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.360 - encephalitis virus, western equine MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.813 - ross river ... eastern equine MeSH B04.909.777.270.369 - encephalitis virus, venezuelan equine MeSH B04.909.777.270.440 - encephalitis virus, ...
... virus (EEEV) is closely related to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and western equine ... "Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. ... most commonly western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and tetanus. Most vaccinations for EEE ... "Eastern Equine Encephalitis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 30 April 2017. "Eastern Equine ...
... the eastern equine encephalitis virus subgroup (eastern equine encephalitis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses) and the ... "A comparison of the nucleotide sequences of eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses with those of other ... Divergence between the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and the eastern equine virus appears to have been ~1400 years ago. ... 1938 - Venezuelan equine encephalitis is isolated. 1941 - Western equine encephalitis epidemic is seen in the United States. It ...
... encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C10.228.228.245.340.450.225 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C10.228.228.245. ... encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C10.228.228.210.150.300.450.600 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C10.228. ... encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C10.228.228.291.323.325 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C10.228.228.291. ... equine MeSH C10.228.440.406.200 - encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C10.228.440.406.225 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan ...
Western equine encephalitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Although these vaccines are not perfectly effective, they are ... such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, as well as immune-mediated encephalitis, so other diagnostic methods may need to ... which causes both chickenpox and shingles Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus West Nile virus Western equine encephalitis ... For some forms of viral encephalitis, such as Eastern equine encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis, there may be a significant ...
In Britain, the 1950s saw the weaponization of plague, brucellosis, tularemia and later equine encephalomyelitis and vaccinia ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B). The United States developed an anti-crop capability during ...
Pathogenesis of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from The ... Pathogenesis of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus. I. Infection in Suckling Mice. William D. Kundin, Chien Liu and ... The pathogenesis of an attenuated and an unattenuated strain of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in suckling ...
Live, Attenuated Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Vaccine I. Clinical Effects in Man* * Aristides C. Alevizatos†, ...
Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine. Encephalomyelitis, Equine. Encephalomyelitis. Central Nervous System Infections. Central ... Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Biological: 0.5 mL Inactivated, Dried, C-84, TSI-GSD 205, Lot 7, Run 1 Phase 2 ... Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE) Vaccine as Booster Vaccine in Adults (VEE). The ... Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Inactivated, Dried, C-84, TSI-GSD 205, Lot 7, Run 1, to be administered as dose(s ...
... were inoculated with 10-fold serial dilutions of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus. Blood and serum collected ... Experimental Infection of Coyote Pups with Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus * * D. L. Lundgren†, K. L. Smart ... were inoculated with 10-fold serial dilutions of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus. Blood and serum collected ...
Venezuelan encephalomyelitis,. *eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis;. *ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
... and Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis [Sleeping Sickness]; Equine Influenza; and both strains of Rhinopneumonitis. Also ... Western and Venezuelan viruses, Equine Rhinopneumonitis due to type 1 and 4 viruses, Equine Influenza due to type A2 viruses, ... Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Vaccine. Tetanus Toxoid. Eastern, Western & Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Fort Dodge ... of healthy horses as an aid in the prevention of Equine Encephalomyelitis [Sleeping Sickness] due to Eastern, ...
Encephalomyelitis and death Arthropod. Time Held Alive before Inoculation. Collection Method. Collection Date. 1/1/1938 ...
Equine encephalomyelitis (Western). Present?. No equine detections reported the last 20 years ...
Hendra virus (Equine morbillivirus). •. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. other species. •. Viral hemorrhagic disease of ...
... and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. For both types of weapons, use was envisioned on a massive scale, to cause extensive ...
Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. Lagomorph diseases. Myxomatosis. Tularaemia. Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits ... Equine encephalomyelitis. Equine infectious anaemia. Equine influenza (virus type A). Equine piroplasmosis. Equine ...
Venezuelan equine: encephalomyelitis virus: structural components Venezuelan equine: encephalomyelitis virus: structural ... Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus, purified in sucrose density gradients was examined with the electron ...
Venezuelan equine viral encephalomyelitis. - Haemorrhagic disease of deer. - Classical swine fever. - African swine fever ...
Safety and Immunogenicity Study of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. *Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis ... Safety and Immunogenicity of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Vaccine in Healthy Adults. *Venezuelan Equine ... Safety and Immunogenicity of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (VEE C-84) as a Booster to VEE TC-83. *Venezuelan ... Tolerability and Immunogenicity of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) Attenuated Live-Virus Vaccine. *Venezuelan Equine ...
Epidemiological significance of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus in vitro markers. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1982;31:561-8. ... Viruses of the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex experimental infection of Panamanian rodents. Am J Trop Med Hyg. ... Virological and serological studies of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in humans. J Clin Microbiol. 1976;4:22-7.PubMed ... Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. In: Monath TP, editor. The arboviruses: epidemiology and ecology, vol. IV. Boca Raton (FL ...
Linthicum KJ, Logan TM, Bailey CL, Gordon SW, Peters CJ, Monath TP, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in and ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquitoborne viral disease of humans and equines (1). Equines serve as ... Experimental Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection of the bovine. Infect Immun. 1972;5:155-9.PubMed ... Laboratory transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus by the tick Hyalomma truncatum. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. ...
Equine piroplasmosis. Trichinellosis. Foot-and-mouth disease Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. Fowl typhoid. Vesicular ...
Biochemical and antigenic comparisons of the envelope glycoproteins of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus strains. ... Biochemical and antigenic comparisons of the envelope glycoproteins of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus strains. / ... Pulse-chase experiments after synchronous initiation of translation indicate that the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE ... T1 - Biochemical and antigenic comparisons of the envelope glycoproteins of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus strains ...
GABA metabolism in venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection: preliminary commun GABA metabolism in venezuelan equine ... Mice infected with venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus showed a significant decrease in GABA content of cerebral ... Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Encephalomyelitis / Animals, Laboratory / Mice Limits: Animals Country/Region as subject ... Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Encephalomyelitis / Animals, Laboratory / Mice Limits: Animals Country/Region as subject ...
N2 - Laboratory vector competence of Culex (Melanoconion) cedecei was examined for Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) ... AB - Laboratory vector competence of Culex (Melanoconion) cedecei was examined for Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) ... Laboratory vector competence of Culex (Melanoconion) cedecei was examined for Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses ... Laboratory vector competence of Culex (Melanoconion) cedecei for sympatric and allopatric Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis ...
Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis. *Venous Sinus Thrombosis. *Ventriculomegaly. *Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency. *Vertigo. * ...
venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. *venous sinus thrombosis. *ventriculomegaly. *vertebrobasilar insufficiency. *vertigo. * ...
Mice (Venezuelan and Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis viruses, intranasal, subcutaneously). *Mice, guinea pigs (Mycobacterium ...
Re-emergence of epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in South America. VEE Study Group. ... Association of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IE with two equine epizootics in Mexico. ... Repeated emergence of epidemic/epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis from a single genotype of enzootic subtype ID virus. ... Phylogenetic analysis of alphaviruses in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex and identification of the source of ...
... equine herpesvirus-1; botulism; eastern, western and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis (EEE,WEE,VEE); heat stress; trauma; bacterial ... West Nile virus, a flavivirus, was first identified as a cause of infection and fatal encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the ... The flaviviruses, like the other encephalomyelitis viruses, are transmitted by mosquitoes, and infrequently by other ... meningitis; cervical vertebral myelopathy (wobbler syndrome); myeloencephalopathy; and equine degenerative myelopathy. ...
VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS?. A deadly disease that inflames the brain and spinal cord. It can be carried and dispersed ...
venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. *viral meningitis. *west nile virus. *yaws. *yellow fever. *yersinia ...
  • Five years after the apparent end of the major 1995 Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) epizootic/epidemic, focal outbreaks of equine encephalitis occurred in Carabobo and Barinas States of western Venezuela. (cdc.gov)
  • To characterize the transmission cycle of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) strains believed to represent an epizootic progenitor, we identified natural vectors in a sylvatic focus in the middle Magdalena Valley of Colombia. (cdc.gov)
  • After antigenically related but distinct, equine-avirulent, enzootic strains of VEEV were isolated in the 1960s, researchers hypothesized that epizootic/epidemic strains evolve from enzootic VEEV progenitors ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Equine-virulent, epidemic/epizootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus (VEEV) arise via mutation of progenitor enzootic strains that replicate poorly in equines. (asm.org)
  • VEEV has caused periodic epidemic and equine epizootic outbreaks in the Americas dating from the early 20th century. (asm.org)
  • Unlike the epizootic IAB and IC viruses that exploit equines as amplification hosts by generating high-titered viremia as required for infection of mosquito vectors, the enzootic ID strains are generally equine avirulent and generate little or no viremia ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) naturally cycles between mosquitos and birds or rodents, with a case fatality rate of up to 15% in humans during epizootic outbreaks. (mdpi.com)
  • WEEV causes periodic epizootic outbreaks in Western and Central North America and is maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitos and birds or rodents [ 1 ] Humans are usually infected as a result of close proximity to infected equines and by being bitten by an infected mosquito. (mdpi.com)
  • Host-feeding patterns of Argentine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected during and after an epizootic of western equine encephalitis. (harvard.edu)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis: surveys of human illness during an epizootic in Guatemala and El Salvador. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The most important gaps remaining in one's understanding of epidemic/epizootic VEE emergence concern the viral determinants of virulence and the pathogenesis changes that lead to high-viremia-facilitated transmission among equines and other large mammals. (asmscience.org)
  • Alphavirus ) strains are categorized as either epizootic (associated with equine disease and major epidemics of human disease through equine amplification), or enzootic (not known to cause equine disease). (cdc.gov)
  • Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Inactivated, Dried, C-84, TSI-GSD 205, Lot 7, Run 1, to be administered as dose(s) of 0.5 mL given subcutaneously in the upper outer aspect of the triceps area. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Fort Dodge Fluvac Innovator 6 is an excellent all-around vaccine and is indicated for intramuscular vaccination of healthy horses as an aid in the prevention of Equine Encephalomyelitis [Sleeping Sickness] due to Eastern, Western and Venezuelan viruses, Equine Rhinopneumonitis due to type 1 and 4 viruses, Equine Influenza due to type A 2 viruses, and Tetanus. (medi-vet.com)
  • Fluvac Innovator 6 (3-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet + Flu + Rhino) Equine Vaccine is a killed Virus. (agriseek.com)
  • The Fluvac Innovator 6 Equine flu vaccine is available as a single-dose horse flu shot syringe or, at considerable savings per dose, in a 10-dose vial packaged along with a pre-loaded single-dose syringe. (medi-vet.com)
  • West Nile Innovator + VEWT (West Nile + 3-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet) Equine Vaccine is for the vaccination of healthy horses as an aid in the prevention of disease caused by Eastern, Western and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis viruses and tetanus, and as an aid in the prevention of viremia caused by West Nile Virus. (valleyvet.com)
  • Equi-Jec 7 (West Nile + 3-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet + Flu + Rhino) is a West Nile, Eastern, Western and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, tetanus, influenza, and rhino (EHV-1 and EHV-4) vaccine for healthy horses 4 months of age or older. (valleyvet.com)
  • Prestige V + VEE (3-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet + Flu + Rhino) Equine Vaccine is for the vaccination of healthy horses against Eastern, Western and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis, equine influenza types A1, A2, tetanus, and rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1 and EHV-4). (valleyvet.com)
  • Vetera 6XP (3-way Sleeping Sickness + Tetanus + Flu + Rhino) Equine Vaccine protects horses 4 months of age and older against Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis, rhinopneumonitis (Equine Herpesvirus types EHV-1 and EHV-4), influenza type A2, and tetanus. (valleyvet.com)
  • However, the Venezuelan strain is not a risk at the moment, so it is not a core vaccine. (horseillustrated.com)
  • Fluvac Innovator 5 (2-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet + Flu + Rhino) Equine Vaccine protects against Eastern and Western encephalomyelitis, rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1 and EHV-4), influenza type A2 and tetanus. (valleyvet.com)
  • Equiloid Innovator (2-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet) Equine Vaccine protects against Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis and tetanus. (valleyvet.com)
  • We have applied this to an adenovirus (ad)-based vaccine encoding structural proteins (E3-E2-6K) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To be eligible for the Equine Immunization Support Guarantee, a horse must be vaccinated by a veterinarian with a qualifying Zoetis vaccine. (zoetisus.com)
  • Following diagnostic sampling, all essential case documentation will need to be submitted to VMIPS, including a summary of the patient's vaccine history, diagnostic test results and an Equine Immunization Support Guarantee Worksheet. (zoetisus.com)
  • The flaviviruses, like the other encephalomyelitis viruses, are transmitted by mosquitoes, and infrequently by other bloodsucking insects, to horses, human beings, and a number of other mammals from avian hosts, which serve as natural reservoirs for these viruses in nature. (lsu.edu)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis belongs to the Group IV positive-sense ssRNA virus within the Togaviridae family of viruses, and the genus Alphavirus . (wikidoc.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus (VEEV) is an Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae , a group of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses ( 9a , 27). (asm.org)
  • It is a carrier for encephalitic viruses including Venezuelan equine encephalitis and can transmit Dirofilaria immitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alphaviruses, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and WEEV are grouped geographically as New World viruses capable of causing disease in both equids and humans, exhibiting overt encephalitic features in a significant number of cases. (mdpi.com)
  • inflammation of the brain and spinal cord as a result of infection by neurotropic viruses (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) or as a complication of other infectious diseases, for example, measles, chicken pox, or rubella. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alphaviruses having single-stranded RNA genome belong to Togaviridae family of viruses and are divided into arthritogenic viruses (old world) and encephalitogenic viruses (new world) including equine encephalitis viruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA viruses of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A risk assessment ( HHP disease risk mitigation strategies ) demonstrated that, provided HHP standard conditions are continuously complied with, specific health requirements for the temporary importation of HHP horses for competition purposes can be limited to six diseases: African horse sickness, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, equine influenza, equine infectious anemia, glanders and piroplasmosis. (oie.int)
  • Prestige V + VEE with Havlogen, by Intervet Schering-Plough, is for the vaccination of healthy horses against Eastern, Western and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis, equine influenza types A1, A2, tetanus, and rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1 and EHV-4). (atozvetsupply.com)
  • Protection against Eastern, Western and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis, influenza, tetanus and rhinopneumonitis EHV-1 & EHV-4). (valleyvet.com)
  • Equines serve as highly efficient amplification hosts for mosquitoborne transmission of 2 VEE virus (VEEV) epidemic subtypes, IAB and IC. (cdc.gov)
  • Enzootic VEEV strains of variants ID and IE, closely related antigenically and genetically to each other and to variants IAB and IC, circulate in lowland tropical forests and swamps among small mammals but are incapable of equine amplification to cause epidemics ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The low levels of GAG binding exhibited by some low-passage, equine-virulent subtype IC VEEV strains indicate that the positive-charge E2 mutations implicated in VEE subtype IC emergence are not artifacts of laboratory passage and suggest that GAG binding does not play a major role in mediating VEE emergence. (asm.org)
  • Paradoxically, the artificial, cell culture passage-associated HS binding mutations attenuate VEEV ( 2 ) and Sindbis virus ( 7 , 13 ) for mice, while natural VEEV mutations that increase the E2 positive charge are associated with equine virulence. (asm.org)
  • A new method for predicting interacting residues in protein complexes, InterProSurf, was applied to the E1 envelope protein of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEEV). (springer.com)
  • The outbreak was attributed to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE, not previously associated with equine disease and death. (cdc.gov)
  • Neuroinvasion of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and subsequent initiation of inflammation in the brain plays a crucial role in the outcome of VEEV infection in mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neurovirulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a member of the genus Alphavirus , in the family Togaviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a positive-stranded, enveloped, RNA virus of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The pathogenesis of an attenuated and an unattenuated strain of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in suckling mice as studied by infectivity titrations and direct fluorescent antibody-staining technique was described. (jimmunol.org)
  • West Nile virus, a flavivirus, was first identified as a cause of infection and fatal encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord and brain) in horses and people in Egypt, Uganda and France in the early 1960's. (lsu.edu)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis is a mild to moderate, though sometimes fatal , infection of the central nervous system . (wikidoc.org)
  • After infection, equines may suddenly die or show progressive central nervous system disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute disseminated encephalomyelitis an acute or subacute encephalomyelitis or myelitis occurring most commonly following an acute viral infection, especially measles, but sometimes occurring without a recognizable antecedent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • acute disseminated encephalomyelitis inflammation of the brain and spinal cord after infection (especially measles) or, formerly, rabies vaccination. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Localized eastern equine encephalitis in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina, without human infection. (harvard.edu)
  • What constitutes a suspect case--and how it should be investigated--depends on whether or not it occurs in a West Nile Virus-affected area--that is, within 10 miles of any county where an infection in an equine has previously been confirmed. (horses-and-horse-information.com)
  • Each animal tested negative to an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for equine infectious anemia (EIA) within 60 days preceding exportation. (www.gov.bm)
  • Map of Venezuela showing locations of the 1995 Venezuelan equine encephalitis outbreak and the small outbreaks of 2000 and 2003, along with surveillance study sites. (cdc.gov)
  • [1] There have been several outbreaks of Venezuelan equine encephalitis. (wikidoc.org)
  • Reverse genetic studies are under way to determine which of these changes are responsible for the switch in equine virulence and viremia that leads to outbreaks. (asm.org)
  • In the Americas, there have been 21 reported outbreaks of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outbreaks of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus occurred in Central American and South American countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic evidence for the origins of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB outbreaks. (harvard.edu)
  • Since it was first recognized in the late 1930's, Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) has been identified with a series of equine outbreaks which have at times included man as a victim. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a potentially fatal, reemerging disease in tropical America (the portions of North, South, and Central America between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn) that can cause outbreaks involving hundreds of thousands of humans and equids. (cdc.gov)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) has not occurred in the United States for decades but outbreaks still occur in South America. (usrider.org)
  • The strongest such evidence links a small, 1992-93 Venezuelan VEE outbreak caused by a subtype IC virus strain to sympatric strains of enzootic subtype ID virus ( 3 , 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Equi-Jec 7 contains Kentucky Lineage (KY/95), Florida sublineage clade 1 (OH/03), and Eurasian Newmarket/2/93 (NM 2/93) equine influenza strains. (valleyvet.com)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis was first discovered in 1938 after the virus was isolated from the brains of dead horses following an outbreak in the Venezuelan countryside. (wikidoc.org)
  • For vaccination of healthy horses, 6 months of age or older, as an aid in the prevention of Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan Encephalomyelitis and Tetanus, and as an aid in the control of respiratory disease caused by Equine Influenza Virus and Equine Herpesvirus and as an aid in the reduction of Influenza virus shedding. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • There were a number of reports in 2010 of non-vaccinated horses coming down with Eastern encephalomyelitis, so the risk is very real," says Wilson. (horseillustrated.com)
  • Signs of neurologic problems in horses run the gamut?seizures, abnormal behavior, abnormal gait, facial paralysis and more, says Debra Sellon, DVM, professor of equine medicine at the Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine. (equisearch.com)
  • But there are plenty of others, including injuries, several viral diseases and degenerative conditions, such as equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, which has been linked to vitamin E deficiencies in young horses. (equisearch.com)
  • Importation of horses, ponies and other equines from countries other than the Canada or the United States is permissible, but animals must fully meet entry requirements for the U.S.A. and will be subject to U.S.D.A. quarantine prior to shipping to Bermuda. (www.gov.bm)
  • The causative organism (encephalitis virus, venezuelan equine) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. (icd10data.com)
  • The establishment of Equine Disease Free Zones (EDFZ) for hosting international sports events and support the safe re-entry of competing horses in their countries of origin. (oie.int)
  • The health status of HHP horses is safeguarded by the application of HHP standard conditions pertaining to veterinary supervision, identification and traceability and strict compliance with stringent biosecurity measures to create and maintain a functional separation between horses in the "high health equine subpopulation" and other equids, at all times, including the usual place of residence and venues of international competitions, and during transport. (oie.int)
  • All horses vaccinated by a veterinarian with any product from the FLUVAC INNOVATOR and WEST NILE-INNOVATOR lines of vaccines are automatically covered by the Equine Immunization Support Guarantee. (zoetisus.com)
  • For these reasons, only horses vaccinated by a veterinarian are covered under the Equine Immunization Support Guarantee. (zoetisus.com)
  • Over the past 75 years, vaccines have saved the lives of thousands of horses and rendered a number of terrible equine diseases exceedingly rare. (usrider.org)
  • The American Association of Equine Practitioners recommends vaccination, when appropriate, against the following diseases that affect horses. (usrider.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis is closely related to eastern equine encephalitis virus and western equine encephalitis virus. (wikidoc.org)
  • VEE is an arthropod-borne virus that has been associated with periodic epidemics and equine epizootics in the Western Hemisphere since the 1920s. (asm.org)
  • Three forms are recognized: eastern, western, and Venezuelan. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • equine encephalomyelitis, eastern a viral disease similar to western equine encephalomyelitis, but occurring in a region extending from New Hampshire to Texas and as far west as Wisconsin, and in Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and parts of Central and South America. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Western equine encephalomyelitis: virulence markers and their epidemiologic significance. (harvard.edu)
  • Although mosquitoes are not prevalent in dry areas, the AAEP has still listed Eastern and Western encephalomyelitis on its core vaccination guidelines due to the grave nature of the disease. (horseillustrated.com)
  • Each animal has been vaccinated against Western and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis not less than 14 days and not more than one year prior to the date of shipment. (www.gov.bm)
  • Teschen disease (porcine encephalomyelitis) afflicts swine in Central and Western Europe. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Offers guaranteed protection against equine influenza, Venezuelan, Eastern and Western encephalomyelitis, tetanus and West Nile virus when vaccinated by a licensed veterinarian. (horsehealthusa.com)
  • These may be indistinguishable from other equine encephalitides, including rabies, equine herpesvirus-1 (see page 10), equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, and eastern, western, or Venezue- lan equine encephalomyelitis. (horses-and-horse-information.com)
  • Some cases of encephalomyelitis develop after vaccination against rabies, smallpox, and certain other diseases (postvaccinal encephalomyelitis). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus must be differentiated from other diseases that cause fever , headache , seizures , and altered mental status . (wikidoc.org)
  • 64.1(5) Equine diseases. (iowa.gov)
  • Some of these diseases can be very unpredictable, such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), which may emerge in a cyclical fashion and cause widespread disease ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Understanding these diseases can go a long way toward helping you make educated decisions about your horse, as well as help keep the equine and human communities healthy. (horseillustrated.com)
  • Recognizing the signs of equine neurological disorders and starting treatment early will give your horse his best chance of recovery from these diseases. (equisearch.com)
  • The establishment of a zone which is free of multiple specified equine diseases ("Equine Disease Free Zone"- EDFZ) can be considered by countries that wish to host an international equine sport event but where the control and eradication of all equine diseases in the entire territory is not feasible or achievable. (oie.int)
  • Could he have one of several equine neurological disorders, like equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) or West Nile virus? (equisearch.com)
  • Owners dread equine neurological disorders, such as equine herpesvirus type 1, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis or West Nile virus, and no wonder. (equisearch.com)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) is a member of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. (asm.org)
  • and as an aid in the reduction of respiratory disease and shedding caused by equine influenza virus . (horsehealthusa.com)
  • All products within the FLUVAC INNOVATOR ® and WEST NILE-INNOVATOR ® lines of vaccines from Zoetis are covered under the Equine Immunization Support Guarantee at no additional cost to the horse owner or veterinarian. (zoetisus.com)
  • postinfectious encephalomyelitis ( postvaccinal encephalomyelitis ) acute disseminated encephalomyelitis . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pulse-chase experiments after synchronous initiation of translation indicate that the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus membrane glycoprotein, E 2 , is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the precursor, PE 2 . (utmb.edu)
  • Sequencing studies have implicated positively charged amino acids on the surface of the E2 envelope glycoprotein in the acquisition of equine virulence and viremia potential, suggesting that changes in binding to cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may mediate VEE emergence. (asm.org)
  • 2002) Positively charged amino acid substitutions in the E2 envelope glycoprotein are associated with the emergence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. (aaep.org)
  • Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies, imitating the antigenic determinant of hemagglutination site of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus glycoprotein E2]. (nih.gov)
  • Protective antibodies against Eastern equine encephalitis virus bind to epitopes in domains A and B of the E2 glycoprotein. (harvard.edu)
  • There is a vaccination approved for limited use for Venezuelan equine encephalitis, though its effectiveness is often questioned. (wikidoc.org)
  • A. Following vaccination, provide your horse owner clients with an Equine Immunization Support Guarantee certificate to showcase this benefit they receive for vaccinating with a veterinarian. (zoetisus.com)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquitoborne viral disease of humans and equines ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging zoonotic arboviral disease that affects equines and humans in the Americas ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • June 1993 saw a bigger outbreak in the Venezuelan state of Zulia, as 55 humans died as well as 66 equine deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Culex taenopius mosquitos, which prefer rodents, were replaced by Aedes taeniorhynchus mosquitoes, which are more likely to bite humans and large equines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection of immunoglobulins G and M to Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus in vaccinated and naturally infected humans. (asm.org)
  • All equine species are susceptible to VEE, and humans can also contract this disease. (valentbiosciences.com)
  • Aedes taeniorhynchus is medically relevant, primarily as a vector of two alphaviruses from the family Togaviridae, Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) (Drew 2001). (ufl.edu)
  • Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru. (harvard.edu)
  • Clinical and neuroradiographic manifestations of eastern equine encephalitis. (harvard.edu)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis presenting as focal neuroradiographic abnormalities: case report and review. (harvard.edu)
  • Laboratory transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus to chickens by chicken mites (Acari: Dermanyssidae). (harvard.edu)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis presenting with a focal brain lesion. (harvard.edu)
  • The final test configuration utilized group-reactive MAbs eastern equine encephalitis virus 1A4B-6, dengue 2 virus 4G2, and La Crosse encephalitis virus 10G5.4 to capture the specific inactivated viral antigens. (asm.org)
  • Sometimes called sleeping sickness, encephalomyelitis is a neurological equine disease that is spread by mosquitoes. (horseillustrated.com)
  • Zoetis confidently stands behind its vaccines with the Equine Immunization Support Guarantee, the most comprehensive guarantee available. (zoetisus.com)
  • If a power failure affects Zoetis equine vaccines in your refrigerators, contact your Zoetis representative or Zoetis Customer Service at 1-888-ZOETIS-1 (1-888-963-8471) to request complimentary replacement of the vaccines. (zoetisus.com)
  • You can trust we will be ready to ship the equine vaccines you need when needed. (zoetisus.com)
  • Q. Which Zoetis equine vaccines are part of the Equine Immunization Support Guarantee? (zoetisus.com)
  • Most equine vaccines are administered via intramuscular injection , which delivers the preparation into muscle tissue, where it is selectively taken up by the body and processed. (usrider.org)
  • Intravenous vaccines ,which are delivered straight into the bloodstream, are available for people, but currently none are manufactured for equine use. (usrider.org)
  • Between December 1992 and January 1993, the Venezuelan state of Trujillo experienced an outbreak of this virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This outbreak resulted in 14,156 human cases that were attributable to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus with 26 human deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis may be classified according to location of the disease into 2 subtypes: systemic or encephalitic. (wikidoc.org)
  • Mice infected with venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus showed a significant decrease in GABA content of cerebral hemispheres. (bvsalud.org)
  • In mice the efficiency of immunization with Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis virus TC-83 is transiently increased by dehydroepiandrosterone. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Resumen en inglés To determine whether treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) improves the efficiency of immunization against the Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus, mice were vaccinated with the TC-83 VEE virus. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The therapeutic effects of melatonin against viral infections, with emphasis on the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE), are reviewed. (eattheapple.com)
  • Insofar as can be determined, no cases of vesicular stomatitis or equine ulcerative lymphangitis have occurred on the premises of origin or on adjoining premises during the 60 days preceding exportation. (www.gov.bm)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen that causes Venezuelan equine encephalitis or encephalomyelitis (VEE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Equines, rather than rodents, are the primary animal species that carry and spread the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equines, rather than rodents, are the primary animal species that carry and spread the disease, as infected equines develop an enormous quantity of virus in their circulatory system. (valentbiosciences.com)
  • Separation of the subpopulation inside the EFDZ from the general population (i.e. equines and other species outside the EDFZ) is achieved by the implementation of sound biosecurity management, identification and control of movement and certification procedures. (oie.int)
  • Q. How can I make horse owners aware of the Equine Immunization Support Guarantee? (zoetisus.com)
  • Contact your Zoetis representative for printed copies of the Equine Immunization Support Guarantee certificate. (zoetisus.com)
  • Q. Can I vaccinate my own horse and still be covered under the Equine Immunization Support Guarantee? (zoetisus.com)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis may also be classified according to neuroinvasiveness of the disease into 2 subtypes: neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive. (wikidoc.org)
  • These subtypes are associated with the rodent-mosquito transmission cycle, and these forms of the virus can cause human illness but generally do not affect equine health. (valentbiosciences.com)
  • Serologic evidence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infections in raccoons of south central Florida. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The duration of immunity against equine influenza is at least 6 months. (horsehealthusa.com)
  • 2003) Pathogenicity of a Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis serotype IE virus isolate for ponies. (aaep.org)