A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)
A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)
A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A tentative species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS infecting primarily young chicks, but also found in turkeys, pheasants, and guinea fowl. It causes a fatal neuronal degeneration and is transmitted by mechanical contact.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus CARDIOVIRUS, family PICORNAVIRIDAE.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
A picornavirus infection producing symptoms similar to poliomyelitis in pigs.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics. It is usually caused by coxsackieviruses B and sometimes by coxsackieviruses A; echoviruses; or other enteroviruses.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE causing encephalitis and myocarditis in rodents. ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS is the type species.
Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A genus of the MYXOCOCCALES having vegetative cells which are straight rods with tapered ends and myxospores which are short and somewhat crooked. Fruiting bodies consist of spherical, ovoid, or club-shaped sporangioles on stalks. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
A strain of mice bred specifically as high or low antibody responders.
Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.
The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Viruses infecting man and other vertebrates.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Infections with viruses of the order NIDOVIRALES. The concept includes ARTERIVIRUS INFECTIONS and CORONAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE that can cause polioencephalomyelitis in pigs. The type species Porcine teschovirus is comprised of multiple strains.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A factor identified in the brain that influences the growth and differentiation of NEURONS and NEUROGLIA. Glia maturation factor beta is the 17-kDa polypeptide product of the GMFB gene and is the principal component of GLIA MATURATION FACTOR.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
Cell surface proteins that bind calcitonin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Calcitonin receptors outside the nervous system mediate the role of calcitonin in calcium homeostasis. The role of calcitonin receptors in the brain is not well understood.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A subunit of interleukin-23. It combines with INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P40, which is shared between the two cytokines, to form in the active interleukin-23 cytokine.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Copper chelator that inhibits monoamine oxidase and causes liver and brain damage.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A tiny muscle that arises from the posterior wall of the TYMPANIC CAVITY of MIDDLE EAR with its tendon inserted onto the neck of the STAPES. Stapedius pulls the stapes posteriorly and controls its movement.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.
One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.
A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.

Genetic variation among isolates of western equine encephalomyelitis virus from California. (1/155)

The mechanism for long-term maintenance of western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus in California was investigated by studying genetic variation in the E2 portion of the genome of 55 strains of WEE virus isolated since 1938 from different locations in California. Four major lineages were evident: virus strains isolated from the Central Valley since 1993 and Los Angeles in 1991 formed lineage A; southern California strains isolated since 1978 and isolates from the Central Valley from 1978 to 1987 formed lineage B; northern California isolates from 1968 to 1971 formed lineage C; and early isolates from 1938 to 1961 formed a fourth lineage, D. The separation of strains from north and south of the Tehachapi and San Bernardino Mountains (i.e., the Central Valley and southern California, respectively) since 1991 indicates that there has been little recent movement of virus between the two regions and recent strains from these two locations appear to be evolving independently. However, within the Central Valley and within southern California, virus appears to circulate freely, perhaps by movement of birds or mosquito vectors. Although the current virus lineage in the Central Valley may have been introduced from an unknown source in 1991, introduction and establishment of new viral genotypes from outside California do not seem to occur regularly. It appears most likely that virus is maintained in separate geographic areas of California through local persistence in enzootic foci.  (+info)

Evaluation of the epidemic potential of western equine encephalitis virus in the northeastern United States. (2/155)

The problem of evaluating the epidemic potential of western equine encephalitis in the northeastern United States is presented and possible reasons are discussed for the present lack of human and horse cases of this disease even though increased numbers of isolations of the virus have been obtained in the East during recent years. Epidemiologic factors of vector bionomics and virus strain variations are considered. It is concluded that while this virus strain can no longer be regarded as uncommon in the Northeast, the evidence indicates there is little potential for epidemic expression of this agent in the human and horse population. This appears to be due to differences in the bionomics of the mosquito Culiseta melanura, which serves as the primary enzootic vector in the northeastern United States and in the bionomics of Culex tarsalis that is the vector in the western region of the United States. Other limiting factors in the epidemic potential may be variations between virus strains located in the East and West.  (+info)

Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. (3/155)

Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) has been diagnosed either serologically or by virus isolation. Until now, the recovery of EEE virus has been delegated to reference laboratories with the expertise and resources needed to amplify the virus in a susceptible vertebrate host and/or to isolate and identify the virus in cell culture. We report a case in which EEE virus was recovered directly from a patient's cerebrospinal fluid in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. Many clinical virology laboratories routinely use these cells to recover adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and enterovirus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of EEE virus in A549 cell culture. This report demonstrates the possibility of recovery of EEE virus in cell culture without the necessity of bioamplification or maintaining unusual cell lines.  (+info)

Eastern equine encephalitis virus in birds: relative competence of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). (4/155)

To determine whether eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus infection in starlings may be more fulminant than in various native candidate reservoir birds, we compared their respective intensities and durations of viremia. Viremias are more intense and longer lasting in starlings than in robins and other birds. Starlings frequently die as their viremia begins to wane; other birds generally survive. Various Aedes as well as Culiseta melanura mosquitoes can acquire EEE viral infection from infected starlings under laboratory conditions. The reservoir competence of a bird is described as the product of infectiousness (proportion of feeding mosquitoes that become infected) and the duration of infectious viremia. Although starlings are not originally native where EEE is enzootic, a starling can infect about three times as many mosquitoes as can a robin.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for the origins of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB outbreaks. (5/155)

Epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) involving subtype IAB viruses occurred sporadically in South, Central and North America from 1938 to 1973. Incompletely inactivated vaccines have long been suspected as a source of the later epizootics. We tested this hypothesis by sequencing the PE2 glycoprotein precursor (1,677 nucleotides) or 26S/nonstructural protein 4 (nsP4) genome regions (4,490 nucleotides) for isolates representing most major outbreaks. Two distinct IAB genotypes were identified: 1) 1940s Peruvian strains and 2) 1938-1973 isolates from South, Central, and North America. Nucleotide sequences of these two genotypes differed by 1.1%, while the latter group showed only 0.6% sequence diversity. Early VEE virus IAB strains that were used for inactivated vaccine preparation had sequences identical to those predicted by phylogenetic analyses to be ancestors of the 1960s-1970s outbreaks. These data support the hypothesis of a vaccine origin for many VEE outbreaks. However, continuous, cryptic circulation of IAB viruses cannot be ruled out as a source of epizootic emergence.  (+info)

Genetic and antigenic diversity among eastern equine encephalitis viruses from North, Central, and South America. (6/155)

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), the sole species in the EEE antigenic complex, is divided into North and South American antigenic varieties based on hemagglutination inhibition tests. Here we describe serologic and phylogenetic analyses of representatives of these varieties, spanning the entire temporal and geographic range available. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed additional genetic diversity within the South American variety; 3 major South/Central American lineages were identified including one represented by a single isolate from eastern Brazil, and 2 lineages with more widespread distributions in Central and South America. All North American isolates comprised a single, highly conserved lineage with strains grouped by the time of isolation and to some extent by location. An EEEV strain isolated during a 1996 equine outbreak in Tamaulipas State, Mexico was closely related to recent Texas isolates, suggesting southward EEEV transportation beyond the presumed enzootic range. Plaque reduction neutralization tests with representatives from the 4 major lineages indicated that each represents a distinct antigenic subtype. A taxonomic revision of the EEE complex is proposed.  (+info)

Improvement of western blot test specificity for detecting equine serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona. (7/155)

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurological disease of horses and ponies caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. The purposes of this study were to develop the most stringent criteria possible for a positive test result, to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the EPM Western blot antibody test, and to assess the ability of bovine antibodies to Sarcocystis cruzi to act as a blocking agent to minimize false-positive results in the western blot test for S. neurona. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites harvested from equine dermal cell culture were heat denatured, and the proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a 12-20% linear gradient gel. Separated proteins were electrophoretically transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride membranes and blocked in 1% bovine serum albumin and 0.5% Tween-Tris-buffered saline. Serum samples from 6 horses with S. neurona infections (confirmed by culture from neural tissue) and 57 horses without infections (horses from the Eastern Hemisphere, where S. neurona does not exist) were tested by Western blot. Horses from both groups had reactivity to the 62-, 30-, 16-, 13-, 11-, 10.5-, and 10-kD bands. Testing was repeated with another step. Blots were treated with bovine S. cruzi antibodies prior to loading the equine samples. After this modification of the Western blot test, positive infection status was significantly associated with reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands (P<0.001, Fisher's exact test). The S. cruzi antibody-blocked Western blot had a sample sensitivity of 100% and sample specificity of 98%. It is concluded that the specificity of the Western blot test is improved by blocking proteins not specific to S. neurona and using reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands as the criterion for a positive test.  (+info)

Development of reverse transcription-PCR assays specific for detection of equine encephalitis viruses. (8/155)

Specific and sensitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays were developed for the detection of eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (EEE, WEE, and VEE, respectively). Tests for specificity included all known alphavirus species. The EEE-specific RT-PCR amplified a 464-bp region of the E2 gene exclusively from 10 different EEE strains from South and North America with a sensitivity of about 3,000 RNA molecules. In a subsequent nested PCR, the specificity was confirmed by the amplification of a 262-bp fragment, increasing the sensitivity of this assay to approximately 30 RNA molecules. The RT-PCR for WEE amplified a fragment of 354 bp from as few as 2,000 RNA molecules. Babanki virus, as well as Mucambo and Pixuna viruses (VEE subtypes IIIA and IV), were also amplified. However, the latter viruses showed slightly smaller fragments of about 290 and 310 bp, respectively. A subsequent seminested PCR amplified a 195-bp fragment only from the 10 tested strains of WEE from North and South America, rendering this assay virus specific and increasing its sensitivity to approximately 20 RNA molecules. Because the 12 VEE subtypes showed too much divergence in their 26S RNA nucleotide sequences to detect all of them by the use of nondegenerate primers, this assay was confined to the medically important and closely related VEE subtypes IAB, IC, ID, IE, and II. The RT-PCR-seminested PCR combination specifically amplified 342- and 194-bp fragments of the region covering the 6K gene in VEE. The sensitivity was 20 RNA molecules for subtype IAB virus and 70 RNA molecules for subtype IE virus. In addition to the subtypes mentioned above, three of the enzootic VEE (subtypes IIIB, IIIC, and IV) showed the specific amplicon in the seminested PCR. The practicability of the latter assay was tested with human sera gathered as part of the febrile illness surveillance in the Amazon River Basin of Peru near the city of Iquitos. All of the nine tested VEE-positive sera showed the expected 194-bp amplicon of the VEE-specific RT-PCR-seminested PCR.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical and antigenic comparisons of the envelope glycoproteins of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus strains. AU - France, J. K.. AU - Wyrick, B. C.. AU - Trent, D. W.. PY - 1979. Y1 - 1979. N2 - Pulse-chase experiments after synchronous initiation of translation indicate that the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus membrane glycoprotein, E2, is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the precursor, PE2. The structural proteins of VEE virus strains representing each of the antigenic subtypes and varieties have been compared by discontinuous SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nucleocapsid proteins of all isolates were similar in size (mol. wt. 35 to 36x103). The mol. wt. of E1 varied from 48 to 51x103 and the mol. wt. of E2 glycoproteins ranged from 53 to 59x103. Pixuna virus contained a third envelope glycoprotein of 59x103 mol. wt.in addition to the two major glycoproteins of mol. wt. 53x103 and 48x103 respectively. The isoeletric points (pI) of E1 and E2 ...
Summary Dogs infected with Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus via the bite of infected Aedes triseriatus responded with fever and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies. Even though high temperatures were elicited in 14 of the animals, in only seven did viremia develop above 102.5 mouse intraperitoneal median lethal dose50 per ml. Sufficient quantities of mosquitoes were infected from the dogs to permit passage of the virus on to guinea pigs. There were no other clinical signs of illness observed in the animals.
Home » Equine encephalomyelitis. Equine encephalomyelitis (Science: veterinary) An acute, often fatal, virus disease of horses and mules transmitted by mosquitoes and characterised by central nervous system disturbances. It is typically caused by one of two arthropod-borne viruses, and their resulting diseases are designated western equine or eastern equine encephalomyelitis; these viruses belong to the family togaviridae and can also cause neurologic disease in humans. Synonym: equine encephalitis. ...
The rapid geographic spread of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) across the United States has stimulated interest in comparative host infection studies to delineate competent avian hosts critical for viral amplification. We compared the host competence of four taxonomically related blackbird species (Icteridae) after experimental infection with WNV and with two endemic, mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses, western equine encephalomyelitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, WEEV), and St, Louis encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, SLEV). We predicted differences in disease resistance among the blackbird species based on differences in life history, because they differ in geographic range and life history traits that include mating and breeding systems. Differences were observed among the response of these hosts to all three viruses, Red-winged Blackbirds were more susceptible to SLEV than Brewers Blackbirds, whereas Brewers Blackbirds were more
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Equine Encephalomelitis is an infectious viral disease that affects the brain of the horse. The mosquito vectors the disease from hosts: birds, reptiles and rodents. The Eastern strain is the most frequently found in the United States and has the highest mortality rate. There are two other known strains: Western and Venezuelan. This disease is also called sleeping sickness. The most prevalent time for infection is midsummer to frost. Horses can transmit the disease to one another through common food, water, and contact. Note: To obtain further data on the potential for snakes to harbor EEEV, Unnasch and colleagues from the Department of Biological Sciences at Auburn University in Auburn, Ala., wrangled snakes at the Tuskegee National Forest (an EEEV endemic area in east-central Alabama). The researchers collected blood samples from the snakes and tested them for antibodies (infection-fighting proteins) against EEEV and genetic material specific to EEEV by a laboratory process called ...
adshelp[at]cfa.harvard.edu The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A ...
All horses face ongoing exposure to rabies, tetanus, West Nile and Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis (EEE, WEE), all of which can have a fatal impact. Learn about the first and only horse vaccine to contain all five core equine disease antigens in one smooth vaccine.
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1. Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Joel Bozue CKC, Pamela J. Glass, editor: The Borden Institute, U.S. Army Medical Department Government Printing Office; 2018 August 1, 2018.. 2. Casals J, Buckley SM, Barry DW. Resistance to arbovirus challenge in mice immediately after vaccination. Appl Microbiol. 1973;25(5):755-62. Epub 1973/05/01. 4577178. 3. Baker EF Jr., Sasso DR, Maness K, Prichard WD, Parker RL. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis vaccine (strain TC-83): a field study. Am J Vet Res. 1978;39(10):1627-31. 717877.. 4. Cox HR, Olitsky PK. Active Immunization of Guinea Pigs with the Virus of Equine Encephalomyelitis: Iii. Quantitative Studies of Serum Antiviral Bodies in Animals Immunized with Active and Inactive Virus. J Exp Med. 1936;64(2):217-22. Epub 1936/07/31. doi: 10.1084/jem.64.2.217 19870531. 5. Morgan IM. Influence of Age on Susceptibility and on Immune Response of Mice to Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus. J Exp Med. 1941;74(2):115-32. Epub 1941/07/31. doi: ...
Having confirmed that the E1 and E2 proteins were produced from DNA vaccines, we next evaluated the efficacies of these DNA vaccines in a mouse lethal challenge model of WEEV previously developed in our laboratory (10). Female BALB/c mice (weight, 17 to 25 g) were obtained from the mouse breeding colony at the Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC)-Suffield. The original breeding pairs were purchased from Charles River Canada (St. Constant, Quebec, Canada). The protocols for the mouse experiments were reviewed and approved by the Animal Care Committee of DRDC-Suffield. The guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care were followed for the caring and the handling of the mice. Groups of eight mice each were vaccinated with one of the following DNA vaccines: pE3-E2-6K-E1, pE3-E2, p6K-E1, pVHX-6, or pVAX (vector control). Inactivated WEE vaccine (9) was used as a positive control. Three doses of the DNA vaccine containing 2 μg of plasmid DNA in each vaccine were administered 14 days ...
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
PHOENIX - November 28, 2016 - In observance of National Day of the Horse on December 13, the Arizona Veterinary Medical Association (AzVMA) encourages a dialog about the importance of horses in our culture, the importance of humane treatment of both domestic and wild horses, and the physical and emotional benefits of owning horses. The day also serves as a reminder to horse owners to ensure that their animals are receiving regular veterinary care, including the core vaccinations recommended by the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) - rabies, tetanus, West Nile virus and Eastern/Western equine encephalomyelitis. This is a day to honor all working Equines who have helped pioneer and who continue to contribute to the world with their selfless labor in the transportation, agriculture, military, and healthcare fields, says Dr. Adriana Stinnett, DVM, of Cave Creek.. In 2004, Congress designated December 13th as National Day of the Horse to honor the contributions horses have made to ...
Provide dedicated care by encouraging horse owners to vaccinate against all the potentially deadly core diseases - West Nile virus, Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, tetanus and rabies. Industry-leading equine veterinarians are recommending Core EQ Innovator™, the first and only vaccine to contain all core equine disease antigens in one injection
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturers instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements ...
4EEE, 5EEE, 6EEE, 7EEE, 8EEE, 9EEE, 10EEE Fit & Fashion Notes: These versatile ankle boots are a must-have footwear essential. In a smooth faux leather design with contrasting textured whipstitch detail, they are accented with gold tone buckle hardware for added appeal. Why We Love It: A classic boot style, we love their contrasting textured finish and easy-to-wear design.
For the vaccination of healthy horses as an aid in the prevention of Equine Encephalomyelitis due to Venezuelan, Eastern and Western Virus, Equine Influenza, Tetanus and Equine Rhinopneumonitis EHV-1 and EHV-4.
The infection of cats by the virus of infectious feline agranulocytosis is followed by the production of specific neutralizing and protective antibodies, and recovery from the disease is associated with the development of solid immunity to reinfection. From the evidence presented it is obvious that the virus is not related to the viruses of hog cholera, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, fox encephalitis, vesicular stomatitis, the Western type of equine encephalomyelitis, herpes, and B virus infection.. ...
The Westborough Board of Health said today that a mosquito in town tested positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis, commonly known as EEE.
This time last year, the region was abuzz with early findings of diseased mosquitoes carrying Eastern equine encephalitis, or EEE. This year, as of Friday, no mosquitoes have tested positive for the virus. Still, local and state health officials are urging people to get in the habit now of self-protection.
I thought Id pass this on to you all. . . . There appears to be the makings of a EEE (Eastern Equine Encephalitis) outbreak in southwest Michigan....
Here you can find all lectures related to this course from best instructors. And you can choose any of the courses in which you are interested.
State Reports Positive Mosquitoes for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Abstract: The State Mosquito Management Program today announced that mosquitoes trapped in Voluntown on July 10, 2013 have tested positive for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE).
Abstract. Florida has the highest degree of endemicity for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) of any state in the United States and is the only state with year-round transmission of EEEV. To further understand the viral population dynamics in Florida, the genome sequence of six EEEV isolates from central Florida were determined. These data were used to identify the most polymorphic regions of the EEEV genome from viruses isolated in Florida. The sequence of these polymorphic regions was then determined for 18 additional Florida isolates collected in four geographically distinct regions over a 20-year period. Phylogenetic analyses of these data suggested a rough temporal association of the Florida isolates, but no clustering by region or by source of the isolate. Some clustering of northeastern isolates with Florida isolates was seen, providing support for the hypothesis that Florida serves as a reservoir for the periodic introduction of EEEV into the northeastern United States.
BioAssay record AID 357781 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against Eastern equine encephalitis virus in BHK21 cells assessed as inhibition of virus-induced cytopathogenicity.
Background Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic zoonosis that circulates in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophagic mosquito, Culiseta melanura, and wild...
A case of eastern equine encephalitis in a horse has been reported in the Hunts Mills area of Chesterfield County. No case of human infection has been reported and eastern equine encephalitis is rare in humans, according to the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control. In the United States there are approximately five to 10 cases of eastern equine encephalitis annually, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The disease causes inflammation of the brain and can be fatal.
Eastern equine encephalitis: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on eastern equine encephalitis at PatientsLikeMe. 6 patients with eastern equine encephalitis experience fatigue, insomnia, depressed mood, pain, and anxious mood.
Recent research has indicated increasing rates of urbanization and habitat fragmentation may put mammalian populations at greater risk in the future for epidemics caused by arboviruses. Increasing knowledge of vector and host activity patterns and foraging behavior has set the stage for using use agent-base models to more accurately predict the occurrence in space and time of arboviral activity and epidemics. This research will focus of developing an agent-based model of the transmission cycle of the Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) virus in the southeastern swamp forest ecosystem. This research will add a critical spatial component to our understanding of the EEE virus. This will allow for the prediction of potential areas of outbreak of EEE in mammalian populations in the Southeast. ...
Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have deemed Eastern Equine Encephalitis an emergent threat. The mosquito-borne virus had a resurgence in 2019, infecting 36 people in the United States and killing 14.
This table contains provisional cases of national notifiable diseases from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). NNDSS data from the 50 states, New York City, the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories are collated and published weekly on the NNDSS Data and Statistics web page (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/data-and-statistics.html). Cases reported by state health departments to CDC for weekly publication are provisional because of the time needed to complete case follow-up. Therefore, numbers presented in later weeks may reflect changes made to these counts as additional information becomes available. The national surveillance case definitions used to define a case are available on the NNDSS web site at https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/. Information about the weekly provisional data and guides to interpreting data are available at: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/infectious-tables.html ...
Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005-2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN). The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. The DBSCAN algorithm identified five
Global and Chinese Drugs for Western Equine Encephalitis Industry, 2017 Market Research Report Size and Share Published in 2017-07-19 Available for US$ 3000 at Researchmoz.us
This is the first large-scale genomic study of an important, neuroinvasive alphavirus pathogen in North America. Using high-throughput sequencing methods, we obtained a total of 433 complete genome sequences of EEEV strains collected from many states in the United States between 1934 and 2014, particularly from Florida, New York, and Massachusetts. These new EEEV sequence data significantly increased the number of publicly available genome sequences from 16 to more than 400 (a ,20-fold increase) and, for the first time, allowed a comprehensive study of the genomic diversity and evolution of EEEV in North America. Our analyses show that the EEEV genome is highly conserved in general, and the evolution of EEEV is strongly clock-like. Notably, our phylogenetic analyses suggest different geographic regions in the United States are experiencing different epidemiological dynamics of EEEV. Most importantly, the phylogeography of EEEV in the United States appears to be compatible with a source-sink ...
September 5, 2019 - Mosquitoes infected with Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) have now been found in Wellfleet. Bourne, Falmouth, and Truro have also detected EEE in samples of mosquitoes in August. Below please see the most recent map provided by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Residents are urged to take personal protective activities like using EPA approved repellents and avoiding mosquitoes at peak times. West Nile virus activity has also been identified in several communities in Massachusetts. Get updated information at http://www.mosquitoresults.com/. ...
Simply ask us ! One of the most interesting features of EVAgs catalogue is its flexibility, please do not hesitate to contact us by using our contact form. We can add to the catalogue tailor-made products on demand, as well as access to plateforms, or services. With the large panel of virology laboratories in our consortium, there are good chances that we would have what you are looking for. If you are interested in acquiring cell-lines, please visit this page: access-cell-lines.. If you are interested in acquiring insect vectors, please visit this page: access-insect-vectors.. ...
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Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) officials confirmed the discovery of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus - a mosquito-borne viral disease - in a central-Ohio horse and a northwest-Ohio horse.
EEEP : Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is within the alphavirus group. It is a low prevalence cause of human disease in the eastern and Gulf Coast states. EEE is maintained by a cycle of mosquito/wild bird transmission, peaking in the summer and early fall, when man may become an adventitious host. The most common clinically apparent manifestation is a mild undifferentiated febrile illness, usually with headache. Central nervous system involvement is demonstrated in only a minority of infected individuals, it is more abrupt and more severe with EEE than other arboviruses, with children being more susceptible to severe disease. Fatality rates are approximately 70% for EEE.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is a disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. EEE most often infects horses but can infect humans. There is no vaccine for humans and approximately 1/3 of those infected die of the disease. The majority of those who survive, suffer brain damage. The mortality rate in horses is 70-90%. Fortunately for horses, there are vaccines available to help protect against infection.. Dr. Amanda House, University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine Clinical Associate Professor, advises, It is critical that every horse in Florida be vaccinated for EEE at least twice a year. Horses under 4 years of age or those new to the state should be vaccinated three times a year. EEE is a deadly disease that vaccination can help reduce or eliminate.. Mosquito control on farm is also critical for decreasing the incidence of disease in animals and in humans. Dr. Carissa Wickens, University of Florida State Extension Horse Specialist, has this to say about mosquito control, ...
Suffolk County Mosquito Control Boston and Chelsea MA - Eastern Equine Encephalitis - Suffolk County Mosquito Control, state agency. Mosquito control for Boston and Chelsea, Massachusetts.
A deer found dead in the Charlotte area tested positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis. This was the first time the deadly virus has appeared in Eaton
To find out more about Eastern Equine Encephalitis or how to make sure your Savannah, GA, yard is mosquito free this summer and fall, call us today at (912) 348-8247 or fill out our form, We look forward to hearing from you soon!
A 7-year-old alpaca in Camden County and a 2-year-old gelding horse in Ocean County are the fourth and fifth reported animal cases of Eastern Equine Encephalitis in New Jersey this year ...
- The report reviews key players involved in the therapeutics development for Eastern Equine Encephalitis and enlists all their major and minor projects - The report summarizes all the dormant and discontinued pipeline projects
Learn more about Eastern Equine Encephalitis at Medical City Dallas DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
ENCEFALOMIELITE EQUINA PDF - Background: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a highly lethal zoonotic disease caused by Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEv), an RNA virus of the
Definition : Serology reagents intended to detect antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis virus, a virus of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. This virus may cause subclinical infections in humans, with only a low-grade fever; in some cases this fever may be followed by encephalitis, characterized by increasing drowsiness, neck rigidity, confusion, paralysis, convulsions, and coma. The virus is typically transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes.. Entry Terms : Reagents, Serology, Virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Antibody. UMDC code : 22370 ...
The Oswego County Health Department announced that the eastern equine encephalitis virus has appeared in several more mosquito pools during the state health
What is WEE?. WEE is a potentially serious viral disease that primarily affects birds, mosquitoes, humans and horses.. Who gets WEE? Anyone living in an area where virus activity has been identified is at potential risk of infection.. Is WEE in Clark County? As of August 2013, the health districts Vector Control program has identified the virus in a mosquito pool (2013) and in three birds (2003). No human cases have been reported in Clark County.. How does WEE spread?. WEE is most often spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes (WEE carriers) become infected when they feed on infected birds (WEE reservoirs).. Infected mosquitoes can then spread WEE to humans and other animals when they bite. WEE is not spread from person-to-person.. What are the symptoms of WEE?. Most people who are infected with WEE have very mild illness or might never become sick. Mild infections are characterized by fever and headache, without other apparent symptoms.. The symptoms of severe disease can ...
Graphs showing weekly mosquito trapping data since June reveal dramatic declines in both the overall amount of mosquito activity and the number of trapped mosquitoes testing positive for EEE. States throughout the Northeast are also experiencing an active season for EEE. In addition to the virus being found in mosquitoes, there have been ten human cases of EEE infection in Massachusetts, including two fatalities, and three human cases in Rhode Island, including one fatality. Although EEE-infected mosquitoes continue to be detected in the southeastern corner of Connecticut, the numbers are declining and we are not experiencing the excessively high levels of activity seen in Massachusetts. There are currently no plans to implement widespread pesticide sprays in the state ...
LEBANON, Maine - Selectmen Chairman Robert Frizzell was notified on Monday of a positive case of Eastern equine encephalitis in town. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but serious viral disease spread by mosquitoes that can affect people and horses. EEE can also cause disease in captive birds such as the ring-necked pheasant, emu, ostriches, quail and ducks. EEE infection and disease can occasionally occur in other livestock, deer, dogs, other mammals, reptiles and amphibians.
Recent rains have cleared drains of some larvae, but mosquito foes are warning that saturated wetlands and containers that trap water could still breed bugs capable of spreading the West Nile and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses.
January 2006. The American Horse Council has released a white paper entitled NAIS and Horses: Why Horses Should be Included. The paper has been written in answer to a common question regarding why horses should be included in the National Animal Identification System, since horses dont carry diseases that affect other livestock or that affect humans.. Most people dont realize that horses do in fact contract diseases that can also be found in other livestock and, in some cases, in humans. The AHC paper lists and explains several of those diseases. The paper also describes some of the diseases that are experienced both by humans and horses, although in most cases, horses do not play a role in spreading these diseases to humans. (West Nile virus and Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis are examples.) However, there are some infectious diseases that horses can contract that they can transmit to humans. Examples of such zoonotic diseases include rabies, salmonella, ringworm, leptospirosis, ...
EEE is a mosquito-borne disease that kills roughly one-third of those infected and typically leaves survivors with mild to severe brain damage according to the CDC. 2019 brought an unexpected surge in cases of EEE in the US, more than 5 times the average, and the 36 confirmed cases across 8 states resulted in 14 deaths.. Mosquito populations are tested, monitored, and controlled by over 1,000 MADs (mosquito abatement districts, publicly funded departments at the city, county, and state level) in North America. The Company has been presenting its mosquito diagnostic products to MADs at vector control conferences across the country this year. Revenue from the Companys mosquito abatement vertical began earlier in 2019, and is expected to significantly increase as demand grows for the NAM-e and other tests to help provide a first-line of defense against the spread of certain mosquito-borne illnesses.. 18 infections you can get from mosquitoes. Like the other tests in the Companys Vector Smart ...
Published: October 16, 2017 3:04 pm ET. No Comments , Jump to Comments. On October 12, the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) was notified of a confirmed case of Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) in a horse in Bruce County.. The 12-year old unvaccinated mare with no travel history was euthanized following the sudden onset and progression of neurological signs. The horse was found down in the field, became unresponsive and was euthanized. A post-mortem examination was performed at the Animal Health Laboratory in Guelph, Ontario and EEE was confirmed by testing of brain tissue. Veterinarians in Ontario should consider EEE as a differential diagnosis in horses exhibiting neurological signs and can identify positive cases through appropriate testing. IgM antibodies to the EEE virus (EEEv) can be detected in serum from horses with neurological signs. Clinical signs of EEE (including circling, head-pressing, ataxia and depression) can mimic a variety of encephalitides ...
The number of people who got sick in the United States from an infected mosquito, tick, or flea tripled between 2004 and 2016. More than 640,000 cases over
Mosquito samples collected in Aquebogue and Jamesport in late last month tested positive for West Nile virus, according to the Suffolk County Department of Health. (more…). ...
This year has seen a surprising upsurge in cases of a rare viral infection in humans. Specialists warn that we need a strategy to prevent an outbreak ...
The CT River Area Health District (CRAHD) issued a notice on Thursday, October 24, 2019 that removed the previously established recommendation to restrict outdoor evening activities and events. Based on this new information, the appropriate town and school departments will be working together to create schedules for the remaining Fall outdoor practices, games, and events that will now be allowed to extend beyond dusk ...
Massachusetts EEE death, 2nd Human EEE Death Reported In Mass.. A Freetown man in his 70s has died after contracting Eastern Equine Encephalitis, the towns board of health confirmed Friday. His death marks this years second fatality linked to the virus in Massachusetts.. The Bristol County man was also the 10th Massachusetts resident infected with EEE this year, according to the states Department of Public Health.. We continue to emphasize the need for people to protect themselves from mosquito bites, Public Health Commissioner Monica Bharel said in a statement. The unusually warm weather expected this weekend will increase outdoor activity among people and mosquitoes. It is absolutely essential that people take steps to avoid being bitten by a mosquito.. ...
Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), coined Triple-E, has been in the state of Massachusetts longer than any other state and our state has far more human cases of EEE than the next closest state. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) we have had 24 cases between 2004-2013 while the next most infected state of Florida comes in at 15 human cases of EEE. As reported in the Lowell Sun, EEE is carried by mosquitoes born in swamps who have bitten birds carrying the disease. The mosquitoes spread EEE further when they feed on the blood of mammals in cattail marshes. With swamps and marshes aplenty in southeastern Mass, we are a perfect hotbed for EEE. In fact, Plymouth County has had the most cases of EEE in the state.. ...
A mosquito pool in York has tested positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), according to Dr. Sheila Pinette, director of the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
|P align=left>Minnesota recently had its first encounter with eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) when the disease was confirmed in two horses in separate areas of the state. One horse was from Blue Earth County in southern Minnesota, and the other
State health officials say the number of people who have contracted mosquito-borne Eastern equine encephalitis in recent years has grown but scientists do not know why.
TYNGSBORO -- With the Eastern Equine Encephalitis threat level getting raised to critical in Tyngsboro on Wednesday, all outdoor School and Recreation Department activities are now required to end by 6:30 p.
A second incidence of Eastern equine encephalitis in birds has been found in York County, and public health officials are recommending the public take steps to protect against mosquito bites.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is on everyone s minds this week as the state grapples with how to address the high levels of EEE found in mosquito samples. The Mattapoisett, Marion and Rochester Boards of Health canceled all evening activities on town grounds, and announced 6:00 pm closures of ball parks, playgrounds and town beaches as a result of what the state is calling a public health threat ...
Weymouth officials are asking residents to stay indoors after dark following the death of a local woman from Eastern equine encephalitis.
A study on eastern equine encephalitis shows the number of people in Massachusetts who have contracted the mosquito-borne virus has been rising.
The debate rages on over when and how often to conduct aerial spraying of pesticides to combat EEE.The state still doesnt get it, said Raynham Selectman Joseph Pacheco, who advocates spraying early and often to prevent Eastern equine encephalitis a potentially deadly mosquito-borne illness from getting a foothold in the region each summer.The time for spraying is now and Im once again calling on the legislature and the Department of Public Health to get it done.
In 1937, Joseph Beard developed a vaccine against equine encephalomyelitis, one of the first known vaccines to combat the ... Beard JW, Finkelstein H, Sealy WC, Wyckoff RW (May 1938). "Immunization Against Equine Encephalomyelitis with Chick Embryo ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Webb began her virology research on western equine encephalomyelitis, an outbreak of which affected many children in California ... "Western equine encephalomyelitis: Clinical observations in infants and children". The Journal of Pediatrics. 43 (1): 26-34. doi ... "Western equine encephalomyelitis: Clinical observations in infants and children". The Journal of Pediatrics. 43 (1): 26-34. ...
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus; Equine coronavirus) and a newly recognized virus of dogs (canine respiratory ...
The California quail is easily infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV). In California, the virus' ...
... the eastern and western type of equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, and yellow fever virus. ... "Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by Aedes sollicitans and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae)". ... Kelser, R.A. (1937). "Transmission of the Virus of Equine Encephalomy-elîtis by Aëdes taeniorhynchus". www.cabdirect.org. ... It is a carrier for encephalitic viruses including Venezuelan equine encephalitis and can transmit Dirofilaria immitis. It ...
... cedecei for sympatric and allopatric Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis viruses". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine ... Everglades virus (EVEV) is an alphavirus included in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex. The virus circulates ...
Researchers have isolated the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus from a black-cowled oriole in Panama. Some females and ...
A genus of mosquito Mansonia, species of which are vectors of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis and Brugian filariasis, is ...
"A comparison of the nucleotide sequences of eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses with those of other ... the eastern equine encephalitis virus subgroup (eastern equine encephalitis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses) and the ... 1938 - Venezuelan equine encephalitis is isolated. 1941 - Western equine encephalitis epidemic is seen in the United States. It ... Divergence between the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and the eastern equine virus appears to have been ~1400 years ago. ...
In Britain, the 1950s saw the weaponization of plague, brucellosis, tularemia and later equine encephalomyelitis and vaccinia ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B). The United States developed an anti-crop capability during ...
... the yellow-crowned night heron is an intermediate host and amplifier of the eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus ( ... "CDC - Eastern Equine Encephalitis". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-14. "Nyctanassa violacea (Yellow-crowned Night-heron, Yellow ...
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus, Everglades virus, Highlands J virus, La Crosse Encephalitis virus in the United States ...
Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses combined. California encephalitis virus (CEV) - type strain ... of arboviral encephalitis were caused by California serogroup viruses than were reported for western equine encephalomyelitis ...
... in southeast Texas to combat Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis. Operation Ranch Hand was the name of the aerial application ...
... tularemia and later equine encephalomyelitis and vaccinia viruses (the latter as a relatively safe simulant for smallpox). In ...
A new brain disease of mice (murine encephalomyelitis) was discovered in 1947 at Harvard Medical School in Boston. The virus ... Equine coronavirus (discovered in 2000) and Canine respiratory coronavirus (discovered in 2003) into a single species ... While HCoV-OC229E is retained as a valid species, HCoV-OC43 was merged with Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus ( ... Theiler M (April 1937). "Spontaneous Encephalomyelitis of Mice, A New Virus Disease". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 65 ...
... eastern equine MeSH C02.081.355.355 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C02.081.355.677 - encephalomyelitis, western ... encephalomyelitis, equine MeSH C02.182.500.300.450.200 - encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C02.182.500.300.450.250 - ... encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C02.182.500.300.450.300 - encephalomyelitis, western equine MeSH C02.182.500.300.500 ... eastern equine MeSH C02.290.450.225 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C02.290.450.250 - encephalomyelitis, western ...
Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Western equine encephalitis: a group of ... Various types of encephalomyelitis include: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or postinfectious encephalomyelitis, a ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Information Page at ... Encephalomyelitis disseminata, a synonym for multiple sclerosis. AntiMOG associated encephalomyelitis, one of the underlying ...
... may refer to: Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezuelan equine ...
"Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is closely related to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and western equine ... "Eastern Equine Encephalitis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 30 April 2017. "Eastern Equine ... In years in which conditions are favorable for the disease, the number of equine cases is over 200. Diagnosing equine ...
Eastern equine encephalitis Western equine encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis Rabies La crosse encephalitis Progressive ... post infectious and encephalomyelitis. Chronic - the most common diseases caused by chronic viral infections are subacute- ...
The Western equine encephalomyelitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus Sherman, M. B.; Weaver, S. C. (2010). "Structure of the Recombinant Alphavirus Western Equine ... Western equine encephalitis virus was one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological ... Unlike Eastern equine encephalitis, the overall mortality of WEE is low (approximately 4%) and is associated mostly with ...
Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis "PAHO: Equine Encephalitis in the Event of a Disaster". Retrieved 2007-03-17. "PAHO ... Equines, rather than rodents, are the primary animal species that carry and spread the disease. Infected equines develop an ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen that causes Venezuelan equine encephalitis or ... encephalomyelitis (VEE). VEE can affect all equine species, such as horses, donkeys, and zebras. After infection, equines may ...
S. neurona causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Exposure to this parasite appears to be common in the United States, with ... glial nodules and mild to moderate nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis. The diagnosis may be established finding protozoan bodies ... Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis Miescher, F. (1843). "Ueber eigenthiimliche Schlauche in den Muskeln einer Hausmaus. Ber. u. ...
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis Amoebic brain abscess Viral meningitis Eastern equine ... protease-sensitive prionopathy Familial spongiform encephalopathy PANDAS Sydenham's chorea Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Similar diseases that are spread by mosquitoes include: Western and Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint ...
H3N8 in equines spreads via aerosols and causes respiratory illness. Equine H3N8 perferentially binds to α-2,3 sialic acids, so ... disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Additionally, febrile seizures and Reye ... Equine IAVs include H7N7 and two lineages of H3N8. H7N7, however, has not been detected in horses since the late 1970s, so it ... In canines, the only IAVs in circulation are equine-derived H3N8 and avian-derived H3N2. Canine H3N8 has not been observed to ...
... venezuelan equine MeSH B04.820.850.054.360 - encephalitis virus, western equine MeSH B04.820.850.054.813 - ross river virus ... encephalomyelitis virus, avian MeSH B04.820.565.400.410 - hepatitis a virus MeSH B04.820.565.400.410.500 - hepatitis a virus, ... venezuelan equine MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.360 - encephalitis virus, western equine MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.813 - ross river ... equine MeSH B04.820.650.589.520.400 - infectious anemia virus, equine MeSH B04.820.650.589.530 - lentiviruses, feline MeSH ...
From statements by Orsolya Kutasi, DVM, of the Szent Istvan University, Hungary at the 2009 American Association of Equine ... Spanish sheep encephalomyelitis virus (SSEV) Turkish sheep encephalitis virus (TSE) Tick-borne encephalitis virus serocomplex ...
... equine infectious anemia MeSH C22.488.409 - glanders MeSH C22.488.861 - strongyle infections, equine MeSH C22.595.740 - white ... encephalomyelitis, enzootic porcine MeSH C22.905.382 - epidermitis, exudative, of swine MeSH C22.905.469 - gastroenteritis, ... equine MeSH C22.674.377.868 - toxocariasis MeSH C22.674.710 - protozoan infections, animal MeSH C22.674.710.122 - babesiosis ...
... encephalomyelitis, equine MeSH C10.228.228.210.150.300.450.200 - encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C10.228.228.210.150.300 ... encephalomyelitis, equine MeSH C10.228.228.245.340.450.200 - encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C10.228.228.245.340.450.225 ... encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C10.228.228.245.340.450.250 - encephalomyelitis, western equine MeSH C10.228.228.245. ... encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C10.228.228.210.150.300.450.800 - encephalomyelitis, western equine MeSH C10.228. ...
Don McLaren, 81, New Zealand equine pharmaceutical businessman and Thoroughbred racehorse breeder. Abdelwahab Meddeb, 68, ... acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Mariam Fakhr Eddine, 81, Egyptian actress. Klaus Kreuzeder, 64, German saxophonist. Jim ...
Western equine encephalitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Although these vaccines are not perfectly effective, they are ... such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, as well as immune-mediated encephalitis, so other diagnostic methods may need to ... which causes both chickenpox and shingles Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus West Nile virus Western equine encephalitis ... For some forms of viral encephalitis, such as Eastern equine encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis, there may be a significant ...
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Equine encephalomyelitis may refer to: Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezuelan equine ...
Pathogenesis of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from The ... Pathogenesis of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus. I. Infection in Suckling Mice. William D. Kundin, Chien Liu and ... The pathogenesis of an attenuated and an unattenuated strain of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in suckling ...
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus. RNA fingerprinting revealed that most populations within infected hosts ( ... We evaluated genetic and phenotypic diversity within natural populations of the alphavirus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis ( ... 8101674 - Diversity within natural populations of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.. 1429754 - Theoretical analysis on ... Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine / genetics*. Genetic Variation*. Molecular Sequence Data. Phenotype. Quail. RNA, Viral. ...
Influence of Anesthesia on Experimental Western Equine Encephalomyelitis Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Influence of Anesthesia on Experimental Western Equine Encephalomyelitis. By S. EDWARD SULKIN, ANDRES GOTH, CHRISTINE ... Influence of Anesthesia on Experimental Western Equine Encephalomyelitis. By S. EDWARD SULKIN, ANDRES GOTH, CHRISTINE ... Anesthesia, by ether, is effective in the treatment of western equine encephalomyelitis in mice. Of mice treated with deep ...
Equine" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Encephalomyelitis, Equine" was a major or minor topic of ... Western equine encephalomyelitis: virulence markers and their epidemiologic significance. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Sep; 49(3): ... "Encephalomyelitis, Equine" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Laboratory transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus to chickens by chicken mites (Acari: Dermanyssidae). J Med ...
... and antonyms of the term EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in the Online Dictionary. ... EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS: Review the definition, meaning, pronunciation, explanation, synonyms, ...
... and their resulting diseases are designated western equine or eastern equine encephalomyelitis; these viruses belong to the ... Equine encephalomyelitis (Science: veterinary) An acute, often fatal, virus disease of horses and mules transmitted by ... Equine encephalomyelitis. Revision as of 21:16, 3 October 2005 by WikiConvertor (Talk) ... Retrieved from "http://www.biology-online.org/bodict/index.php?title=Equine_encephalomyelitis&oldid=44077" ...
What is eastern equine encephalomyelitis? Meaning of eastern equine encephalomyelitis medical term. What does eastern equine ... Looking for online definition of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in the Medical Dictionary? eastern equine encephalomyelitis ... including Eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Western equine encephalomyelitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis.. West ... Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine ...
The possible roles of observed pathology will be discussed in a subsequent paper.Keywords: western equine encephalomyelitis ... By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis ... Infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) in four strains of Culex tarsalis ( ... Keywords: western equine encephalomyelitis virus, Culex tarsalis, vector competence, viral tropism, mosquito/virus interaction ...
Live, Attenuated Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Vaccine I. Clinical Effects in Man* * Aristides C. Alevizatos†, ...
This assay was developed for the rapid detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and St. Louis ... A rapid dot immunoassay for the detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis ... The dot immunoassay correctly identified 99% (123/124) of the eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and 100% (67/67) of the St ... Chickens were experimentally infected with eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis and bled on a daily ...
Viruses were isolated from 4 of 7 human brain tissue specimens and from 3 of 6 equine brain specimens. Histopathological ... Summary Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from man and horses during an outbreak of the disease in Jamaica in ... An Outbreak of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis in Jamaica II. Laboratory Diagnosis and Pathology of Eastern Equine ... Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from man and horses during an outbreak of the disease in Jamaica in ...
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... received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, ... In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This ... severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected ... Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California Robert P. Franklin*. , Hailu Kinde†, Michele T. Jay ...
... received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, ... In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This ... severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected ... EEEV, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) are related but ...
Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine. Encephalomyelitis, Equine. Encephalomyelitis. Central Nervous System Infections. Central ... Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Biological: 0.5 mL Inactivated, Dried, C-84, TSI-GSD 205, Lot 7, Run 1 Phase 2 ... Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE) Vaccine as Booster Vaccine in Adults (VEE). The ... Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Inactivated, Dried, C-84, TSI-GSD 205, Lot 7, Run 1, to be administered as dose(s ...
IMMUNIZATION AGAINST EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH CHICK EMBRYO VACCINES. By J. W. Beard, Harold Finkelstein, W. C. Sealy, R. W ... IMMUNIZATION AGAINST EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH CHICK EMBRYO VACCINES. By J. W. Beard, Harold Finkelstein, W. C. Sealy, R. W ... IMMUNIZATION AGAINST EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH CHICK EMBRYO VACCINES. By J. W. Beard, Harold Finkelstein, W. C. Sealy, R. W ... IMMUNIZATION AGAINST EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH CHICK EMBRYO VACCINES Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Find details on Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis virus in horses including diagnosis and symptoms, active forms, resting forms ... Gregory C R, Latimer K S, Niagro F D et al (1996) Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in formalin-fixed, ... Patterson J S, Mes R K, Mullaney T P & Benson C L (1996) Immunohistochemical diagnosis of eastern equine encephalomyelitis. J ... Most equine, human and avian infections with EEE are severe, in horses the disease is often fatal (mortality rates of 75-98% ...
THE MECHANISM OF ACTIVE CEREBRAL IMMUNITY TO EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS : II. THE LOCAL ANTIGENIC BOOSTER EFFECT OF THE C ... R. Walter Schlesinger; THE MECHANISM OF ACTIVE CEREBRAL IMMUNITY TO EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS : II. THE LOCAL ANTIGENIC B ... ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION OF GUINEA PIGS WITH THE VIRUS OF EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS IV. EFFECT OF IMMUNE SERUM ON ANTIGENICITY OF ... DEPRESSION OF ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS OF EMBRYONIC TISSUE BY WESTERN STRAIN OF EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS. PREVENTION OF THIS ...
... by Debora Johnson Equine Encephalomelitis is an infectious viral disease that affects the brain of ... Previous studies have only found that snakes have antibodies to EEEV...." Snakes Linked to Spread of Equine Encephalitis Virus ... New Equine Vaccine Information. Home. Medical Index. ...
Patterns of avian seroprevalence to Western Equine encephalomyelitis and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in California, USA. ... Temporal and spatial changes in the enzootic activity of western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE ... Patterns of avian seroprevalence to Western Equine encephalomyelitis and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in California, USA. ... N2 - Temporal and spatial changes in the enzootic activity of western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis ...
Viremia and serological responses in adult chickens infected with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis ... Viremia and serological responses in adult chickens infected with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis ... Viremia and serological responses in adult chickens infected with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis ... title = "Viremia and serological responses in adult chickens infected with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis ...
Western Equine; Western Equine Encephalitis. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from ... Encephalomyelitis, Western Equine (Western Equine Encephalitis). A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects ... Ranked list of diseases related to "Encephalomyelitis, Western Equine"Drugs, active principles and "Encephalomyelitis, Western ... The causative organism (encephalomyelitis VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (culex ...
adshelp[at]cfa.harvard.edu The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A ...
Near East Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from ... Borna disease virus (Enzootic Encephalomyelitis Virus; Near East Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus). A species in the genus ...
eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis;. *ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans); *epsilon toxin of Clostridium ...
Learn about Encephalomyelitis Vaccine Eastern & Western with Tetanus Toxoid for animal usage including: active ingredients, ... The first indication of equine encephalomyelitis is fever. Temperature will vary from 102° to 107°F. Sluggishness and ... Encephalomyelitis Vaccine Eastern & Western with Tetanus Toxoid. This page contains information on Encephalomyelitis Vaccine ... Encephalomyelitis Vaccine Eastern & Western with Tetanus Toxoid Indications. *Warnings and cautions for Encephalomyelitis ...
What is encephalomyelitis? Meaning of encephalomyelitis medical term. What does encephalomyelitis mean? ... Looking for online definition of encephalomyelitis in the Medical Dictionary? encephalomyelitis explanation free. ... equine encephalomyelitis see eastern equine e., western equine e., and Venezuelan equine e. ... Called also equine encephalitis.. equine encephalomyelitis, eastern a viral disease similar to western equine encephalomyelitis ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and Western equine encephalomyelitis viruses with known circulation in Argentina were included in the assay with negative results (3). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Serum samples were first tested against the major neurotropic viruses infecting horses, including Eastern equine encephalomyelitis , Western equine encephalomyelitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A rapid dot immunoassay for the detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in sentinel ch. (nih.gov)
  • Viruses were isolated from 4 of 7 human brain tissue specimens and from 3 of 6 equine brain specimens. (ajtmh.org)
  • Viremia and serological responses in adult chickens infected with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. (elsevier.com)
  • Adult hens, similar to those used for arbovirus surveillance, were experimentally infected with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses to describe the viremia response, to compare serological testing methods, and to evaluate a new method of collecting whole blood onto filter paper strips from lancet pricks of the chicken comb. (elsevier.com)
  • Fort Dodge Fluvac Innovator 6 is an excellent all-around vaccine and is indicated for intramuscular vaccination of healthy horses as an aid in the prevention of Equine Encephalomyelitis [Sleeping Sickness] due to Eastern, Western and Venezuelan viruses, Equine Rhinopneumonitis due to type 1 and 4 viruses, Equine Influenza due to type A 2 viruses, and Tetanus. (medi-vet.com)
  • Alphaviruses, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and WEEV are grouped geographically as New World viruses capable of causing disease in both equids and humans, exhibiting overt encephalitic features in a significant number of cases. (mdpi.com)
  • The flaviviruses, like the other encephalomyelitis viruses, are transmitted by mosquitoes, and infrequently by other bloodsucking insects, to horses, human beings, and a number of other mammals from avian hosts, which serve as natural reservoirs for these viruses in nature. (lsu.edu)
  • Identification and characterization of viruses isolated, including new subtypes of western and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses and four new bunyaviruses (Las Maloyas, Resistencia, Barranqueras, and Antequera). (harvard.edu)
  • To better assess the exposure of white-tailed deer to seven arboviruses, we tested 1,508 sera collected from 2010 to 2016 for antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (2.5%), Powassan (4.2%), St. Louis encephalitis, (3.7%), West Nile (6.0%), Maguari (19.4%), La Crosse (30.3%), and bluetongue (7.8%) viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • Western equine encephalitis belongs to the Group IV positive-sense ssRNA virus within the Togaviridae family of viruses, and the genus Alphavirus . (wikidoc.org)
  • acute disseminated encephalomyelitis inflammation of the brain and spinal cord after infection (especially measles) or, formerly, rabies vaccination. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Zoetis' new Core EQ Innovator equine vaccine contains all five core equine disease antigens-West Nile, Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, tetanus, and rabies-in one vaccine. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Tetanus, rabies, lead poisoning and equine protozoal encephalomyelitis (EPM) are a few. (yudu.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) easily ranks among the worst diseases a horse could get. (equusmagazine.com)
  • Viral respiratory and neurologic diseases are the leading preventable causes of death in horses," said Jacquelin Boggs, DVM, MS, DACVIM, senior veterinarian, Equine Technical Services at Zoetis. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • While annual vaccination against the core equine diseases has long been an established standard of care, Core EQ Innovator will simplify compliance and help provide protection to all horses against these deadly diseases. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • AntiMOG associated encephalomyelitis, one of the underlying conditions for the phenotype neuromyelitis optica and in general all the spectrum of MOG autoantibody-associated demyelinating diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Information Page at NINDS Pröbstel AK et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 64.1(5) Equine diseases. (iowa.gov)
  • In fact, many of the equine diseases we vaccinate against are deadly and treatment after the disease is present may often be unsuccessful. (useventing.com)
  • With highly contagious diseases such as equine herpesvirus, influenza and strangles, vaccination alone will not prevent disease transmission. (useventing.com)
  • Western equine encephalitis virus must be differentiated from other diseases that cause fever , headache , seizures , and altered mental status . (wikidoc.org)
  • We evaluated genetic and phenotypic diversity within natural populations of the alphavirus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus in the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. (cdc.gov)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes sporadic, often fatal disease outbreaks in humans and equids, and is also a biological threat agent. (nih.gov)
  • A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America. (harvard.edu)
  • The pathogenesis of an attenuated and an unattenuated strain of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in suckling mice as studied by infectivity titrations and direct fluorescent antibody-staining technique was described. (jimmunol.org)
  • Localized eastern equine encephalitis in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina, without human infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Infection and transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus with colonized Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), we identified tissue tropisms and potential tissue barriers, and evaluated the effects of viral dose and time postingestion. (dovepress.com)
  • A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). (cdc.gov)
  • In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. (cdc.gov)
  • acute disseminated encephalomyelitis an acute or subacute encephalomyelitis or myelitis occurring most commonly following an acute viral infection, especially measles, but sometimes occurring without a recognizable antecedent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Encephalomyelitis in horses caused by infection with the West Nile virus has been called Near Eastern equine encephalitis or lordige in France. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The number of equine cases of West Nile virus infection in the US has been declining since it hit a high of more than 15,000 cases in 2002, although smaller focal outbreaks have occurred. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Various types of encephalomyelitis include: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or postinfectious encephalomyelitis, a demyelinating disease of the brain and spinal cord, possibly triggered by viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS-related encephalomyelitis, caused by opportunistic Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • West Nile virus, a flavivirus, was first identified as a cause of infection and fatal encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord and brain) in horses and people in Egypt, Uganda and France in the early 1960's. (lsu.edu)
  • The causes of foal pneumonia include viral infections (such as equine herpesvirus infection, discussed earlier in this chapter), bacterial infections (such as Rhodococcus equi infection), parasitic migration, and environmental stresses (such as weather fluctuations, dusty conditions, or overcrowding). (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Western equine encephalitis is a mild to moderate infection of the central nervous system . (wikidoc.org)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from man and horses during an outbreak of the disease in Jamaica in November and December, 1962. (ajtmh.org)
  • EEEV and VEEV are lethal in up to 90% of recognized equine cases, whereas WEEV is least virulent in horses, which have a mortality rate of approximately 40% ( 1 ) . (cdc.gov)
  • The American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) includes EEE/WEE on its list of "core vaccines," which are recommended for the majority of horses. (equusmagazine.com)
  • The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) is encouraging Florida's horse community to be vigilant of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), a serious viral disease that can affect horses, birds, and humans and cause neurological injury and death. (poandpo.com)
  • All horses are susceptible to West Nile virus encephalomyelitis, especially if not vaccinated against the disease. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Core EQ Innovator provides a safe and effective immune response against the five core equine disease antigens as demonstrated in safety and efficacy trials, Zoetis stated, adding that the vaccine has been field tested in more than 1,000 horses with 99.7 percent of horses being reaction free. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Equine encephalitis, also called Equine Encephalomyelitis, severe viral disease of horses and mules. (britannica.com)
  • Western equine encephalitis was first identified by Karl Friedrich Meyer, an American scientist of Swiss origin, in 1930 following an epizootic outbreak in horses in the San Joaquin Valley in California. (wikidoc.org)
  • [3] Humans and horses are dead-end hosts for the virus, meaning there is an insufficient amount of western equine encephalitis virus in the blood stream to infect a mosquito. (wikidoc.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis was first discovered in 1938 after the virus was isolated from the brains of dead horses following an outbreak in the Venezuelan countryside. (wikidoc.org)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • EEEV, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) are related but genetically distinct alphaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) naturally cycles between mosquitos and birds or rodents, with a case fatality rate of up to 15% in humans during epizootic outbreaks. (mdpi.com)
  • WEEV causes periodic epizootic outbreaks in Western and Central North America and is maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitos and birds or rodents [ 1 ] Humans are usually infected as a result of close proximity to infected equines and by being bitten by an infected mosquito. (mdpi.com)
  • One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. (cdc.gov)
  • Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Inactivated, Dried, C-84, TSI-GSD 205, Lot 7, Run 1, to be administered as dose(s) of 0.5 mL given subcutaneously in the upper outer aspect of the triceps area. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This page contains information on Encephalomyelitis Vaccine Eastern & Western with Tetanus Toxoid for veterinary use . (drugs.com)
  • The toxoid is refined to remove most of the nonspecific components and is concentrated to provide a low dose effective product for combination with Encephalomyelitis Vaccine fraction. (drugs.com)
  • The vaccine candidates were tested in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). (nih.gov)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian hosts. (nih.gov)
  • In this study we examine the leukocyte counts of gray catbirds ( Dumetella carolinensis) infected with eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic zoonosis that circulates in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophagic mosquito, Culiseta melanura , and wild passerine birds in freshwater hardwood swamps in the northeastern U.S. Epidemic/epizootic transmission to humans/equines typically occurs towards the end of the transmission season and is generally assumed to be mediated by locally abundant and contiguous mammalophagic "bridge vector" mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This mosquito species serves as the primary vector of EEEV among wild bird species, but also is capable of occasionally contributing to epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans/equines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • West Nile virus, the cause of West Nile encephalomyelitis, was first found in North America in 1999, although it was widely distributed in Africa, the Middle East, southwest Asia, and parts of Europe. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Vaccination helps protect against West Nile virus encephalomyelitis. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of north america. (icd10data.com)
  • Equine encephalomyelitis may refer to: Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Viral encephalitis This article includes a list of related items that share the same name (or similar names). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diversity within natural populations of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Of mice treated with deep ether anesthesia soon after the intracerebral injection of western equine virus, only 58 per cent developed the disease as compared with 92.4 per cent of control animals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Protective antibodies against Eastern equine encephalitis virus bind to epitopes in domains A and B of the E2 glycoprotein. (harvard.edu)
  • Genetic evidence for the origins of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB outbreaks. (harvard.edu)
  • Laboratory transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus to chickens by chicken mites (Acari: Dermanyssidae). (harvard.edu)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis in upstate New York: studies of a 1976 epizootic by a modified serologic technique, hemagglutination reduction, for rapid detection of virus infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The dot immunoassay correctly identified 99% (123/124) of the eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and 100% (67/67) of the St. Louis encephalitis virus antisera. (nih.gov)
  • The causative organism ( encephalomyelitis VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes ( culex tarsalis and others). (lookfordiagnosis.com)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus , purified in sucrose density gradients was examined with the electron microscope before and after sodium desoxycholate (DOC) treatment . (bvsalud.org)
  • Pulse-chase experiments after synchronous initiation of translation indicate that the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus membrane glycoprotein, E 2 , is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the precursor, PE 2 . (utmb.edu)
  • Phylogram based on nucleotide comparison from the E1 region of a horse infected with Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus . (cdc.gov)
  • Mice infected with venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus showed a significant decrease in GABA content of cerebral hemispheres. (bvsalud.org)
  • The causative organism (encephalomyelitis virus, eastern equine) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of aedes mosquitoes. (icd10data.com)
  • Netolitzky DJ, Schmaltz FL, Parker MD. Complete genomic RNA sequence of western equine encephalitis virus and expression of the structural genes. (medscape.com)
  • Vector competence of five common mosquito species in the People's Republic of China for Western equine encephalitis virus. (medscape.com)
  • Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Neurotropic arboviruses induce interferon regulatory factor 3-mediated neuronal responses that are cytoprotective, interferon independent, and inhibited by Western equine encephalitis virus capsid. (harvard.edu)
  • Western equine encephalitis is closely related to eastern equine encephalitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. (wikidoc.org)
  • Western equine encephalitis virus is usually transmitted via mosquitos to the human host, primarily Culiseta melanura and Culex tarsalis . (wikidoc.org)
  • Western equine encephalitis is known as an arbovirus , or an arthropod-borne virus. (wikidoc.org)
  • Neither are an important vector of western equine virus to humans because both feed almost exclusively on birds. (wikidoc.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is usually transmitted via mosquitos to the human host, primarily Culex melanoconion or Aedes . (wikidoc.org)
  • less than 1% of patients infected with the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus present with symptoms. (wikidoc.org)
  • This negatively-stained 1975 transmission electron micrograph ( TEM ) revealed the presence of a number of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus virions in this tissue specimen, which had been fixed using phosphotungstic acid (PTA). (wikidoc.org)
  • which feed on tangential hosts such as humans and equines, may result in large epizootics with high mortality rates ( 4 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Host-feeding patterns of Argentine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected during and after an epizootic of western equine encephalitis. (harvard.edu)
  • Arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes collected during and after the 1982-1983 epizootic of western equine encephalitis in Argentina. (harvard.edu)
  • Reevaluation of the western equine encephalitis antigenic complex of alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) as determined by neutralization tests. (harvard.edu)
  • postinfectious encephalomyelitis ( postvaccinal encephalomyelitis ) acute disseminated encephalomyelitis . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When administered as directed this single product provides protection against Eastern and Western types of encephalomyelitis and against tetanus. (drugs.com)
  • All of the disease antigens in Core EQ Innovator are backed by the Zoetis Equine Immunization Support Guarantee, which provides horse owners and veterinarians with vaccination support, including diagnostic testing and treatment, the company stated. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • These recommendations are based on the American Association of Equine Practitioner's (AAEP) core and risk-based vaccination guidelines. (useventing.com)
  • There is a vaccination approved for limited use for Venezuelan equine encephalitis, though its effectiveness is often questioned. (wikidoc.org)
  • Encephalomyelitis is often referred to as horse encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), sleeping sickness, blind staggers, and brain fever. (drugs.com)
  • Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of brain inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru. (harvard.edu)
  • Western equine encephalitis is contracted by the bite of an infected mosquito , primarily Culiseta melanura and Culex tarsalis . (wikidoc.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis is contracted by the bite of an infected mosquito , primarily Culex melanoconion or Aedes . (wikidoc.org)
  • Compatible syndromes with equine encephalomyelitis, Hog cholera-like disease : Weekly Report. (who.int)
  • Anesthesia, by ether, is effective in the treatment of western equine encephalomyelitis in mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • The first indication of equine encephalomyelitis is fever. (drugs.com)