An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)
A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)
A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A tentative species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS infecting primarily young chicks, but also found in turkeys, pheasants, and guinea fowl. It causes a fatal neuronal degeneration and is transmitted by mechanical contact.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus CARDIOVIRUS, family PICORNAVIRIDAE.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
A picornavirus infection producing symptoms similar to poliomyelitis in pigs.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics. It is usually caused by coxsackieviruses B and sometimes by coxsackieviruses A; echoviruses; or other enteroviruses.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE causing encephalitis and myocarditis in rodents. ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS is the type species.
Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
A strain of mice bred specifically as high or low antibody responders.
Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.
The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Viruses infecting man and other vertebrates.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Infections with viruses of the order NIDOVIRALES. The concept includes ARTERIVIRUS INFECTIONS and CORONAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE that can cause polioencephalomyelitis in pigs. The type species Porcine teschovirus is comprised of multiple strains.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A factor identified in the brain that influences the growth and differentiation of NEURONS and NEUROGLIA. Glia maturation factor beta is the 17-kDa polypeptide product of the GMFB gene and is the principal component of GLIA MATURATION FACTOR.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A subunit of interleukin-23. It combines with INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P40, which is shared between the two cytokines, to form in the active interleukin-23 cytokine.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Copper chelator that inhibits monoamine oxidase and causes liver and brain damage.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A diffuse or multifocal peripheral neuropathy related to the remote effects of a neoplasm, most often carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically, there are inflammatory changes in peripheral nerves. The most common clinical presentation is a symmetric distal mixed sensorimotor polyneuropathy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1334)
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.

Clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and virologic findings of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in two horses. (1/31)

Natural eastern equine encephalitis alphavirus (EEEV) infection was diagnosed in two adult horses with anorexia and colic, changes in sensorium, hyperexcitability, and terminal severe depression. Myocardium, tunica muscularis of stomach, intestine, urinary bladder, and spleen capsule had coagulative necrosis and perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. Central nervous system (CNS) lesions were diffuse polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis characterized by perivascular T lymphocyte cuffing, marked gliosis, neuronophagia, and multifocal microabscesses. Lesions were more prominent within cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon. EEEV was identified in the cytoplasm of cardiac myocytes and smooth muscle cells of spleen, stomach, intestine, urinary bladder, blood vessels, and dendritic cells. In the CNS, EEEV-positive cells included neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and neutrophils. EEEV was isolated from the CNS of both horses. The detailed description of the encephalic and spinal EEEV localization and the findings of EEEV in extraneural tissues contribute to the understanding of this important multisystemic zoonotic disease.  (+info)

Detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus in infected mosquitoes using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (2/31)

Surveillance of mosquito populations for virus activity is not often performed by small, vector-control districts because they do not have the financial resources to use virus isolation, or newer methods such as the polymerase chain reaction. Consequently, development and refinements of rapid, sensitive, and simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) applicable to a wide variety of public health settings are justified. We have developed an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus in mosquitoes that uses both monoclonal capture and detector antibodies. The sensitivity of this assay is 4.0-5.0 log10 plaque-forming units/ml, which is comparable to previously published EEE antigen-capture assays developed with polyclonal antibody reagents. This test identifies only North American strains of EEE virus and does not react with either western equine encephalitis or Highlands J viruses. Test sensitivity was enhanced by sonicating mosquito pools, treating them with Triton X-100, and increasing the time and temperature of antigen incubation. The conversion of this ELISA to a monoclonal antibody-based format should result in a readily standardizable and transferable assay that will permit laboratories lacking virus isolation facilities to conduct EEE virus surveillance.  (+info)

Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in a horse from California. (3/31)

A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed. A vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was later suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular characterization of EEEV from brain tissue. The vaccine was extensively tested for viral inactivation. Nucleotide sequences from the vaccine and the virus isolated in the affected horse were also compared. In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This report describes the occurrence of EEEV infection in the horse and the investigation to determine the source of infection, which was not definitively identified.  (+info)

Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus from crows during increased arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut, 2000. (4/31)

The emergence of the West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeastern United States has drawn emphasis to the need for expanded arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut. Although the state of Connecticut began a comprehensive mosquito-screening program in 1997, only since 1999 have there been efforts to determine the prevalence of arboviruses in bird populations in this state. Herein, we report on our results of an arbovirus survey of 1,704 bird brains. Included in this report are the first known isolations of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) from crows and data on the geographic and temporal distribution of 1,092 WNV isolations from crow species. Moreover, these nine isolations of EEEV identify regions of Connecticut where the virus is rarely found. With the exception of WNV and EEEV, no other arboviruses were isolated or detected. Taken together, these data illustrate the distribution of avian borne EEEV and WNV in 2000 and support the need for ongoing avian arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut.  (+info)

Transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central Alabama. (5/31)

A site near Tuskegee, Alabama was examined for vector activity of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in 2001. More than 23,000 mosquitoes representing 8 genera and 34 species were collected during a 21-week period, and five species, Culiseta melanura, Aedes vexans, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex erraticus, and Uranotaenia sapphirina, were examined for the presence of virus using a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for EEE virus. Each species was infected at various times of the mosquito season (May-September) with different minimum infection rates (MIRs). Culiseta melanura had the highest MIR (20.2) and positive pools were detected from late May to mid-September. Aedes vexans had an MIR of 2.2 and was infected early in the season (June), while Cq. perturbans exhibited a much higher field infection rate (9.9) with all positive pools collected in August. Culiseta melanura is a likely endemic vector in central Alabama, while Ae. vexans and Cq. perturbans probably function as bridge vectors. Culex erraticus, the most common mosquito in the habitat (54% of total collections), had an MIR of 3.2, and was persistently infected from mid-June to mid-September. This is the first report of high rates of EEE virus infection in this species, a member of the tropical subgenus Melanoconion. Uranotaenia sapphirina, considered to feed on amphibians and possibly reptiles, had an MIR of 5.6, with positive pools spanning a four-month period. This suggests that species other than birds may serve as a reservoir for EEE in hardwood swamps in the Southeastern United States and elsewhere. The lengthy period of mosquito infection with EEE virus, coupled with the diverse habits of the vectors and their proximity to a population center, indicate the importance of monitoring EEE virus activity in the Mid-South.  (+info)

Nested multiplex RT-PCR for detection and differentiation of West Nile virus and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in brain tissues. (6/31)

A traditional nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay specific for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus was designed to multiplex with a previously described West Nile (WN) virus nested RT-PCR assay. Differentiation of EEE and WN was based on base pair size of the amplified product. One hundred fifty-seven mammalian and avian brain tissues were tested by EEE/WN nested multiplex RT-PCR, EEE nested RT-PCR, and WN nested RT-PCR, and results were compared with other diagnostic test results from the same animals. Serological and virus isolation testing confirmed the results of the multiplex PCR assay. When compared with cell culture virus isolation, the multiplex assay was shown to be more sensitive in detecting the presence of EEE or WN virus in brain tissues. The multiplex assay was shown to be sensitive and specific for North American EEE and WN and provided a rapid means of identifying both viruses in brain tissues. No apparent sacrifice in sensitivity was observed in the multiplex procedure compared with the individual EEE and WN nested RT-PCR assays. Data collected from an additional 485 multiplex RT-PCR tests conducted during the summer and fall of 2002 further support the validity of the procedure.  (+info)

Avian host preference by vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. (7/31)

An important variable in the amplification and escape from the enzootic cycle of the arboviral encephalitides is the degree of contact between avian hosts and mosquito vectors. To analyze this interaction in detail, blood-fed mosquitoes that were confirmed vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus were collected in 2002 from an enzootic site in central Alabama during the time this virus was actively transmitted. Avian-derived blood meals were identified to the species level of the host, and the proportion derived from each species was compared with the overall composition of the avifauna at the study site. The EEE vector mosquito species fed significantly more on some bird species and less on other species than expected given the overall abundance, biomass, or surface area of the local avifauna. When viewed collectively, these data suggest that these mosquitoes are selectively targeting particular avian species.  (+info)

Identification of reptilian and amphibian blood meals from mosquitoes in an eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus focus in central Alabama. (8/31)

Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culex erraticus, and Cx. peccator were collected in an enzootic eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus focus in central Alabama (Tuskegee National Forest) from 2001 to 2003 and analyzed for virus as well as host selection. EEE virus was detected in each species every year except 2003, when pools of Cx. peccator were negative. Most (97%) of the 130 Cx. peccator blood meals identified were from ectothermic hosts; 3% were from birds. Among blood meals from reptiles (approximately 75% of the total), 81% were from Agkistrodon piscivorus (cottonmouth); all amphibian blood meals (approximately 25%) were from Rana spp. with > 50% taken from the bullfrog R. catesbeiana. Host identifications were made from 131 of 197 Cx. erraticus, but only 3 (2%) were derived from ectothermic species. Identification of Ur. sapphirina blood meals proved difficult and only 2 of 35 hosts were determined. Both were from R. catesbeiana. Ectothermic species are possible EEE virus reservoirs in the southeastern United States where species such as Cx. peccator and Ur. sapphirina occur with large, diverse reptilian, amphibian, and avian populations such as those at the Tuskegee site.  (+info)

State Reports Positive Mosquitoes for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Abstract: The State Mosquito Management Program today announced that mosquitoes trapped in Voluntown on July 10, 2013 have tested positive for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE).
Abstract. Florida has the highest degree of endemicity for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) of any state in the United States and is the only state with year-round transmission of EEEV. To further understand the viral population dynamics in Florida, the genome sequence of six EEEV isolates from central Florida were determined. These data were used to identify the most polymorphic regions of the EEEV genome from viruses isolated in Florida. The sequence of these polymorphic regions was then determined for 18 additional Florida isolates collected in four geographically distinct regions over a 20-year period. Phylogenetic analyses of these data suggested a rough temporal association of the Florida isolates, but no clustering by region or by source of the isolate. Some clustering of northeastern isolates with Florida isolates was seen, providing support for the hypothesis that Florida serves as a reservoir for the periodic introduction of EEEV into the northeastern United States.
Abstract The results of an eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) surveillance program in central New York State during 1972 through 1974 are presented. This period included the state's second epizootic, which occurred in 1974. The deaths of 17 horses in a three-county area were investigated; EEE virus was isolated from the brains of 5, and diagnostic titers of EEE antibody were found in the sera of 7 others. Virus was also isolated in 1974 from the pooled brain and liver of a fox sparrow and from eight pools of mosquitoes: Culiseta melanura (5), Aedes canadensis (2) and Culex pipiens-restuans complex (1). EEE antibody levels in local bird sera rose from 6.5% in the period May through August to 35.7% in September 1974.
Background Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic zoonosis that circulates in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophagic mosquito, Culiseta melanura, and wild...
BioAssay record AID 357781 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against Eastern equine encephalitis virus in BHK21 cells assessed as inhibition of virus-induced cytopathogenicity.
A case of eastern equine encephalitis in a horse has been reported in the Hunts Mills area of Chesterfield County. No case of human infection has been reported and eastern equine encephalitis is rare in humans, according to the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control. In the United States there are approximately five to 10 cases of eastern equine encephalitis annually, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The disease causes inflammation of the brain and can be fatal.
Eastern equine encephalitis: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on eastern equine encephalitis at PatientsLikeMe. 6 patients with eastern equine encephalitis experience fatigue, insomnia, depressed mood, pain, and anxious mood.
An unprecedented outbreak of fatal eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus occurred during the late summer and fall of 1984 in endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland. As part of efforts to prevent future epizootics of EEE. studies were conducted to evaluate the antibody response of cranes following vaccination with a formalin-inactivated EEE virus vaccine. Viral specific neutralizing antibody was elicited in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes following 1M inoculation with the vaccine. Among the 1M-inoculated cranes, peak antibody titers of 1:80 on days 30 to 60 had waned to undetectable levels by days 90 to 120. Although the initial titers were not increased by the first booster dose, the duration of the antibody was extended considerably. Whooping cranes, receiving vaccine 6 months after their first vaccination, developed titers of 1:80 to 1:320 by...
Recent research has indicated increasing rates of urbanization and habitat fragmentation may put mammalian populations at greater risk in the future for epidemics caused by arboviruses. Increasing knowledge of vector and host activity patterns and foraging behavior has set the stage for using use agent-base models to more accurately predict the occurrence in space and time of arboviral activity and epidemics. This research will focus of developing an agent-based model of the transmission cycle of the Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) virus in the southeastern swamp forest ecosystem. This research will add a critical spatial component to our understanding of the EEE virus. This will allow for the prediction of potential areas of outbreak of EEE in mammalian populations in the Southeast. ...
Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have deemed Eastern Equine Encephalitis an emergent threat. The mosquito-borne virus had a resurgence in 2019, infecting 36 people in the United States and killing 14.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005-2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN). The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. The DBSCAN algorithm identified five
This is the first large-scale genomic study of an important, neuroinvasive alphavirus pathogen in North America. Using high-throughput sequencing methods, we obtained a total of 433 complete genome sequences of EEEV strains collected from many states in the United States between 1934 and 2014, particularly from Florida, New York, and Massachusetts. These new EEEV sequence data significantly increased the number of publicly available genome sequences from 16 to more than 400 (a ,20-fold increase) and, for the first time, allowed a comprehensive study of the genomic diversity and evolution of EEEV in North America. Our analyses show that the EEEV genome is highly conserved in general, and the evolution of EEEV is strongly clock-like. Notably, our phylogenetic analyses suggest different geographic regions in the United States are experiencing different epidemiological dynamics of EEEV. Most importantly, the phylogeography of EEEV in the United States appears to be compatible with a source-sink ...
September 5, 2019 - Mosquitoes infected with Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) have now been found in Wellfleet. Bourne, Falmouth, and Truro have also detected EEE in samples of mosquitoes in August. Below please see the most recent map provided by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Residents are urged to take personal protective activities like using EPA approved repellents and avoiding mosquitoes at peak times. West Nile virus activity has also been identified in several communities in Massachusetts. Get updated information at http://www.mosquitoresults.com/. ...
Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) officials confirmed the discovery of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus - a mosquito-borne viral disease - in a central-Ohio horse and a northwest-Ohio horse.
Home » Equine encephalomyelitis. Equine encephalomyelitis (Science: veterinary) An acute, often fatal, virus disease of horses and mules transmitted by mosquitoes and characterised by central nervous system disturbances. It is typically caused by one of two arthropod-borne viruses, and their resulting diseases are designated western equine or eastern equine encephalomyelitis; these viruses belong to the family togaviridae and can also cause neurologic disease in humans. Synonym: equine encephalitis. ...
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EEEP : Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is within the alphavirus group. It is a low prevalence cause of human disease in the eastern and Gulf Coast states. EEE is maintained by a cycle of mosquito/wild bird transmission, peaking in the summer and early fall, when man may become an adventitious host. The most common clinically apparent manifestation is a mild undifferentiated febrile illness, usually with headache. Central nervous system involvement is demonstrated in only a minority of infected individuals, it is more abrupt and more severe with EEE than other arboviruses, with children being more susceptible to severe disease. Fatality rates are approximately 70% for EEE.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is a disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. EEE most often infects horses but can infect humans. There is no vaccine for humans and approximately 1/3 of those infected die of the disease. The majority of those who survive, suffer brain damage. The mortality rate in horses is 70-90%. Fortunately for horses, there are vaccines available to help protect against infection.. Dr. Amanda House, University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine Clinical Associate Professor, advises, It is critical that every horse in Florida be vaccinated for EEE at least twice a year. Horses under 4 years of age or those new to the state should be vaccinated three times a year. EEE is a deadly disease that vaccination can help reduce or eliminate.. Mosquito control on farm is also critical for decreasing the incidence of disease in animals and in humans. Dr. Carissa Wickens, University of Florida State Extension Horse Specialist, has this to say about mosquito control, ...
Suffolk County Mosquito Control Boston and Chelsea MA - Eastern Equine Encephalitis - Suffolk County Mosquito Control, state agency. Mosquito control for Boston and Chelsea, Massachusetts.
To find out more about Eastern Equine Encephalitis or how to make sure your Savannah, GA, yard is mosquito free this summer and fall, call us today at (912) 348-8247 or fill out our form, We look forward to hearing from you soon!
A deer found dead in the Charlotte area tested positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis. This was the first time the deadly virus has appeared in Eaton
A 7-year-old alpaca in Camden County and a 2-year-old gelding horse in Ocean County are the fourth and fifth reported animal cases of Eastern Equine Encephalitis in New Jersey this year ...
- The report reviews key players involved in the therapeutics development for Eastern Equine Encephalitis and enlists all their major and minor projects - The report summarizes all the dormant and discontinued pipeline projects
Learn more about Eastern Equine Encephalitis at Medical City Dallas DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
ENCEFALOMIELITE EQUINA PDF - Background: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a highly lethal zoonotic disease caused by Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEv), an RNA virus of the
The Oswego County Health Department announced that the eastern equine encephalitis virus has appeared in several more mosquito pools during the state health
Definition : Serology reagents intended to detect antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis virus, a virus of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. This virus may cause subclinical infections in humans, with only a low-grade fever; in some cases this fever may be followed by encephalitis, characterized by increasing drowsiness, neck rigidity, confusion, paralysis, convulsions, and coma. The virus is typically transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes.. Entry Terms : Reagents, Serology, Virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Antibody. UMDC code : 22370 ...
It was an unusual July in Alabama temperature-wise, with record low temperatures occurring at many official record sites in Central Alabama. The first episode of record-setting low temperatures occurred early in the month, with a second during mid-month as unseasonably strong cold fronts brought cool air masses rarely seen in July into Central Alabama. The third episode occurred late July as another cold front provided an unseasonably cool air mass to the area, resulting in record lows areawide (see the table below). Montgomery even tied the all-time monthly low with a reading of 59 degrees.. ...
Recent rains have cleared drains of some larvae, but mosquito foes are warning that saturated wetlands and containers that trap water could still breed bugs capable of spreading the West Nile and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses.
EEE is a mosquito-borne disease that kills roughly one-third of those infected and typically leaves survivors with mild to severe brain damage according to the CDC. 2019 brought an unexpected surge in cases of EEE in the US, more than 5 times the average, and the 36 confirmed cases across 8 states resulted in 14 deaths.. Mosquito populations are tested, monitored, and controlled by over 1,000 MADs (mosquito abatement districts, publicly funded departments at the city, county, and state level) in North America. The Company has been presenting its mosquito diagnostic products to MADs at vector control conferences across the country this year. Revenue from the Companys mosquito abatement vertical began earlier in 2019, and is expected to significantly increase as demand grows for the NAM-e and other tests to help provide a first-line of defense against the spread of certain mosquito-borne illnesses.. 18 infections you can get from mosquitoes. Like the other tests in the Companys Vector Smart ...
Mosquito samples collected in Aquebogue and Jamesport in late last month tested positive for West Nile virus, according to the Suffolk County Department of Health. (more…). ...
The number of people who got sick in the United States from an infected mosquito, tick, or flea tripled between 2004 and 2016. More than 640,000 cases over
Lifetime Student in school of Hard Knocks.Born in Troy NY home of UncleSam,FALLOUT Capital of the Nation(googleThe Troy Incident)other places I called home; Tucson & Bullhead City, Az., Seattle,Wa.,Taos,Ojo Caliente &Santa Fe,NM, LasVegas,Searchlight,Goodsprings,Jean,& Laughlin,NV.,San Francisco, Ca.,Portland,Or.,just 2 name a few. Places I have worked are bars, horse & dog tracks and casinos, and, later in life,law firms & with lawyers. Now in retirement,I stay home & mind my little mini-farm. In my spare time I pretty much live vicariously through the wonders of the www. I guess you could say (ala Eddie Rabitt) that I am - bloggin my life away,....lookin for & workin towards a better day, ohhh yeah. But however you look at it, there aint no gettin around it, Im jus an ole x-hippy-chick, struggling ever onward through the fog of life,....still here, still standin,..still laughing, after all these crazy years, and whats more amazing yet, still with at least some functioning brain ...
January 2006. The American Horse Council has released a white paper entitled NAIS and Horses: Why Horses Should be Included. The paper has been written in answer to a common question regarding why horses should be included in the National Animal Identification System, since horses dont carry diseases that affect other livestock or that affect humans.. Most people dont realize that horses do in fact contract diseases that can also be found in other livestock and, in some cases, in humans. The AHC paper lists and explains several of those diseases. The paper also describes some of the diseases that are experienced both by humans and horses, although in most cases, horses do not play a role in spreading these diseases to humans. (West Nile virus and Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis are examples.) However, there are some infectious diseases that horses can contract that they can transmit to humans. Examples of such zoonotic diseases include rabies, salmonella, ringworm, leptospirosis, ...
This year has seen a surprising upsurge in cases of a rare viral infection in humans. Specialists warn that we need a strategy to prevent an outbreak ...
The CT River Area Health District (CRAHD) issued a notice on Thursday, October 24, 2019 that removed the previously established recommendation to restrict outdoor evening activities and events. Based on this new information, the appropriate town and school departments will be working together to create schedules for the remaining Fall outdoor practices, games, and events that will now be allowed to extend beyond dusk ...
The anti-mosquito treatment represents the third leg in a plan to beef up the state and local response to EEE-which also includes better coordination among officials in affected counties, and increased state funding for education and prevention-in the wake recent deaths.. Use of larvicides was identified as one more way to help stop the spread of EEE by reducing the number of mosquitoes that could become carriers of the disease.. The mosquito-borne virus affects horses and other livestock, and rarely occurs in humans. Five human deaths in New York since 1971 all have occurred in Oswego and Onondaga counties, while dozens of horses have succumbed in the six counties included in the larvicide program.. The larvicide treatments act to kill mosquitoes before they develop to their biting stage. Before use, homeowners are advised to read the label directions at http://www.scribd.com/doc/99210051.. Homeowners are eligible to receive one free packet of larvicide treatment, which is manufactured by a ...
A study on eastern equine encephalitis shows the number of people in Massachusetts who have contracted the mosquito-borne virus has been rising.
Tests have found no evidence of the dangerous Eastern equine encephalitis in mosquitoes trapped at 20 locations throughout the state.The state reinstituted its mosquito control and testing program
Continuing tests on Wednesday turned up two mosquitoes carrying Eastern equine encephalitis in Stonington, and state health officials said there is now evidence the virus is being produced in
TYNGSBORO -- With the Eastern Equine Encephalitis threat level getting raised to critical in Tyngsboro on Wednesday, all outdoor School and Recreation Department activities are now required to end by 6:30 p.
Last year at this time, there had been few or no positive tests for mosquito-borne illness, health department data shows. In 2008, a public alert was issued in July when Eastern equine encephalitis was detected in 30 counties ...
The debate rages on over when and how often to conduct aerial spraying of pesticides to combat EEE.The state still doesnt get it, said Raynham Selectman Joseph Pacheco, who advocates spraying early and often to prevent Eastern equine encephalitis a potentially deadly mosquito-borne illness from getting a foothold in the region each summer.The time for spraying is now and Im once again calling on the legislature and the Department of Public Health to get it done.
A second incidence of Eastern equine encephalitis in birds has been found in York County, and public health officials are recommending the public take steps to protect against mosquito bites.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is on everyone s minds this week as the state grapples with how to address the high levels of EEE found in mosquito samples. The Mattapoisett, Marion and Rochester Boards of Health canceled all evening activities on town grounds, and announced 6:00 pm closures of ball parks, playgrounds and town beaches as a result of what the state is calling a public health threat ...
Health officials in Mobile County say a chicken used as a lookout for disease has tested positive for eastern equine encephalitis.
This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 19-26 October 2019 and includes updates on chikungunya, dengue, eastern equine encephalitis, Ebola virus, influenza, mass gathering monitoring in Japan. ...
Weymouth officials are asking residents to stay indoors after dark following the death of a local woman from Eastern equine encephalitis.
State health officials say the number of people who have contracted mosquito-borne Eastern equine encephalitis in recent years has grown but scientists do not know why.
"A comparison of the nucleotide sequences of eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses with those of other ... the eastern equine encephalitis virus subgroup (eastern equine encephalitis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses) and the ... Barmah Forest virus complex Barmah Forest virus Eastern equine encephalitis complex Eastern equine encephalitis virus (seven ... Divergence between the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and the eastern equine virus appears to have been ~1400 years ago. ...
... the eastern and western type of equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, and yellow fever virus. ... "Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by Aedes sollicitans and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae)". ... Kelser, R.A. (1937). "Transmission of the Virus of Equine Encephalomy-elîtis by Aëdes taeniorhynchus". www.cabdirect.org. ... It is a carrier for encephalitic viruses including Venezuelan equine encephalitis and can transmit Dirofilaria immitis. It ...
... the yellow-crowned night heron is an intermediate host and amplifier of the eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus ( ... "CDC - Eastern Equine Encephalitis". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-14. "Nyctanassa violacea (Yellow-crowned Night-heron, Yellow ... and the eastern Texas coast. It is also found in Mexico, Central America, Galápagos - Ecuador, the Caribbean and northern South ...
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus, Everglades virus, Highlands J virus, La Crosse Encephalitis virus in the United States ... Open-water marsh management is used on both the eastern and western coasts of the United States. Rotational impoundment ...
Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses combined. California encephalitis virus (CEV) - type strain ... of arboviral encephalitis were caused by California serogroup viruses than were reported for western equine encephalomyelitis ...
... eastern equine MeSH C02.081.355.355 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C02.081.355.677 - encephalomyelitis, western ... encephalomyelitis, equine MeSH C02.182.500.300.450.200 - encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C02.182.500.300.450.250 - ... eastern equine MeSH C02.290.450.225 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan equine MeSH C02.290.450.250 - encephalomyelitis, western ... encephalomyelitis, equine MeSH C02.782.930.100.370.162 - encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C02.782.930.100.370.325 - ...
Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Western equine encephalitis: a group of ... Various types of encephalomyelitis include: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or postinfectious encephalomyelitis, a ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Information Page at ... Encephalomyelitis disseminata, a synonym for multiple sclerosis. AntiMOG associated encephalomyelitis, one of the underlying ...
... may refer to: Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezuelan equine ...
"Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is closely related to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and western equine ... "Eastern Equine Encephalitis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 30 April 2017. "Eastern Equine ... "Eastern Equine Encephalitis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 December 2018. Source for a portion of this ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus Sherman, M. B.; Weaver, S. C. (2010). "Structure of the Recombinant Alphavirus Western Equine ... The Western equine encephalomyelitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine ... Unlike Eastern equine encephalitis, the overall mortality of WEE is low (approximately 4%) and is associated mostly with ... and an ancestral Eastern equine encephalitis virus-like virus. There have been under 700 confirmed cases in the U.S. since 1964 ...
Eastern equine encephalitis Western equine encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis Rabies La crosse encephalitis Progressive ... post infectious and encephalomyelitis. Chronic - the most common diseases caused by chronic viral infections are subacute- ...
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis Amoebic brain abscess Viral meningitis Eastern equine ... protease-sensitive prionopathy Familial spongiform encephalopathy PANDAS Sydenham's chorea Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Lassa high risk areas are near the western and eastern extremes of West Africa. As of 2018, the Lassa belt includes Guinea, ... central and eastern parts of the African continent.[11] Once the rat has become a carrier, it will excrete the virus throughout ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... and mosquitoes that exist in urban environments was established on multiple occasions from strains occurring on the eastern ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Fraser, D. W.; Campbell, C. C.; Monath, T. P.; Goff, P. A.; Gregg, M. B. (1974-11-01). "Lassa fever in the Eastern Province of ... Monath, T. P.; Maher, M.; Casals, J.; Kissling, R. E.; Cacciapuoti, A. (1974-11-01). "Lassa fever in the Eastern Province of ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... "Ebola outbreak in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo tops 1,000 cases , CDC Online Newsroom , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 29 March ... Tom Clancy's 1996 novel, Executive Orders, involves a Middle Eastern terrorist attack on the United States using an airborne ... in the eastern region.[171][172] Other than its discovery in 2007, this was the only time that this variant has been identified ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Similar diseases that are spread by mosquitoes include: Western and Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint ... It has long been suspected that LAC encephalitis has a broader distribution and a higher incidence in the eastern United States ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Eastern Europe, the Middle East (except Israel, Lebanon and Jordan), central Africa, Western Africa, South Africa and ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... In October 2017 an outbreak of Marburg virus disease was detected in Kween District, Eastern Uganda. All three initial cases ( ... or based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons,[43] vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV)[45][48] or filovirus- ... Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus". Vaccine. 21 (25-26): 4071-4080. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00362-1. ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... It is an alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Article published in Eastern Daylight Time) *^ "South Korea Reports Third Death as MERS Cases Rise". Wall Street Journal. ... a resident of or traveler to Middle Eastern countries where MERS-CoV virus is believed to be circulating in the 14 days before ...
Researchers have isolated the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus from a black-cowled oriole in Panama. Some females and ... The black-cowled oriole occurs throughout much of eastern Central America, from southern Mexico through western Panama. It ...
... eastern equine MeSH B04.820.850.054.340 - encephalitis virus, venezuelan equine MeSH B04.820.850.054.360 - encephalitis virus, ... encephalomyelitis virus, avian MeSH B04.820.565.400.410 - hepatitis a virus MeSH B04.820.565.400.410.500 - hepatitis a virus, ... eastern equine MeSH B04.909.777.270.369 - encephalitis virus, venezuelan equine MeSH B04.909.777.270.440 - encephalitis virus, ... eastern equine MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.340 - encephalitis virus, venezuelan equine MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.360 - encephalitis ...
... such as those against Eastern equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Although ... such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, as well as immune-mediated encephalitis, so other diagnostic methods may need to ... For some forms of viral encephalitis, such as Eastern equine encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis, there may be a significant ... Prognoses related to specific viruses include: For Eastern equine encephalitis, some children may experience seizures, severe ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ...
... encephalomyelitis, equine MeSH C10.228.228.210.150.300.450.200 - encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C10.228.228.210.150.300 ... encephalomyelitis, equine MeSH C10.228.228.245.340.450.200 - encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C10.228.228.245.340.450.225 ... encephalomyelitis, equine MeSH C10.228.228.291.323.162 - encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C10.228.228.291.323.325 - ... equine MeSH C10.228.440.406.200 - encephalomyelitis, eastern equine MeSH C10.228.440.406.225 - encephalomyelitis, venezuelan ...
H3N8 in equines spreads via aerosols and causes respiratory illness. Equine H3N8 perferentially binds to α-2,3 sialic acids, so ... Influenza epidemics in modern times have the tendency to start in the eastern or southern hemisphere, with Asia being a key ... disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Additionally, febrile seizures and Reye ... Equine IAVs include H7N7 and two lineages of H3N8. H7N7, however, has not been detected in horses since the late 1970s, so it ...
... in southeast Texas to combat Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis. Operation Ranch Hand was the name of the aerial application ... In 1961, Southern Airways began acquiring 22 40-seat Martin 4-0-4s from Eastern Airlines to augment its DC-3 fleet. One ... 29+10 carried special markings that read "Fulcrum Farewell USA 2003". The Eastern Bloc aircraft flew training and secret ...
A new brain disease of mice (murine encephalomyelitis) was discovered in 1947 at Harvard Medical School in Boston. The virus ... Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 19 Suppl 1: S12-18. PMID 23888790. Zaki, Ali M.; van Boheemen, Sander; Bestebroer, Theo M ... Equine coronavirus (discovered in 2000) and Canine respiratory coronavirus (discovered in 2003) into a single species ... While HCoV-OC229E is retained as a valid species, HCoV-OC43 was merged with Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus ( ...
Herpes simplex, West Nile, Rabies, Eastern equine encephalitis, others[2]. Causes. Infection, autoimmune, certain medication, ... Post-infectious encephalomyelitis complicating smallpox vaccination is avoidable, for all intents and purposes, as smallpox is ... While encephalitis with involvement of the spinal cord is known as encephalomyelitis.[2] ...
From statements by Orsolya Kutasi, DVM, of the Szent Istvan University, Hungary at the 2009 American Association of Equine ... The European and Far Eastern tick-borne encephalitis strains diverged about 1087 (1610-649) years ago. European tick-borne ... Spanish sheep encephalomyelitis virus (SSEV) Turkish sheep encephalitis virus (TSE) Tick-borne encephalitis virus serocomplex ...
Don McLaren, 81, New Zealand equine pharmaceutical businessman and Thoroughbred racehorse breeder. Abdelwahab Meddeb, 68, ... Blackpool and Hong Kong side Eastern AA Jimmy Heung, legendary movie mogul with alleged triad links, dies in Beijing Samuel ... acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Mariam Fakhr Eddine, 81, Egyptian actress. Klaus Kreuzeder, 64, German saxophonist. Jim ...
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis Abbreviation: EEEV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. Yes SALS Level. 2 ...
Pheasants (Eastern US): Over 100, mostly from brain. Wild birds: Many isol. (blood, also liver and spleen). Antibody rate high ... Eastern equine encephalomyelitis Abbreviation: EEEV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. Yes SALS Level. 2 ...
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus. RNA fingerprinting revealed that most populations within infected hosts ( ... We evaluated genetic and phenotypic diversity within natural populations of the alphavirus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis ( ... 8101674 - Diversity within natural populations of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.. 1429754 - Theoretical analysis on ... Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine / genetics*. Genetic Variation*. Molecular Sequence Data. Phenotype. Quail. RNA, Viral. ...
What is eastern equine encephalomyelitis? Meaning of eastern equine encephalomyelitis medical term. What does eastern equine ... Looking for online definition of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in the Medical Dictionary? eastern equine encephalomyelitis ... including Eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Western equine encephalomyelitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis.. West ... a form of mosquito-borne equine encephalomyelitis seen in the eastern U.S. and caused by the eastern equine encephalomyelitis ...
This assay was developed for the rapid detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and St. Louis ... A rapid dot immunoassay for the detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis ... The dot immunoassay correctly identified 99% (123/124) of the eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and 100% (67/67) of the St ... Chickens were experimentally infected with eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis and bled on a daily ...
Viruses were isolated from 4 of 7 human brain tissue specimens and from 3 of 6 equine brain specimens. Histopathological ... Summary Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from man and horses during an outbreak of the disease in Jamaica in ... An Outbreak of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis in Jamaica II. Laboratory Diagnosis and Pathology of Eastern Equine ... Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from man and horses during an outbreak of the disease in Jamaica in ...
Abstract The results of an eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) surveillance program in central New York State during 1972 ... Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis in Upstate New York, 1972-1974 * * Authors: C. D. Morris, A. R. Caines, J. P. Woodall, T. F. ... The results of an eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) surveillance program in central New York State during 1972 through ...
... received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, ... In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This ... severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected ... Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California Robert P. Franklin*. , Hailu Kinde†, Michele T. Jay ...
... received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, ... In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This ... severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected ... EEEV, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) are related but ...
Find details on Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis virus in horses including diagnosis and symptoms, active forms, resting forms ... Gregory C R, Latimer K S, Niagro F D et al (1996) Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in formalin-fixed, ... Patterson J S, Mes R K, Mullaney T P & Benson C L (1996) Immunohistochemical diagnosis of eastern equine encephalomyelitis. J ... Ross W A & Kaneene J B (1996) Evaluation of outbreaks of disease attributable to eastern equine encephalitis virus in horses. ...
Learn about Encephalomyelitis Vaccine Eastern & Western with Tetanus Toxoid for animal usage including: active ingredients, ... The first indication of equine encephalomyelitis is fever. Temperature will vary from 102° to 107°F. Sluggishness and ... Encephalomyelitis Vaccine Eastern & Western with Tetanus Toxoid. This page contains information on Encephalomyelitis Vaccine ... Encephalomyelitis Vaccine Eastern & Western with Tetanus Toxoid Indications. *Warnings and cautions for Encephalomyelitis ...
eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis;. *ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans); *epsilon toxin of Clostridium ...
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) easily ranks among the worst diseases a horse could get. Caused by a virus that is ... Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) easily ranks among the worst diseases a horse could get. Caused by a virus that is ... What you need to know about Eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis. Summer is the peak season for these dreadful ... Western equine encephalitis. Western equine encephalitis (WEE), as the name implies, is found primarily in the western United ...
... is encouraging Floridas horse community to be vigilant of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), a serious viral disease that ... Topics: Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis This type of virus, known as an arbovirus, is transmitted to horses and humans by ... FDACS encourages horse community to be vigilant of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis. Tweet. ... is encouraging Floridas horse community to be vigilant of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), a serious viral disease that ...
... and Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis [Sleeping Sickness]; Equine Influenza; and both strains of Rhinopneumonitis. Also ... Fluvac Innovator 6 is for vaccination of healthy horses against Eastern, Western, ... of healthy horses as an aid in the prevention of Equine Encephalomyelitis [Sleeping Sickness] due to Eastern, Western and ... Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Vaccine. Tetanus Toxoid. Eastern, Western & Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Fort Dodge ...
What is encephalomyelitis? Meaning of encephalomyelitis medical term. What does encephalomyelitis mean? ... Looking for online definition of encephalomyelitis in the Medical Dictionary? encephalomyelitis explanation free. ... equine encephalomyelitis see eastern equine e., western equine e., and Venezuelan equine e. ... Called also equine encephalitis.. equine encephalomyelitis, eastern a viral disease similar to western equine encephalomyelitis ...
Equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern). Present. Sporadic / limited distribution Foot-and-mouth disease. Free ...
Equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern). *Foot-and-mouth disease. *Heartwater *Japanese encephalitis. *Leptospirosis *New world ...
Eastern equine 062.2. *. endemic 049.8. *. epidemic 049.8. *. equine (acute) (infectious) (viral) 062.9. *. eastern 062.2. ... Encephalomyelitis (chronic) (granulomatous) (myalgic, benign) (see also Encephalitis) 323.9*. abortive disseminated 049.8. ...
Eastern/Western Equine Encephalomyelitis; Rabies; etc..." Vaccinations for Adult Horses Examples of Disease/Vaccines include ... Equine Step-by-Step Injection Guide; etc..." For more information see Valley Vet Supply FOALING DATE, MARE CARE & PREGNANT MARE ... Equine blood types; Ruminant blood types: Cattle; Sheep & Goats..." For more information see Transfusion Medicine; Hemostasis; ... Equine Vaccination Schedule & Injection Guide (Text & Images). Vaccination Schedule for Horses - Equine Vaccination Schedule & ...
Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California Robert P. Franklin*. , Hailu Kinde†, Michele T. Jay ... Phylogram based on nucleotide comparison from the E1 region of a horse infected with Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. ... Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California. ... Author affiliations: *Humphrey, Giacopuzzi & Associates Equine Hospital, Somis, California, USA †University of California Davis ...
Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California Robert P. Franklin*. , Hailu Kinde†, Michele T. Jay ... Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California. ... Author affiliations: *Humphrey, Giacopuzzi & Associates Equine Hospital, Somis, California, USA †University of California Davis ...
Core EQ Innovator equine vaccine combines five core equine disease antigens into one 1-mL dose safe for healthy horses three ... Combines West Nile, Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, tetanus, and rabies disease antigens. August 24, 2018 ... new Core EQ Innovator equine vaccine contains all five core equine disease antigens-West Nile, Eastern and Western equine ... Equine Technical Services at Zoetis. "While annual vaccination against the core equine diseases has long been an established ...
Evolution of alphaviruses in the eastern equine encephalomyelitis complex.. Weaver SC, Hagenbaugh A, Bellew LA, Gousset L, ... Diversity within natural populations of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.. Weaver SC, Bellew LA, Gousset L, Repik PM, ...
Mice (Venezuelan and Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis viruses, intranasal, subcutaneously). *Mice, guinea pigs (Mycobacterium ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian ... Eastern Equine / genetics * Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine / isolation & purification* * Encephalomyelitis, Equine / ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus in mosquitoes and their role as bridge vectors Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Dec;16(12):1869-74. doi ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian ...
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis. Entropion. eructation. estrous cycle. fighting teeth. foaling. galvaynes groove. ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes sporadic, often fatal disease outbreaks in ... Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine / genetics * Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine / immunology* * Encephalomyelitis, Equine / ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes sporadic, often fatal disease outbreaks in ... The vaccine candidates were tested in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). Cynomolgus macaques ...
... equine herpesvirus-1; botulism; eastern, western and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis (EEE,WEE,VEE); heat stress; trauma; bacterial ... West Nile virus, a flavivirus, was first identified as a cause of infection and fatal encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the ... The flaviviruses, like the other encephalomyelitis viruses, are transmitted by mosquitoes, and infrequently by other ... meningitis; cervical vertebral myelopathy (wobbler syndrome); myeloencephalopathy; and equine degenerative myelopathy. ...
Eastern Equine Encephalitis *. Equine. 1. Encephalomyelitis (All). Equine/Avian. 1. Equine Herpes Virus - 1 ...
  • acute disseminated encephalomyelitis inflammation of the brain and spinal cord after infection (especially measles) or, formerly, rabies vaccination. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Zoetis' new Core EQ Innovator equine vaccine contains all five core equine disease antigens-West Nile, Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, tetanus, and rabies-in one vaccine. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Equine Potomavac + Imrab Rabies Vaccine is recommended for the vaccination of healthy horses against rabies and as an aid in the prevention of Potomac Horse Fever (equine monocytic ehrlichiosis). (agriseek.com)
  • All horses should receive annual vaccinations for core equine diseases, which include Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, rabies, tetanus and West Nile . (equisearch.com)
  • All horses should have their core vaccinations that protect them against rabies, tetanus, West Nile Virus, and Eastern/Western Equine Encephalomyelitis. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Equine viral encephalomyelitis with an emphasis on EEE, WEE and rabies is the title of this session that will be presented by Susan L. White, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVIM, A professor at the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These vaccines protect horses from five terrible diseases: West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis (EEE and WEE), rabies, and tetanus. (usef.org)
  • The course of treatment is expensive and the horse may not fully recover, and rabies is a zoonotic disease and could be spread to humans," explained Dr. Ernie Martinez of the Hagyard Equine Medical Institute in Lexington, Kentucky. (usef.org)
  • The core vaccines- West Nile , Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis , rabies , and tetanus -are recommended annually for every horse. (usef.org)
  • The threat of deadly equine diseases like West Nile and rabies is closer than you think. (zoetisus.com)
  • Core vaccinations include Eastern and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE and WEE, or "sleeping sickness"), Rabies, Tetanus, and West Nile Virus (WNV). (ridingmagazine.com)
  • Serum samples were first tested against the major neurotropic viruses infecting horses, including Eastern equine encephalomyelitis , Western equine encephalomyelitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from man and horses during an outbreak of the disease in Jamaica in November and December, 1962. (ajtmh.org)
  • EEEV and VEEV are lethal in up to 90% of recognized equine cases, whereas WEEV is least virulent in horses, which have a mortality rate of approximately 40% ( 1 ) . (cdc.gov)
  • The American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) includes EEE/WEE on its list of "core vaccines," which are recommended for the majority of horses. (equusmagazine.com)
  • The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) is encouraging Florida's horse community to be vigilant of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), a serious viral disease that can affect horses, birds, and humans and cause neurological injury and death. (poandpo.com)
  • Fort Dodge Fluvac Innovator 6 is an excellent all-around vaccine and is indicated for intramuscular vaccination of healthy horses as an aid in the prevention of Equine Encephalomyelitis [Sleeping Sickness] due to Eastern, Western and Venezuelan viruses, Equine Rhinopneumonitis due to type 1 and 4 viruses, Equine Influenza due to type A 2 viruses, and Tetanus. (medi-vet.com)
  • Core EQ Innovator provides a safe and effective immune response against the five core equine disease antigens as demonstrated in safety and efficacy trials, Zoetis stated, adding that the vaccine has been field tested in more than 1,000 horses with 99.7 percent of horses being reaction free. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Viral respiratory and neurologic diseases are the leading preventable causes of death in horses," said Jacquelin Boggs, DVM, MS, DACVIM, senior veterinarian, Equine Technical Services at Zoetis. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • While annual vaccination against the core equine diseases has long been an established standard of care, Core EQ Innovator will simplify compliance and help provide protection to all horses against these deadly diseases. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • West Nile virus, a flavivirus, was first identified as a cause of infection and fatal encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord and brain) in horses and people in Egypt, Uganda and France in the early 1960's. (lsu.edu)
  • The flaviviruses, like the other encephalomyelitis viruses, are transmitted by mosquitoes, and infrequently by other bloodsucking insects, to horses, human beings, and a number of other mammals from avian hosts, which serve as natural reservoirs for these viruses in nature. (lsu.edu)
  • Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) is a viral disease of horses and other equidae. (michigan.gov)
  • Eastern, Western and Venezuelan Encephalomyelitis plus West Nile Vaccine and Tetanus Toxoid For vaccination of healthy horses as an aid in the prevention of viremia caused by West Nile virus, and as an aid in the prevention of equine Encephalomyeltis. (agriseek.com)
  • Encevac-T (2-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet) Equine Vaccine is for vaccination of healthy horses against Eastern and Western encephalomyelitis and tetanus. (agriseek.com)
  • Formerly Double E FT (w/ MetaStim) Equine Influenza (KY 97), Eastern & Western Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (KV) and Tetanus Toxoid Protects healthy horses against Kentucky 97, the most current A1 and A2 influenza strain in an equine vaccine, as well as. (agriseek.com)
  • Prestige V + VEE with Havlogen, by Intervet Schering-Plough, is for the vaccination of healthy horses against Eastern, Western and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis, equine influenza types A1, A2, tetanus, and rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1 and EHV-4). (atozvetsupply.com)
  • For vaccination of healthy horses, 6 months of age or older, as an aid in the prevention of Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan Encephalomyelitis and Tetanus, and as an aid in the control of respiratory disease caused by Equine Influenza Virus and Equine Herpesvirus and as an aid in the reduction of Influenza virus shedding. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in eight horses. (osu.edu)
  • Over the past 75 years, vaccines have saved the lives of thousands of horses and rendered a number of terrible equine diseases exceedingly rare. (usrider.org)
  • The American Association of Equine Practitioners recommends vaccination, when appropriate, against the following diseases that affect horses. (usrider.org)
  • There were a number of reports in 2010 of non-vaccinated horses coming down with Eastern encephalomyelitis, so the risk is very real," says Wilson. (horseillustrated.com)
  • Mosquitos can carry West Nile Virus, Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis, which can cause major health concerns horses. (horse-canada.com)
  • Evaluation of outbreaks of disease attributable to eastern equine encephalitis virus in horses. (canarydatabase.org)
  • West Nile Innovator + VEWT (West Nile + 3-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet) Equine Vaccine is for the vaccination of healthy horses as an aid in the prevention of disease caused by Eastern, Western and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis viruses and tetanus, and as an aid in the prevention of viremia caused by West Nile Virus. (valleyvet.com)
  • Equi-Jec 7 (West Nile + 3-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet + Flu + Rhino) is a West Nile, Eastern, Western and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, tetanus, influenza, and rhino (EHV-1 and EHV-4) vaccine for healthy horses 4 months of age or older. (valleyvet.com)
  • Prestige V + VEE (3-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet + Flu + Rhino) Equine Vaccine is for the vaccination of healthy horses against Eastern, Western and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis, equine influenza types A1, A2, tetanus, and rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1 and EHV-4). (valleyvet.com)
  • Vetera 6XP (3-way Sleeping Sickness + Tetanus + Flu + Rhino) Equine Vaccine protects horses 4 months of age and older against Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis, rhinopneumonitis (Equine Herpesvirus types EHV-1 and EHV-4), influenza type A2, and tetanus. (valleyvet.com)
  • In South Carolina, we recommend that horses are vaccinated twice yearly (every six months) for Eastern-Western equine encephalomyelitis and West Nile virus. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Horses are continually exposed to wildlife and mosquitoes that transmit core equine diseases. (zoetisus.com)
  • There are all types of equine management facilities, from state-of-the-art complexes with individual stalls and caretakers for each horse to more basic operations where horses are pastured year-round with access to simple run-ins for shelter. (awionline.org)
  • The virus was isolated two years later when a significant outbreak of encephalomyelitis occurred in horses in parts of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey and Virginia, along the coast. (mnn.com)
  • One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. (cdc.gov)
  • This page contains information on Encephalomyelitis Vaccine Eastern & Western with Tetanus Toxoid for veterinary use . (drugs.com)
  • The toxoid is refined to remove most of the nonspecific components and is concentrated to provide a low dose effective product for combination with Encephalomyelitis Vaccine fraction. (drugs.com)
  • The vaccine candidates were tested in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). (nih.gov)
  • Fluvac Innovator 6 (3-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet + Flu + Rhino) Equine Vaccine is a killed Virus. (agriseek.com)
  • The Fluvac Innovator 6 Equine flu vaccine is available as a single-dose horse flu shot syringe or, at considerable savings per dose, in a 10-dose vial packaged along with a pre-loaded single-dose syringe. (medi-vet.com)
  • Prestige V + WNV with Havlogen Equine Vaccine is a combination of inactivated, concentrated, adjuvanted, tissue culture origin Equine Encephalomyelitis Viruses (Eastern and Western), Equine Herpesviruses (Rhino EHV-1 and EHV-4), Equine Influenza Viruses. (agriseek.com)
  • Vetera EWT+WNV is a combination vaccine that includes protection against Eastern and Western Encephalomyelitis, West Nile Virus and Tetanus. (agriseek.com)
  • Equine Influenza (KY 97), Eastern & Western Encephalomyelitis, Rhinopneumonitis Vaccine (KV) and Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Protects against Eastern and Western Encephalomyelitis (sleeping sickness) and Tetanus. (agriseek.com)
  • Aids in prevention of respiratory disease caused by herpes virus EHV-1 and EHV-4 and against Kentucky 97, the most current A1 and A2 influenza strain in an equine vaccine. (jefferspet.com)
  • Fluvac Innovator 5 (2-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet + Flu + Rhino) Equine Vaccine protects against Eastern and Western encephalomyelitis, rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1 and EHV-4), influenza type A2 and tetanus. (valleyvet.com)
  • Equiloid Innovator (2-way Sleeping Sickness + Tet) Equine Vaccine protects against Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis and tetanus. (valleyvet.com)
  • The neurologic form of type 1, also called Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy, and the respiratory form of type 1 and type 4, called Rhinopneumonitis, are reportable in the State of Michigan. (michigan.gov)
  • Protection against Eastern, Western and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis, influenza type A2, tetanus and rhinopneumonitis EHV-1 & EHV-4). (allivet.com)
  • With highly contagious diseases such as equine herpesvirus, influenza and strangles, vaccination alone will not prevent disease transmission. (useventing.com)
  • Equine Herpesvirus-1, EHV-1, (strain 1) has been an emerging disease as of late, especially in the neurologic form. (michigan.gov)
  • Visit the USDA's Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) website to learn more. (michigan.gov)
  • Based on your senior horse's lifestyle, discuss with your veterinarian whether he needs additional risk-based vaccinations, such as equine influenza , equine herpesvirus or strangles. (equisearch.com)
  • Outbreaks of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) related diseases were reported from Argentina, Australia, Germany, Japan, S. Africa, the UK and the US. (thehorse.com)
  • To better assess the exposure of white-tailed deer to seven arboviruses, we tested 1,508 sera collected from 2010 to 2016 for antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (2.5%), Powassan (4.2%), St. Louis encephalitis, (3.7%), West Nile (6.0%), Maguari (19.4%), La Crosse (30.3%), and bluetongue (7.8%) viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • WEST NILE-INNOVATOR and FLUVAC INNOVATOR are the veterinarian's and horse owner's first choice for West Nile and equine influenza disease protection. (equisearch.com)
  • Vaccinations protect against mosquito-borne disease like West Nile virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis. (equisearch.com)
  • Clinical and neuropathological features of West Nile virus equine encephalomyelitis in Italy. (osu.edu)
  • Schmidt J, El Mansboury H. Natural and experimaental infection of Egyptian equines with West Nile virus. (osu.edu)
  • The cattail mosquito is an unusual mosquito that can transmit viruses like West Nile and eastern equine encephalomyelitis. (greatlakesecho.org)
  • West Nile Virus (WNV), Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE) and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis (WEE). (horse-canada.com)
  • West Nile virus and Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis are examples. (equiery.com)
  • Visit the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP)'s webpage to learn more. (michigan.gov)
  • The American Association of Equine Practitioners divides these into ?core? (equisearch.com)
  • The core vaccination guidelines were created by the American Association of Equine Practitioners, the leading group of equine veterinarians, and are recommend annually as part of overall equine wellness. (zoetisus.com)
  • 2 American Association of Equine Practitioners. (zoetisus.com)
  • In 2012, the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) released an updated version of its Vaccination Guidelines. (ridingmagazine.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • EEEV, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) are related but genetically distinct alphaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) has not occurred in the United States for decades but outbreaks still occur in South America. (usrider.org)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) easily ranks among the worst diseases a horse could get. (equusmagazine.com)
  • 64.1(5) Equine diseases. (iowa.gov)
  • In fact, many of the equine diseases we vaccinate against are deadly and treatment after the disease is present may often be unsuccessful. (useventing.com)
  • Outbreaks of mosquito-borne viral diseases are on the rise, with recent extensions of rash, arthritis and encephalomyelitis to new regions ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Vaccinations against equine infectious diseases are typically administered in the spring and fall, but your veterinarian can make specific recommendations for your horse. (vetsecure.com)
  • Click to learn about all the Equine Reportable Diseases in the State of Michigan. (michigan.gov)
  • Today, vaccines are available for 12 equine diseases. (equisearch.com)
  • Understanding these diseases can go a long way toward helping you make educated decisions about your horse, as well as help keep the equine and human communities healthy. (horseillustrated.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) and western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) are viral diseases that attack your horse's nervous system. (zoetisus.com)
  • Equine Infectious Diseases , 2nd ed. (zoetisus.com)
  • Clearly, some equine diseases do have public health implications, and a severe outbreak of any of the diseases listed would have a substantial veterinary and economic impact. (equiery.com)
  • There are several equine vaccines available that target different diseases and come in various combinations. (horsesdaily.com)
  • A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). (cdc.gov)
  • In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. (cdc.gov)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus in the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. (cdc.gov)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian hosts. (nih.gov)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes sporadic, often fatal disease outbreaks in humans and equids, and is also a biological threat agent. (nih.gov)
  • In this study we examine the leukocyte counts of gray catbirds ( Dumetella carolinensis) infected with eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic zoonosis that circulates in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophagic mosquito, Culiseta melanura , and wild passerine birds in freshwater hardwood swamps in the northeastern U.S. Epidemic/epizootic transmission to humans/equines typically occurs towards the end of the transmission season and is generally assumed to be mediated by locally abundant and contiguous mammalophagic "bridge vector" mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This mosquito species serves as the primary vector of EEEV among wild bird species, but also is capable of occasionally contributing to epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans/equines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is closely related to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and western equine encephalitis virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incubation period for Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) disease ranges from 4 to 10 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA viruses of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, we describe development of a model to predict exposure risk of sentinel chickens to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in Walton County, Florida between 2009 and 2010 using avian species richness as well as densities of individual host species potentially important to EEEV transmission as candidate predictor variables. (jove.com)
  • Encephalomyelitis is often referred to as horse encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), sleeping sickness, blind staggers, and brain fever. (drugs.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), commonly called Triple E or sleeping sickness (not to be confused with African trypanosomiasis), is a disease caused by a zoonotic mosquito vectored Togavirus that is present in North, Central, and South America, and the Caribbean. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis, also known as "sleeping sickness," is caused by a virus that attacks the nervous system. (michigan.gov)
  • Fluvac Innovator 5 protects against Eastern and Western Encephalomyelitis (sleeping sickness) and Tetanus. (jefferspet.com)
  • Sometimes called sleeping sickness, encephalomyelitis is a neurological equine disease that is spread by mosquitoes. (horseillustrated.com)
  • Infection and transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus with colonized Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • acute disseminated encephalomyelitis an acute or subacute encephalomyelitis or myelitis occurring most commonly following an acute viral infection, especially measles, but sometimes occurring without a recognizable antecedent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Localized eastern equine encephalitis in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina, without human infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and Western equine encephalomyelitis viruses with known circulation in Argentina were included in the assay with negative results (3). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A rapid dot immunoassay for the detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in sentinel ch. (nih.gov)
  • Viruses were isolated from 4 of 7 human brain tissue specimens and from 3 of 6 equine brain specimens. (ajtmh.org)
  • Alphaviruses, including chikungunya, eastern equine encephalitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses, are important causes of these outbreaks and can cause encephalomyelitis, a potentially fatal inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with frequent long-term neurological deficits in survivors ( 3 - 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Genetic and antigenic diversity among eastern equine encephalitis viruses from North, Central, and South America. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Alphaviruses having single-stranded RNA genome belong to Togaviridae family of viruses and are divided into arthritogenic viruses (old world) and encephalitogenic viruses (new world) including equine encephalitis viruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We evaluated genetic and phenotypic diversity within natural populations of the alphavirus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previous studies in mice with a virulent strain (neuroadapted SINV [NSV]) of the alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) identified a role for Th17 cells and regulation by interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the pathogenesis of fatal encephalomyelitis (K. A. Kulcsar, V. K. Baxter, I. P. Greene, and D. E. Griffin, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:16053-16058, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1418966111 ). (asm.org)
  • Evidence for multiple foci of eastern equine encephalitis virus (Togaviridae:Alphavirus) in central New York State. (canarydatabase.org)
  • All of the disease antigens in Core EQ Innovator are backed by the Zoetis Equine Immunization Support Guarantee, which provides horse owners and veterinarians with vaccination support, including diagnostic testing and treatment, the company stated. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • These recommendations are based on the American Association of Equine Practitioner's (AAEP) core and risk-based vaccination guidelines. (useventing.com)
  • Protection of pigs by vaccination of pregnant sows against eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. (cornell.edu)
  • A typical equine wellness care program will include seasonal routine visits (typically in the spring and fall) when your veterinarian will examine your horse, work with you to determine your horse's disease risk factors and to build a vaccination program, perform routine diagnostic tests, and discuss any health concerns you might have about your horse. (vetsecure.com)
  • Although mosquitoes are not prevalent in dry areas, the AAEP has still listed Eastern and Western encephalomyelitis on its core vaccination guidelines due to the grave nature of the disease. (horseillustrated.com)
  • Core disease vaccination is the foundation for equine wellness. (zoetisus.com)
  • Alphaviruses are an important cause of mosquito-borne outbreaks of arthritis, rash, and encephalomyelitis. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Alphaviruses cause mosquito-borne outbreaks of encephalomyelitis, but determinants of outcome are incompletely understood. (asm.org)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis is a dangerous and deadly mosquito-borne illness. (mnn.com)
  • which feed on tangential hosts such as humans and equines, may result in large epizootics with high mortality rates ( 4 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The causative organism (encephalomyelitis virus, eastern equine) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of aedes mosquitoes. (icd10data.com)
  • Electric wire or tape fencing may be used, but must be visibly marked for equines (via brightly colored hanging streamers or ties) and humans (via signage). (awionline.org)
  • Contagious equine metritis (CEM) was reported in France (one case), Germany (two cases) and the United Arab Emirates that involved a non-breeding Thoroughbred stallion detected on pre-export testing. (thehorse.com)
  • The broad portfolio of core and risk-based equine vaccines from Zoetis is one you can rely on. (equisearch.com)
  • Most equine vaccines are administered via intramuscular injection , which delivers the preparation into muscle tissue, where it is selectively taken up by the body and processed. (usrider.org)
  • Intravenous vaccines ,which are delivered straight into the bloodstream, are available for people, but currently none are manufactured for equine use. (usrider.org)
  • Vetera vaccines with equine influenza virus protection include the Ohio/2003, Kentucky/95, and Newmarket/2/93 influenza strains as recommended by the Expert Surveillance Panel on Equine Influenza. (allivet.com)
  • Strongid C 2X by Zoetis (pyrantel tartrate) is an equine wormer designed to be fed on a daily basis to provide a continuous, preventive level of pyrantel in the intestinal tract. (bigdweb.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis in upstate New York: studies of a 1976 epizootic by a modified serologic technique, hemagglutination reduction, for rapid detection of virus infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Host-feeding patterns of Argentine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected during and after an epizootic of western equine encephalitis. (harvard.edu)
  • Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes are primarily seen in eastern North America. (ufl.edu)
  • 2. Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE): a disease of the central nervous system caused by a virus and transmitted by mosquitoes. (horsesdaily.com)
  • This equine neurologic disease is caused by a virus in the saliva of infected animals, usually transmitted through a bite. (zoetisus.com)
  • EEE, as the name implies, is endemic to the eastern United States, especially the South. (equusmagazine.com)
  • A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of north america. (icd10data.com)
  • The most common to the human disease is group 1, which is considered to be endemic in North America and the Caribbean, while the other three lineages, groups IIA, IIB, and III, are typically found in Central and South America, causing equine illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru. (harvard.edu)
  • Genetic evidence for the origins of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB outbreaks. (harvard.edu)
  • Product contains Kentucky Lineage (KY/95), Florida sublineage clade 1 (OH/03), and Florida sublineage clade 2 (RI/07) equine influenza strains. (allivet.com)
  • Equi-Jec 7 contains Kentucky Lineage (KY/95), Florida sublineage clade 1 (OH/03), and Eurasian Newmarket/2/93 (NM 2/93) equine influenza strains. (valleyvet.com)
  • The Equine Disease Communication Center (EDCC), equinediseasecc.org , provides infectious disease outbreak information to the horse industry in North America. (useventing.com)
  • Neuroadapted SINV (NSV), a strain obtained by passaging the original isolate AR339 in mouse brain, causes fatal encephalomyelitis in adult C57BL/6 (B6) mice ( 8 , 11 ), while virus derived from the tissue culture-passaged HRSP clone Toto1101 causes little disease even in newborn mice ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • while WEE has the lowest equine mortality rate. (allivet.com)
  • Protective antibodies against Eastern equine encephalitis virus bind to epitopes in domains A and B of the E2 glycoprotein. (harvard.edu)
  • For instance, most nests found on the State Game Lands (SGL) 33 ROW in 1991-92 were those of early successional species, including field sparrow (Spizella pusilla), gray catbird ( Dumetella carolinensis), eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea) (Bramble et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus, species California encephalitis virus) is a leading cause of pediatric encephalitis in the United States, with ∼70 cases reported annually (C enters for D isease C ontrol and P revention 2003), and is distributed throughout the eastern United States ( C alisher 1983 ). (genetics.org)
  • equine encephalomyelitis, eastern a viral disease similar to western equine encephalomyelitis, but occurring in a region extending from New Hampshire to Texas and as far west as Wisconsin, and in Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and parts of Central and South America. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each year, a blood test called a Coggins test is performed to detect Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), a serious viral disease. (vetsecure.com)
  • Zylexis EQ herpes virus horse shots, for animals four months and older, act as an immuno-stimulant and help reduce upper respiratory problems resulting from the presence of equine herpes. (medi-vet.com)
  • Regardless of what type is employed, unless otherwise directed by a veterinarian, equines must have sufficient opportunity and space to exercise daily and freedom of movement so as to reduce stress and maintain good physical condition. (awionline.org)
  • Dr. Lydia Gray is the Medical Director/Staff Veterinarian for SmartPak, where she guides research and new product development, answers questions on her Ask the Vet blog, and speaks around the country at various events such as Equine Affaire, Dressage at Devon, and the USHJA Trainers' Symposiums. (ridingmagazine.com)
  • postinfectious encephalomyelitis ( postvaccinal encephalomyelitis ) acute disseminated encephalomyelitis . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The first indication of equine encephalomyelitis is fever. (drugs.com)
  • Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), also known as "swamp fever" and "Coggins Disease," is caused by a virus that attacks red blood cells. (michigan.gov)