Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated: An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein: A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.Encephalomyelitis, Equine: A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Myelin Proteolipid Protein: A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)Theilovirus: A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Encephalomyelitis Virus, Avian: A tentative species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS infecting primarily young chicks, but also found in turkeys, pheasants, and guinea fowl. It causes a fatal neuronal degeneration and is transmitted by mechanical contact.Rats, Inbred LewMaus Elberfeld virus: A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.Cardiovirus Infections: Infections caused by viruses of the genus CARDIOVIRUS, family PICORNAVIRIDAE.Mice, Inbred C57BLEncephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS: Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Encephalomyelitis, Enzootic Porcine: A picornavirus infection producing symptoms similar to poliomyelitis in pigs.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Enterovirus InfectionsBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic: A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Encephalomyelitis, Western Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Pleurodynia, Epidemic: An acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics. It is usually caused by coxsackieviruses B and sometimes by coxsackieviruses A; echoviruses; or other enteroviruses.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cardiovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE causing encephalitis and myocarditis in rodents. ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS is the type species.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System: Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental: Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Interleukin-23: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cellsAlphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Optic Neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).Mice, Inbred BALB CAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Hu Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis Antigens: A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Mice, Biozzi: A strain of mice bred specifically as high or low antibody responders.Pregnenes: Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Vertebrate Viruses: Viruses infecting man and other vertebrates.HLA-DR2 Antigen: A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.Coronavirus OC43, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Nidovirales Infections: Infections with viruses of the order NIDOVIRALES. The concept includes ARTERIVIRUS INFECTIONS and CORONAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Teschovirus: A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE that can cause polioencephalomyelitis in pigs. The type species Porcine teschovirus is comprised of multiple strains.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glia Maturation Factor: A factor identified in the brain that influences the growth and differentiation of NEURONS and NEUROGLIA. Glia maturation factor beta is the 17-kDa polypeptide product of the GMFB gene and is the principal component of GLIA MATURATION FACTOR.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3: An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Gliosis: The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Rats, Inbred BNInterleukin-23 Subunit p19: A subunit of interleukin-23. It combines with INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P40, which is shared between the two cytokines, to form in the active interleukin-23 cytokine.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Cuprizone: Copper chelator that inhibits monoamine oxidase and causes liver and brain damage.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Clonal Anergy: Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy: A diffuse or multifocal peripheral neuropathy related to the remote effects of a neoplasm, most often carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically, there are inflammatory changes in peripheral nerves. The most common clinical presentation is a symmetric distal mixed sensorimotor polyneuropathy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1334)Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Arbovirus Infections: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
Non-coding plasmid DNA induces IFN-gamma in vivo and suppresses autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (1/278)Regulatory sequences used in plasmids for naked DNA vaccination can modulate cytokine production in vivo. We demonstrate here that injection of plasmid DNA can suppress the prototypic T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, by inducing IFN-gamma. (+info)
Non-purulent meningoencephalomyelitis of a Pacific striped dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). The first evidence of morbillivirus infection in a dolphin at the Pacific Ocean around Japan. (2/278)On March 22, 1998, a mature, male, hyposthenic Pacific striped dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) was stranded at Aoshima Beach in Miyazaki prefecture, Japan. A necropsy performed 14 hr after death revealed mild diffuse congestion and edema of the leptomeninges and mild pulmonary atelectasis. Histopathologically, non-purulent inflammatory were observed throughout the cerebrum, thalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, and spinal cord. Hematoxylin and eosin stain revealed no viral inclusion bodies. Immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against nucleoprotein of canine distemper virus (CDV-NP) revealed a number of CDV-NP-positive granular deposits in the cytoplasm and cell processes of the degenerating or intact neurons. The present paper is a first report of spontaneously occurred morbillivirus infection in a dolphin at the Pacific Ocean around Japan. (+info)
Immunity to heat shock proteins and neurological disorders of women. (3/278)Stress or heat shock proteins are constitutively expressed in normal CNS tissues in a variety of cell types (oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and neurons). Their presence may protect cells from various stresses, such as hypoxia, anoxia, and excessive excitatory stimulation. Increased amounts of hsp are expressed in various cells of the CNS during acute toxic-metabolic states and in chronic degenerative and inflammatory diseases. Increased expression of hsp may lead to immune responses to these proteins. Antibodies to mycobacterial hsp bind to normal human myelin and to oligodendrocytes in regions of MS demyelination. Cellular immune responses to hsp occur with increased frequency and magnitude in persons with MS, especially those with recent onset of disease. In addition, there are populations of T cells expressing gamma/delta T cells in the brains and spinal fluids of persons with MS, suggesting an in situ immune response to hsps. Humoral immune responses to hsp are found in CSF, but no disease specificity has been documented. Some myelin proteins have sequence homology with particular hsps. One instance is the homology between a peptide of mycobacterial Hsp65 and the myelin protein CNP. Our data on EAE suggest that immune responses to either cross-reactive hsp epitopes or whole hsp can modify the course of both acute and chronic relapsing EAE. In addition, the severity and frequency of environmental exposure to infectious agents can modify the course of EAE, possibly by altering the patterns of immune response to hsp. Finally, tolerance to the small hsp, alpha B-crystallin, a putative autoantigen in persons with MS, alters the course of relapsing EAE, supporting its role in chronic, autoimmune CNS disease. Modifying immune responses to hsp may be a potential new treatment option for persons with MS. (+info)
Antibody prevents virus reactivation within the central nervous system. (4/278)The neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) produces an acute CNS infection characterized by encephalomyelitis and demyelination. The immune response cannot completely eliminate virus, resulting in persistence associated with chronic ongoing CNS demyelination. The contribution of humoral immunity to viral clearance and persistent infection was investigated in mice homozygous for disruption of the Ig mu gene (IgM-/-). Acute disease developed with equal kinetics and severity in IgM-/- and syngeneic C57BL/6 (wt) mice. However, clinical disease progressed in IgM-/- mice, while wt mice recovered. Viral clearance during acute infection was similar in both groups, supporting a primary role of cell-mediated immunity in viral clearance. In contrast to wt mice, in which infectious virus was reduced to below detection following acute infection, increasing infectious virus was recovered from the CNS of the IgM-/- mice following initial clearance. No evidence was obtained for selection of variant viruses nor was there an apparent loss of cell-mediated immunity in the absence of Ab. Passive transfer of anti-JHMV Ab following initial clearance prevented reactivation of infectious virus within the CNS of IgM-/- mice. These data demonstrate the clearance of infectious virus during acute disease by cell-mediated immunity. However, immunologic control is not maintained in the absence of anti-viral Ab, resulting in recrudescence of infectious virus. These data suggest that humoral immunity plays no role in controlling virus during acute infection, but plays an important role in establishing and maintaining CNS viral persistence. (+info)
Pigs with highly prevalent antibodies to human coronavirus and swine haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus in the Tohoku District of Japan. (5/278)From 1985 to 1988, a total of 2496 swine sera from 60 farms in the Tohoku District of the Honshu Island of Japan were examined for antibodies to swine haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV), human coronavirus (HCV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) by haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. Antibodies to HEV 67N strain and HCV OC43 strain were highly prevalent with positivity rates of 82.1 and 91.4%, respectively, while seropositivity rate to BCV Kakegawa strain was 44.2%. No clinical signs of HEV infection were noticed in any farms including farms with relatively high seropositivity. The results suggested that HCV or antigenitically related virus(es) as well as HEV might be perpetuated in swine in the Tohoku District. (+info)
The clinical and epidemiological profile of tick-borne encephalitis in southern Germany 1994-98: a prospective study of 656 patients. (6/278)Seven hundred and nine patients fell ill in southern Germany (Baden-Wurttemberg) after infection with the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus between 1994 and 1998. Detailed clinical and epidemiological data on TBE were available for 656 patients. A biphasic course of the disease occurred in 485 patients (74%). TBE presented as meningitis in 320 patients (49%), as meningoencephalitis in 270 (41%) and as meningoencephalomyelitis in 66 (10%). Eight of the patients (1.2%) died from TBE. Four hundred and forty-five patients (68%) had noticed a tick bite and the first symptoms occurred, on average, 7 days later. The most frequent neurological symptoms were impairment of consciousness (31%), ataxia (18%) and paresis of the extremities (15%) and cranial nerves (11%). Laboratory investigations revealed leucocytosis in the peripheral blood in 224 out of 392 patients (74%), elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in 223 out of 245 (91%), increased C-reactive protein in 127 out of 155 (82%), pleocytosis in the CSF of all patients tested, damage of the blood-CSF barrier in 255 out of 322 (79%), abnormalities in EEG in 165 out of 214 (77%) and abnormalities in MRI in 18 out of 102 (18%). In general, adolescents up to 14 years of age had a more favourable course of the disease than adults. Of 230 patients who were re-examined at a later time, 53 (23%) had moderate or severe sequelae. Patients with sequelae presented more frequently (P < 0.001) with impaired consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale < 7), ataxia, pareses of the extremities or cranial nerves, a need for assisted ventilation, abnormal findings in MRI, pleocytosis > 300 cells/microl and impairment of the blood-CSF barrier (total protein > 600 mg/l). In view of the severity of the illness and the high frequency of sequelae, active immunization against TBE is recommended for all subjects living in and travelling to areas of risk. Prevention of TBE by post-exposure prophylaxis with hyperimmunoglobulins is less effective and therefore should be performed only when absolutely necessary. (+info)
MR imaging findings of enteroviral encephaloymelitis: an outbreak in Taiwan. (7/278)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An outbreak of enterovirus infection occurred in Taiwan from late spring to early fall of 1998. Most of the pediatric infections presented as hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina. A small portion of patients had symptoms of polio-like encephalitis and paralysis. The purpose of this study was to review the MR imaging findings in CNS involvement of enterovirus infection. METHODS: Twenty patients who had HFMD and clinical encephalitis were examined with MR imaging. T1-weighted and T2-weighted MR images were obtained. From the rectum, throat, CSF, and peripheral blood, the presence of enterovirus 71 (EV 71) was determined by virus culture, immunofluorescent microscopy, immunologic dot blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: MR imaging studies of 20 patients showed hyperintensity in the brain stem and spinal cord in 15 patients, as seen on T2-weighted images. The major CNS lesions were in the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum. In some cases, the lesions involved the spinal cord (three cases) as well as the thalamus (two cases) and putamina (one case). Five patients had normal MR imaging results. After the appropriate management for tachycardia and tachypnea, 18 patients recovered within 1 to 2 weeks. In the follow-up MR imaging examination of five patients, the lesions completely disappeared within 2 weeks to 2 months. In two patients who were still respirator-dependent, MR imaging showed the tissue destruction in the posterior portions of the medulla, pons, and the ventral horns of cervical spinal cord. In one patient, most of midbrain was damaged. The presence of EV 71 was detected in specimens from 18 patients. CONCLUSION: Because EV 71 was identified in 18 patients, and no other virus was detected, EV 71 was determined to be the major causative agent of this encephalomyelitis. Brain stem and cervical spinal cord involvement are characteristic findings of enteroviral encephalomyelitis. (+info)
A central role for CD4(+) T cells and RANTES in virus-induced central nervous system inflammation and demyelination. (8/278)Infection of C57BL/6 mice with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) results in a demyelinating encephalomyelitis characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration and white matter destruction similar to the pathology of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The contributions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the pathogenesis of the disease were investigated. Significantly less severe inflammation and demyelination were observed in CD4(-/-) mice than in CD8(-/-) and C57BL/6 mice (P < or = 0.002 and P < or = 0.001, respectively). Immunophenotyping of central nervous system (CNS) infiltrates revealed that CD4(-/-) mice had a significant reduction in numbers of activated macrophages/microglial cells in the brain compared to the numbers in CD8(-/-) and C57BL/6 mice, indicating a role for these cells in myelin destruction. Furthermore, CD4(-/-) mice displayed lower levels of RANTES (a C-C chemokine) mRNA transcripts and protein, suggesting a role for this molecule in the pathogenesis of MHV-induced neurologic disease. Administration of RANTES antisera to MHV-infected C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant reduction in macrophage infiltration and demyelination (P < or = 0.001) compared to those in control mice. These data indicate that CD4(+) T cells have a pivotal role in accelerating CNS inflammation and demyelination within infected mice, possibly by regulating RANTES expression, which in turn coordinates the trafficking of macrophages into the CNS, leading to myelin destruction. (+info)
Novel therapy in canine granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis
2012 - Bacterial gene analysis may help ID cause of dog brain disease - Emerging Pathogens Institute - University of Florida
GAINESVILLE, Fla. - By analyzing the genes of bacteria, University of Florida researchers have moved a step closer to pinpointing how two brain disorders common in small-breed dogs occur.. The researchers found that the bacteria, known as Mycoplasma canis, invade dogs cells and suppress their immune system responses.. "This could explain how the bacteria are able to enter the brain in certain circumstances," said lead investigator Daniel Brown, an associate professor of infectious diseases at the UF College of Veterinary Medicine. "If our theory is correct, it is possible that antibiotic therapy aimed at the mycoplasma could be beneficial if the condition is diagnosed early enough.". The findings, which appear in the August issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, were also presented at the annual meeting of the International Organization for Mycoplasmology in France.. The researchers studied two common brain syndromes called granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, or GME, and necrotizing ...
Ebola outbreak: Is real danger 'epidemic of fear'?
Doctors Without Borders: 'Epidemic Still Getting Worse'
Bird flu has become 'epidemic,' with 1.4M Minn. turkeys affected - StarTribune.com
An 'Epidemic of Loneliness' in America? Maybe Not
Training with Bornholme's (chest pains)
Several months ago I started getting serious chest pains - so bad that I thought I was having a heart attack. I went to the doctor, and they think that I have Bornholmes Syndrome (aka epidemic myalgia). Apparently, its just an inflamation of the chest lining. Painful, scary, but not serious and normally gets better on its own. The doctor said to take painkillers to bring the swelling down, and they said that I could continue to train if I wanted to. Its been almost four months
Women developing wrinkles 10 years too early says expert | Daily Mail Online
LETTERS: Readers respond to 'Epidemic' | East County | Your Observer
Last week, The East County Observer published an article titled Epidemic. It focused on Justin Lizardi, the 20-year-old who in July was caught burglarizing homes in Heritage Harbour. His family shared details about Lizardis longtime addiction to drugs, which he began using while a student Lakewood Ranch High School. See inside for readers responses.
New vaccine could someday fight the effects of opioid combinations | EurekAlert! Science News
Substance abuse is a continuing problem in the US, to the point of being an epidemic. Treatments exist, but far too often patients relapse with devastating impacts on themselves and those around them. Now, scientists report that they have made progress toward a vaccine against the effects of fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, in combination with heroin. The researchers are presenting their research at the 254th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.
Can Excessive TV Watching Cause Autism? - getsocialsignals.com
The prevalence of autism in the United States has risen steadily since researchers first began tracking it in 2000. The rise in the rate has sparked fears of an autism epidemic. But experts say the bulk of the increase stems from a growing awareness of autism and changes to the conditions diagnostic criteria ...
Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus: a syndrome with diverse clinical features and antibody responses. -...
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To better characterize progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) syndrome and identify novel PERM phenotypes. METHODS: The clinical features and antibody status of PERM patients were investigated using immunoblots, cell-based assays, RIA, protein macroarray and ELISA. RESULTS: Two patients with supratentorial involvement showed abnormal PET or EEG findings. One patient was discovered to have renal cell carcinoma, and protein macroarray revealed Ma3-antibodies. Another patient with leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies showed a good response to immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: The heterogeneity of the immunological features suggests that PERM is caused by diverse pathogenic mechanisms. Seropositivity to well-characterized neuronal cell surface antigens might indicate a good treatment response.
Etiology and Pathogenesis. Feline polioencephalomyelitis is a chronic, slowly progressive encephalomyelitis of unknown etiology described in immature and mature cats. Histopathologically, the disease is characterized by neuronal degeneration and perivascular cuffing by mononuclear cells. Demyelination and axonal loss are most conspicuous in the ventral and lateral columns of the spinal cord and most severe in the thoracic spinal cord segments. Lymphocytic meningitis, neuronophagia, and glial nodules also have been described, and lesions may be found in the cerebral cortex, diencephalon, midbrain, and medullary nuclei.. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown. A viral etiology is suspected on the basis of the histopathologic changes, although a specific viral agent has not been isolated. The chronic clinical course, distribution of lesions, and lack of inclusions distinguish this disease from rabies, pseudorabies, and FIP, Feline panleukopenia virus, FeLV, and arboviruses have been suggested ...
Meningoencephalomyelitis definition | Drugs.com
High-altitude cerebral edema or acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis in the Himalayas | Neurology Clinical Practice
A healthy, nonacclimatized 56-year-old woman developed mood changes and general weakness followed by vomiting, sensory disturbances, and ultimately unconsciousness within hours during an ascent from 1,600 to 2,800 meters in the Himalayas, Nepal. She reported no headache, ataxia, or visual disturbances during and following the hike, as confirmed by fellow travelers. As high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) was suspected, she received 8 mg of dexamethasone and was transferred to a hospital specializing in acute mountain sickness (AMS) located at 1,300 meters. During the transfer, she had a generalized seizure. The next morning, her consciousness was still clouded. She exhibited subtle, brief, involuntary muscle twitching in both arms and neck. Because she responded properly to stimuli, this was interpreted as myoclonus. Laboratory testing revealed serum hyponatremia (117 mmol/L), hyposmolarity, and urine hyperosmolality. These disturbances were associated with decreased urine volume, high positive ...
Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis
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IL-27 Limits Central Nervous System Viral Clearance by Promoting IL-10 and Enhances Demyelination | The Journal of Immunology
IL-27 is a pleiotropic member of the IL-6 and IL-12 cytokine family composed of the IL-27p28 and the EBV-induced gene 3. IL-27 and its receptor mRNA are both upregulated in the CNS during acute encephalomyelitis induced by the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) and sustained during viral persistence. Contributions of IL-27 to viral pathogenesis were evaluated by infection of IL-27Rα-chain-deficient (IL-27Rα−/−) mice. The absence of IL-27 signaling accelerated virus control within the CNS associated with increased IFN-γ secreting virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Abrogation of IL-27 signaling did not affect virus-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated IL-10 production or cytolytic activity or Foxp3+ regulatory T cell populations. However, IL-10 production by virus-specific CD4+ T cells was reduced significantly. Despite increased T cell-mediated antiviral function in IL-27Rα−/− mice, the virus persisted in the CNS at similar levels as in wild-type mice. Nevertheless, ...
An in Vitro Test of Cellular Immunity in Allergic Encephalomyelitis. | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...
A sensitive method was developed for measuring cytotoxic effects produced by lymphoid cells harvested from rats with allergic encephalomyelitis. Allergic encephalomyelitis was produced by immunizing Lewis rats with 2.5 µg of Kies protein emulsified with Freunds complete adjuvant. Peritoneal cells were harvested 10 to 14 days after immunization. Harvested cells from specifically immunized rats were compared for cytopathic effect with equal numbers of control nonspecifically sensitized peritoneal cells. Cytopathic effect was measured by interacting lymphoid cells with HeLa or L cells, which had been grown in the presence of 14C thymidine and subsequently "coated" with a solution of Kies protein ...
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Preventions, Diagnosis
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Pictures
Most recent papers with the keyword Cd3+ | Read by QxMD
Consumption of edible oils contaminated with Argemone oil (AO) leads to a clinical condition called Epidemic dropsy. Earlier studies have reported that metabolism and oxidative stress primarily contributes to AO toxicity, however, the involvement of immune system has not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to systematically assess the effect of AO exposure on the function of immune system in Balb/c mice. The repeated exposure of AO for 28 days caused prominent regression of spleen and thymus; severe inflammatory changes in spleen depicted by the loss of distinct follicles, increased megakaryocyte infiltration, and enhanced expression levels of inflammatory markers (iNOS & COX-2 ...
Global Thyroid Cancer Overdiagnosis in Children and Adolescents
Could playing video games help kids lose weight, gain confidence? | Gramercy Pediatrics
Introduction: Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis - CureResearch.com
ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL | SelfDecode | Genome Analysis
Indirect fluorescent antibody testing of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis | IslandScholar
Objective - To assess the use of CSF testing with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Sample Population - Test results of 428 serum and 355 CSF samples from 182 naturally exposed, experimentally infected, or vaccinated horses. Procedure - EPM was diagnosed on the basis of histologic examination of the CNS. Probability distributions were fitted to serum IFAT results in the EPM+ and EPM- horses, and Show moreObjective - To assess the use of CSF testing with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Sample Population - Test results of 428 serum and 355 CSF samples from 182 naturally exposed, experimentally infected, or vaccinated horses. Procedure - EPM was diagnosed on the basis of histologic examination of the CNS. Probability distributions were fitted to serum IFAT results in the EPM+ and EPM- horses, and ...
Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis Symptoms and Treatment
Equine protozoal myeloencephaltis is a serious health concern for horse owners. Although more than half of horses infected with this disease will respond to treatment, about 40% do not and eventually die from the deterioration of their central nervous system. Sadly, only one-tenth of infected horses completely recover from the infection. Learning the equine protozoal myeloencephalitis symptoms can help you get treatment for your horse quickly.. Recognizing Symptoms. The equine protozoal myeloencephalitis symptoms can be different in the infected horses because the infection causes lesions to appear in different areas of the brain. Depending on where these lesions show up, the symptoms change. Most of the more common symptoms involve lameness, loss of coordination, changes in the horses gait, and muscle atrophy. Other symptoms can include head tilting, leaning against the stall wall for balance, paralysis of the face, and loss of feeling in the head and neck area. When your horse begins showing ...
Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus: glycine and NMDA receptor antibodies. - Oxford Neuroscience
BACKGROUND: The syndrome of progressive encephalopathy with limb rigidity has been historically termed progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) or stiff-person syndrome plus. METHODS: The case is presented of a previously healthy 28-year-old man with a rapidly fatal form of PERM developing over 2 months. RESULTS: Serum antibodies to both NMDA receptors (NMDAR) and glycine receptors (GlyR) were detected postmortem, and examination of the brain confirmed an autoimmune encephalomyelitis, with particular involvement of hippocampal pyramidal and cerebellar Purkinje cells and relative sparing of the neocortex. No evidence for an underlying systemic neoplasm was found. CONCLUSION: This case displayed not only the clinical features of PERM, previously associated with GlyR antibodies, but also some of the features associated with NMDAR antibodies. This unusual combination of antibodies may be responsible for the particularly progressive course and sudden death.
Myalgic encephalomyelitis - Answers on HealthTap
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Stachler on myalgic encephalomyelitis: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a rare autoimmune disease affecting the brain & spinal cord, damaging the myelin & destroying the white matter. Symptoms are similar to Multiple sclerosis. It usually follows viral infection or vaccination. Symptoms start with fever, headaches, drowsiness, seizures. for topic: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome) |...
Evidence is put forward to suggest that myalgic encephalomyelitis, also known as chronic fatigue syndrome, may be associated with persistent viral infection. In turn, such infections are likely to impair the ability of the body to biosynthesise n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by inhibiting the δ-6 desaturation of the precursor essential fatty acids-namely, α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. This would, in turn, impair the proper functioning of cell membranes, including cell signalling, and have an adverse effect on the biosynthesis of eicosanoids from the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. These actions might offer an explanation for some of the symptoms and signs of myalgic encephalomyelitis. A potential therapeutic avenue could be offered by bypassing the inhibition of the enzyme δ-6-desaturase by treatment with virgin cold-pressed non-raffinated evening primrose oil, which would supply ...
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: more heat, some light-directions for research and clinical practice |...
In the paper by Smith and Wessely,1 problems are outlined in commissioning services in Scotland2 that accommodate the acrimonious debate between the views of those who consider myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) to be a neurological condition versus an evidence-based medicine view that chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a condition of uncertain aetiology improved by graded exercise treatment (GET) and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT).3 The debate threatens to hinder the development of safe, cost-effective and clinically effective services for patients with CFS/ME, and to stifle further research building on important discoveries on diagnosis, the limited effectiveness of current treatments and the validity of objective outcome measures.. A wide range of diagnostic criteria … ...
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Diagnosis, Treatment & Prognosis - The York ME Community
There is no test or cure for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (M.E.) but there are guidelines to help doctors diagnose and treat it. It can take a long time for the condition to be diagnosed, as other conditions that cause similar symptoms need to be ruled out first. Therefore, you may be given some advice about managing your symptoms before a diagnosis is confirmed. Patients looking for medical services outside the UK should contact national M.E. Organisations for details.. Within the National Health Service (NHS) it is commonly called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS or CFS/M.E.). Sometimes it is known as Myalgic Encephalopathy, or diagnosed as Post Viral Fatigue Syndrome. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (M.E./CFS) is officially recognised as a neurological disorder by the World Health Organisation, the Department for Work and Pensions and the Department of Health. It has been called "The Disease of a Thousand Names", with many controversies surrounding them, as described in A Short ...
Chronic fatigue syndrome | Lima Memorial Health System
Brigden A, Loades M, Abbott A, Bond-Kendall J, Crawley E. Practical management of chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis in childhood. Arch Dis Child. 2017;102(10):981-986. PMID: 28659269 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28659269. Castro-Marrero J, Sáez-Francàs N, Santillo D, Alegre J. Treatment and management of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: all roads lead to Rome. Br J Pharmacol. 2017;174(5):345-369. PMID: 28052319 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28052319.. Clauw DJ. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 258. Collatz A, Johnston SC, Staines DR, Marshall-Gradisnik SM. A Systematic systematic review of drug therapies for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. Clin Ther. 2016;38(6):1263.e9-1271.e9. PMID: 27229907 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27229907. Committee on the Diagnostic Criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic ...
Open-label pilot for treatment targeting gut dysbiosis in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome:...
Preliminary evidence suggests that the enteric microbiota may play a role in the expression of neurological symptoms in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Overlapping symptoms with the acute presentation of d-lactic acidosis has prompted the use of antibiotic treatment to target the overgrowth of species within the Streptococcus genus found in commensal enteric microbiota as a possible treatment for neurological symptoms in ME/CFS. An open-label, repeated measures design was used to examine treatment efficacy and enable sex comparisons. Participants included 44 adult ME/CFS patients (27 females) from one specialist medical clinic with Streptococcus viable counts above 3.00 × 105 cfu/g (wet weight of faeces) and with a count greater than 5% of the total count of aerobic microorganisms. The 4-week treatment protocol included alternate weeks of Erythromycin (400 mg of erythromycin as ethyl succinate salt) twice daily and probiotic (d-lactate free multistrain probiotic, 5 × 1010
Diagnostics | Free Full-Text | Replacing Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome with Systemic Exercise...
Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), described in the medical literature since 1938, is characterized by distinctive muscular symptoms, neurological symptoms, and signs of circulatory impairment. The only mandatory feature of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), introduced in 1988 and redefined in 1994, is chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by at least four or more out of eight
Serum Immune Proteins in Moderate and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients [Abstract]
Abstract. Immunological dysregulation is present in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), with recent studies also highlighting the importance of examining symptom severity. This research addressed this relationship between CFS/ME severity subgroups, assessing serum immunoglobulins and serum cytokines in severe and moderate CFS/ME patients. Participants included healthy controls (n= 22), moderately (n = 22) and severely (n=19) affected CFS/ME patients. The 1994 Fukuda Criteria defined CFS/ME and severity scales confirmed mobile and housebound CFS/ME patients as moderate and severe respectively. IL-1β was significantly reduced in severe compared with moderate CFS/ME patients. IL-6 was significantly decreased in moderate CFS/ME patients compared with healthy controls and severe CFS/ME patients. RANTES was significantly increased in moderate CFS/ME patients compared to severe CFS/ME patients. Serum IL-7 and IL-8 were significantly higher in the severe CFS/ME group compared ...
Frontiers | Neuroinflammation and Cytokines in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): A Critical Review...
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is the label given to a syndrome that can include long-term flu-like symptoms, profound fatigue, trouble concentrating, and autonomic problems, all of which worsen after exertion. It is unclear how many individuals with this diagnosis are suffering from the same condition or have the same underlying pathophysiology, and the discovery of biomarkers would be clarifying. The name
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis) Differential Diagnoses
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder characterized by a state of chronic fatigue that persists for more than 6 months, has no clear cause, and is accompanied by cognitive difficulties. CSF was initially termed encephalomyalgia (or myalgic encephalomyelitis) because British clinicians noted that the essential clinical features of CFS ...
MCS America ©: An Etiological Model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
Kindling might represent a heuristic model for understanding the etiology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Kindling occurs when an organism is exposed repeatedly to an initially sub-threshold stimulus resulting in hypersensitivity and spontaneous seizure-like activity. Among patients with ME/CFS, chronically repeated low-intensity stimulation due to an infectious illness might cause kindling of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Kindling might also occur by high-intensity stimulation (e.g., brain trauma) of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Once this system is charged or kindled, it can sustain a high level of arousal with little or no external stimulus and eventually this could lead to hypocortisolism. Seizure activity may spread to adjacent structures of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the brain, which might be responsible for the varied symptoms that occur among patients with ME/CFS. In addition, kindling may also be responsible for high ...
Metabolic Analysis of B-Cell Maturation in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - Solve ME/CFS Initiative
A project summary as written by Geraldine Cambridge, Fane Mensah, and Chris Armstrong:. Many viral and other infectious agents have been reported to cause or trigger the symptoms described by patients with Myalgic encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). The variety of pathogens associated with ME/CFS however suggests that a single agent is not responsible and that chronic changes to the normal functioning of immune and other body cells caused by stressors such as infections more likely underly this disease. ME/CFS patients suffer from a wide range of physical, neurocognitive and autonomic symptoms. It is perhaps therefore not surprising that in the limited biomedical studies so far performed, there appears to be a lack of consistency in results. Understanding the underlying disease-associated physiological and biochemical pathways in ME/CFS patients would therefore allow a more evidence-based approach leading to rapid diagnosis and to potential therapies. At present there are no ...
Examining clinical similarities between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and D-lactic acidosis: a systematic...
The pursuit for clarity in diagnostic and treatment pathways for the complex, chronic condition of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) continues. This systematic review raises a novel question to explore possible overlapping aetiology in two distinct conditions. Similar neurocognitive symptoms and evidence of D-lactate producing bacteria in ME/CFS raise questions about shared mechanisms with the acute condition of D-lactic acidosis (D-la ...
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome / Myalgic Encephalomyelitis - SaneVax, Inc.
Seven genomic subtypes of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a detailed analysis of gene networks and clinical...
NOT-AI-16-046: Notice of Availability of Administrative Supplements on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME...
Genome-wide association analysis identifies genetic variations in subjects with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue...
Publication: Citation: Transl Psychiatry (2015) 6, e●●; doi:10.1038/tp.2015.208 Myalgic encephalomyelitis, also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS, is a multifactorial and debilitating disease that has an impact on over 4 million people in the United States alone. The pathogenesis of ME/CFS remains largely unknown; however, a genetic predisposition has been suggested. In the present study, we used a DNA single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip representing over 9 06 600 known SNPs to analyze DNA from ME/CFS subjects and healthy controls. To the best of our knowledge ...
Comorbidities of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis - MEpedia
A comorbidity is a diagnosis that commonly occurs independently of, and at the same time as another condition. For example, Hashimotos thyroiditis is a comorbidity of ME/CFS because they are independent conditions, but postural orthostatic tachychardia syndrome is a symptom used to aid the diagnosis of ME/CFS is not a comorbidity even though both are distinct disorders and both frequently occur together. Symptoms of ME/CFS that are not a separate diagnosis are not counted as comorbidities. Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis frequently meet the criteria for one or more other conditions including: postural orthostatic tachychardia syndrome and other forms of orthostatic intolerance;mast cell activation syndrome;Ehlers-Danlos syndrome;fibromyalgia;endometriosis; and a variety of autoimmune diseases. It is not yet known whether these are true co-morbidities that share underlying genetic or environment risk factors, or if they are artifacts of diagnosis and disease ...
Comparison of a serum indirect fluorescent antibody test with two Western blot tests for the diagnosis of equine protozoal...
A serum indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was compared with a Western blot (WB) and a modified Western blot (mWB) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve of the IFAT was greater than the area under the curves of the WB and the mWB (P=0.025 and P=0.044, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the areas under the curves of the WBs (P,0.05). On the basis of Show moreA serum indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was compared with a Western blot (WB) and a modified Western blot (mWB) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve of the IFAT was greater than the area under the curves of the WB and the mWB (P=0.025 and P=0.044, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the areas under the curves of the WBs (P,0.05). On the basis of an ...
Hypoventilation in glycine-receptor antibody related progressive encephalomyelitis, rigidity and myoclonus. - Oxford...
Glycine receptor (GlyR) antibodies have been identified in patients with rigidity and hyperekplexia, but the clinical phenotype associated with these antibodies has not been fully elucidated. The clinical features in two additional patients with GlyR antibodies are described. A 55-year-old man presented with stimulus-induced hyperekplexia and rigidity in the lower limbs and trunk. He initially responded to benzodiazepines, but presented after 18 months with severe, painful, prolonged spasms associated with supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, hypoventilation and oxygen desaturation requiring intubation. He improved following treatment with clonazepam, baclofen and immunomodulatory therapies. A 58-year-old woman presented with stiffness in the legs and hyperekplexia associated with hypoventilation, at times leading to loss of consciousness. She responded to benzodiazepines and has remained in remission. The clinical picture associated with GlyR antibodies includes autonomic dysfunction, cardiac
Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis - Merck Veterinary Manual
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model.
Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5-1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired ...
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (or encephalopathy): diagnosis and management | Guidance and guidelines |...
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome video: Tips For Living With CFS / ME | Chronic Fatigue Syndrome / Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
A Pediatric Case Definition for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
Editing Tapanui Flu - MEpedia - An encyclopedia of ME and CFS
Tapanui Flu is a colloquial and outdated name used in New Zealand for [[myalgic encephalomyelitis]]/[[chronic fatigue syndrome]] ([[ME/CFS]]), coined after an outbreak occurred in the Tapanui area in the early 1980s. Though sometimes still used informally, it has been replaced in the medical community with the terms: [[myalgic encephalomyelitis]] (ME), [[postviral fatigue syndrome]] (PVFS), [[Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome]] (CFIDS) and/or [[chronic fatigue syndrome]] (CFS).,ref>http://www.healthnavigator.org.nz/health-a-z/c/chronic-fatigue-syndrome/,/ref> The term, Tapanui Flu, originated from a [[1984 Tapanui & West Otago Outbreak, 1984 outbreak]] in the small, rural town of Tapanui, in West Otago in New Zealands South Island, close to the boundary with Southland region.,ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tapanui,/ref> ==See also== *[[1984 Tapanui & West Otago Outbreak]] *[[Disease Names]] *[[New Zealand]] ==References== ,references> ,/references> [[Category:Disease names ...
JCI - Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients exhibit altered T cell metabolism and cytokine associations
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex disease with no known cause or mechanism. There is an increasing appreciation for the role of immune and metabolic dysfunction in the disease. ME/CFS has historically presented in outbreaks, often has a flu-like onset, and results in inflammatory symptoms. Patients suffer from severe fatigue and postexertional malaise. There is little known about the metabolism of specific immune cells in patients with ME/CFS. To investigate immune metabolism in ME/CFS, we isolated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from 53 patients with ME/CFS and 45 healthy controls. We analyzed glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in resting and activated T cells, along with markers related to cellular metabolism and plasma cytokines. We found that ME/CFS CD8+ T cells had reduced mitochondrial membrane potential compared with those from healthy controls. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from patients with ME/CFS had reduced glycolysis at rest, whereas CD8+ T cells also ...
JCI - Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients exhibit altered T cell metabolism and cytokine associations
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex disease with no known cause or mechanism. There is an increasing appreciation for the role of immune and metabolic dysfunction in the disease. ME/CFS has historically presented in outbreaks, often has a flu-like onset, and results in inflammatory symptoms. Patients suffer from severe fatigue and postexertional malaise. There is little known about the metabolism of specific immune cells in patients with ME/CFS. To investigate immune metabolism in ME/CFS, we isolated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from 53 patients with ME/CFS and 45 healthy controls. We analyzed glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in resting and activated T cells, along with markers related to cellular metabolism and plasma cytokines. We found that ME/CFS CD8+ T cells had reduced mitochondrial membrane potential compared with those from healthy controls. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from patients with ME/CFS had reduced glycolysis at rest, whereas CD8+ T cells also ...
The Ultimate Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Study Resource | The Natural Health Blogger
Some of the other factors which may contribute to the pathogenesis of CFS/ME include hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, hypocortisolism, micro-nutrient deficiencies, inflammatory/oxidative stress and nitrosative disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction, viral infections, heavy metal toxicity such as mercury and much more.. I have created this resource with a collection of some of my favorite studies and scientific research on the possible pathogenesis of CFS/ME, which may hopefully be of help to other individuals suffering from this debilitating condition.. I will continue to keep this resource updated with current studies and research as applicable. If anyone has any good research papers on CFS/ME, please share them via the comment section below and we will add them to the list.. ...
Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) Is Related to Fatigue, Autonomic and...
The results show that lowered levels of CoQ10 play a role in the pathophysiology of ME/CFS and that symptoms, such as fatigue, and autonomic and neurocognitive symptoms may be caused by CoQ10 depletion. Our results suggest that patients with ME/CFS would benefit from CoQ10 supplementation in order t …
The Role of Adaptive and Innate Immune Cells in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
Post-exertional malaise - Wikipedia
Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is one of the main symptoms of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). PEM can be described as "a delayed and significant exacerbation of ME/CFS symptoms that always follows physical activity and often follows cognitive activity". PEM is considered a cardinal symptom by a number of the different diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS, including the International Consensus Criteria. "Unravelling the nature of post-exertional malaise in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: The role of elastase, complement C4a and interleukin-1β". ME Research UK. Retrieved 23 September 2017. Jason, Leonard A.; Evans, Meredyth; So, Suzanna; Scott, Jilian; Brown, Abigail (13 January 2015). "Problems in Defining Post-Exertional Malaise". Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community. 43 (1): 20-31. doi:10.1080/10852352.2014.973239. Retrieved 23 September 2017. "Comments Post-exertional malaise in ME/CFS: Medical Research Council announces new ...
The UK ME/CFS Biobank for biomedical research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) and Multiple...
The Cure-ME team had established the UK ME/CFS Biobank, with a governance structure that involves the collaboration between two academic institutions - the LSHTM (housing the Cure-ME) and the UCL (housing UCL-RFH BioBank facility). The UK ME/CFS Biobank Steering Committee oversees the above team-work, and is also involved in assessing research applications, ensuring community participation in the process.. Academic, non-commercial, and commercial researchers are all eligible to apply to use samples and/or anonymised data. Applications and review procedures are in place (see Bioresource URL). Researchers should present a sound scientific rationale for the proposed study, have a good research track record, and be supported by their institution. The following types of studies will be prioritised: testing or generating new hypotheses on pathophysiology of ME/CFS; improving diagnosis and phenotyping; and/or, basic science, e.g. pharmacological in vitro studies, potentially leading to clinical trials ...
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Versus Myalgic Encephalomyelitis | Psychology Today
Examining clinical similarities between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and d-lactic acidosis: a systematic...
Evidence of gut dysbiosis has been observed through measurement of fecal microbial composition in ME/CFS populations. Differences between microbial composition of healthy compared with ME/CFS populations have been reported using both culture-based [136, 137] and genetic sequencing methods [3, 138]. Treatment using antibiotic , probiotic [140-142] or bacteriotherapy  have also been used to help modulate the gut microbiota in ME/CFS with somewhat unpredictable and varied success.. Using culture-based methods, we have previously observed a predominance of d-lactate producing bacteria (Enterococcus and Streptococcus species) in ME/CFS patients . These bacteria produce high levels of lactate in vitro, compared with fecal isolates  which would support the maintenance of a more acidic colonic environment as one of the mechanisms in d-la that was previously described. This inference about the acidity of the colon in ME/CFS patients has been deduced from in vitro methods only, as we are ...
Case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): a systematic review | BMJ Open
The main strength of our study is the systematic methods used to identify and appraise articles presenting case definitions of CFS/ME and studies potentially useful to evaluate the case definitions. Furthermore, we have used systematic and transparent approaches to extract data from the validation studies, categorise the studies according to three different models and to analyse and compare the data.. The STARD initiative aims to improve the reporting on studies of diagnostic accuracy, considering any method for obtaining additional information on a patients health status as a test.25 Owing to the lack of a reference standard, we found this guideline less suitable for review of articles evaluating case definitions for CFS/ME. Still, issues such as study populations, test methods and rationale, technical specifications for application of the test, statistical methods for comparing measures of accuracy and uncertainty, estimates of diagnostic accuracy, variability and clinical applicability25 are ...
Prevalence of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) in three regions of England: a repeated cross...
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been used to name a range of chronic conditions characterized by extreme fatigue and other disabling symptoms. Attempts to estimate the burden of disease have been limited by selection bias, and by lack of diagnostic biomarkers and of agreed reproducible case definitions. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS in three regions in England, and discussed the implications of frequency statistics and the use of different case definitions for health and social care planning and for research. We compared the clinical presentation, prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS based on a sample of 143,000 individuals aged 18 to 64 years, covered by primary care services in three regions of England. Case ascertainment involved: 1) electronic search for chronic fatigue cases; 2) direct questioning of general practitioners (GPs) on cases not previously identified by the search; and 3) clinical review of identified
Is there effective behavioural treatment for children with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis? | Archives of...
A comprehensive list of synonyms was compiled for the subjects (adolescents) and the condition (CFS). These were then combined and applied to the following databases so that all possible combinations of synonyms in article titles would be returned: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Ovid, Medline and EMBASE. This review updates the previous systematic review1 used to inform NICE guidance. We reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any behavioural intervention with normal care published since 2005. The results are discussed in the context of published case-control and cohort studies.. Abstracts were reviewed for 77 papers, and 20 papers were retrieved. Seven papers were excluded because they were case studies, two were cohort studies, four evaluated non-behavioural treatments and four did not use normal usual care as a control group leaving three RCTs.. ...
Chronic fatigue syndrome
"Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Retrieved 25 September 2017.. *^ a b Green, Carmen R.; Cowan, Penney; Elk ... "Treatment , Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)". www.cdc.gov. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017.. ... "Symptoms Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)". www.cdc.gov. 14 July 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2017.. ... Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Redefining an Illness. National Academies Press. pp. 148-151. ISBN ...
In NMO-IgG negative patients, or at least a subset of them, the cause is an antiMOG associated encephalomyelitis, About the ... Poser CM, Brinar VV (2007). "Disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis: two different diseases - a critical review ... Di Pauli Franziska (2015). "Fulminant demyelinating encephalomyelitis. Insights from antibody studies and neuropathology". ... of the cases NMO derived from an antiMOG associated encephalomyelitis, around 10% of the cases Connexin-43 NMO Aquaporin-1 ...
History of chronic fatigue syndrome
ISBN 0-906923-96-4. "An outbreak of encephalomyelitis in the Royal Free Hospital Group, London, in 1955". Br Med J. 2 (5050): ... A 1955 outbreak at the Royal Free Hospital Group was later called Royal Free disease or benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. After ... Since its introduction into the eighth edition of the WHO ICD-8 in 1969 (code 323), (Benign) myalgic encephalomyelitis has been ... In 1978 a symposium held at the Royal Society of Medicine (RSM) concluded that epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis was a ...
Controversies related to chronic fatigue syndrome
The benefit is available to people with myalgic encephalomyelitis (which can have a physical basis or a psychological basis, or ... In 1978 a symposium held at the Royal Society of Medicine (RSM) concluded that epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis was a ... A 2006 report by the UK Parliamentary Group on Scientific Research into Myalgic Encephalomyelitis stated that: "CFS/ME is ... A 2007 article in The New York Times reported that patients prefer the terms myalgic encephalomyelitis or myalgic ...
"Overview of Teschovirus Encephalomyelitis". The Merck Veterinary Manual. Merck Manuals. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June ... a severe and fatal form of pig encephalomyelitis), which itself was named for the town in the Czech Republic where the disease ... which is responsible for the porcine enteroviral encephalomyelitis disease caused in pigs. The genus name comes from its type ...
"Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): Symptoms". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. ... Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is one of the main symptoms of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). PEM ... "Unravelling the nature of post-exertional malaise in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: The role of elastase, ... "Diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis: where are we now?". Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics. 7 (3): 221-225. doi:10.1517/ ...
Ebola virus disease
Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system
NMO derived from an antiMOG associated encephalomyelitis, Some cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, specially the ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or ADEM, a closely related disorder in which a known virus or vaccine triggers ... Anti-MOG associated spectrum, often clinically presented as an anti-MOG autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but can also appear as ... Poser CM, Brinar VV (October 2007). "Disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis: two different diseases - a critical ...
Chronic fatigue syndrome in children
As in adults, there is no cure or approved treatment for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) in ... "Treatment of ME/CFS in Children - Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) - CDC". www.cdc.gov. July 3, 2017 ... Chronic fatigue syndrome in children (aka myalgic encephalomyelitis) is a lingering and debilitating illness that produces a ... Committee on the Diagnostic Criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Board on the Health of Select ...
Pathology of multiple sclerosis
These glial scars are the remainings of previous demyelinating inflammatory lesions (encephalomyelitis disseminata) which are ... 2015). "Histopathology and clinical course of MOG-antibody-associated encephalomyelitis". Annals of Clinical and Translational ... Lassmann H (2010). "Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis". Brain. 133 (2): 317-319. doi:10.1093/brain/ ... AntiMOG associated encephalomyelitis. High levels of anti-nuclear antibodies are found normally in patients with MS[citation ...
Persistent vegetative state
... related disseminated encephalomyelitis". Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology. 10 (1): 9-17. doi:10.1111/cen3.12491.. ... cell responses and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286 (46): 40133-41. ... the association of several viruses with human demyelination encephalomyelitis, and the occurrence of demyelination in animals ...
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Society "Deaths". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney. 12 September 2009. " ... was an Australian known for his work with We Help Ourselves drug rehabilitation centres and the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and ... For service to the community through We Help Ourselves and the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Society of ...
Hooper M (May 2007). "Myalgic encephalomyelitis: a review with emphasis on key findings in biomedical research". J. Clin. ... Byron Hyde, Malcolm Hooper (2010). "Missed Diagnoses: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis & Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Lulu. ISBN ... The Guardian reported on the conflict over the nature of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, and whether there ...
Hubert Maitland Turnbull
Antioxidante - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Journal of Health Psychology
Duke University Hospital
Clinical descriptions of chronic fatigue syndrome
... myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis". Evaluations & the Health Professions. 35 (3 ... "DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR MYALGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS/CHRONIC FATIGUE" (PDF). IOM. Retrieved 17 January 2014. ... "Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria". J Intern Med. 270 (4): 327-38. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02428 ... "The Development of a Revised Canadian Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Case Definition". American Journal of ...
Diagnosis of ME/CFS | Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) | CDC
Symptoms of ME/CFS | Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) | CDC
Frontiers | Unperturbed Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Phenotype and Function in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome...
Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disorder linked to diverse intracellular ... Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disorder linked to diverse intracellular ... Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome. J Chronic Fatigue Syndr (2003) 11(1):7-115. doi:10.1300/J092v11n01_02 ... Myalgic encephalomyelitis: international consensus criteria. J Intern Med (2011) 270(4):327-38. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011. ...
EXPERIMENTAL ENCEPHALOMYELITIS | The BMJ
BBC - h2g2 - Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) - A863345
Encephalomyelitis - Wikipedia
Various types of encephalomyelitis include: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or postinfectious encephalomyelitis, a ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis at NIHs Office of Rare Diseases Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Information Page at ... Encephalomyelitis disseminata, a synonym for multiple sclerosis. AntiMOG associated encephalomyelitis, one of the underlying ... Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of brain inflammation. Progressive encephalomyelitis with ...
ArboCat Virus: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEEV)
What causes acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?
How is diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) confirmed?. *How is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM ... "Treatments for Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in Children," "Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) symptoms ... "Treatments for Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in Children," "Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) symptoms ... What causes acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?. ANSWER ADEM seems to be an autoimmune disease. That means your immune ...
Equine encephalomyelitis - Wikipedia
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Differential Diagnoses
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating condition that predominately ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis in children. Brain. ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma. Int J Clin Pract. 2003 Apr. 57(3):235-7. ... Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Dec 05, 2017 * Author: J Nicholas Brenton, MD; Chief ...
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Versus Myalgic Encephalomyelitis | Psychology Today
Many dislike the label "CFS," and in other countries it is referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Actually, the 2003 ... Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Versus Myalgic Encephalomyelitis. What are words for? Posted Feb 01, 2015 ... The Institute of Medicines Committee on the Diagnostic Criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome will ...
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Children | ELECTRONIC ARTICLE | Pediatrics
encephalomyelitis. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is considered a monophasic acute demyelinating disorder of the ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis in children. Brain.2000 ... Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Children. S. N. Krishna Murthy, Howard S. Faden, Michael E. Cohen, Rohit Bakshi ... ADEM, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, CNS, central nervous system, MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, FLAIR, fluid- ...
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Children | ELECTRONIC ARTICLE | Pediatrics
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating condition that predominately ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis in children. Brain. ... encoded search term (Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis) and Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis What to Read Next on ... Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. Updated: Nov 08, 2018 * Author: J Nicholas Brenton, MD; Chief Editor: Tarakad S ...
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
... is a rare autoimmune disease that damages the covering of central nervous system ... Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune disease, which ... What are the signs and symptoms of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?. Symptoms of ADEM can range, depending on the ... What is Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?. The central nervous system - the brain, optic nerves and spinal cord - is ...
How is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) diagnosed in kids?
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (adem) and multiple sclerosis (ms) have similar symptoms, but ms is rare in children. ... How is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) diagnosed in kids?. ANSWER Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and ... "Treatments for Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in Children," "Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) symptoms ... "Treatments for Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in Children," "Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) symptoms ...
Encephalomyelitis in primary hypogammaglo... & related info | Mendeley
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Symptoms and Biomarkers: Ingenta Connect
A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
G. Alper, "Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis," Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1408-1425, 2012. View at ... A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. Vijay Kodadhala,1 Saravana Devulapalli,2 Mohankumar Kurukumbi,2 and ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) which is commonly preceded by an infection is an inflammatory and demyelinating ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection ...
TOXOPLASMIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS | JEM
Myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a long-term illness that affects many body systems. People ... Myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a long-term illness that affects many body systems. People ... Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: treatment. www.cdc.gov/me-cfs/treatment/index.html. Updated November 19, ... Treatment of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: a systematic review for a National Institutes of Health ...
Modulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through c...: Ingenta Connect
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and Other Acute Parainfectious Syndromes | SpringerLink
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the CNS, now recognized as a ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis in children. Brain. ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: prognostic value of early follow-up brain MRI. J Neurol. 2017;264:1754-62.CrossRefPubMed ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: an update. Arch Neurol. 2005;62:1673-80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Insights into myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome phenotypes through comprehensive metabolomics | Scientific...
The pathogenesis of ME/CFS, a disease characterized by fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, fever, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and lymphadenopathy, is poorly understood. We report biomarker discovery and topological analysis of plasma metabolomic, fecal bacterial metagenomic, and clinical data from 50 ME/CFS patients and 50 healthy controls. We confirm reports of altered plasma levels of choline, carnitine and complex lipid metabolites and demonstrate that patients with ME/CFS and IBS have increased plasma levels of ceramide. Integration of fecal metagenomic and plasma metabolomic data resulted in a stronger predictive model of ME/CFS (cross-validated AUC = 0.836) than either metagenomic (cross-validated AUC = 0.745) or metabolomic (cross-validated AUC = 0.820) analysis alone. Our findings may provide insights into the pathogenesis of ME/CFS and its subtypes and suggest pathways for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Encephalomyelitis | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine
Diseases : Encephalomyelitis, Neurological Damage, Vaccine-induced Toxicity Anti Therapeutic Actions : Vaccination: All, ... Diseases : Encephalomyelitis, Multiple Sclerosis, Oxidative Stress. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, ... Diseases : Encephalomyelitis, Multiple Sclerosis. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Immunomodulatory, ... Diseases : Encephalomyelitis. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Interleukin-17 downregulation, STAT3 ...
Avian encephalomyelitis/encephalitis | BackYard Chickens
Avian encephalomyelitis/encephalitis Discussion in Emergencies / Diseases / Injuries and Cures started by Evets70, Sep 10, ... Avian encephalomyelitis/encephalitis doesnt affect chicks until at least one week of age, so something like this disease ... At day 4, one of them turned up with AE, Avian Encephalomyelitis. Fortunately I was able to save her, but not before she ... any problems trying to obtain a refund or credit from a hatchery due to the loss of baby chicks from Avian encephalomyelitis/ ...
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis | Diagnostic Imaging
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis ("Chronic Fatigue Syndrome")
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), commonly referred to as chronic fatigue ... Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (my*al*gic + en*ceph*a*lo*my*eli*tis) (ME), commonly referred to as chronic fatigue syndrome, is a ... Trans-NIH Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Working Group. Research Centers. *Center for Solutions for ... You are Here: Home Page , Diseases & Conditions , Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) ...
Laquinimod arrests experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor | PNAS
The influence of laquinimod on the immune system was studied in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) (4⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓-12), ... Laquinimod arrests experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor Message Subject (Your ... Laquinimod arrests experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Joel Kaye, Victor ... 2013) Laquinimod prevents inflammation-induced synaptic alterations occurring in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. ...
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Information Page | National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Information Page. What research is being done?. The National Institute of Neurological ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is characterized by a brief but widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is characterized by a brief but widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is characterized by a brief but widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and ...
MyalgicADEMMultiple sclerosisExperimentalLocked-in syndrAvian EncephalomyelitisWestern equine encephalomyelitisEastern equine encephalomyelitisDiagnosisDemyelinating diseasesInfectionNINDS Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis InfCase of acute disseminated enceTherapy in acute disseminated enceChildren with acute disseminated encePatients with acute disseminated enceVaccineAcute disseminatedHemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virusMiceTypes of encephalomyelitisGranulomatous encephalomyelitisDiseaseEncephalitisFatigue syndromeBrainSevereBilateral optic2017VirusRigidityVirusesMyelinNeurologic
- Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disorder linked to diverse intracellular infections as well as physiological stress. (frontiersin.org)
- Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a heterogeneous disorder of unknown etiology. (frontiersin.org)
- ME, or Myalgic Encephalomyelitis , is classified as a disease of the nervous system by the World Health Organisation . (bbc.co.uk)
- Many dislike the label "CFS," and in other countries it is referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). (psychologytoday.com)
- The Institute of Medicine's Committee on the Diagnostic Criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome will hold a public release event for its consensus report on February 10th, 2015 from 11:00 am-12:00 pm EST at the Keck Center of the National Academies in Washington, D.C. (500 Fifth Street NW, Washington, DC). (psychologytoday.com)
- Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) continues to cause significant morbidity worldwide with an estimated one million cases in the United States. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a long-term illness that affects many body systems. (medlineplus.gov)
- Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), commonly referred to as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS, is a widely misunderstood disease. (ny.gov)
- Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (my*al*gic + en*ceph*a*lo*my*eli*tis) (ME), commonly referred to as chronic fatigue syndrome, is a serious, debilitating, chronic disease that affects multiple body systems, including the nervous system, the immune system, and the body's production of energy. (ny.gov)
- At Stanford, we believe that a subset of cases of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) may be related to infection. (stanford.edu)
- To experimentally assess visual attention difficulties commonly reported by those with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). (prohealth.com)
- Nutritional supplements are an essential component of any Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME/CFS) treatment protocol. (prohealth.com)
- Even in the absence of clinical nutritional deficiencies, the physiological demands of a chronic illness make it necessary to provide additional nutritional support - especially in light of the numerous GI problems prevalent in the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & Myalgic Encephalomyelitis population, which may lead to malabsorption. (prohealth.com)
- Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease which afflicts approximately 2 million people in the United States and many more around the globe. (pnas.org)
- There is not currently a well-established, if any, biological test to diagnose myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). (pnas.org)
- Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease that affects at least 2 million Americans and millions more globally ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (pnas.org)
- Between 836,000 and 2.5 million Americans suffer from myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome-commonly referred to as ME/ CFS. (nationalacademies.org)
- The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, is announcing a public workshop to discuss how best to facilitate and expedite the development of safe and effective drug therapies to treat signs and symptoms related to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). (federalregister.gov)
- This guideline covers diagnosing and managing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) which is also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) (or encephalopathy). (nice.org.uk)
- There are approximately 250,000 people diagnosed with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) in the UK. (positivehealth.com)
- Virtually no other medical disorder has been referred to by so many different names, some of which include Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS), Neurasthenia, Post Viral Fatigue Syndrome (PVFS), and most recently, Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID). (positivehealth.com)
- Last year in the US, the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Pathways To Prevention (P2P) program published a report titled Advancing the Research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome . (positivehealth.com)
- In February 2015, the IOM published a report, Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Redefining an Illness which proposed several positive changes, including a new name - Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID) - and with that, a new set of diagnostic criteria. (positivehealth.com)
- Is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome / Myalgic Encephalomyelitis a Relevant Diagnosis in Patients with Suspected Side Effects to Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine? (sanevax.org)
- As fatigue and fatigability is a prominent symptom in many of the patients with suspected side effects to the vaccine, chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)c ould be suspected to be a suitable diagnosis. (sanevax.org)
- Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome affects an estimated 836,000 to 2.5 million adults in the U.S. with a constellation of debilitating symptoms, including severe fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances, and cognitive problems. (nurse.com)
- The goal of this continuing education module is to provide an overview of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, a complex multisymptom disorder. (nurse.com)
- Myalgic encephalomyelitis ("ME") affects approximately 1 in 400 and four times as many women as men. (wpinstitute.org)
- How is myalgic encephalomyelitis treated? (wpinstitute.org)
- The National Institutes of Health (NIH) will award four grants to establish a coordinated scientific research effort on myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). (nih.gov)
- Assessment of Exercise Response in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome / Myalgic Encephalomyelitis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Chronic fatigue syndrome/ myalgic encephalomyelitis presents with a significant deterioration of functional capacity, which seriously affects the quality of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Post-Infectious Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (PI-ME/CFS) refers to long-lasting and disabling fatigue or malaise, inability to recover after exercise, and physical and emotional discomfort that may occur after a person has an infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- As noted in Chapter 1 , "ME/CFS" is an umbrella term that includes myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). (nap.edu)
- The term "benign myalgic encephalomyelitis" was first used in the 1950s to describe a similar outbreak at the Royal Free Hospital in London (Wojcik et al. (nap.edu)
- Although the cause of the condition could not be determined, it appeared to be infectious, and the term "benign myalgic encephalomyelitis" eventually was chosen to reflect "the absent mortality, the severe muscular pains, the evidence of parenchymal damage to the nervous system, and the presumed inflammatory nature of the disorder" (Acheson, 1959, p. 593). (nap.edu)
- In 1970, two psychiatrists in the United Kingdom reviewed the reports of 15 outbreaks of benign myalgic encephalomyelitis and concluded that these outbreaks "were psychosocial phenomena caused by one of two mechanisms, either mass hysteria on the part of the patients or altered medical perception of the community" (McEvedy and Beard, 1970, p. 11). (nap.edu)
- Child and adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: where are we now? (medworm.com)
- Purpose of review The current review aims to determine the recent evidence regarding cause, impact, effective treatment and prognosis of children and young people (CYP) affected by chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) at a time when the National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines in the United Kingdom are being reviewed and more research is called for worldwide. (medworm.com)
- FORT LAUDERDALE/DAVIE, Fla. - Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), sometimes referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), a mysterious, debilitating and misunderstood disease that affects an estimated 1 million Americans, will be the focus of an international conference on October 27-30, 2016. (brightsurf.com)
- The conference is organized by the International Association for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (IACFS/ME) . (brightsurf.com)
- Founded in 1990, the IACFS/ME is a multidisciplinary non-profit organization of scientist, clinicians, patients, advocates and educators dedicated to the study and care of individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, fibromyalgia, and related conditions. (brightsurf.com)
- Many researchers consider chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to be a synonym of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME). (mdpi.com)
- Can myalgic encephalomyelitis be cured? (healthtap.com)
- I am unfamiliar with "myalgic", but the disorder of acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, is a condition in mainly children subsequent to upper repiratory infection or vaccination. (healthtap.com)
- What treatment do you suggest, me diagnosed myalgic encephalomyelitis with constant react. (healthtap.com)
- Myalgic Encephalomyelitis is also known as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). (omicsonline.org)
- Novel pathomechanisms in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Do purinergic signalling perturbations and gliosis play a role? (iacfsme.org)
- Attempts have been made over many years to develop a viable hypothesis for the aetiology of chronic fatigue syndrome/ myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). (iacfsme.org)
- What causes acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)? (webmd.com)
- National Multiple Sclerosis Society: "Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM). (webmd.com)
- Children's Healthcare of Atlanta: "Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM): Patient and Family Education. (webmd.com)
- Boston Children's Hospital: "Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) Testing and Diagnosis," "Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis And Related Disorders Program at Boston Children's Hospital," "Treatments for Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in Children," "Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) symptoms & causes in children. (webmd.com)
- What are the symptoms of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)? (webmd.com)
- Chowdhary J, Ashraf SM, Khajuria K. Measles with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). (medscape.com)
- and outcome in a cohort of children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). (aappublications.org)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is considered a monophasic acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by diffuse neurologic signs and symptoms coupled with evidence of multifocal lesions of demyelination on neuroimaging. (aappublications.org)
- The inpatient database of Children's Hospital of Buffalo was broadly searched for patients with the diagnosis of ADEM, viral encephalitis, postinfectious encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, and transverse myelitis. (aappublications.org)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating condition that predominately affects the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. (medscape.com)
- Multiple sclerosis (MS) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) bear a close pathological resemblance, each resembling the pathology of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). (medscape.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune disease, which causes inflammation (swelling) and damage to the protective covering of the fibers in the central nervous system. (childrens.com)
- How is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) diagnosed in kids? (webmd.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS) have similar symptoms, but MS is rare in children. (webmd.com)
- What symptoms of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are shared with other diseases? (webmd.com)
- What is the goal of treating acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)? (webmd.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) which is commonly preceded by an infection is an inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of central nervous system [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the CNS, now recognized as a distinct entity and not a multiple sclerosis variant. (springer.com)
- Esposito S, Di Pietro GM, Madini B, Mastrolia MV, Rigante D. A spectrum of inflammation and demyelination in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) of children. (springer.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is characterized by a brief but widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord that damages myelin - the protective covering of nerve fibers. (nih.gov)
- Need to make a doctor appointment for Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) this week? (zocdoc.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory, usually monophasic, immune mediate, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which involves the white matter. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) involves a brief but intense attack of inflammation (swelling) in the brain and spinal cord that damages the brain's myelin. (childrenshospital.org)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a disorder in which the immune system causes an intense attack on the brain, and sometimes the spinal cord and the optic nerves. (chop.edu)
- Post-infectious and inflammatory encephalomyelitis are broadly represented by the syndrome acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). (bmj.com)
- ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that is usually monophasic, but a relapsing variant distinct from MS-multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM) is well-described. (bmj.com)
- This case fits well in the spectrum of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous systems of children and young adults, which occur in close temporal relationship with several infectious illnesses and immunizations ( 2 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- White matter lesions on MR images obtained from patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have been reported to appear shortly after symptom onset, and their resolution has been claimed to parallel recovery. (ajnr.org)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a severe, acute, demyelinating disease of the CNS. (ajnr.org)
- How does one get acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (adem)? (healthtap.com)
- Encephalomyelitis disseminata, a synonym for multiple sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Alper G, Heyman R, Wang L. Multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis diagnosed in children after long-term follow-up: comparison of presenting features. (medscape.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis in children. (springer.com)
- Steroid protection in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis. (springer.com)
- Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of the human demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). The immune cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is believed to participate in disease pathogenesis in both EAE and MS. In the present study, we examined the significance of IFN-γ-oligodendrocyte interactions in the course of EAE. (jneurosci.org)
- Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of the human demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS) ( Lassmann and Werkele, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
- Evidence is accumulating that Th1 cells play an important role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), whereas Th2 cells contribute to recovery from disease. (tudelft.nl)
- Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an experimental model most frequently used for research on demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and can be used as a model of cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune conditions in general. (novusbio.com)
- Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model that reproduces cardinal signs of clinical, histopathological, and immunological features found in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Mast cells are suggested to be involved in the main inflammatory phases occurring during EAE development, possibly by secreting several autacoids and proteases. (hindawi.com)
- In multiple sclerosis (MS) 3 and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), myelin and oligodendrocytes (OLG) are primary targets of cellular and humoral immune effectors ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Thus, our aim was to perform analyses of gut microbiota in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. (frontiersin.org)
- Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a Th17-mediated autoimmune disease and an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) contains pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that bind toll-like receptors (TLRs), and is necessary to induce EAE. (diva-portal.org)
- Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of brain inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
- 1. Infected material from the brain and spinal cord of an infant suffering from a recently recognized form of granulomatous encephalomyelitis was inoculated into rabbits and mice and produced an experimental disease which was readily transmissible in series. (rupress.org)
- Modulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through c. (ingentaconnect.com)
- The present work investigates the modulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) using genistein before the EAE induction. (springer.com)
- Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (springer.com)
- Touil T, Fitzgerald D, Zhang GX, Rostami A, Gran B. Cutting Edge: TLR3 stimulation suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inducing endogenous IFN-beta. (springer.com)
- Estrogen receptor α signaling in T lymphocytes is required for estradiol-mediated inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (springer.com)
- IL-21R signaling is critical for induction of spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (nih.gov)
- We describe here a gene expression- and bioinformatics-based study showing that celastrol, a natural triterpenoid, acting via MAPK pathway regulates the downstream genes encoding serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), which plays a vital role in Th17/Treg differentiation, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is a neurotrophic factor, thereby offering protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. (springer.com)
- Using bovine αB-crystallin and synthetic peptides based on mouse αB-crystallin the ability of this stress protein to induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was screened in Biozzi ABH (H-2A(g7)) mice. (tudelft.nl)
- In SJL mice lactobacilli are able to enhance or inhibit the development of disease after induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). (tudelft.nl)
- Submit your Twitter account related to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis to be featured! (novusbio.com)
- Submit your blog on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis to be featured! (novusbio.com)
- Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis has been used to develop many medications for such diseases. (novusbio.com)
- Explore more on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis below! (novusbio.com)
- We have 3924 products for the study of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis that can be applied to Western Blot, Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits. (novusbio.com)
- Albeit the mechanisms by which mast cells influence MS are yet to be fully understood, trypsin-like proteases released from degranulating mast cells have been shown to trigger demyelination in a mouse model for MS-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Benztropine, a FDA-approved drug used for treatment of Parkinson's disease was recently identified as an effective inducer of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) differentiation in vitro and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most common animal model used to study MS. Thus, we sought to study the synergy of benztropine and tuftsin, immunomodulatory tetrapeptide shown to polarize microglia to the M2 phenotype in a MOG-induced acute EAE model. (omicsonline.org)
- We have made an exciting observation that dietary indoles such as DIM can completely suppress the clinical disease in an experimental model of MS known as Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). (labome.org)
- In this translational study, we investigated whether long-term anticoagulation with warfarin or rivaroxaban has beneficial effects on the course of autoimmune experimental encephalomyelitis (EAE). (nih.gov)
- Complement activation is involved in the initiation of Ab-mediated inflammatory demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). (jimmunol.org)
- Has anyone out there had any problems trying to obtain a refund or credit from a hatchery due to the loss of baby chicks from Avian encephalomyelitis/encephalitis? (backyardchickens.com)
- Avian encephalomyelitis/encephalitis doesn't affect chicks until at least one week of age, so something like this disease obviously won't fall within that policy. (backyardchickens.com)
- At day 4, one of them turned up with AE, Avian Encephalomyelitis. (backyardchickens.com)
- Avian encephalomyelitis virus infection in laying bird causes inapparent infection or drops in egg production. (thepoultrysite.com)
- See Avian Encephalomyelitis, Epidemic tremors for its effect in young birds. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Do my chicks have Avian Encephalomyelitis virus? (backyardchickens.com)
- One of the other symptoms of Avian encephalomyelitis virus was sitting on the back on the back of its legs. (backyardchickens.com)
- Do you think that my chicks have Avian Encephalomyelitis virus? (backyardchickens.com)
- Medulla oblongata of a chick affected with avian encephalomyelitis. (merckvetmanual.com)
Western equine encephalomyelitis6
- equine encephalomyelitis, eastern a viral disease similar to western equine encephalomyelitis, but occurring in a region extending from New Hampshire to Texas and as far west as Wisconsin, and in Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and parts of Central and South America. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Anesthesia, by ether, is effective in the treatment of western equine encephalomyelitis in mice. (sciencemag.org)
- Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and Western equine encephalomyelitis viruses with known circulation in Argentina were included in the assay with negative results (3). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Serum samples were first tested against the major neurotropic viruses infecting horses, including Eastern equine encephalomyelitis , Western equine encephalomyelitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV). (thefreedictionary.com)
- By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), we identified tissue tropisms and potential tissue barriers, and evaluated the effects of viral dose and time postingestion. (dovepress.com)
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis4
- Diversity within natural populations of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. (biomedsearch.com)
- We evaluated genetic and phenotypic diversity within natural populations of the alphavirus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus. (biomedsearch.com)
- Infection and transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus with colonized Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Eastern equine encephalomyelitis in upstate New York: studies of a 1976 epizootic by a modified serologic technique, hemagglutination reduction, for rapid detection of virus infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. (hindawi.com)
- In Beyond Myal-gic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Redefining an Illness, the com-mittee proposes new diagnostic criteria that will facilitate timely diagnosis and care and enhance understanding among health care providers and the public. (nationalacademies.org)
- This leaves a "diagnosis" of idiopathic encephalomyelitis (IE). (dogsnaturallymagazine.com)
- Various types of encephalomyelitis include: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or postinfectious encephalomyelitis, a demyelinating disease of the brain and spinal cord, possibly triggered by viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
- AIDS related encephalomyelitis, caused by opportunistic Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. (wikipedia.org)
- Sacconi S, Salviati L, Merelli E. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. (medscape.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. (hindawi.com)
- A case report of a healthy 10-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection. (greenmedinfo.com)
- acute disseminated encephalomyelitis an acute or subacute encephalomyelitis or myelitis occurring most commonly following an acute viral infection, especially measles, but sometimes occurring without a recognizable antecedent. (thefreedictionary.com)
- acute disseminated encephalomyelitis inflammation of the brain and spinal cord after infection (especially measles) or, formerly, rabies vaccination. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The pathogenesis of an attenuated and an unattenuated strain of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in suckling mice as studied by infectivity titrations and direct fluorescent antibody-staining technique was described. (jimmunol.org)
- Post-infectious encephalomyelitis is associated with an antecedent or concomitant infection, usually viral. (bmj.com)
- This is the first longitudinal report of ZIKV infection causing encephalomyelitis with documented immune activation. (ovid.com)
- These cases were associated with nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis predominantly involving gray matter, including neuronal necrosis/neuronophagia and ganglionitis consistent with lesions caused by a neuronotropic viral infection. (cdc.gov)
- Can autoimmune encephalitis triggered by past infection be insidious unlike acute disseminated encephalomyelitis? (healthtap.com)
NINDS Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Inf1
Case of acute disseminated ence2
- A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation during infliximab therapy has been reported. (greenmedinfo.com)
- This report describes a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with severe neurological outcomes following a seasonal influenza vaccine. (greenmedinfo.com)
Therapy in acute disseminated ence1
Children with acute disseminated ence1
Patients with acute disseminated ence1
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with severe neurological outcomes following virosomal seasonal influenza vaccine. (greenmedinfo.com)
- This page contains information on Encephalomyelitis Vaccine Eastern & Western with Tetanus Toxoid for veterinary use . (drugs.com)
- The toxoid is refined to remove most of the nonspecific components and is concentrated to provide a low dose effective product for combination with Encephalomyelitis Vaccine fraction. (drugs.com)
- We report an unusual case in which neurologic signs occurred in a previously healthy child after both doses of H1N1 2009 influenza vaccine, culminating in bilateral optic neuritis and disseminated encephalomyelitis. (blogspot.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Information Page at NINDS Pröbstel AK et al. (wikipedia.org)
- National Organization for Rare Disorders: "Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. (webmd.com)
- UpToDate: "Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: Treatment and prognosis. (webmd.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis followed by recurrent or monophasic optic neuritis in pediatric patients. (medscape.com)
- CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. (medscape.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: clinical features, HLA DRB1*1501, HLA DRB1*1503, HLA DQA1*0102, HLA DQB1*0602, and HLA DPA1*0301 allelic association study. (medscape.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in childhood: report of 10 cases. (medscape.com)
- van der Meyden CH, de Villiers JF, Middlecote BD, Terblanchè J. Gadolinium ring enhancement and mass effect in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. (medscape.com)
- Honkaniemi J, Dastidar P, Kähärä V, Haapasalo H. Delayed MR imaging changes in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. (medscape.com)
- Role of plasmapheresis in acute disseminated (postinfectious) encephalomyelitis. (medscape.com)
- Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability. (hindawi.com)
- Rossi A. Imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. (springer.com)
- Tenembaum S, Chamoles N, Fejerman N. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a long-term follow-up study of 84 pediatric patients. (springer.com)
- Severe acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a paediatric intensive care population-based study. (springer.com)
- A case report of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after influenza vaccination. (greenmedinfo.com)
- A case report of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis triggered by toxic effect of synthetic cannabinoid black mamba. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Plasmapheresis in childhood acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. (biomedsearch.com)
- We used plasmapheresis to treat steroid non-responsive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in two children. (biomedsearch.com)
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADE) is a neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the brain and spinal cord caused by damage to the myelin sheath. (cureresearch.com)
- Further information about the symptoms of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis is available including a list of symptoms of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis , or alternatively return to research other symptoms in the symptom center . (cureresearch.com)
- Various information is available about treatments available for Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis , or research treatments for other diseases. (cureresearch.com)
- Research more detailed information about the causes of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis , other possibly hidden causes of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis , or other general information about Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis . (cureresearch.com)
- Cerebellar mutism in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is rare. (luriechildrens.org)
- CONCLUSION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is commonly a benign process, but its effect on the cerebellum can be long-lasting. (luriechildrens.org)
Hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus1
- Using the model system of Sindbis virus-induced encephalomyelitis in mice, we have shown that immune-mediated clearance of infectious virus from neurons is a noncytolytic process. (nih.gov)
- A virus of the genus enterovirus , family picornaviridae , normally associated with inapparent infections and found in the intestinal tracts of infected mice , occasionally causing mouse encephalomyelitis in experimentally inoculated susceptible mice. (biology-online.org)
- Mouse encephalomyelitis virus, a species of enterovirus that infects mice. (wikipedia.org)
Types of encephalomyelitis1
- When administered as directed this single product provides protection against Eastern and Western types of encephalomyelitis and against tetanus. (drugs.com)
- granulomatous encephalomyelitis a disease marked by granulomas and necrosis of the walls of the cerebral and spinal ventricles. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Equine encephalomyelitis[disambiguation needed], also called equine encephalitis, a potentially fatal mosquito-borne viral disease that infects horses and humans. (wikipedia.org)
- Since the lesions were confined to the central nervous system the disease is termed toxoplasmic encephalomyelitis. (rupress.org)
- Global Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Encephalomyelitis - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Encephalomyelitis (Central Nervous System) pipeline landscape. (mynewsdesk.com)
- Mylagic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a chronic, highly variable neurodegenerative disease affecting over 2 million Americans. (medindia.net)
- Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis is a viral disease of piglets, characterized by a vomiting and wasting syndrome and/or encephalomyelitis. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Encephalomyelitis is inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
- Encephalomyelitis can be caused by a variety of conditions that lead to irritation of the brain and spinal cord. (mynewsdesk.com)
- Viral encephalomyelitis is caused by virus infections of neurons in the brain and spinal cord. (nih.gov)
- Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis is an induced autoimmune disorder that creates inflammation in the brain and spinal cord. (novusbio.com)
- Global Markets Direct's Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Encephalomyelitis - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Encephalomyelitis (Central Nervous System), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (mynewsdesk.com)
- Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) - A kind of stiff person syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
- 1 We report a 19 year old woman with stridor who developed progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity (PER). (bmj.com)
- Review of 23 patients affected by the stiff man syndrome: clinical subdivision into stiff trunk (man) syndrome, stiff limb syndrome, and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity. (bmj.com)