A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Paralysis caused by a neurotropic toxin secreted by the salivary glands of ticks.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A species of tick (TICKS) in the family IXODIDAE, distributed throughout the world but abundant in southern Europe. It will feed on a wide variety of MAMMALS, but DOGS are its preferred host. It transmits a large number of diseases including BABESIOSIS; THEILERIASIS; EHRLICHIOSIS; and MEDITERRANEAN SPOTTED FEVER.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of TICKS.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A family of softbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include ARGAS and ORNITHODOROS among others.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.

Isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from wild rodents and a seroepizootiologic survey in Hokkaido, Japan. (1/343)

To determine the vertebrate host of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in the southern part of Hokkaido, Japan, virus isolation was performed using spleens from small mammals captured in the area. Two virus strains were isolated, one strain from Apodemus speciosus and another from Clethrionomys rufocanus. Virus isolates were inoculated onto baby hamster kidney cell monolayers and antigen slides were prepared for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay. Two isolates were identified as TBE viruses by monoclonal antibody reactions. To specify the TBE-endemic area in Hokkaido, rodent, horse, and dog sera collected from 1992 to 1997 were tested for neutralization antibody against TBE virus previously isolated from a dog. The positive cases were distributed in four districts in the southern part of Hokkaido.  (+info)

Highly efficient induction of protective immunity by a vaccinia virus vector defective in late gene expression. (2/343)

Vaccinia viruses defective in the essential gene coding for the enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) do not undergo DNA replication and do not express late genes in wild-type cells. A UDG-deficient vaccinia virus vector carrying the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus prM/E gene, termed vD4-prME, was constructed, and its potential as a vaccine vector was evaluated. High-level expression of the prM/E antigens could be demonstrated in infected complementing cells, and moderate levels were found under noncomplementing conditions. The vD4-prME vector was used to vaccinate mice; animals receiving single vaccination doses as low as 10(4) PFU were fully protected against challenge with high doses of virulent TBE virus. Single vaccination doses of 10(3) PFU were sufficient to induce significant neutralizing antibody titers. With the corresponding replicating virus, doses at least 10-fold higher were needed to achieve protection. The data indicate that late gene expression of the vaccine vector is not required for successful vaccination; early vaccinia virus gene expression induces a potent protective immune response. The new vaccinia virus-based defective vectors are therefore promising live vaccines for prophylaxis and cancer immunotherapy.  (+info)

Recombinant Semliki Forest virus particles encoding the prME or NS1 proteins of louping ill virus protect mice from lethal challenge. (3/343)

Recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV) vaccines encoding louping ill virus (LIV) genes prME and NS1 were examined. Cells transfected with rSFV-prME RNA showed correct processing of the precursor prME and the release into the medium of M and E proteins in particulate form, whilst rSFV-NS1-transfected cells secreted glycosylated, heat-labile NS1 dimers. Mice immunized with rSFV particles produced antibodies against prME and NS1 that were mainly of the IgG2a subtype, indicating that a T-helper 1 immune response was induced. Immunization with prME- or NS1-encoding particles induced T-cell proliferation. Mice vaccinated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with rSFV-prME and/or rSFV-NS1 were significantly protected from lethal i.p. challenge by two strains of LIV, the virulent LI/31 strain, from which the commercial LIV vaccine is derived, and the less-virulent LI/I antibody-escape variant. Intranasal (i.n.) vaccination was protective for rSFV-prME only against LI/31 challenge and not against challenge with LI/I. Immunization with rSFV-NS1 was protective against i.p. and i.n. challenge with both virus strains when given i.p., but was not protective when given i.n. For unvaccinated mice infected with LIV, all animals showing clinical signs had severe degenerative and inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system. None of the rSFV-vaccinated mice that survived challenge showed central nervous system pathology, with the exception of mild leptomeningitis in a minority of LI/31-infected mice. This suggests that protection following immunization with rSFV must occur at early stages of LIV infection.  (+info)

Mapping of functional elements in the stem-anchor region of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope protein E. (4/343)

Envelope protein E of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus mediates membrane fusion, and the structure of the N-terminal 80% of this 496-amino-acid-long protein has been shown to differ significantly from that of other viral fusion proteins. The structure of the carboxy-terminal 20%, the stem-anchor region, is not known. It contains sequences that are important for membrane anchoring, interactions with prM (the precursor of membrane protein M) during virion assembly, and low-pH-induced structural changes associated with the fusion process. To identify specific functional elements in this region, a series of C-terminal deletion mutants were constructed and the properties of the resulting truncated recombinant E proteins were examined. Full-length E proteins and proteins lacking the second of two predicted transmembrane segments were secreted in a particulate form when coexpressed with prM, whereas deletion of both segments resulted in the secretion of soluble homodimeric E proteins. Sites located within a predicted alpha-helical region of the stem (amino acids 431 to 449) and the first membrane-spanning region (amino acids 450 to 472) were found to be important for the stability of the prM-E heterodimer but not essential for prM-mediated intracellular transport and secretion of soluble E proteins. A separate site in the stem, also corresponding to a predicted alpha-helix (amino acids 401 to 413), was essential for the conversion of soluble protein E dimers to a homotrimeric form upon low-pH treatment, a process resembling the transition to the fusogenic state in whole virions. This functional mapping will aid in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of membrane fusion and virus assembly.  (+info)

Prediction of three-dimensional structure and mapping of conformational epitopes of envelope glycoprotein of Japanese encephalitis virus. (5/343)

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is an important human pathogen. The envelope glycoprotein (Egp), a major structural antigen, is responsible for viral haemagglutination and eliciting neutralising antibodies. The three-dimensional structure of the Egp of JEV was predicted using the knowledge-based homology modeling approach and X-ray structure data of the Egp of tick-borne encephalitis virus as a template (Rey et al., 1995). In the initial stages of optimisation, a distance-dependent dielectric constant of 4r(ij) was used to simulate the solvent effect. The predicted structure was refined by solvating the protein in a 10-A layer of water by explicitly considering 4867 water molecules. Four independent structure evaluation methods report this structure to be acceptable stereochemically and geometrically. The Egp of JEV has an extended structure with seven beta-sheets, two alpha-helices, and three domains. The water-solvated structure was used to delineate conformational and sequential epitopes. These results document the importance of tertiary structure in understanding the antigenic properties of flaviviruses in general and JEV in particular. The conformational epitope prediction method could be used to identify conformational epitopes on any protein antigen with known three-dimensional structure. This is one of the largest proteins whose three-dimensional structure has been predicted using an homology modeling approach and water as a solvent.  (+info)

A focus of deer tick virus transmission in the northcentral United States. (6/343)

We screened salivary glands from adult deer ticks collected near Spooner and Hayward, Wisconsin, to determine whether deer tick virus, a recently described flavivirus, occurs with other tickborne agents in the upper Midwest. Intraacinar inclusions suggestive of replicating virus were detected in 4 (4.6%) of 87 ticks. The virus was isolated by suckling-mouse inoculation.  (+info)

Evaluation of tick-borne encephalitis DNA vaccines in monkeys. (7/343)

Tick-borne encephalitis is usually caused by infection with one of two flaviviruses: Russian spring summer encephalitis virus (RSSEV) or Central European encephalitis virus (CEEV). We previously demonstrated that gene gun inoculation of mice with naked DNA vaccines expressing the prM and E genes of these viruses resulted in long-lived homologous and heterologous protective immunity (Schmaljohn et al., 1997). To further evaluate these vaccines, we inoculated rhesus macaques by gene gun with the RSSEV or CEEV vaccines or with both DNA vaccines and compared resulting antibody titers with those obtained by vaccination with a commercial, formalin-inactivated vaccine administered at the human dose. Vaccinations were given at days 0, 30, and 70. All of the vaccines elicited antibodies detected by ELISA and by plaque-reduction neutralization tests. The neutralizing antibody responses persisted for at least 15 weeks after the final vaccination. Because monkeys are not uniformly susceptible to tick-borne encephalitis, the protective properties of the vaccines were assessed by passive transfer of monkey sera to mice and subsequent challenge of the mice with RSSEV or CEEV. One hour after transfer, mice that received 50 microl of sera from monkeys vaccinated with both DNA vaccines had circulating neutralizing antibody levels <20-80. All of these mice were protected from challenge with RSSEV or CEEV. Mice that received 10 microl of sera from monkeys vaccinated with the individual DNA vaccines, both DNA vaccines, or a commercial vaccine were partially to completely protected from RSSEV or CEEV challenge. These data suggest that DNA vaccines may offer protective immunity to primates similar to that obtained with a commercial inactivated-virus vaccine.  (+info)

Phylogenetic and virulence analysis of tick-borne encephalitis viruses from Japan and far-Eastern Russia. (8/343)

We have previously reported that tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic in a specific area of Hokkaido, Japan. In Oshima, the southern part of Hokkaido, TBE virus was isolated from sentinel dogs, ticks and rodents in 1995 and 1996. To identify when these TBE viruses emerged in Hokkaido, the times of divergence of TBE virus strains isolated in Oshima and far-eastern Russia were estimated. TBE virus was isolated in Khabarovsk in 1998 and the nucleotide sequences of viral envelope protein genes of isolates from Oshima and Khabarovsk were compared. From the synonymous substitution rate of these virus strains, the lineage divergence time of these TBE virus strains was predicted phylogenetically to be about 260-430 years ago. Furthermore, the virulence of TBE virus isolates from Oshima and Khabarovsk were compared in a mouse model. The results showed that the isolates possessed very similar virulence in mice. This report provides evidence that the Oshima strains of TBE virus in Hokkaido emerged from far-eastern Russia a few hundred years ago and this explains why these strains possess virulence similar to the TBE viruses isolated in Russia.  (+info)

A total of 52 serum samples from patients with symptoms suggestive of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection and positive IgM and/or IgG antibodies were tested for IgG avidity. Acute/recent TBEV infection was confirmed by low/borderline avidity index (AI) in 94.8% IgM positive/IgG positive samples, while in 5.2% high AI was found indicating persisting IgM antibodies. Majority of IgM negative/IgG positive samples (78.6%) showed high AI consistent with past TBEV infection. However, in 21.3% patients without measurable IgM antibodies current/recent infection was confirmed by AI. IgG avidity represents an additional serologic marker that improves diagnosis of TBEV, especially in cases of atypical antibody response.. Key words: IgG avidity, serology, tick-borne encephalitis virus. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a small, enveloped virus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, tick-borne encephalitis serocomplex. There are three subtypes of TBEV: the European, the ...
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the virus associated with tick-borne encephalitis. TBEV is a member of the genus Flavivirus. Other close relatives include Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, Kyasanur forest disease virus, Alkhurma virus, Louping ill virus and the Langat virus. TBEV has three subtypes: Western European subtype (formerly Central European encephalitis virus, CEEV; principal tick vector: Ixodes ricinus); Siberian subtype (formerly West Siberian virus; principal tick vector: Ixodes persulcatus); Far Eastern subtype (formerly Russian Spring Summer encephalitis virus, RSSEV; principal tick vector: Ixodes persulcatus). The reference strain is the Sofjin strain. The ancestor of the extant strains appears to have separated into several clades approximately 2750 years ago. The Siberian and Far Eastern subtypes diverged about 2250 years ago. A second analysis suggests an earlier date of evolution (3300 years ago) with a rapid increase in the number of strains starting ~300 years ago. This ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrochemical immunoassay for the detection of antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis virus by using various types of bioconjugates based on silver nanoparticles. AU - Khristunova, Ekaterina. AU - Barek, Jiri. AU - Kratochvil, Bohumil. AU - Korotkova, Elena. AU - Dorozhko, Elena. AU - Vyskocil, Vlastimil. PY - 2020/10. Y1 - 2020/10. N2 - This work reports for the first time a significantly improved and simplified electrochemical immunoassay to detect antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) using a 96-well microtiter plate as a platform for immobilization and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as electrochemical labels. The electrochemical assay is performed by detecting the elemental silver oxidation signal where the electroactive signalling silver species are released from the bioconjugates ([email protected], [email protected], and [email protected]). For this purpose, AgNPs were synthesized and further tagged with biomolecules (antibodies to TBEV, cleaved antibodies to TBEV, and protein A). ...
Deer tick virus is a virus causing tick-borne encephalitis. Deer tick virus is a flavivirus closely resembling Powassan virus (to which it has 94% amino acid sequence identity). Because they are so related, deer tick virus is thought to be a genotype of Powassan virus, and also called Powassan virus lineage II. In 1997, it was isolated from Ixodes scapularis (the deer tick, formerly Ixodes dammini) collected in Massachusetts and Connecticut. Tick-borne encephalitis virus Lyme disease (caused by a deer-tick bacterium) Tavakoli NP, Wang H, Dupuis M, Hull R, Ebel GD, Gilmore EJ, Faust PL (2009). Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 360 (20): 2099-2107. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0806326. PMC 2847876 . PMID 19439744. Kuno G, Artsob H, Karabatsos N, Tsuchiya KR, Chang GJ (November 2001). Genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of powassan-related viruses of North America. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65 (5): 671-6. PMID 11716135. Beasley DW, Suderman MT, Holbrook MR, Barrett ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hungarian tick-borne encephalitis viruses isolated from a 0.5-ha focus are closely related to Finnish strains. AU - Egyed, László. AU - Rónai, Zsuzsanna. AU - Dán, Ádám. PY - 2018/7. Y1 - 2018/7. N2 - Four tick-borne encephalitis virus strains were isolated from a small 0.5-ha focus over a six-year-long period (2011-2016) in Hungary. Two strains with identical genomes were isolated from Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna two months apart, which shows that the virus had not evolved separately in these tick species. Whole-genome sequencing of the virus revealed that the isolates differed from each other in 4 amino acids and 9 nucleotides. The calculated substitution rates indicated that the speed of genome evolution differs from habitat to habitat, and continuously changes even within the same focus. The amino acid changes affected the capsid, envelope, NS2a and NS5 genes, and one mutation each occurred in the 5′ and 3′ NCR as well as the premembrane, NS2a and NS5 ...
Flavivirus is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viral genus, with members causing severe diseases in humans such as tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, and dengue fever. Flaviviruses are known to cause remodeling of intracellular membranes into small cavities, where replication of the viral RNA takes place. Nonstructural (NS) proteins are not part of the virus coat and are thought to participate in the formation of these viral replication compartments (RCs). Here, we used tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) as a model for the flaviviruses and developed a stable human cell line in which the expression of NS proteins can be induced without viral RNA replication. The model system described provides a novel and benign tool for studies of the viral components under controlled expression levels. We show that the expression of six NS proteins is sufficient to induce infection-like dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the formation of RC-like membrane invaginations. The NS proteins ...
The increased distribution of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Scandinavia highlights the importance of characterizing novel sequences within the natural foci. In this study, two TBEV strains: the Norwegian Mandal 2009 (questing nymphs pool) and the Swedish Saringe 2009 (blood-fed nymph) were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized. Interestingly, the sequence of Mandal 2009 revealed the shorter form of the TBEV genome, similar to the highly virulent Hypr strain, within the 3 non-coding region (3NCR). A different genomic structure was found in the 3NCR of Saringe 2009, as in-depth analysis demonstrated TBEV variants with different lengths within the poly(A) tract. This shows that TBEV quasispecies exists in nature and indicates a putative shift in the quasispecies pool when the virus switches between invertebrate and vertebrate environments. This prompted us to further sequence and analyze the 3NCRs of additional Scandinavian TBEV strains and control strains, Hypr and ...
The increased distribution of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Scandinavia highlights the importance of characterizing novel sequences within the natural foci. In this study, two TBEV strains: the Norwegian Mandal 2009 (questing nymphs pool) and the Swedish Saringe 2009 (blood-fed nymph) were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized. Interestingly, the sequence of Mandal 2009 revealed the shorter form of the TBEV genome, similar to the highly virulent Hypr strain, within the 3′ non-coding region (3′NCR). A different genomic structure was found in the 3′NCR of Saringe 2009, as in-depth analysis demonstrated TBEV variants with different lengths within the poly(A) tract. This shows that TBEV quasispecies exists in nature and indicates a putative shift in the quasispecies pool when the virus switches between invertebrate and vertebrate environments. This prompted us to further sequence and analyze the 3′NCRs of additional Scandinavian TBEV strains and control strains, Hypr and
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important vector-borne viruses in Europe and Asia. The transmission mainly occurs by the bite of an infected tick. Consuming of rough milk products from infected livestock animals also occasionally cause TBE cases. Human intestinal Caco-2 cells were used to investigate the pathogenesis caused by TBEV. During TBEV infection Caco-2 monolayers showed morphological changes with significant vacuolization. Ultrastructural analysis revealed dilatation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and further enlargement to TBEV containing caverns. Caco-2 monolayers showed an intact epithelial barrier with stable transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Concomitantly, viruses were detected in the basolateral medium, taken up via a transcytosis pathway. TBEV cell entry was efficiently blocked with different inhibitors, suggesting that actin filaments and microtubules are important for PI3K-dependent endocytosis. Moreover, experimental fluid uptake assay ...
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a causative agent of acute central nervous system disease in humans. It has three subtypes, far eastern (FE), Siberian (Sib) and European (Eu) subtypes, which are distributed over a wide area of Europe and Asia. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and rapid assay for the detection of TBEV RNA by using reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method that can differentiate the three subtypes of TBEV and can be used for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological study. Primers for TBEV-specific and subtype-specific RT-LAMP assay were designed to target the consensus sequence in NS1 of all subtypes and the consensus sequence in the E gene of each subtype, respectiveluy. In vitro transcribed RNA of Oshima strain that belongs to FE subtype was serially diluted and used to examine the sensitivity of the assay. Cross-reactivity of subtype-specific RT-LAMP assay was tested by using the RNA of Oshima and Sofjin (FE), IR-99 (Sib) and
The hypothesis of wide spread reticulate evolution in Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus (TBEV) has recently gained momentum with several publications describing past recombination events involving various TBEV clades. Despite a large body of work, no consensus has yet emerged on TBEV evolutionary dynamics. Understanding the occurrence and frequency of recombination in TBEV bears significant impact on epidemiology, evolution, and vaccination with live vaccines. In this study, we investigated the possibility of detecting recombination events in TBEV by simulating recombinations at several locations on the virus phylogenetic tree and for different lengths of recombining fragments. We derived estimations of rates of true and false positive for the detection of past recombination events for seven recombination detection algorithms. Our analytical framework can be applied to any investigation dealing with the difficult task of distinguishing genuine recombination signal from background noise. Our results ...
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important flaviviruses that targets the central nervous system (CNS) and causes encephalitides in humans. Although neuroinflammatory mechanisms may contribute to brain tissue destruction, the induction pathways and potential roles of specific chemokines in TBEV-mediated neurological disease are poorly understood. BALB/c mice were intracerebrally injected with TBEV, followed by evaluation of chemokine and cytokine profiles using protein array analysis. The virus-infected mice were treated with the CC chemokine antagonist Met-RANTES or anti-RANTES mAb to determine the role of RANTES in affecting TBEV-induced neurological disease. The underlying signaling mechanisms were delineated using RANTES promoter luciferase reporter assay, siRNA-mediated knockdown, and pharmacological inhibitors in human brain-derived cell culture models. In a mouse model, pathological features including marked inflammatory cell infiltrates were observed in brain sections,
A persistent tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in an immune-suppressed patient is presented. Such an unusual clinical case offers the unique chance of detecting persistent viremia associated to the erythrocyte fraction and shedding of the virus in the urine for more than six weeks. The infection occurred in a new area of the Friuli Venezia-Giulia region (North Eastern Italy) where two additional cases are also being reported.. ...
Khasnatinov, M.; Ustanikova, K.; Frolova, T.V.; Pogodina, V.V.; Bochkova, N.G.; Levina, L.S.; Slovak, M.; Kazimirova, M.; Labuda, M.; Klempa, B.; Eleckova, E.; Gould, A.E.; Gritsun, T.S.. 2010 Specific point mutations in the envelope protein of tick-borne encephalitis virus enhance non-viraemic transmission efficiency in a tick vector. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 14 (Supplement 1). e45-e46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2010.02.1589 Full text not available from this repository ...
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The flavivirus genus is of major concern for world morbidity and mortality and includes viruses causing both encephalitic as well as hemorrhagic diseases. The incidence of Tick-borne encephalitis is increasing in many European countries and several reports have emphasized the expansion of the main vector, Ixodes ricinus. The pattern of vector distribution is also changing in Sweden, which makes it important to set up solid and successful strategies for detection and genetic characterization of novel Swedish TBEV strains.. In this study we have generated strategies for detection of broad types of tick-borne flaviviruses in pools of I. ricinus sampled in Sweden.. The positive collection on the island of Torö was used to generate a sequence of a complete TBEV genome straight from the arthropod reservoir. This cloned virus was used to construct a self-replicating DNA based sub-genomic TBEV replicon capable of expressing reporter genes. The replicon was used to study the effect of TBEV on neurite ...
Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is based on the use of formalin-inactivated, culture-derived whole-virus vaccines. Immune response following vaccination is primarily directed to the viral envelope (E) protein, the major viral surface antigen. In Europe, two TBE vaccines are available in adult and pediatric formulations, FSME-IMMUN® (Pfizer) and Encepur® (GlaxoSmithKline). Herein, we analyzed the content of these vaccines using mass spectrometry (MS). The MS analysis revealed that the Encepur vaccine contains not only proteins of the whole virus particle, but also viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1). MS analysis of the FSME-IMMUN vaccine failed due to the high content of human serum albumin used as a stabilizer in the vaccine. However, the presence of NS1 in FSME-IMMUN was confirmed by immunization of mice with six doses of this vaccine, which led to a robust anti-NS1 antibody response. NS1-specific western blot analysis detected anti-NS1 antibodies also in sera of humans who
On paper, Powassan virus sounds like your basic nightmare. A tick-borne infection with no vaccine and no cure, it kills 1 in 10 people who get it and causes long-term neurological problems in half of reported cases. Fortunately, Powassan virus disease for decades had affected only about one person a year in the U.S.-most likely because it was typically transmitted from woodchucks to humans by a tick that rarely bites people. So back in 1997, when Sam Telford, a professor of infectious disease and global health at Cummings School, found a genetically distinct strain of Powassan virus in deer ticks-the bloodsuckers notorious for spreading Lyme disease-he initially worried about its implications. But despite the fact that he found the virus in 1 out of every 100 deer ticks he sampled, at the time there were no reports of swelling in the brain (called encephalitis) in sites where Lyme disease was common. He and his fellow researchers surmised that people just didnt come down with Powassan virus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Type I interferon protects mice from fatal neurotropic infection with langat virus by systemic and local antiviral responses. AU - Weber, Elvira. AU - Finsterbusch, Katja. AU - Lindquist, Richard. AU - Nair, Sharmila. AU - Lienenklaus, Stefan. AU - Gekara, Nelson O.. AU - Janik, Dirk. AU - Weiss, Siegfried. AU - Kalinke, Ulrich. AU - Överby, Anna K.. AU - Kröger, Andrea. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Vector-borne flaviviruses, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), West Nile virus, and dengue virus, cause millions of infections in humans. TBEV causes a broad range of pathological symptoms, ranging from meningitis to severe encephalitis or even hemorrhagic fever, with high mortality. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the incidence of TBEV infections is increasing. Not much is known about the role of the innate immune system in the control of TBEV infections. Here, we show that the type I interferon (IFN) system is essential for protection against TBEV and ...
IRF-1 is emerging as an important regulator of early cellular responses to virus infection, responsible for induction of antiviral effector genes that partly overlap with, but do not require, IFN-I (25, 26). Hence IRF-1 may provide cellular resistance to viral infection at a crucial time postinfection before IFN-I can be expressed. In this study, we demonstrate that tick-borne flaviviruses inhibit IRF-1 independently of their ability to antagonize IFN-I signaling. One outcome of IRF-1 antagonism in virus-infected DCs was a failure in early IL-12p40 gene induction resulting in reduced IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 protein expression. This suppressive effect was compounded by a requirement for signaling through IFNAR to amplify and sustain IL-12p40 expression, which is potently inhibited in LGTV- or TBEV-infected cells (19, 22). The cumulative effect was a disruption of DC function in driving T cell proliferation. Thus, our studies have revealed that the tick-borne flaviviruses, LGTV and TBEV, coordinate ...
Highly pathogenic agents can be detected and identified by highly sophisticated numbers of molecular and immunological methods. Specific molecular diagnostics are not available at all laboratories. Vector-borne pathogens like members of Rickettsia genus and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) cause serious and dangerous diseases in Croatia. There is a lack of knowledge of Rickettsia spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) presence in small rodents not only in Croatia but also worldwide. Limited data reveal small rodents as the reservoir of these agents. The aim of the visit is to screen small rodent samples (from animals captured in forest Žutica near the capital of Croatia) for Rickettsia spp. and TBEV. We expect a fully trained young scientist to be able to introduce the new research as well as diagnostic technologies at our home institution in Croatia and to train other members of the staff in performing such methods. So far research tools for detection of Rickettsia spp. and TBEV are ...
During the past few years there has been a large accumulation of data from various fields of research, including both cell biology and the study of infectious agents, that illustrate the widespread biological importance of interactions of biomolecules with GAGs (6, 29, 51, 57). Since GAGs are almost ubiquitously and often abundantly present on cell surfaces, molecules approaching the cell are probably unable to avoid having to interact with them in one way or another. Although in the case of viruses the affinity and specificity of these interactions are usually low, the multiplicity of biochemical structures, including highly diverse sulfation patterns, also allows the creation of very specific binding sites that can serve to perform defined biological functions (60). High- and low-affinity interactions of viral proteins with GAGs may be important determinants of tropism, virus spread, or the establishment of latent infection (21, 35, 58, 60, 63, 64, 65). While the role of GAG binding of viruses ...
Currently, many DNA vaccines against infectious diseases are in clinical trials; however, their efficacy needs to be improved. The potency of DNA immunogen can be optimized by targeting technologies. In the current study, to increase the efficacy of NS1 encoded by plasmid, proteasome targeting was applied. NS1 variants with or without translocation sequence and with ornithine decarboxylase as a signal of proteasomal degradation were tested for expression, localization, protein turnover, proteasomal degradation and protection properties. Deletion of translocation signal abrogated presentation of NS1 on the cell surface and increased proteasomal processing of NS1. Fusion with ornithine decarboxylase led to an increase of protein turnover and the proteasome degradation rate of NS1. Immunization with NS1 variants with increased proteasome processing protected mice from viral challenge only partially; however, the survival time of infected mice was prolonged in these groups. These data can give a
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Powassan (POW) virus, a North American tick-borne flavivirus related to the Eastern Hemispheres tick-borne encephalitis viruses, was first isolated from a patient with encephalitis in 1958. During 1958-1998, 27 human POW encephalitis cases were reported from Canada and the northeastern United States. During September 1999-July 2001, four Maine and Vermont residents with encephalitis were found to be infected with POW virus. These persons were tested for other arbovirus infections found in the northeast, after initial testing for West Nile virus (WNV) infection was negative. Findings from clinical and environmental investigations underscore the need for personal protective measures to prevent tick bites and continued encephalitis surveillance. Because there is no vaccine or specific therapy for POW encephalitis, the best means of prevention is protection from tick bite. This includes use of insect repellants, wearing light-colored clothing with long sleeves and pants tucked into socks or boots, ...
Mosquito-borne flaviviruses include West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus; the less-familiar tick-borne flaviviruses are just as serious, causing tick-borne encephalitis or hemorrhagic fevers. Currently, a Japanese encephalitis outbreak is raging in India and Nepal and has killed more than 1,000 people. In Europe and Southeast Asia, tick-borne encephalitis typically results in more than 10,000 patient visits to hospitals annually and has a fatality rate of up to 25 percent in some regions. Viruses that cause encephalitis lead to inflammation of the brain. Hemorrhagic fevers are viral infections that cause capillaries to burst, leading to unusual bleeding on or under the skin or in various organs ...
https://danielcameronmd.com/powassan-virus-in-children/ CASE REPORTS: POWASSAN VIRUS IN CHILDREN Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne illness that can cause severe encephalitis. Animal studies have shown the virus can be transmitted to humans following a tick bite within 15 minutes. However, the cases described in a recent article
Hemagglutinating antigens of Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus and 5 strains of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus were charcaterized by their capacity to adsorb on inorganic (kaolin, bentonite, barium sulphate) and organic (chick embryo fibroblasts) adsorbents. The adsorption capacity of TBE virus was more marked than that of WEE. The TBE virus strains 4072 and 1524 avid in serological tests adsorbed better on inorganic adsorbents than nonavid strains No. 80 and 1509. In contrast, nonavid strains interacted better with biologic adsorbents. The adsorption capacity of tissue culture antigens was superior to that of brain hemagglutinating antigens. By means of adsorption on kaolin and chick embryo fibroblasts hemagglutinating and nonhemagglutinating infections particles of WEE and TBE viruses which also differed in some biological properties were separated. ...
As most Minnesotans know, the blacklegged tick is abundant during warm weather months in many wooded areas of the state. The greatest risk for tick bites are from April through July and September through October.. When a tick infected with Powassan virus attaches to a person, it might take only minutes of tick attachment for the virus to be transmitted.. Symptoms of infection usually appear within one to four weeks of a tick bite. Signs can include fever, headache, vomiting, weakness, confusion, seizures and memory loss.. According to the CDC, long-term neurologic problems may occur. There is no specific treatment, but people with severe Powassan virus illnesses often need to be hospitalized to receive respiratory support, intravenous fluids, or medications to reduce swelling in the brain. ...
Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgM antibodies to Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus (TBEV) in human serum, plasma or cerebrospinal fluid.
Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgM antibodies to Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus (TBEV) in human serum, plasma or cerebrospinal fluid.
This study investigated the geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in northern Norway. Flagging for questing I. ricinus ticks was performed in areas ranging from Vikna in Nord-Trøndelag County, located 190km south of the Arctic Circle (66.3°N), to Steigen in Nordland County, located 155km north of the Arctic Circle. We found that ticks were abundant in both Vikna (64.5°N) and Brønnøy (65.1°N). Only a few ticks were found at locations??66°N, and no ticks were found at several locations up to 67.5°N. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of the collected ticks (nymphs and adults) for the presence of TBEV revealed a low prevalence (0.1%) of TBEV among the nymphs collected in Vikna, while a prevalence of 0% to 3% was found among nymphs collected at five locations in Brønnøy. Adult ticks collected in Vikna and Brønnøy had higher rates of TBEV infection (8.6% and 0%-9.0%, respectively) than the nymphs. No evidence of TBEV was found ...
Tick-Born Encephalitis Virus preM, 0.5 mg. |p class=db_paraghraph|TBE is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the family Flaviviridae.
Figure 2.Flavivirus. Flavivirus genome organization (not to scale) and polyprotein processing. The virion RNA is about 11 kb. At the top is the viral genome with the structural and nonstructural protein coding regions and the 5′- and 3′-NCRs. Boxes below the genome indicate viral proteins generated by the proteolytic processing cascade. P, H, and R symbols indicate the localization of the NS3 protease, the NS3 RNA helicase, and the NS5 RdRp domains, respectively.. Both the 5′-NCR and the 3′-NCR contain RNA sequence motifs that are involved in viral RNA translation, replication and possibly packaging. Although RNA secondary structure and function of some elements are conserved, sequence composition, length and exact localization can vary considerably between different members of the genus, in particular between tick-borne and mosquito-borne flaviviruses. In some cases, the 3′-NCR of tick-borne encephalitis virus, for example, contains an internal poly(A) tract. Viral infection induces ...
A new tick-borne virus has been found in Bridgeport, CT. The Powassan virus has symptoms similar to Lyme disease and has no available treatment.
Dont let that fool you. Powassan is a dangerous disease. The mortality rate for Powassan virus is 10-15% and there is no treatment. While some may not be affected at all, Powassan can infect your nervous system, causing meningitis (swelling of the membranes around the spinal cord and brain) and encephalitis(swelling of the brain itself). This is what happened to Tucker Lane. Symptoms include fever, headache, weakness, vomiting, confusion, loss of coordination and speech, and seizures. 50% of those that do survive will have permanent memory and neurological problems.. Tucker has been lucky. He was in a coma for a week and on life support for a few days but appears to have completely recovered.. Dr. Lyons believes that the number of cases could be on the verge of an explosion.There is thought that the virus is spreading among the ticks. If this is true Massachusetts is sure to be knee deep. In the last 10 years, 75 cases have been reported and 8 of those were here in Massachusetts.. ...
The C11-13 strain from the Siberian subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was isolated from human brain using pig embryo kidney (PEK), 293, and Neuro-2a cells. Analysis of the complete viral genome of the C11-13 variants during six passages in these cells revealed that the cell-adapted C11-13 variants had multiple amino acid substitutions as compared to TBEV from human brain. Seven out of eight amino acids substitutions in the high-replicating C11-13(PEK) variant mapped to non-structural proteins; 13 out of 14 substitutions in the well-replicating C11-13(293) variant, and all four substitutions in the low-replicating C11-13(Neuro-2a) variant were also localized in non-structural proteins, predominantly in the NS2a (2), NS3 (6) and NS5 (3) proteins ...
As for most cell-cell fusion events, the molecular details of membrane fusion during yeast mating are poorly understood. The multipass membrane protein Prm1 is the only known component that acts at the step of bilayer fusion. In its absence, mutant mating pairs lyse or arrest in the mating reaction with tightly apposed plasma membranes. We show that deletion of FIG 1, which controls pheromone-induced Ca(2+) influx, yields similar cell fusion defects. Although extracellular Ca(2+) is not required for efficient cell fusion of wild-type cells, cell fusion in prm1 mutant mating pairs is dramatically reduced when Ca(2+) is removed. This enhanced fusion defect is due to lysis. Time-lapse microscopy reveals that fusion and lysis events initiate with identical kinetics, suggesting that both outcomes result from engagement of the fusion machinery. The yeast synaptotagmin orthologue and Ca(2+) binding protein Tcb3 has a role in reducing lysis of prm1 mutants, which opens the possibility that the observed ...
Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that constitute a major global health problem, with millions of human infections annually. Their pathogenesis ranges from mild illness to severe manifestations such as hemorrhagic fever and fatal encephalitis. Type I interferons (IFNs) are induced in response to viral infection and stimulate the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including that encoding viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum associated, IFN inducible), which shows antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses, including several flaviviruses. Here we describe a novel antiviral mechanism employed by viperin against two prominent flaviviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Viperin was found to interact and colocalize with the structural proteins premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) of TBEV, as well as with nonstructural (NS) proteins NS2A, NS2B, and NS3. Interestingly, viperin expression reduced the NS3 protein level, and ...
Background: Research on the biogenesis of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) would benefit gene therapy. Due to specific arrangements of genes along the TBEV genome, its viral-like particles (VLPs) could be exploited as shuttles to deliver their replicon, which carries therapeutic genes, to immune system cells.. Objective: To develop a flaviviral vector for gene delivery as a part of gene therapy research that can be expressed in secretable VLP suicidal shuttles and provide abundant unique molecular and structural data supporting this gene therapy concept.. Method: TBEV structural gene constructs of a Swedish Torö strain were cloned into plasmids driven by the promoters CAG and CMV and then transfected into various cell lines, including COS-1 and BHK-21. Time-course sampling of the cells, culture fluid, cell lysate supernatant, and pellet specimens were performed. Western blotting and electron microscopy analyses of collected specimens were used to investigate molecular and structural ...
Beasley, D. W., Suderman, M. T., Holbrook, M. R., and Barrett, A. D. 2001. Nucleotide sequencing and serological evidence that the recently recognized deer tick virus is a genotype of Powassan virus. Virus Res. 79, 81-89.. Brackney, D. E., Beane, J. E., and Ebel, G. D. 2009. RNAi targeting of West Nile virus in mosquito midguts promotes virus diversification. PLoS Pathog. 5, e1000502.. Ebel, G. D., and Kramer, L. D. 2004. Short report: duration of tick attachment required for transmission of Powassan virus by deer ticks. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71, 268-271.. Ebel, G. D., Spielman, A., and Telford, S. R., III. 2001. Phylogeny of North American Powassan virus. J. Gen. Virol. 82, 1657-1665.. FL-181113 The Nipah Virus: NiV-st337 and the exobiological defense program - Se Nipah Čeřer: NiV-st337 žu se exobiologiž seďęt FL-020414 Specific primers that amplify RNA from the newly isolated Giselian virus groups. Defense Report.. FL-120113 In-situ diagnosis of Giselian viral infections at Landing Site ...
Powassan virus is rare, experts say, but about 10 percent of people with the most serious form of the disease die, and survivors may have long-term health problems.
This report provides a competitor evaluation as of February 2016 in the field of vaccines on the market or in research & development for prevention of diseases caused by flavivirus such as Zika, Dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile, Yellow Fever, Japanese Encephalitis & Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus.
Emerging tick-borne pathogens of public health importance: a mini-review. J Med Microbiol. 2020 Jun 01;: Authors: Rochlin I, Toledo A Abstract Ticks are the most important vectors of human pathogens, leading to increased public health burdens worldwide. Tick-borne pathogens include viruses (e.g. tick-borne encephalitis and Powassan); bacteria, such as the causative agents of ...
Viral vectors have become the best option for the delivery of therapeutic genes in conventional and RNA interference-based gene therapies. The current viral vectors for the delivery of small regulatory RNAs are based on DNA viruses and retroviruses/lentiviruses. Cytoplasmic RNA viruses have been excluded as viral vectors for RNAi therapy because of the nuclear localization of the microprocessor complex and the potential degradation of the viral RNA genome during the excision of any virus-encoded pre-microRNAs. However, in the last few years, the presence of several species of small RNAs (e.g., virus-derived small interfering RNAs, virus-derived short RNAs, and unusually small RNAs) in animals and cell cultures that are infected with cytoplasmic RNA viruses has suggested the existence of a non-canonical mechanism of microRNA biogenesis. Several studies have been conducted on the tick-borne encephalitis virus and on the Sindbis virus in which microRNA precursors were artificially incorporated and
Noong 2017, tinatayang 219 milyong tao sa 87 bansa ang nagkaroon ng malaria, ayon sa World Health Organization.. West Nile Virus. Nakapagdudulot ito ng neurological disease na maaaring magresulta sa pagkamatay ng isang tao.. Ang WNV ay karaniwan sa Africa, Europe, the Middle East, North America at West Asia.. Malimit ay walang sintomas ang sakit na ito. Isa sa limang nagkakaroon lamang ang nilalagnat.. May mga insidente na ang mga nagkakaroon ng WNV ay namamaga ang utak o meningitis.. Encephalitis. May mga virus na maaaring maipasa ng lamok sa tao na nagreresulta sa pamamaga ng utak at spinal cord.. Kalimitan ang sintomas nito ay lagnat, pananakit ng ulat, pagkasilaw, stiff neck, pagsusuka, kumbulsyon, seizure, paralysis at coma.. Ang Arboviruses o virus na naisasalin sa tao mula sa kagat ng lamok o iba pang insekto ang karaniwang sanhi ng viral encephalitis gaya ng Japanese encephalitis at tick-borne encephalitis viruses.. Zika Virus. Naililipat ito sa tao sa pamamagitan ng Aedes mosquito na ...
While Western Europe has been relatively sheltered from human arboviruses, the midge borne blue tongue and Schmallenberg viruses have had considerable impact on agriculture and animal health. Other parts of Europe are known for cases of West Nile and tick-borne encephalitis viruses, while Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is also present in some regions.. Importantly though the now well established presence of Aedes mosquitoes in parts of Europe and import of viruses such as dengue and chikungunya has led to small outbreaks of these exotic viruses in the South of the continent. This shows that we need to keep a close eye on vectors and continue our efforts to control these.. *********************************************************************************************************************. The MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research will host the 2015 International Meeting on Arboviruses and their Vectors (#IMAV15), as a Society for General Microbiology-sponsored focus meeting. ...
A joint study with Hokkaido U Veterinary Medicine (Dept of public health) and Self-Defense Force (Northern Army) has been accepted for publication in Emerging Infectious Diseases, an official infectious disease journal of CDC. Details and correspondence on this study will be announced and we will do press release on this study.. Yoshii K, Kojima R, Nishiura H. Unrecognized Subclinical Infection with Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2017;23(10):in press.. ...
The current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas caused an increase in diagnostic requests in European countries. Here we demonstrate high specificity of the Euroimmun anti-ZIKV IgG and IgM ELISA tests using putative cross-reacting sera of European patients with antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus, dengue virus, yellow fever virus and hepatitis C virus. This test may aid in counselling European travellers returning from regions where ZIKV is endemic.
"European subtype tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes persulcatus ticks". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17 (2): 323-325. doi ... tick-borne encephalitis, and probably human granulocytic anaplasmosis as well. A recent study of the northernmost tick-borne ... Ixodes persulcatus, the taiga tick, is a species of hard-bodied tick distributed from Europe through central and northern Asia ... persulcatus ticks in an area with no evidence of cocirculation of tick species or TBEV subtypes. Anu E. Jääskeläinen; Elina ...
... tick-borne encephalitis virus, poliovirus, and most recently Zika virus, in both in vitro and animal models. Since it has ... September 2015). "Nucleoside inhibitors of tick-borne encephalitis virus". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59 (9): 5483- ... Subsequently it has been widely used in antiviral research and has shown activity against a range of viruses, including Dengue ... February 2011). "Sustained viral response in a hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzee via a combination of direct-acting ...
Allvarez, Marila C. Armesto (2004). Molecular studies of tick-borne encephalitis virus (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. ... Holmes, Edward (16 April 2020). "Statement from Professor Edward Holmes on the SARS-CoV-2 virus: On the origins of the virus ... Holmes wrote The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses part of the Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution edited by Paul H. ... Edward Charles Holmes FRS FAA (born 1965, UK) is an evolutionary biologist and virologist, and since 2012 a National Health and ...
"Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Transmission between Ticks Cofeeding on Specific Immune Natural Rodent Hosts". Virology. 235 (1 ... It has been found that the yellow-necked mouse can transmit the virus causing tick-borne encephalitis while being immune to the ... It facilitates the spread of tick-borne encephalitis to humans and is a reservoir species for the Dobrava virus, a hantavirus ... If they are born early in the year, they may start breeding in the same year, but late-born young become sexually mature in the ...
"Partial Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolates from Ticks of Southern Ukraine". Vector Borne and Zoonotic ... Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya virus antibody prevalence among captive monkey (Macaca nemestrina) colonies of Northern ... "Understanding the emergence of ebola virus disease in sierra leone: stalking the virus in the threatening wake of emergence". ... Gonzalez was born and raised near the town of Saint Georges de Didonne in South-West of France in 1947. His father, Jesus ...
"Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus: A Quest for Better Vaccines against a Virus on the Rise". Vaccines. 8 (3): 451. doi:10.3390/ ... Viruses may be attenuated using the principles of evolution via serial passage of the virus through a foreign host species, ... Varicella vaccine Yellow fever vaccine Zoster/shingles vaccine Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine Tick-borne encephalitis ... can cause an attenuated virus to revert to its wild-type form or mutate to a new strain, potentially resulting in the new virus ...
Vilcek, J. (1960). "An interferon-like substance released from tick-borne encephalitis virus-infected chick embryo fibroblast ... Vilček was born in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, to a middle class secular Jewish family. His mother, Friderika Fischer, was born ... Jan T. Vilček (born June 17, 1933) is a biomedical scientist, educator, inventor and philanthropist. He is a professor in the ... There, in 1959, he embarked on studies of interferon, a protein made in response to infection with viruses and other pathogens ...
... tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile virus). Whether CCR5 function is helpful or harmful in the context of a given infection ... Patients homozygous for CCR5 Δ32 were found to be at higher risk for a neuroinvasive form of tick-borne encephalitis (a ... gene is associated with tickborne encephalitis". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 197 (2): 266-9. doi:10.1086/524709. PMID ... Also, the virus still has access to CD4. Unlike CCR5, which is not required (as evidenced by those living healthy lives even ...
Late activation of interferon-induced genes IFI-54k and IFI-56k in human RH cells infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus ... Lafage M, Clauss I, Couez D, Simonetti J, Wathelet MG, Huez G (Jul 1992). "The interferon- and virus-inducible IFI-56K and IFI- ... Guo J, Peters KL, Sen GC (2000). "Induction of the human protein P56 by interferon, double-stranded RNA, or virus infection". ... "Enhanced Expression of Interferon-Regulated Genes in the Liver of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Detection ...
... acetyltransferase mRNA in the human kidney cells infected by venezuelan equine encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis viruses ...
Late activation of interferon-induced genes IFI-54k and IFI-56k in human RH cells infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus ... Saha S, Sugumar P, Bhandari P, Rangarajan PN (2006). "Identification of Japanese encephalitis virus-inducible genes in mouse ... Lafage M, Clauss I, Couez D, Simonetti J, Wathelet MG, Huez G (1992). "The interferon- and virus-inducible IFI-56K and IFI-54K ... and viruses". Eur. J. Biochem. 174 (2): 323-9. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1988.tb14101.x. PMID 2454816. Ulker N, Zhang X, Samuel ...
... cross-reactivity with dengue virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus". J. Med. Virol. 83 (10): 1861-5. doi:10.1002/jmv.22180. ... and tick-borne encephalitis virus; this necessitates caution when evaluating serologic results of flaviviral infections. Four ... of West Nile virus encephalitis as well as other viruses. As of 2019, six vaccines had progressed to human trials but none had ... "West Nile Virus". Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2018-10-30. CDC- ...
Vaccination with 64TRP can protect against tick-borne encephalitis virus carried by a different type of tick, the castor bean ... "Tick-borne encephalitis virus transmission between ticks cofeeding on specific immune natural rodent hosts", Virology, 235 (1 ... "Efficient transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus between cofeeding ticks", Journal of Medical Entomology, 30: 295-99, ... "Tick-borne encephalitis virus transmission between ticks cofeeding on specific immune natural rodent hosts", Virology, 235 (1 ...
Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Malaria Globally, malaria causes 228 million infections ... Zika Virus Zika virus infection has been linked to an increase in microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barre syndrome (a ... GeoVax technology approach uses recombinant DNA or recombinant viruses to produce virus-like particles (VLPs) in the person ... The MVA expresses the HIV virus-like-particles, but does not express GM-CSF. The regimen builds on the GeoVax DNA/MVA vaccine ...
Tick-borne encephalitis West Nile virus Measles Epstein-Barr virus Varicella-zoster virus Enterovirus Herpes simplex virus type ... Meningoencephalitis is a rare, late-stage manifestation of tick-borne ricksettial diseases, such as RMSF and Human ... Huntzinger, Amber (July 2007). "Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tick-Borne Rickettsial Diseases". American Family ... Meningitis and encephalitis already present in the brain or spinal cord of an animal may form simultaneously into ...
... has also been found to have antiviral activity against a number of other viruses including Tick-borne encephalitis virus, and ... Investigation of Triazavirin antiviral activity against tick-borne encephalitis pathogen in cell culture]". Antibiotiki I ... Forest-Spring Encephalitis virus, and is also being investigated for potential application against a lethal influenza infection ... 2007). "[Investigation of triazavirin antiviral activity against influenza A virus (H5N1) in cell culture]". Antibiotiki I ...
European tick-borne encephalitis virus Far Eastern tick-borne encephalitis virus Russian spring and summer encephalitis virus ... Encephalitis viruses: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (excluding South American genotypes) Tick-borne encephalitis-complex ... South American genotypes Flexal virus Tick-borne encephalitis viruses, European subtypes Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, ... viruses: African VHF viruses: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Ebola virus* Lassa fever virus Lujo virus Marburg virus* ...
Identification of Kemerovo Tick-Borne Fever Virus and its antigenic independence. Fed Proc Transl Suppl. 1964 Jul-Aug;23:852-4 ... and isolated the virus that causes it. He was accidentally infected with the virus and developed encephalitis that led to a ... with his colleagues he discovered the etiology of a new transmissible neurological disease called tick-borne encephalitis (TBE ... Among viruses discovered and studied by Chumakov are Omsk hemorrhagic fever and Kemerovo fever viruses, hantavirus causing ...
... encephalitis viruses, tick-borne MeSH B04.820.250.350.990 - yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.820. ... encephalitis viruses, tick-borne MeSH B04.909.777.310.350.990 - yellow fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.310.400 - gb virus a MeSH ... louis MeSH B04.909.777.270.475.950 - west nile virus MeSH B04.909.777.270.511 - encephalitis viruses, tick-borne MeSH B04.909. ... la crosse virus MeSH B04.909.777.270.150 - encephalitis virus, eastern equine MeSH B04.909.777.270.369 - encephalitis virus, ...
Tick-borne encephalitis virus. Type. Killed/Inactivated. Identifiers. ATC code. J07BA01 (WHO) ... "Vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis: WHO position paper" (PDF). Releve epidemiologique hebdomadaire / Section d'hygiene du ...
It has been associated with Russian spring-summer encephalitis, Powassan virus, Khasan virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, ... Haemaphysalis longicornis, the Asian longhorned tick,longhorned tick, bush tick, Asian tick, or cattle tick, is a parasitic ... Cattle Tick or Bush Tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis)". Northeast Regional Center for Excellence in Vector-Borne Diseases. ... However, the tick has been associated with several other tickborne diseases in humans. An unfed female is typically 2.0-2.6 mm ...
... and two viruses in the tick-borne encephalitis group that cause VHF: Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus and Kyasanur Forest disease ... Lassa virus), Lujo virus, Argentine (Junin virus), Bolivian (Machupo virus), Brazilian (Sabiá virus), Chapare hemorrhagic fever ... Guanarito virus) and Whitewater Arroyo virus hemorrhagic fevers. The family Filoviridae include Ebola virus and Marburg virus. ... Garissa virus and Ilesha virus from the genus Orthobunyavirus (Peribunyaviridae), and the Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus from ...
West Nile virus, Zika virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Kyasanur ... arthropod-borne viruses). The dengue virus genome (genetic material) contains about 11,000 nucleotide bases, which code for the ... Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days ... Dengue fever virus (DENV) is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus. Other members of the same genus include ...
... whole cell J07BA01 Encephalitis, tick-borne, inactivated, whole virus J07BA02 Encephalitis, Japanese, inactivated, whole virus ... virus like particles J07BC01 Hepatitis B, purified antigen J07BC02 Hepatitis A, inactivated, whole virus J07BC20 Combinations ... whole virus J07BF04 Poliomyelitis oral, bivalent, live attenuated J07BG01 Rabies, inactivated, whole virus J07BH01 Rotavirus, ... J07BA03 Encephalitis, Japanese, live attenuated J07BB01 Influenza inactivated, whole virus J07BB02 Influenza, purified antigen ...
... virus Saumarez Reef virus Sepik virus Tembusu virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Tyuleniy virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus ... Royal Farm virus (RFV) Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) Seabird tick-borne virus group Kama virus (KAMV) Meaban virus (MEAV ... Turkish sheep encephalitis virus (TSE) Tick-borne encephalitis virus serocomplex Absettarov virus Deer tick virus (DT) Gadgets ... The genus includes the West Nile virus, dengue virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus and several ...
For example, a solution of tick-borne encephalitis virus with a concentration of 1,000 PFU/μL indicates that 1 μL of the ... The concept of plaque-forming units of virus is equivalent to the concept of colony-forming units of bacteria. Viruses portal ... A plaque-forming unit (PFU) is a measure used in virology to describe the number of virus particles capable of forming plaques ... but no inference can be made about the relationship of PFU to number of virus particles. ...
... tick-borne encephalitis, vesicular stomatitis virus and West Nile virus viruses. Transmission of DHOV by respiratory aerosol ... as well as the species or strains Araguari virus, Aransas Bay virus (ABV), Bourbon virus, Jos virus (JOSV) and Upolu virus ( ... a tick-borne influenza-like virus) following oral infection of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks" (PDF), Journal of General ... "Human MxA protein inhibits tick-borne Thogoto virus but not Dhori virus", Journal of Virology, 69: 3904-09 Berger SA, Calisher ...
The virus is antigenically related to the Far Eastern tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Symptoms manifest within 7-10 days and ... Powassan encephalitis, caused by the Powassan virus (POWV), a flavivirus also known as the deer tick virus, is a form of ... McLEAN, DM; DONOHUE, WL (1 May 1959). "Powassan virus: isolation of virus from a fatal case of encephalitis". Canadian Medical ... December 2008). "Increased recognition of Powassan encephalitis in the United States, 1999-2005". Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 8 ...
... has been linked to tick-borne encephalitis, as well as polyradiculoneuritis and meningopolyneuritis, based on ... It is closely related to Colorado tick fever virus, the type virus of Coltivirus. Eyach virus is acquired by tick bite. The ... "Isolation of Eyach virus (Reoviridae, Colorado tick fever group) from Ixodes ricinus and I. ventalloi ticks in France". ... Eyach virus (EYAV) is a viral infection (genus Coltivirus) in the Reoviridae family transmitted by a tick vector. It has been ...
Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus (transmitted by I. persulcatus), and Far-Eastern tick-borne encephalitis virus, formerly ... Three virus sub-types also exist: European or Western tick-borne encephalitis virus (transmitted by Ixodes ricinus), ... "Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to Southern ... The tick-borne encephalitis virus is known to infect a range of hosts including ruminants, birds, rodents, carnivores, horses, ...
West nile virus (WNV), Gadgets-Gully-Virus - en. Gadgets Gully virus (GGYV), FSME-Virus - en. Tick-borne encephalitis virus ( ... Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
Ticks in certain regions, including the lands along the eastern Baltic Sea, also transmit tick-borne encephalitis.[82] ... 1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... Tick-borne coinfections[edit]. Main article: Tick-borne disease. Ticks that transmit B. burgdorferi to humans can also carry ... in questing ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany". Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases. 4 (4 ...
Sandfly fever Naples virus. *Lone Star virus. *Tete virus. Flaviviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis * ... Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ... a virus, or a prion. At present, the science to understand this process is available but not the technology to perform it.[25] ... could reasonably be expected to show bacteria, but imaging of viruses had to wait until the development of electron microscopes ...
Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree ... Meerburg BG, Singleton GR, Kijlstra A (2009). "Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health". Crit Rev Microbiol. 35 ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, ... Saint Louis encephalitis Saint Louis encephalitis virus birds mosquito bite Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS coronavirus ...
Tete virus. Flaviviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ... Weaver SC, Lecuit M (March 2015). "Chikungunya virus and the global spread of a mosquito-borne disease". The New England ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... A respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (RSV vaccine) is a vaccine which prevents infection by respiratory syncytial virus. No ... Mejias, Asuncion; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rosa; Peeples, Mark E.; Ramilo, Octavio (October 2019). "Respiratory Syncytial Virus ... "Respiratory syncytial virus vaccines". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 11 (3): 430-9. doi:10.1128/CMR.11.3.430. PMC 88889. PMID ...
A84.) Tick-borne viral encephalitis. *(A85.) Other viral encephalitis, not elsewhere classified *(A85.8) Other specified viral ... B20-B24) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease[संपादित करें]. *(B20.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting ... A77.) Spotted fever (tick-borne rickettsioses) *(A77.0) Spotted fever due to Rickettsia rickettsii *Rocky Mountain spotted ... A92.) Other mosquito-borne viral fevers *(A92.0) Chikungunya virus disease ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein VP4, (type P1A), from the human rotavirus parent strain and the ... Rotavirus antigens for parenteral delivery, such as the P2-VP8 candidate, can be expressed as virus-like particles prepared in ... Both are taken orally and contain disabled live virus. ... and killed virus. These novel approaches are being pursued ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *Zoster vaccine. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ... This virus-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... The first hantavirus vaccine was developed in 1990 initially for use against Hantaan River virus which causes one of the most ... They include a recombinant vaccine and vaccines derived from HTNV and PUUV viruses. However, their prospects are unclear.[1] ...
Tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden and climate change»։ Lancet 358 (9275): 16-8։ July 2001։ PMID 11454371։ doi:10.1016/S0140- ... Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections cause false-positive results in IgM two-test protocol for early Lyme ... in questing ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany»։ Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases 4 (4): ... Tick Attachment and Tickborne Diseases»։ www.maine.gov *↑ «Ticks and biting insects infected with the etiologic agent of Lyme ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus. horses, donkeys, ... rodents, pigs, horses, bears, walruses, foxes, crocodiles, birds. eating undercooked meat. Tuberculosis. Mycobacterium bovis. ... through body fluids, organs and ticks. Other haemorrhagic fevers (Marburg viral haemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo ... Japanese encephalitis. Japanese encephalitis virus. pigs, water birds. mosquito bite. Leprosy. Mycobacterium leprae, ...
Filoviridae and Arenaviridae viruses. Many. Cause viral hemorrhagic fevers, like Ebola virus and Lassa fever. Can be spread by ... Plague-infected ticks dropped from airplanes. Japan to attack China during World War II[6]p.56. ... "Division of Vector-Borne Diseases. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. September 14, 2015. Retrieved ... Can cause many forms of viral encephalitis; very low dose needed. for infection. Easily spread by aerosol.[6]p.96. ...
Colorado tick fever. *Tick-borne encephalitis. *Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. *Omsk hemorrhagic fever ... Babesiosis is a vector-borne illness usually transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks. B. microti uses the same tick vector as ... Ticks transmit the human strain of babesiosis, so it often presents with other tick-borne illnesses such as Lyme disease.[4] ... "Tick-Borne Illnesses Have Nantucket Considering Some Deer-Based Solutions". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2009.. ...
Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and ... Vector-borne transmission, transmitted by a vector, which is an organism that does not cause disease itself but that transmits ... Arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, can also cause human disease, which conceptually are similar to infections, ... For example, more than half of cases of encephalitis, a severe illness affecting the brain, remain undiagnosed, despite ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *shingles. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk ... Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. Their genome[14] is contained in two ... Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. It is endemic in West ... The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ...
Tick-borne encephalitis virus. Tick-borne encephalitis. Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine. FSME-Immun, Encepur, TBE-Moscow, ... Japanese encephalitis virus. Japanese encephalitis. Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Ixiaro, Jespect, Imojev Measles virus. ... Virus. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands Hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis A. Hepatitis A vaccine. Havrix, Avaxim, VAQTA, ... Polio virus. Poliomyelitis. Polio vaccine. Kinrix, Quadracel, Pediarix, Pentacel, Pediacel, Ipol Rabies virus. Rabies. Rabies ...
Adenovirus · Tick-borne encephalitis · Japanese encephalitis# · Flu# (LAIV, H1N1 (Pandemrix)) · Hepatitis A# · Hepatitis B# · ... Virus-like particle · Conjugate vaccine · DNA vaccination ...
... 2014 put the spotlight on some of the most commonly known vectors - such as mosquitoes, sandflies, bugs, ticks ... The campaign advocated for health authorities in countries where vector-borne diseases are a public health problem or emerging ... Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever.[14] More than half of the world's population is at risk of these diseases. ... viruses, parasites or chemical substances - is responsible for more than 200 diseases, and is linked to the deaths of some 2 ...
... tick-borne relapsing fever, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, Bourbon virus, and tick-borne meningoencephalitis, as well as bovine ... A sign in a Lithuanian forest warning of high risk of tick-borne encephalitis infection ... Many tick-transmitted viruses, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Kyasanur Forest disease virus, Alkhumra ... "Common Ticks". Illinois Department of Public Health. Retrieved 11 April 2014.. *^ "Soft ticks". CVBD: Companion Vector-Borne ...
... human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), Lyme disease,[77] syphilis[78] and tick-borne encephalitis[79] can in some cases cause ALS- ... Umanekiĭ KG, Dekonenko EP (1983). "[Structure of progressive forms of tick-borne encephalitis]". Zhurnal Nevropatologii I ... Viral infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ...
Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine[note 80]. Recommendations for some high-risk populations ... For severe illness due to confirmed or suspected influenza virus infection in critically ill hospitalized patients ...
A number of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted by Lutzomyia sand flies. One such virus of medical importance ... Viruses of this genus are typically associated with flu-like symptoms, but have also been known to cause encephalitis. While ... "Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the potential for tick transmission". Medical and Veterinary ... Carrion's disease, also known as bartonellosis, is a disease caused by the blood-borne bacteria, Bartonella bacilliformis. The ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *shingles. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. *Varicella zoster *chicken pox#. *shingles. *Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
Regnum: Virus. Group IV: ssRNA(+) Ordo: Unassigned Familia: Flaviviridae Genus: Flavivirus. Species: Tick-borne encephalitis ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tick-borne_encephalitis_virus&oldid=6164892" ...
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a virus associated with tick-borne encephalitis. TBEV is a member of the genus ... Encephalitis+Viruses,+Tick-Borne at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Tick-borne encephalitis ... Pulkkinen, Lauri; Butcher, Sarah; Anastasina, Maria (2018-06-28). "Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus: A Structural View". Viruses. ... Goodman JL, Dennis DT, Sonenshine DE (2005). "Tick-Borne Encephalitis". Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. Washington, DC: ASM ...
Grešíková, M., Kožuch, O. & Molnár, E. (‎1967)‎. Human infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus in the Tribeč region. ... Human infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus in the Tribeč region. View/. Open. Full Text (‎426.3Kb)‎ ...
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne/immunology*. *Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne/isolation & purification. *Encephalitis, Tick- ... Chicken yolk IgY preparations as immune reagents to tick-borne encephalitis virus].. [Article in Russian] ... results of the use of specific egg yolk IgY from immunized hens to prepare immune reagents to tick-borne encephalitis virus ( ...
Cytological changes in cells of line res caused by the virus of tick-borne encephalitis. ... Public Health Encephalitis Cytological Change These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is ...
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important vector-borne viruses in Europe and Asia. The transmission ... Das Frühsommer-Meningoezephalitis-Virus (FSMEV) ist eines der wichtigsten vektorübertragenen Viren in Europa und Asien. Die ... In the late phase of infection, further evidence was found for translocation of virus via the paracellular pathway. Thus, TBEV ... viruses were detected in the basolateral medium, taken up via a transcytosis pathway. TBEV cell entry was efficiently blocked ...
Human Tick-borne encephalitis virus IgG ELISA Kit (TBE) is a sensitive immunoassay suitable for Serum, Heparin Plasma, Citrate ... Human Anti-Tick-borne encephalitis virus IgG ELISA Kit (TBE). See all Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE/FSME) Virus IgG kits. ... There are two products for tick-borne encephalitis virus that were found here: https://www.abcam.com/Search?Keywords=Tick-borne ... Abcams anti-Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus IgG Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed ...
... raised against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus then challenged 24 hours later s.c. with 10 LD50 of TBE virus (Nëudorfl ... Passive immunization of mice with monoclonal antibodies raised against tick-borne encephalitis virus. Brief report.. Phillpotts ... which was able to neutralize virus, was also able to protect mice against virus challenge. ... except one of the monoclonal antibodies tested are capable of enhancing the infectivity of TBE virus in the Fc receptor-bearing ...
This shows that TBEV quasispecies exists in nature and indicates a putative shift in the quasispecies pool when the virus ... The increased distribution of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Scandinavia highlights the importance of ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Bioworld Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus gE (Recombinant), 100 μg TICK- ... Recombinant Tick-Born Encephalitis Virus glycoprotein E (gE) (95-229) Source: E.coli Description : The protein contains the ... Application: Antigen in ELISA and Western blots, excellent antigen for detection of Tick-borne encephalitis virus with minimal ... Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus gE regions, amino acids:(95-229). Purification method: Purified by proprietary chromatographic ...
Ernek, E., Kožuch, O. & Grešíková, M. (‎1967)‎. The distribution of antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus in ... The distribution of antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus in domestic animals in the Tribeč region*. ...
Denmark were hospitalised with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) after tick bites. A new TBE virus (TBEV) micro-focus was ... identified in tick nymphs collected around a playground in Tisvilde Hegn forest. Estimated TBEV prevalence was 8%, higher than ... Phylogenetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Bornholm, Denmark. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019;10(3):533-9. ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Denmark. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019;10(1):115-23. https ...
A Cluster of Fatal Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Infection in Organ Transplant Setting. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, ... AdultAutopsyBrainDonor SelectionEncephalitis Viruses, Tick-BorneEncephalitis, Tick-BorneFatal OutcomeHumansMaleMiddle AgedOrgan ... Confirmed exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus and probable human cases of tick-borne encephalitis in Central/Northern ... The importance of tick-borne encephalitis virus RNA detection for early differential diagnosis of tick-borne encephalitis. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope Antibody (1004134) [Unconjugated]. Validated: ELISA. Tested ... Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope » Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope Research Products » Tick-borne Encephalitis ... European or Western tick-borne encephalitis virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne ... Additional Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope Products. Array MAB10106 * Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope Antibodies ...
... Yau, ... we used tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) as a model for the flaviviruses and developed a stable human cell line in which ... Flaviviridae, Flp-In cell line, NS4B, flavivirus, replication compartment, replication vesicles, tick-borne cephalitis virus ... with members causing severe diseases in humans such as tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, and dengue fever. Flaviviruses ...
Browse by Exposure: Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne (2 articles). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ... The pathogenicity of louping ill virus for mice and lambs. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 126(2-3):137-46, 2002 Feb-Apr. ...
... virus is transmitted to humans and animals through tick bites and is thought to circulate in very strictly defined natural ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus in arthropod vectors in the far east of Russia. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018;9:824-33.CrossRef ... Isolation and molecular characterization of a tick-borne encephalitis virus from a new tick-borne encephalitis focus with ... Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus is transmitted to humans and animals through tick bites and is thought to circulate in very ...
... Dobler, G. ... KX268728) of tick-borne encephalitis strain HB171/11, isolated from an Ixodes ricinus tick from a natural focus where human ...
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes 13,000 cases of human meningitis and encephalitis annually. However, the structure ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes 13,000 cases of human meningitis and encephalitis annually. However, the structure ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus (strain HYPR). Mutation(s): 0 EC: 3.4.21.91 (UniProt), 3.6.1.15 (UniProt), 3.6.4.13 (UniProt), ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus (strain HYPR). Mutation(s): 0 EC: 3.4.21.91 (UniProt), 3.6.1.15 (UniProt), 3.6.4.13 (UniProt), ...
... which induce antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus. To enhance the immunogenicity of this protein, which has a low ... of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) protein E contains epitopes, ... Domain III (DIII) of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) protein E contains epitopes, which induce antibodies capable of ... "Recombinant Fusion Protein Joining E Protein Domain III of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus and HSP70 of Yersinia ...
One of the most pathogenic tick-borne disease for humans is caused by a flavivirus, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). ... 1. Epidemiological and Ecological Studies of Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus. Open this publication in new window or tab ,, ... Determining factors for successful vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis virus in older individuals. Lindblom, Pontus ... Despite only finding 5 ticks infected with TBEV, a correlation between the virus load in the tick and the tick feeding-time was ...
Study on the occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in ticks collected in ... Babesia canis and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) co-infection in a sled dog. Anna Bajer, Anna Rodo, Małgorzata Bednarska ... Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in samples of raw milk taken randomly from cows, goats and sheep in eastern ... Preliminary studies on the relationship between Ixodes ricinus activity and tick-borne infection among occupationally-exposed ...
2018 May 29;: Authors: Yoshii K, Sato K, Ishizuka M, Kobayashi S, Kariwa H, Kawabata H Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) ... Serologic Evidence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection in a Patient with Suspected Lyme Disease in Japan. Am J Trop Med ... Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an arbovirus induced by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) transmitted by tick bite ... Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Viktor Zöldi, Topi Turunen, Outi Lyytikäinen, Jussi Sane Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE ...
Neither had clinically apparent symptoms after removing ticks. ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus - a review of an emerging ... we conducted a seroepidemiologic investigation for tickborne encephalitis virus among 291 Japan Self-Defense Forces members in ... Tick-borne encephalitis 2010: epidemiology, risk areas, and virus strains in Europe and Asia-an overview. Ticks Tick Borne Dis ... antibodies to Far Eastern of tick-borne encephalitis virus subtype and the antibody avidity for four tick-borne encephalitis ...
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important central nervous system (CNS) infection in Europe and Asia. It is a ... Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Differentiating Infection ... Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Differentiating Infection ... Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Differentiating Infection ...
Oligomeric rearrangement of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope proteins induced by an acidic pH. J. Virol. 69: 695. ... Recently it was shown that the envelope protein E of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)2 virus can be expressed from ... Mapping of functional elements in the stem-anchor region of the tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope protein E. J. Virol. 73 ... Synthesis and secretion of recombinant tick-borne encephalitis virus protein E in soluble and particulate form. J. Virol. 69: ...
Deep sequencing analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus from questing ticks at natural foci reveals similarities between ... Every year, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe central nervous system infection in 10 000 to 15 000 people in ... Ixodes ricinus, natural foci, non-coding region, quasispecies, Scandinavia, tick-borne encephalitis virus National Category ... Here, we sequenced and characterized two TBEV genomes, JP-296 and JP-554, from questing Ixodes ricinus ticks at a TBEV focus in ...
... the presence of this skin lesion attests for early Lyme borreliosis and is the evidence for a recent tick bite) was found to be ... are coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or with TBE virus, i.e. that cytopenia is a result of concomitant HGA or the ... patients with early LB are rarely coinfected with the other tick-transmitted agents. ... with typical EM and leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia tested negative for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBE virus ...
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a virus associated with tick-borne encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other close relatives, members of the TBEV serocomplex, include Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, Kyasanur Forest disease virus, Alkhurma virus, Louping ill virus and Langat virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • TBEV is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus, contained in a 40-60 nm spherical, enveloped capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • TBEV in the blood of the host infects the tick through the midgut, from where it can pass to the salivary glands to be passed to the next host. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-adult ticks, TBEV is transmitted transtadially by infecting cells that are not destroyed during molting, thus the tick remains infectious throughout its life. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper provides the first (as is known from the literature analysis) results of the use of specific egg yolk IgY from immunized hens to prepare immune reagents to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (nih.gov)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important vector-borne viruses in Europe and Asia. (hu-berlin.de)
  • A new TBE virus (TBEV) micro-focus was identified in tick nymphs collected around a playground in Tisvilde Hegn forest. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection has become a major health problem in Europe and is currently a common cause of viral brain infection in many countries. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Three TBEV sub-types have been described: European or Western tick-borne encephalitis virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne encephalitis virus (formerly known as Russian Spring Summer encephalitis virus, RSSEV). (novusbio.com)
  • Here, we used tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) as a model for the flaviviruses and developed a stable human cell line in which the expression of NS proteins can be induced without viral RNA replication. (diva-portal.org)
  • IMPORTANCE TBEV infection causes a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from mild fever to severe encephalitis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes 13,000 cases of human meningitis and encephalitis annually. (rcsb.org)
  • The virion structure indicates that the repulsive interactions of histidine side chains, which become protonated at low pH, may contribute to the disruption of heterotetramers of the TBEV envelope and membrane proteins and induce detachment of the envelope protein ectodomains from the virus membrane. (rcsb.org)
  • Domain III (DIII) of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) protein E contains epitopes, which induce antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus. (mdpi.com)
  • One of the most pathogenic tick-borne disease for humans is caused by a flavivirus, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (diva-portal.org)
  • Each year approximately 10 000 individuals on the Eurasian continent develop neurological disease, in the form of meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and radiculitis, following a bite by a TBEV infected tick. (diva-portal.org)
  • Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in samples of raw milk taken randomly from cows, goats and sheep in eastern Poland. (aaem.pl)
  • These results demonstrated that tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) case was actually unconfirmed in Japan. (medworm.com)
  • Given the continued ecologic findings of virus activity in animals, it is plausible that humans have acquired TBEV infection, especially persons frequently exposed to ticks, including Japan Self-Defense Forces (JSDF) members of the Northern Army. (cdc.gov)
  • To differentiate TBEV infection from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, which occurs in southwestern Japan, we also conducted neutralization testing for JEV on all TBEV-positive samples. (cdc.gov)
  • These 2 unrecognized subclinical TBEV infections were serologically diagnosed, demonstrating that humans who are particularly at risk for tick bites are partly asymptomatically infected with TBEV in Hokkaido. (cdc.gov)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important central nervous system (CNS) infection in Europe and Asia. (asm.org)
  • We present a new approach to detect antibodies against the TBEV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) as a diagnostic marker, which is exclusively indicative for virus replication in natural infection, on the basis of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (asm.org)
  • Every year, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe central nervous system infection in 10 000 to 15 000 people in Europe and Asia. (diva-portal.org)
  • TBEV is maintained in the environment by an enzootic cycle that requires a tick vector and a vertebrate host, and the adaptation of TBEV to vertebrate and invertebrate environments is essential for TBEV persistence in nature. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we sequenced and characterized two TBEV genomes, JP-296 and JP-554, from questing Ixodes ricinus ticks at a TBEV focus in central Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
  • A total of 8805 questing ticks (8203 nymphs, 602 adults) were collected in 2010 and examined in pools for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) using real-time RT-PCR. (medworm.com)
  • Overall TBEV prevalence evaluated as the minimum infection rate (MIR) was 0.26% (23 positive pools/8805 ticks in 1029 pools). (medworm.com)
  • The hypothesis of wide spread reticulate evolution in Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus (TBEV) has recently gained momentum with several publications describing past recombination events involving various TBEV clades. (diva-portal.org)
  • Understanding the occurrence and frequency of recombination in TBEV bears significant impact on epidemiology, evolution, and vaccination with live vaccines. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the possibility of detecting recombination events in TBEV by simulating recombinations at several locations on the virus' phylogenetic tree and for different lengths of recombining fragments. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-NS1). (abnova.com)
  • TBE is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the family Flaviviridae. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The family Flaviviridae includes other tick-borne viruses are closely related to TBEV and RSSEV, such as Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus & Kyasanur Forest virus. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a vector-borne disease caused by TBE virus (TBEV). (diva-portal.org)
  • In nature, TBEV is maintained within the tick-rodent enzootic cycle. (diva-portal.org)
  • Co-feeding is the main route for TBEV transmission from infected to uninfected ticks and for maintenance within the natural foci. (diva-portal.org)
  • Seasonal synchrony of immature stages and total tick abundance are important factors for the probability of horizontal transmission of TBEV among co-feeding ticks. (diva-portal.org)
  • Like other RNA viruses, TBEV exists as swarms of unique variants called quasispecies. (diva-portal.org)
  • 60 h, we propose that Saringe-2009 represents a putative shift in the TBEV pool when the virus switches from ectothermic/tick to endothermic/mammalian environments. (diva-portal.org)
  • The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) has been detected for the first time in ticks in the UK. (moredun.org.uk)
  • TBEV might have been brought to the United Kingdom on migratory birds, such as blackbirds and redwings, which are known to transport ticks over wide distances. (moredun.org.uk)
  • A TBEV infection stimulates the production of antibodies that are very similar to those generated by the Louping ill virus. (moredun.org.uk)
  • Despite a large number of samples having originated in Scotland, the prevalence of antibodies to Louping ill virus in deer was much lower than that detected in Norfolk, and no TBEV-positive ticks were found. (moredun.org.uk)
  • Further work is under way to identify the distribution of TBEV infected tick populations. (moredun.org.uk)
  • Serum from 2 Norwegians with tickborne encephalitis (TBE) (1 of whom was infected in Denmark) and 810 Norwegian ticks were tested for TBE virus (TBEV) RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. (cdc.gov)
  • Ticks were also collected from a region in Thuringia, known to be a former risk area for TBE virus (TBEV), where numerous human cases were reported between 1960 and 1975. (nih.gov)
  • No TBEV was detected in any field-collected ticks. (nih.gov)
  • Three of 239 ticks from this collection were positive for TBEV genome and two genetically distinct TBEV strains were detected and characterized. (nih.gov)
  • TBE virus (TBEV) is transmitted by tick bite and causes a potentially fatal neurological infection in humans. (deepdyve.com)
  • The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health acknowledge the effectiveness of the vaccine by allowing those who have received it to study tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in isolation facilities rated at BSL-3 rather than the more stringent BSL-4, with the exception of the Russian Spring-Summer Encephalitis strain. (checkorphan.org)
  • Infection by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a significant health concern for humans in Europe and Asia. (checkorphan.org)
  • Objectives: To test the safety and immune response to a vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (checkorphan.org)
  • The prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in southern Korea was determined by collecting ticks using tick drags. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A total of 4,077 of 6,788 ticks collected were pooled (649 pools) according to collection site, species, and developmental stage and assayed for TBEV. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The TBEV protein E and NS5 gene fragments were detected using RT-nested PCR in six pools of nymphs collected from Jeju Island (2,491 ticks). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus with major impact on global health. (diva-portal.org)
  • The geographical TBEV distribution is expanding, thus making it pivotal to further characterize the natural virus populations. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this study, we completed the earlier partial sequencing of a TBEV pulled out of a pool of RNA extracted from 115 ticks collected on Torö in the Stockholm archipelago. (diva-portal.org)
  • We propose that the thermo-switch mechanism may explain the low TBEV prevalence often observed in environmentally sampled ticks. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis is caused by the neurotropic, positive-sense RNA virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The TBEVHostDB could potentially be used for assessment of risk factors for severe forms of tick-borne encephalitis and for the design of personalized pharmacological strategies for the treatment of TBEV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe neurological illness caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • TBEV is a neurotropic, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus , family Flaviviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • By using animal sera as sentinels, natural TBEV foci could be identified and further analyses including investigations of ticks could be initiated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the cross-reactivity of the applied TBEV serology test systems - enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT) - as well as the longevity of TBEV antibody titres in sheep and goats were investigated in this study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, the commercial West Nile virus (WNV) competitive ELISA showed a high level of cross-reactivity with TBEV-specific positive sera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cross-reactivity must be taken into consideration, particularly for TBEV serology in regions with a prevalence of Louping ill virus and for serological testing of WNV by cross-reactive ELISAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TBE virus (TBEV) circulates between ticks and hosts in geographically strictly limited natural foci, which can range in size from large to very small. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 2017, the Dutch Wildlife Health Centre (DWHC) and the Dutch Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) renewed testing roe deer serum samples for antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (dwhc.nl)
  • Roe deer can become infected with the TBEV, develop antibodies against the virus, but do not die from the infection. (dwhc.nl)
  • Roe deer is a good sentinel to assess TBEV-infected areas: they have rather small home ranges, are widely distributed, live in heavily tick infested areas and are often infested with ticks. (dwhc.nl)
  • Follow-up tick collection in 2016 at the Sallandse Heuvelrug also revealed TBEV infected ticks. (dwhc.nl)
  • To confirm the TBEV is truly present at these locations, actual virus has to be detected in ticks. (dwhc.nl)
  • Ticks can transmit several pathogens that can cause disease of which TBEV is one. (dwhc.nl)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a causative agent of acute central nervous system disease in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA extracted from the mixtures of TBEV and ticks, and of TBEV and human blood, and the mouse tissues infected with TBEV, were evaluated in the assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, we confirmed that the TBEV RT-LAMP could detect virus RNA from peripheral and central nervous system tissues of laboratory mice infected with TBEV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TBEV RT-LAMP assay offers a sensitive, specific, rapid and easy-to-handle method for the detection of TBEV RNA in tick samples and this may be applied in the clinical samples collected from TBE-suspected patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), which belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae , is a causative agent of acute central nervous system (CNS) disease in humans and animals [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This raises concern on the risk of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in each country or endemic area, where different TBEV subtypes may be distributed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lyme disease remains the most common tick borne infection in the UK, and the risk of acquiring Lyme substantially outweighs that of acquiring TBEV. (miragenews.com)
  • Experiments reported here demonstrate that the secreted form of NS1, whether from cells infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) or from cells infected with a defective recombinant adenovirus containing the NS1 gene, occurs chiefly as a pentamer or hexamer and occasionally as a decamer or dodecamer. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Unlike similar proteins from mosquito-borne viruses, NS1 from TBEV-infected cells cannot be dissociated at ambient temperatures by extremes of pH. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We have previously found that BALB/c mice exhibit intermediate susceptibility to the infection of TBE virus (TBEV), STS mice are highly resistant, whereas the recombinant congenic strain CcS-11, carrying 12.5% of the STS genome on the background of the BALB/c genome is even more susceptible than BALB/c. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disease is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae , which besides TBEV includes West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and several other viruses causing extensive morbidity and mortality in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ticks act as both the vector and reservoir for TBEV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TBEV may produce a variety of clinical symptoms, from an asymptomatic disease to a fever and acute or chronic progressive encephalitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Freeze-dried Tick Borne Encephalitis Virus, strain UVE/TBEV/2013/FR/32.11 WT-PCR, complete ORF sequence. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a potentially fatal neurological infection affecting humans and animals. (animalabs.com)
  • Vectors for TBEV are Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persiculatus ticks. (animalabs.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. (zoologix.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important flaviviruses that targets the central nervous system (CNS) and causes encephalitides in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The virus-infected mice were treated with the CC chemokine antagonist Met-RANTES or anti-RANTES mAb to determine the role of RANTES in affecting TBEV-induced neurological disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, IRF-3 was activated upon TBEV infection as evidenced by phosphorylation of TBK1 and IRF-3, while blockade of IRF-3 activation drastically reduced virus-induced RANTES expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first TBEV replication usually occurs in dendritic cells of the skin following tick bites, later in regional lymph nodes, and then virus can be detected in plasma [ 5 , 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like the West Nile virus, the TBE virus (TBEV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus and is transmitted by ticks. (laboklin.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the family Flaviviridae. (who.int)
  • TBEV is transmitted by the bite of infected ticks (which often remain firmly attached to the skin for days) or occasionally by ingestion of unpasteurized milk. (who.int)
  • An unexpectedly high infection rate (26.1%) of tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was identified in a herd of 257 horses of the same breed distributed among 3 federal states in Austria. (elsevier.com)
  • A total of 52 serum samples from patients with symptoms suggestive of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection and positive IgM and/or IgG antibodies were tested for IgG avidity. (pjmonline.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a small, enveloped virus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae , genus Flavivirus , tick-borne encephalitis serocomplex. (pjmonline.org)
  • There are three subtypes of TBEV: the European, the Far Eastern and the Siberian subtype which differ in geographical distribution, tick vector and clinical manifestation of disease (Lindenbach et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • 2007). TBEV cause a wide spectrum of symptoms, from a subclinical course to aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and radiculitis (Bogovic et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • In an effort to derive an efficacious live attenuated vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis, we generated a chimeric virus bearing the structural protein genes of a Far Eastern subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) on the genetic background of recombinant dengue 4 (DEN4) virus. (core.ac.uk)
  • Since TBEV and DEN4 viruses are transmitted in nature by ticks and mosquitoes, respectively, it was of interest to investigate the infectivity of the chimeric virus for both arthropod vectors. (core.ac.uk)
  • A functional Toll-like receptor 3 gene (TLR3) may be a risk factor for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infections may be asymptomatic or cause severe symptoms in the central nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • This work reports for the first time a significantly improved and simplified electrochemical immunoassay to detect antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) using a 96-well microtiter plate as a platform for immobilization and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as electrochemical labels. (elsevier.com)
  • Isolates of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) from arthropod vectors (ticks and mosquitoes) in the Amur, the Jewish Autonomous and the Sakhalin regions as well as on the Khabarovsk territory of the Far East of Russia were studied. (touro.edu)
  • RT-PCR of TBEV RNA in adult ticks collected from vegetation in 1999-2014 revealed average infection rates of 7.9+/-0.7% in I. persulcatus, of 5.6+/-1.0% in H. concinna, of 2.0+/-2.0% in H. japonica, and of 1.3+/-1.3% in D. silvarum. (touro.edu)
  • Viral loads varied in a range from 10(2) to 10(9) TBEV genome-equivalents per a tick with the maximal values in I. persulcatus and H. japonica. (touro.edu)
  • We aimed to identify the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), which is associated with fatal meningoencephalitis in Mongolia. (who.int)
  • Ticks collected from Selenge Province were also tested for TBEV by RT-PCR. (who.int)
  • The closest relatives of this virus are Far-Eastern TBEV isolates. (who.int)
  • Ixodes persulcatus ticks transmit Lyme disease, relapsing fever (Borrelia miyamotoi), babesiosis, and Siberian (TBEV-Sib) and Far Eastern (TBEV-FE) tick-borne encephalitis, and probably human granulocytic anaplasmosis as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study of the northernmost tick-borne encephalitis focus in Simo, Finnish Lapland, found I. persulcatus ticks in scattered foci along the western coast, including the Kokkola archipelago and Närpes municipality, demonstrating a northward movement of foci and an unusual combination of the TBEV-Eur strain and I. persulcatus ticks in an area with no evidence of cocirculation of tick species or TBEV subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavivirus is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viral genus, with members causing severe diseases in humans such as tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, and dengue fever. (diva-portal.org)
  • Unlike most of the previously studied flavivirus-neutralizing antibodies, the Fab fragments do not lock the E-proteins in the native-like arrangement, but interfere with the process of virus-induced membrane fusion. (rcsb.org)
  • genus Flavivirus , family Flaviviridae ) persists in ticks and wild animals, including wild rodents and shika deer ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • It is a flavivirus in the tick-borne group. (asm.org)
  • However, diagnosing TBE is challenging due to cross-reactive antibodies between different viruses of the genus Flavivirus , family Flaviviridae. (asm.org)
  • For this purpose, we used a series of plasmid constructs encoding different forms of the envelope glycoprotein E of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recently it was shown that the envelope protein E of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) 2 virus can be expressed from recombinant plasmids in different physical forms depending on the expression cassette used ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • As a member of the flavivirus genus in the family Flaviviridae, it is a close relative of yellow fever, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • A species of enveloped, spherical and icosahedral viruses in the Flaviviridae family and Flavivirus genus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Powassan (POW) virus is an RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus . (scepticemia.com)
  • The flavivirus genus is of major concern for world morbidity and mortality and includes viruses causing both encephalitic as well as hemorrhagic diseases. (diva-portal.org)
  • These findings indicate the importance of specific cellular factors for virus entry and replication during flavivirus infection of arthropods. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • KX268728) of tick-borne encephalitis strain HB171/11, isolated from an Ixodes ricinus tick from a natural focus where human neurological disease is rare. (diva-portal.org)
  • We collected Ixodes ricinus ticks from 16 high-risk and four low-risk sites distributed in Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate based on the number of human TBE cases recorded at the Robert Koch Institute from 2001 to 2009. (medworm.com)
  • Abstract Ixodes scapularis is currently known to transmit 7 pathogens responsible for Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne relapsing fever, ehrlichiosis, and Powassan encephalitis. (medworm.com)
  • Ixodes ricinus , a common tick in Europe, transmits dangerous tick-borne pathogens to humans. (diva-portal.org)
  • The other type, lineage 2 POW virus is sometimes called Deer tick virus, and is associated with Ixodes scapularis ticks. (scepticemia.com)
  • Sequencing of a Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Ixodes ricinus Reveals a Thermosensitive RNA Switch Significant for Virus Propagation in Ectothermic Arthropods. (diva-portal.org)
  • The incidence of Tick-borne encephalitis is increasing in many European countries and several reports have emphasized the expansion of the main vector, Ixodes ricinus . (diva-portal.org)
  • Two strains with identical genomes were isolated from Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna two months apart, which shows that the virus had not evolved separately in these tick species. (elsevier.com)
  • the vectors are ticks of the genus Ixodes . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To investigate the role of ticks in TBE virus transmission, salivary gland extract (SGE) was derived from partially fed female Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. (ox.ac.uk)
  • FIGURE 1-1 The life cycle of a three-host tick, such as Ixodes and Dermacentor sp. (nap.edu)
  • Further, the chimeric viruses were unable to infect or replicate in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and Ixodes scapularis tick larvae. (core.ac.uk)
  • Over the last years, an increasing rate of ixodes tick bites has been registered in the northern regions of the European Russia. (nsu.ru)
  • Taiga ticks (Ixodes persulcatus) collected from the Komi Republic southern and central part vegetation were examined to identify and genotype tick-borne viruses. (nsu.ru)
  • Based on data on the density of host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks and pathogen prevalence and using a variety of environmental data, we have created an acarological risk model for a region where both diseases are endemic (Czech Republic-South Bohemia and Germany-Lower Bavaria, Upper Palatinate). (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • Ixodes persulcatus, the taiga tick, is a species of hard-bodied tick distributed from Europe through central and northern Asia to the People's Republic of China and Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tick borne encephalitis is a rare disease resulting in central nervous system manifestations and this case is thought to have been caused by Powassan Virus, a member of the Flaviviridae family. (scepticemia.com)
  • ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Flaviviridae. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Zika is a member of the Flaviviridae family, which includes medically important pathogens such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abcam's anti-Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus IgG Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the accurate quantitative measurement of IgG class antibodies against Tick-borne encephalitis virus in Human serum and plasma. (abcam.com)
  • A 96-well plate has been precoated with Tick-borne encephalitis antigens to bind cognate antibodies. (abcam.com)
  • Following washing, a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labelled anti-Human IgG conjugate is added to the wells, which binds to the immobilized Tick-borne encephalitis-specific antibodies. (abcam.com)
  • Passive immunization of mice with monoclonal antibodies raised against tick-borne encephalitis virus. (nih.gov)
  • Adult Balb/c mice were passively immunized with monoclonal antibodies (100 micrograms/mouse) raised against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus then challenged 24 hours later s.c. with 10 LD50 of TBE virus (Nëudorfl isolate). (nih.gov)
  • None of the mice showed evidence of premature death although all except one of the monoclonal antibodies tested are capable of enhancing the infectivity of TBE virus in the Fc receptor-bearing mouse macrophage-like cell line P 388 D 1. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of monoclonal antibodies to neutralize TBE virus in vitro, and to fix complement was examined, and of these properties only a single monoclonal antibody, which was able to neutralize virus, was also able to protect mice against virus challenge. (nih.gov)
  • Two serum samples from one patient showed neutralizing antibodies against TBE virus. (medworm.com)
  • Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Antibodies in Roe Deer, the Netherlands. (openrepository.com)
  • Antibodies against the virus show that an animal has been exposed at some point during their life. (dwhc.nl)
  • [1] Blood samples are tested for viral RNA , viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A tick-borne encephalitis virus vaccine based on the European prototype strain induces broadly reactive cross-neutralizing antibodies in humans. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The harm from ticks stems from them being excellent vectors for other parasites, in the form of bacteria and virus that via the ticks are provided a bridge to move across the blood streams of different animals, including humans. (diva-portal.org)
  • The vectors of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) become infected by feeding on the viraemic blood of an infected animal. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Vector-borne diseases are an increasing global threat to humans due to climate changes, elevating the risk of infections transmitted by mosquitos, ticks, and other arthropod vectors. (diva-portal.org)
  • The discrepancy between changes in incidence of TBE and LB support the contributions of virus-specific factors beyond the mere availability of tick vectors and/or human outdoor activity, which are a prerequisite for the transmission of both diseases. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The VLPs were able to enter only those cells that were derived from the natural vectors for the respective viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Arthropod Vectors in the Far East of " by Natalia M. Pukhovskaya, Olga V. Morozova et al. (touro.edu)
  • Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Viktor Zöldi, Topi Turunen, Outi Lyytikäinen, Jussi Sane Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are endemic in Finland, with tens and thousands of cases, respectively, reported annually. (medworm.com)
  • We performed a field survey to investigate people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding ticks, tick-borne diseases, and prevention strategies. (medworm.com)
  • Dantas-Torres F. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil. (aaem.pl)
  • Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Dana Zubriková, Maria Wittmann, Václav Hönig, Pavel Švec, Bronislava Víchová, Sandra Essbauer, Gerhard Dobler, Libor Grubhoffer, Kurt PfisterAbstractLyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are the most common tick-borne diseases in Germany. (medworm.com)
  • Climate change has contributed to increased tick abundance and incidence of tick-borne diseases, and between 10,000 and 15,000 human TBE cases are reported annually in Europe and Asia. (diva-portal.org)
  • Belikov, Sergei 2012-11-01 00:00:00 Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most important arboviral diseases across Eurasia. (deepdyve.com)
  • Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases , 9 (5), 1064-1068. (elsevier.com)
  • Egyed, L , Rónai, Z & Dán, Á 2018, ' Hungarian tick-borne encephalitis viruses isolated from a 0.5-ha focus are closely related to Finnish strains ', Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases , vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1064-1068. (elsevier.com)
  • Tick-borne diseases (TBDs), including Lyme disease, are certainly embedded in our world of "connexity. (nap.edu)
  • Vector-borne diseases, including diseases transmitted by ticks, continue to be a public health concern in the United States and abroad. (nap.edu)
  • Results of the research, Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, United Kingdom , were published ahead of print in the journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases . (medscape.com)
  • In Europe, Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are the two vector-borne diseases with the largest impact on human health. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases, 9 (4), 824-833. (touro.edu)
  • Continued expansion of tick-borne pathogens: Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Denmark. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Flaviviruses are small enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses containing a capsid protein (C) and two membrane-associated proteins (E-envelope and M-membrane). (jimmunol.org)
  • Flaviviruses are small enveloped viruses that are assembled intracellularly, apparently by budding into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • In this study we have generated strategies for detection of broad types of tick-borne flaviviruses in pools of I. ricinus sampled in Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
  • Flaviviruses elicit a humoral immune response to two virus-encoded, membrane-associated glycoproteins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are mainly transmitted by either ticks or mosquitoes. (mdpi.com)
  • Mosquito-borne flaviviruses and their interactions with the innate immune response have been well-studied and reviewed extensively, thus this review will discuss tick-borne flaviviruses and their interactions with the host innate immune response. (mdpi.com)
  • We characterized two pet models just like humans within their susceptibility to tick-borne flaviviruses and discovered the most ideal structure for evaluation of effectiveness of precautionary and therapeutic arrangements. (bi-2536.info)
  • This study assessed cost-effectiveness of a potential anti-tick vaccine that would protect against both Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in a highly endemic setting of Slovenia.A Markov model was developed to estimate cost-effectiveness of a vaccine with potential combined protection against LB and TBE from the societal perspective. (medworm.com)
  • To assess cost-effectiveness of a vaccine that would protect against both Lyme Borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in a highly endemic setting in Slovenia. (medworm.com)
  • TBE virus is a human-pathogenic virus that is endemic in large parts of Europe and Northern Asia. (jimmunol.org)
  • Sporting dogs, including sled dogs, are particularly prone to tick-borne infection either due to training/racing in forest areas or through visits to endemic areas. (aaem.pl)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infection spread by tick bites and is endemic in mainland Europe and Scandinavia, as well as Asia. (moredun.org.uk)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus, which is endemic in many European countries, has been found for the first time in a very small number of ticks in two locations in England. (moredun.org.uk)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) tends to occur focally even within endemic areas. (who.int)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus is a human pathogen that is expanding its endemic zones in Europe, emerging in previously unaffected regions. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • In contrast to the unpredictable epidemics of filoviruses, the Lassa virus is endemic in West Africa with an annual incidence of >300,000 infections, resulting in 5,000-10,000 deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the infection begins in the skin (with the exception of foodborne cases, about 1% of infections) at the site of the bite of an infected tick, where Langerhans cells and macrophages in the skin are preferentially targeted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus is transmitted to humans and animals through tick bites and is thought to circulate in very strictly defined natural environments called natural foci. (springer.com)
  • Ticks are blood-sucking parasites that are an inconvenience for both humans and animals. (diva-portal.org)
  • Geographically, the virus is widely spread across Eurasia and annually causes ≈10,000 clinically apparent cases in humans ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Humans become infected with POW virus from the bite of an infected tick. (scepticemia.com)
  • Humans do not develop high enough concentrations of POW virus in their bloodstreams to infect feeding ticks. (scepticemia.com)
  • Humans are therefore considered to be "dead-end" hosts of the virus. (scepticemia.com)
  • Ebola virus disease ( EVD ), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever ( EHF ) or simply Ebola , is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids , such as blood from infected humans or other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus is able to cause a lethal encephalitis in rodents, [4] but generally only mild symptoms in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine Study for Tick-Borne. (checkorphan.org)
  • This was an open label trial of a non-US licensed vaccine for tick-borne encephalitis. (checkorphan.org)
  • Research studies in Europe have shown the vaccine to be effective in preventing infection among the general population, where disease is transmitted either by the bite of an infected tick (most common) or by ingestion of contaminated unpasteurized milk or milk products. (checkorphan.org)
  • It is a killed vaccine, which means that it has been treated to ensure that it does not contain live agents (bacteria or virus). (checkorphan.org)
  • Herein, we analyzed the content of these vaccines using mass spectrometry (MS). The MS analysis revealed that the Encepur vaccine contains not only proteins of the whole virus particle, but also viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1). (preprints.org)
  • Evaluation of protective efficacy and immune mechanisms of using a non-structural protein NS1 in DNA vaccine against dengue 2 virus in mice. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Quality control assessment for the serological diagnosis of tick borne encephalitis virus infections. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The aim was to present tick-borne infections in a 6-dog racing team after a race in Estonia. (aaem.pl)
  • Welc-Faleciak R, Rodo A, Sinski E, Bajer A. Babesia canis and other tick-borne infections in dogs in Central Poland. (aaem.pl)
  • Molecular detection of tick-borne protozoal and ehrlichial infections in domestic dogs in South Africa. (aaem.pl)
  • Ticks carry a number of infections including Lyme disease, so we are reminding people to be 'tick aware' and take tick precautions, particularly when visiting or working in areas with long grass such as woodlands, moorlands and parks. (miragenews.com)
  • Its manifestations range from inapparent infections and fevers with complete recovery to debilitating or fatal encephalitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neuroviral Infections: RNA Viruses and Retroviruses presents an up-to-date overview of the general principles of infections and major neuroviral infections caused by RNA viruses and retroviruses. (routledge.com)
  • However, highly limited data on pathogen genetic diversity related to viral tick-borne infections in this region are currently available. (nsu.ru)
  • In addition, a potential role for birds and their ticks in rapid spreading of viral tick-borne infections in the Komi Republic is also discussed. (nsu.ru)
  • Gay and bisexual men bear the greatest burden by risk group, representing nearly 70% of new infections in the U.S. African-Americans also bear a disproportionate burden, representing 43% of people living with HIV, yet representing just 12% of the total population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zygner W, Jaros S, Wedrychowicz H. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia afzelii, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in hard ticks removed from dogs in Warsaw (central Poland). (aaem.pl)
  • We screened 459 I. scapularis ticks submitted to the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Tick Testing Laboratory with the objectives to (1) examine differences in infection prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, and Borrelia miyamotoi, (2) evaluate whether prevalence. (medworm.com)
  • During early 2017, we conducted a seroepidemiologic investigation for tickborne encephalitis virus among 291 Japan Self-Defense Forces members in Hokkaido. (cdc.gov)
  • During their general health screening in February and March 2017, participants were asked to provide an additional 2 mL of serum for laboratory testing and to answer a questionnaire about the frequency of tick bites. (cdc.gov)
  • We conducted a descriptive study of 14 fatal cases of severe tick-borne meningoencephalitis that occurred between 2005 and 2017 in Mongolia. (who.int)
  • Phylogenetic analyses based on complete coding ORF sequences showed that the isolates belong to the European subtype of the virus and are closely related to the Finnish Kumlinge strains, the Bavarian isolate Leila and two isolates of Russian origin, but more distantly related to viruses from the neighbouring Central European countries. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, tick-linked isolate genotyping based on analyzing E protein gene fragment nucleotide sequence derived from tick-borne encephalitis discovered that 35% and 65% isolates belonged to the Far Eastern and Siberian subtype, respectively. (nsu.ru)
  • DNA vaccines against dengue virus based on the ns1 gene: the influence of different signal sequences on the protein expression and its correlation to the immune response elicited in mice. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Timofeev AV , Butenko VM , Stephenson JR . Genetic vaccination of mice with plasmids encoding the NS1 non-structural protein from tick-borne encephalitis virus and dengue 2 virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Proper processing of dengue virus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 requires the N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence and the downstream nonstructural protein NS2a. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Construction, characterization and immunogenicity of recombinant yellow fever 17D-dengue type 2 viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Initially, the virus replicates locally and immune response is triggered when viral components are recognized by cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonstructural (NS) proteins are not part of the virus coat and are thought to participate in the formation of these viral replication compartments (RCs). (diva-portal.org)
  • The most closely related viral sequences belong to TBE virus strains from Poland and Neustadt an der Waldnaab (county of Neustadt an der Waldnaab, Bavaria), approximately 200 km east and 200 km south-west of the new focus, respectively. (springer.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is recognized as the most important viral tick-borne zoonosis in 27 countries in Europe. (nih.gov)
  • FE-specific RT-LAMP assay amplified viral genes of Oshima and Sofjin strains but not of IR-99 and Hochosterwitz strains, and of Japanese encephalitis virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also showed that tick or human blood extract did not inhibit the amplification of viral gene during the assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the main tick-borne viral infection in Eurasia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This Tick-borne encephalitis virus[Hypr] is preserved under Viral Storage Medium -80C.Tests for the presence of mycoplasmae were negative. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • This Tick-borne encephalitis virus[Ljubljana] is preserved under Viral Storage Medium -80C. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • Haematogenic spread allows different organs to be infected, especially the reticulo-endothelial system (spleen, liver and bone marrow), and it is during this phase that the virus also crosses the blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system (CNS), where viral replication causes inflammation, lysis and cellular dysfunction. (animalabs.com)
  • Rudenko, N., Golovchenko, M., Cihl rova, V. and Grubhoffer, L. (2004) Tick-borne encephalitis virus-specific RT-PCR--a rapid test for detection of the pathogen without viral RNA purification. (zoologix.com)
  • Individual ticks were used to identify by RT-PCR viral RNA coupled to tick-borne encephalitis and Kemerovo viruses. (nsu.ru)
  • Viral genome fragment sequencing allowed to unambiguously identify these viruses. (nsu.ru)
  • It was found that viral RNA tick-borne encephalitis was detected in 6.8±1.2% individual ticks. (nsu.ru)
  • Thus, the data on genetic diversity of the viral agents related to tick-born encephalitis and Kemerovo fever may be useful for improving their diagnostics, prevention and treatment in the Komi Republic. (nsu.ru)
  • Semliki Forest virus has been used extensively in biological research as a model of the viral life cycle and of viral neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have previously reported a system for packaging tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus subgenomic replicon RNAs into single-round infectious virus-like particles (VLPs) by using in trans expression of viral C/prM/E structural proteins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • TBE virus replicon RNA packaged in VLPs produced TBE virus non-structural proteins in tick cells, but could neither replicate nor produce viral proteins in mosquito cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These results demonstrate that chimeric VLPs are useful tools for the study of viral genome packaging and cellular factors involved in vector specificity, with the additional safety aspect that these chimeric VLPs can be used instead of full-length chimeric viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 2018. Tick-borne encephalitis. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Between autumn 2016 and spring 2018 ticks were collected by the flagging method in a new TBE focus in the district of northern Saxony, Germany, outside the known risk areas as defined by the national Robert Koch Institute. (springer.com)
  • Surveillance carried out between February 2018 and January 2019 from serum samples collected from 1309 deer culled across England and Scotland showed that overall, 4% of samples were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) positive for the TBE virus serocomplex. (medscape.com)
  • Stiasny Karin , Santonja Isabel , Holzmann Heidemarie , Essl Astrid , Stanek Gerold , Kundi Michael , Heinz Franz X . The regional decline and rise of tick-borne encephalitis incidence do not correlate with Lyme borreliosis, Austria, 2005 to 2018. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Serologic Evidence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection in a Patient with Suspected Lyme Disease in Japan. (medworm.com)
  • Tick bite risks and prevention of lyme disease contains advice on tick avoidance measures for the public. (miragenews.com)
  • Lyme disease remains the most common tick-borne infection in the UK. (medscape.com)
  • The risk of acquiring Lyme substantially outweighs that of acquiring TBE virus, PHE said. (medscape.com)
  • To shed light on the cause of this disparity, we compared the temporal changes of human TBE incidences in all federal provinces of Austria with those of Lyme borreliosis (LB), which has the same tick vector and rodent reservoir. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • it is rarely found in other tick species and in Dermacentor reticulatus it has, so far, only been reported in Poland. (springer.com)
  • TBE virus was found in northern Saxony, Germany, with similar MIRs in D. reticulatus and I. ricinus , indicating that D. reticulatus plays an equal role to I. ricinus in virus circulation when both tick species are sympatric. (springer.com)
  • In Europe, two species, D. reticulatus ('the ornate dog tick') and D. marginatus ('the ornate sheep tick'), as well as one in Asia, D. nuttalli , are associated with TBE virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No significant difference was observed with respect to the tick species used to derive SGE. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ebola and Other Filoviruses Ebola, Sudan, and Marburg viruses are the most virulent species of the Filoviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lindblad G. A case of tick-borne encephalitis in a dog. (aaem.pl)
  • A case of tick-borne encephalitis in Japan and isolation of the the virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hastings Prince Edward Public Health (HPEPH), in a media release , has reported that there is a suspected case of tick-borne encephalitis under investigation at their facilities. (scepticemia.com)
  • This is considered to be a highly probable case of tick borne encephalitis (TBE). (miragenews.com)
  • The heterologous prime-boost vaccination protocol, using a VV recombinant and bacterial plasmid, both containing the NS1 TBE virus protein gene under the control of different promoters, achieved a high level of protection in mice against lethal challenge with a highly pathogenic TBE virus strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus, strain RSSE (Far eastern subspecies) original isolate. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus, strain Hypr original isolate. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • Strain Colombianensi (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae): A New Proposed Rickettsia Detected in Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae) From Iguanas and Free-Living Larvae Ticks From Vegetation. (unicordoba.edu.co)
  • There are three main subtypes of the virus: European, Siberian and far-eastern. (animalabs.com)
  • Three subtypes of the causative agent are known: the European (Western), the Far Eastern (spring-and-summer encephalitis) and the Siberian. (who.int)
  • In addition, subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that at least four variants of the Siberian and Far Eastern subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus were detected, which were close to the viruses circulating in the Urals and Siberia. (nsu.ru)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the Kemerovo virus genome fragments demonstrated at least two subtypes circulating in the Komi Republic. (nsu.ru)
  • org/10.1099/00207713-50-3-979 the incidence of tick-borne encephali- aureus (44%), methicillin-resistant S. 2. (cdc.gov)
  • JJ, Parvizi J. Periprosthetic joint in- Bornholm, we collected ticks by flag- stitutional and departmental sources (De- fection: the incidence, timing, and ging ( 4 ) from 3 sites at Tokkekøb dur- partment of Internal Medicine, Division of predisposing factors. (cdc.gov)
  • Incidence from coincidence: patterns of tick infestations on rodents facilitate transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In addition, incidence of tick-borne encephalitis was also increased particularly starting since 2009. (nsu.ru)
  • A significantly higher incidence of human TBE cases was recorded in South Bohemia compared to Bavarian regions, which correlated with a lower tick density in Bavaria. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • In Mongolia, fatal cases of severe tick-borne meningoencephalitis have been registered every year since 2015, and the incidence and fatality rates of tick-borne encephalitis have been increasing. (who.int)
  • Authors: Yoshii K, Sato K, Ishizuka M, Kobayashi S, Kariwa H, Kawabata H Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is widely prevalent on the Eurasian continent, including Japan, but four cases of TBE have been reported in Japan. (medworm.com)
  • Application: Antigen in ELISA and Western blots, excellent antigen for detection of Tick-borne encephalitis virus with minimal specificity problems. (fishersci.com)
  • Weissenbock H, Suchy A, Holzmann H. Tick-borne encephalitis in dogs: neuropathological findings and distribution of antigen. (aaem.pl)
  • The invention relates to a biomass for producing virus/virus antigen, which consists of cell aggregates having diameters of between 100 .mu.m and 1,000 .mu.m. (justia.com)
  • It enables the large-scale production of pure virus/virus antigen and is particularly suitable for the production of TBE-virus/virus antigen. (justia.com)
  • The invention relates to a biomass and to a method of producing virus/virus antigen. (justia.com)
  • Methods for producing virus/virus antigen are known. (justia.com)
  • These primary cells are infected with virus ("seed virus") and virus antigen is formed by virus propagation. (justia.com)
  • A method of propagating, for instance, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBE-virus) is described in AT-B 358,167: chick embryo cells are suspended in cell culture medium, are infected with the virus and are used as a biomass for the production of TBE-virus antigen. (justia.com)
  • propiolacton and the virus antigen is concentrated by ultrafiltration, purified and further processed to vaccines in the usual manner. (justia.com)
  • When using such cell preparations in suspension cultures for the production of TBE-virus antigen, there is, however, no way of separating living cells from dead or damaged cells. (justia.com)
  • Also the reproducibility of the virus/virus antigen production is low when using individual cells or small cell aggregates in suspension, because the cells may become heavily damaged, e.g., by the shearing forces created in stirring. (justia.com)
  • The invention has as its object to eliminate these disadvantages and to provide a biomass for producing virus/virus antigen, which leads to a high production output of virus/virus antigen in cultivation, is easy to handle and may be used on a commercial scale for the production of virus/virus antigen, wherein the virus/virus antigen is recoverable from the culture medium with a high purity. (justia.com)
  • During summer 2019, three patients residing by Tisvilde Hegn, Denmark were hospitalised with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) after tick bites. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • We recruited 291 JSDF members who belong to the Northern Army and who received tick bites during ground activities ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The results do emphasize the importance of employing strategies to prevent tick bites and completing a tick-check after a day in the field. (dwhc.nl)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus is transmitted by tick bites and by consumption of unpasteurized goat's milk. (animalabs.com)
  • Besides transmission through tick bites, the virus can also be passed on by ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products such as milk and cheese from infected goats, sheep, or cows. (zoologix.com)
  • Prof Matthew Baylis from the University of Liverpool, who co-supervised the research, commented: "The discovery of a new tick-borne virus in the United Kingdom is important, as it reinforces the message that the public need to be 'tick-aware' when walking in the countryside where they may be exposed to tick bites. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, the number of subjects request medical assistance due to tick bites has been dramatically increased in the Komi Republic. (nsu.ru)
  • Semliki Forest virus is spread mainly by mosquito bites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tick bites occurred between April and June in forests during plant and animal horn collection, wood preparation, and livestock herding. (who.int)
  • Most fatal cases (75%) were from tick bites in Bulgan Province. (who.int)
  • The case fatality rate differed between two provinces where tick bites occurred. (who.int)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus causes 13,000 cases of human meningitis and encephalitis annually. (novusbio.com)
  • Kicman-Gawłowska A, Chrześcijańska I, Stefanoff P. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2006]. (aaem.pl)
  • CNS infection can manifest in the meninges (where inflammation causes meningitis), the brain parenchyma (to cause encephalitis), the spinal cord (myelitis), the nerve roots (radiculitis) or indeed any combination of these. (animalabs.com)
  • You then get an asymptomatic phase of about another week, and then you might get a second clinical phase where you get central nervous system presentation which might be meningitis , encephalitis, myelitis. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, it was suggested that tick-borne encephalitis virus was introduced relatively recently from the Urals and Siberian region into the natural foci of the Komi Republic. (nsu.ru)
  • Molecular organization of a recombinant subviral particle from tick-borne encephalitis virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and tick-borne encephalitis viruses in ixodid ticks collected from vegetation, Republic of Korea, 2014. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular evidence for tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks in South Korea. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The purpose of this guidance is to address advances in molecular biology that may influence the production of infectious forms of select agent viruses, or the toxic forms of select toxins from recombinant and/or synthetic nucleic acids. (cdc.gov)
  • The molecular pathogenesis of Semliki Forest virus: A model virus made useful? (wikipedia.org)
  • Detects Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope in direct ELISAs. (novusbio.com)
  • Folding and dimerization of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope proteins prM and E in the endoplasmic reticulum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mapping of functional elements in the stem-anchor region of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope protein E. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Oligomeric rearrangement of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope proteins induced by an acidic pH. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Studies with recombinant subviral particles (RSPs) from tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus have shown that they are assembled in the ER and transported through the secretory pathway in the same manner as whole virus particles ( 31 ), that they undergo similar posttranslational modifications during transport ( 41 ), and that their envelope proteins are presented in a fully functional state ( 5 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • A quantitative study was performed to investigate the requirements for secretion of recombinant soluble and particulate forms of the envelope glycoprotein E of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus. (asm.org)
  • Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is based on the use of formalin-inactivated, culture-derived whole-virus vaccines. (preprints.org)
  • Active vaccination is the most effective method for preventing the tick-borne encephalitis virus, with modern vaccines shown to be safe and between 95 and 99% effective. (animalabs.com)
  • Vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis: WHO position paper. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • immature viruses are noninfectious as the E proteins are not fusion competent, partially mature viruses are still capable of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earlier studies showed that when the prM and E proteins of tick-borne encephalitis virus are expressed together in mammalian cells, they assemble into membrane-containing, icosahedrally symmetrical recombinant subviral particles (RSPs), which are smaller than whole virions but retain functional properties and undergo cleavage maturation, yielding a mature form in which the E proteins are arranged in a regular T = 1 icosahedral lattice. (asm.org)
  • Shortly before being released from the cell, the prM proteins in the immature virus are cleaved by the trans -Golgi network resident proprotein convertase furin ( 43 ), resulting in the loss of approximately the N-terminal half of this protein and leaving the small (8 kDa) C-terminal portion, the M protein, anchored in the membrane. (asm.org)
  • The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although trans -expression of TBE virus C and JE virus prM/E proteins resulted in the secretion of VLPs, the expression of JE virus C/prM/E proteins did not lead to the secretion of VLPs, suggesting that homologous interaction between C and non-structural proteins or the genomic RNA is important for efficient assembly of infectious particles. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • however, the 48-year-old participant noted right knee joint pain, inguinal lymph node swelling, and low-grade fever, which he attributed to the remaining body part of a tick. (cdc.gov)
  • The spectrum of clinical presentations ranges from simple fever to severe encephalitis with or without myelitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [1] Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever , sore throat , muscular pain , and headaches . (wikipedia.org)
  • NS2B-3 proteinase-mediated processing in the yellow fever virus structural region: in vitro and in vivo studies. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Lassa Fever Lassa fever virus, a member of the Arenaviridae family, causes severe and often fatal hemorrhagic illnesses in an overlapping region with Ebola. (wikipedia.org)
  • A closely related virus in Far Eastern Eurasia, Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus (RSSEV). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Culture detection of the virus is not efficient and takes a long time. (zoologix.com)
  • First detection of heartland virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) from field collected arthropods. (unicordoba.edu.co)
  • Virus detection by PCR from a collected tick is possible and especially useful if a person is affected by a tick. (laboklin.com)
  • We conducted neutralizing antibody testing using the virus isolated from Hokkaido in 1993 ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Recombinant Tick-Born Encephalitis Virus glycoprotein E (gE) (95-229) Source: E.coli Description : The protein contains the Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus gE regions, amino acids:(95-229). (fishersci.com)
  • This Tick-borne encephalitis virus[Hypr] is freeze dried.Tests for the presence of mycoplasmae were negative. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • Infection of the vector begins when a tick takes a blood meal from an infected host. (wikipedia.org)
  • 13 ] experimentally proved the vector competence of Haemaphysalis inermis for TBE virus. (springer.com)
  • High-level expression of the tick-borne encephalitis virus NS1 protein by using an adenovirus-based vector: protection elicited in a murine model. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The recombinant vaccinia virus (W-NS1) in combination with the control plasmid pMV100 protected 20% of challenged mice, whereas 40% of mice survived that were primed with control vaccinia vector VV-WR and boosted with the NS1 gene expressing plasmid pMV45 (the difference is statistically insignificant). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A better understanding of parameters controlling human pathogenicity and the maintenance of TBE virus in its natural vector−host cycle will generate further insights into the focal nature of TBE and can potentially improve forecasts of TBE risk on smaller regional scales. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Suss J. Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe and beyond--the epidemiological situation as of 2007. (aaem.pl)
  • Sequencing of a fragment of Babesia 18S rDNA revealed that these two isolates were identical to one another and closely related to the B. canis sequence originally isolated from the dog and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Poland. (aaem.pl)
  • En SIBIRCON 2019 - International Multi-Conference on Engineering, Computer and Information Sciences, Proceedings (pp. 397-402). (urfu.ru)
  • Human cases of Powassan virus cases have been reported few and far between and remain an exotic diagnosis at best, making this a rather rare and exceptional case. (scepticemia.com)
  • The patient with severe and progressive encephalitis had a history of tick bite in Hokkaido in 2012. (medworm.com)
  • Since Semliki Forest virus naturally infects cells of the central nervous system it has been pre-clinically tested as an oncolytic virus against the severe brain tumour type glioblastoma . (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the project was to study the ability of recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) and bacterial plasmid, both carrying the NS1 gene from tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus under the control of different promoters, to protect mice against lethal challenge using a heterologous prime-boost vaccination protocol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Properties of the tick-borne encephalitis virus population during persistent infection of ixodid ticks and tick cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ticks are arthropods that belong to two large groups: hard (ixodid) and soft (argasid) ticks. (nap.edu)
  • DNA immunization with Japanese encephalitis virus nonstructural protein NS1 elicits protective immunity in mice. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from wild rodents and a seroepizootiologic survey in Hokkaido, Japan. (semanticscholar.org)
  • POW virus is maintained in a cycle between ticks and small-to-medium-sized rodents. (scepticemia.com)
  • Sequence comparison of the entire E gene of the isolated virus strains resembled each other with only 3 nucleotide differences. (springer.com)
  • Finally, we were able to detect variations that help in the understanding of virus adaptations to varied environmental temperatures and mammalian hosts through a comparative approach that compares RNA folding dynamics between strains with different mammalian cell passage histories. (diva-portal.org)
  • Four tick-borne encephalitis virus strains were isolated from a small 0.5-ha focus over a six-year-long period (2011-2016) in Hungary. (elsevier.com)
  • Sequencing of Kemerovo virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene fragment showed around 94% homology with the remainder of the Kemerovo virus strains. (nsu.ru)
  • Moreover, genetic differences found in Kemerovo virus strains presume for them a longer lasting evolution throughout the natural foci of this region. (nsu.ru)
  • In 2016, the RIVM concluded that people had contracted tick-borne encephalitis from those areas. (dwhc.nl)
  • Are Patients with Erythema Migrans Who Have Leukopenia and/or Thrombocytopenia Coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus? (plos.org)
  • Arboviruses are an inhomogeneous group of viruses whose common feature is the transmission by blood-sucking arthropods. (laboklin.com)
  • It is related to West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis, and Tick-borne encephalitis viruses. (scepticemia.com)
  • Louping ill virus, West Nile virus) was observed for Louping-ill-positive sera only. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whole-genome sequencing of the virus revealed that the isolates differed from each other in 4 amino acids and 9 nucleotides. (elsevier.com)
  • The transmission mainly occurs by the bite of an infected tick. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus has a highly focal distribution through Eurasia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Czupryna P, Moniuszko A, Pancewicz SA, Grygorczuk S, Kondrusik M, Zajkowska J. Tick-borne encephalitis in Poland in years 1993-2008- epidemiology and clinical presentation. (aaem.pl)
  • Tick-borne encephalopathies : epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dobler G, Tkachev S. General epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis. (eurosurveillance.org)