A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.

Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (1/137)

The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification.  (+info)

Light-independent inactivation of dengue-2 virus by carboxyfullerene C3 isomer. (2/137)

Carboxyfullerene (C60) is known as a photosensitizer for virus inactivation. Its regioisomer with C3 symmetry, named the C3 isomer, could also inactivate the dengue-2 virus without light when the dose of C3 isomer was increased to 40 microM, indicating the possible involvement of a light-independent mechanism. Further analysis showed that the C3 isomer blocked viral replication at the attachment and penetration stages, suggesting that a direct interaction between the C3 isomer and the virion is required for inactivation. The C3 isomer with a bipolar structure showed better lipid interaction and dengue-2 virus suppression than D3, another isomer that contains evenly distributed hydrophilic side chains. Moreover, the C3 isomer selectively inactivated enveloped viruses (viz., dengue-2 virus and Japanese encephalitis virus) instead of nonenveloped viruses (viz., enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus B3). Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that C3 isomer suppression of enveloped viruses is effected through its hydrophobic interaction with the viral lipid envelope. Our report, which demonstrates the light-dependent and -independent mechanisms of C60 on viral inactivation, will aid in the development of novel anti-viral agents for use against enveloped viruses.  (+info)

Intrauterine infection of mice with St. Louis encephalitis virus: immunological, physiological, neurological, and behavioral effects on progeny. (3/137)

Intravenous injection of pregnant mice with St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus at 8 days of gestation resulted in infection of the fetus. Progeny developed no antibody or tolerance to SLE virus since the viral antigen was cleared by maternal antibody before antibody-forming competence developed in the young. Temporary growth retardation was observed in a number of young at 3 weeks of age. After the initial setback the growth rate increased, indicating that early runting was due to an inability to adjust adequately to extrauterine life, which was subsequently overcome. In most other young there were no significant effects on growth, reproduction, or life expectancy. A few young died at or shortly after birth; in these, neurological changes ranging from gross defects such as encephaloceles and hydrocephalus to histological evidence of necrosis and congestion were observed. Neurologically related behavioral changes were detected by using the open field test and the rotating-rod test, which indicated neurological damage and memory impairment in the surviving intrauterinely infected animals.  (+info)

Viral encephalitis in England, 1989-1998: what did we miss? (4/137)

We analyzed hospitalizations in England from April 1, 1989, to March 31, 1998, and identified approximately 700 cases, 46 fatal, from viral encephalitis that occurred during each year; most (60%) were of unknown etiology. Of cases with a diagnosis, the largest proportion was herpes simplex encephalitis. Using normal and Poisson regression, we identified six possible clusters of unknown etiology. Over 75% of hospitalizations are not reported through the routine laboratory and clinical notification systems, resulting in underdiagnosis of viral encephalitis in England. Current surveillance greatly underascertains incidence of the disease and existence of clusters; in general, outbreaks are undetected. Surveillance systems must be adapted to detect major changes in epidemiology so that timely control measures can be implemented.  (+info)

Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for antibodies to flavivirus structural and nonstructural proteins. (5/137)

A micro-solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) is described for quantitation of antibodies to purified flaviviruses as well as to the purified envelope glycoprotein and 80,000-molecular-weight viral nonstructural protein. Sera from mice experimentally infected with Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus or from humans after a primary SLE virus infection reacted more specifically with the major viral envelope protein in the SPRIA test than with antigens conventionally used in the complement fixation (CF) and hemagglutination inhibition tests. A high degree of correlation (P is less than 0.05) was observed between SPRIA anti-immunoglobulin G binding values with the 80,000-molecular-weight nonstructural protein of SLE virus and antibody titers obtained by plaque reduction neutralization and CF with the nonstructural protein. In five of seven human sera in which CF antibody titers to the nonstructural protein were 4 or less, SPRIA testing revealed significant titers of IgG immunoglobulin reactive with this viral protein. The SPRIA test for antibodies reactive with group B togavirus nonstructural protein is as specific and sensitive as the plaque reduction neutralization test for titrating viral antibody in human and animal sera. Antibodies reactive with viral envelope proteins are broadly cross-reactive by the Spria technique, demonstrating both group- and complex-reactive antigenic determinants. The SPRIA test, using wells precoated with antigen, can be completed in 1 day, providing a rapid, highly sensitive test which can be adapted to use in testing a large number of sera.  (+info)

Powassan and Silverwater viruses: ecology of two Ontario arboviruses. (6/137)

Powassan virus was isolated from a pool of Ixodes marxi ticks collected during late August 1962, from a red squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, and from blood obtained from a red squirrel during early October 1962 near Powassan, Ontario, where a child contracted fatal encephalitis due to this virus in September 1958. The frequent detection of Powassan virus neutralizing antibody in sera of squirrels captured during autumn, but rarely at other seasons, and the frequent I. marxi infestation of squirrels, some of which contain antibody, but the lack of occurrence of I. marxi on other forest rodents, suggest that I. marxi ticks are vectors and squirrels are reservoirs of Powassan virus infection. Isolation of Silverwater virus from Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks which infested a snowshoe hare Lepus americanus near Powassan demonstrates the presence of this agent in the Powassan area also.  (+info)

PRODUCTION OF AN INTERFERON BY L CELLS INFECTED WITH WESTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS. (7/137)

Lockart, Royce Z., Jr. (The University of Texas, Austin). Production of an interferon by L cells infected with Western equine encephalomyelitis virus. J. Bacteriol. 85:556-566. 1963.-Two strains of Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEE), WEE (L+) and WEE (L-), which differed with respect to their cytopathogenicity for L cells were isolated. Both strains reproduced in L cells, and both induced the production of an interferon distinct from virus particles. L-cell monolayers were protected from degeneration by prior addition of interferon. By use of the absence of cytopathic effects (CPE) as an end point, interferon content was assayed. Monolayers failing to show CPE consistently produced less than 2% as much virus as control monolayers, indicating that virus synthesis was also inhibited. The use of this assay method was facilitated by the use of horse serum that appeared to contain antibodies against WEE and that permitted interferon to act selectively in the presence of active virus. It was found that interferon was produced during the time in which active virus was produced, and not significantly later. No interferon could be found in fluids from cells treated with inactive virus, although these are known to act as interfering agents. Interferon production was inhibited by pretreatment of L cells with sufficient amounts of interferon. It is concluded that interferon production is closely connected with WEE virus synthesis in L cells. The question is raised as to whether interferon need be a necessary intermediate for interference in L cells.  (+info)

TICK-BORNE VIRUSES. A REVIEW OF AN ARTHROPOD-BORNE VIRUS PROBLEM OF GROWING IMPORTANCE IN THE TROPICS. (8/137)

More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses.In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued.  (+info)

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Summary Dogs infected with Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus via the bite of infected Aedes triseriatus responded with fever and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies. Even though high temperatures were elicited in 14 of the animals, in only seven did viremia develop above 102.5 mouse intraperitoneal median lethal dose50 per ml. Sufficient quantities of mosquitoes were infected from the dogs to permit passage of the virus on to guinea pigs. There were no other clinical signs of illness observed in the animals.
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Saint Louis encephalitis is a disease caused by the mosquito borne Saint Louis encephalitis virus. Saint Louis encephalitis virus is related to Japanese encephalitis virus and is a member of the Flaviviridae subgroup. This disease mainly affects the United States. Occasional cases have been reported from Canada and Mexico. The name of the virus goes back to 1933 when within five weeks in autumn an encephalitis epidemic of explosive proportions broke out in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, and the neighboring St. Louis County. Over 1,000 cases were reported to the local health departments and the newly constituted National Institute of Health of the United States was appealed to for epidemiological and investigative expertise. The previously unknown virus that caused the epidemic was isolated by the NIH team first in monkeys and then in white mice. Mosquitoes, primarily from the genus Culex, become infected by feeding on birds infected with the Saint Louis encephalitis virus. Infected ...
CARTAS AL EDITOR. Detection of antibodies to West Nile and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in horses To the editor: West Nile virus (WNV) and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) belong to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus).1-3 As with other members of this complex, WNV and SLEV are usually maintained in cycles between birds and Culex species mosquitoes. Humans, horses and other mammals are typically dead-end hosts. WNV and SLEV infections in humans are usually asymptomatic or characterized by a mild febrile illness, although fatal meningoencephalitis or encephalitis may occur. WNV infection may also lead to fatal disease in horses, whereas clinical manifestations have not been reported in horses infected with SLEV. The geographic ranges of WNV and SLEV include the Americas.3,4 WNV activity has been reported in almost all of the continental United States,5 southern Canada6 and Mexico.7-12 SLEV is endemic throughout the United States, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Identification of epitopes on the E glycoprotein of Saint Louis encephalitis virus using monoclonal antibodies. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical and antigenic comparisons of the envelope glycoproteins of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus strains. AU - France, J. K.. AU - Wyrick, B. C.. AU - Trent, D. W.. PY - 1979. Y1 - 1979. N2 - Pulse-chase experiments after synchronous initiation of translation indicate that the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus membrane glycoprotein, E2, is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the precursor, PE2. The structural proteins of VEE virus strains representing each of the antigenic subtypes and varieties have been compared by discontinuous SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nucleocapsid proteins of all isolates were similar in size (mol. wt. 35 to 36x103). The mol. wt. of E1 varied from 48 to 51x103 and the mol. wt. of E2 glycoproteins ranged from 53 to 59x103. Pixuna virus contained a third envelope glycoprotein of 59x103 mol. wt.in addition to the two major glycoproteins of mol. wt. 53x103 and 48x103 respectively. The isoeletric points (pI) of E1 and E2 ...
CORPUS CHRISTI, TX - The Corpus Christi Vector Control program is notifying the public of the detection of Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE) virus in a mosquito pool collected and analyzed from the 400 block of Bartlett Street. Vector Control deploys traps...
For the first time since 1986, Saint Louis encephalitis virus has been found in adult mosquito samples in Orange County. The mosquito samples were collected in Garden Grove on August 9, 2016 and tested positive for St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE) on August 17, 2016. SLE is a native arbovirus in the same virus family as West Nile virus (Flaviviridae). SLE is similar to West Nile virus in that both viruses require a bird reservoir to maintain the virus in nature. In 2016, SLE has been found in Los Angeles, Riverside, Kern, San Bernardino, and now Orange County.. The last recorded human infections of SLE in Orange County occurred in 1984. SLE was occasionally found in mosquitoes across the United States until the year 2000. Detections of SLE were reduced significantly after the introduction of West Nile virus around that time. SLE infection results in an immune response and antibody development in birds that is very similar to the immunity resulting from West Nile virus infection. This ...
St. Louis Encephalitis Virus antibody [6b6c-1] for ELISA, ICC/IF. Anti-St. Louis Encephalitis Virus mAb (GTX39036) is tested in Saint Louis encephalitis virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Abstract The mechanism for long-term maintenance of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus in California is unknown. Two possibilities are 1) that the virus is maintained locally in discrete enzootic foci by one or more reservoir mechanisms, and/or 2) that the foci are ephemeral in nature and virus is reintroduced periodically from other enzootic areas by migratory birds or movement of vectors. We have investigated these epidemiologic alternatives by studies of genetic variation within a 277 nucleotide portion of the envelope-encoding region among 17 strains of SLE virus isolated since 1952 from different geographic locations in California. Three lineages of virus were detected. One lineage, Group A, consisted of four SLE virus strains isolated in California since 1972 from the Coachella, Sacramento, and San Joaquin Valleys. The group A strains were closely related to strain MSI-7 of SLE virus isolated in Mississippi in 1975. The 13 other strains formed the second and third lineages (Groups B1 and B2) that
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The transmission cycle leading to SLE epidemics is thought to accompany infection of various species of wild birds. A bird infected by the bite of a mosquito can later produce enough virus in its blood to infect other susceptible mosquitoes that might feed upon it. It takes one to two days after infection for the bird to produce significant quantities of virus in its blood, and this virus rapidly disappears one to three days later as the bird recovers from the infection. Thus, there is a narrow window of opportunity for the mosquitoes to pick up the virus and then further spread (amplify) it. After experiencing one SLE infection, an individual bird is forever immune from another SLE infection. SLE virus is not known to cause disease in birds, and birds cannot infect one another.. Under suitable conditions, SLE virus may sufficiently amplify in local bird populations that a large number of mosquitoes are infected, and there is an increased chance that an infected mosquito may bite a human or ...
On paper, Powassan virus sounds like your basic nightmare. A tick-borne infection with no vaccine and no cure, it kills 1 in 10 people who get it and causes long-term neurological problems in half of reported cases. Fortunately, Powassan virus disease for decades had affected only about one person a year in the U.S.-most likely because it was typically transmitted from woodchucks to humans by a tick that rarely bites people. So back in 1997, when Sam Telford, a professor of infectious disease and global health at Cummings School, found a genetically distinct strain of Powassan virus in deer ticks-the bloodsuckers notorious for spreading Lyme disease-he initially worried about its implications. But despite the fact that he found the virus in 1 out of every 100 deer ticks he sampled, at the time there were no reports of swelling in the brain (called encephalitis) in sites where Lyme disease was common. He and his fellow researchers surmised that people just didnt come down with Powassan virus ...
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Peptide microarray displaying 6253 peptides derived from selected proteins of ZIKA virus, Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Yellow fever virus and Saint Louis encephalitis virus
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Make plans NOW to join the Young Friends of the Saint Louis University Liver Center at their 2nd Annual That 80s Prom!. This is definitely not your high school prom! That 80s Prom features a VIP cocktail reception with open bar and live music from That 80s Band. The Young Friends will also be having a costume contest to crown their Prom King/Queen.. Tickets for the That 80s Prom are $75 for VIP Admission, which includes early admission to the party and an open bar; and $40 for Regular Admission (if purchased before 4/15/14 - ticket prices will increase to $50 after that date.) Tickets can be purchased online now at Brown Paper Tickets - http://that80sprom.bpt.me/.. Proceeds will benefit the Young Friends of the SLU Liver Center, which supports the research efforts of the world-renowned Saint Louis University Liver Center for the treatment and cure of liver diseases, and promotes understanding and awareness of liver disease. All money raised by the organization stays in the St. Louis area to ...
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https://danielcameronmd.com/powassan-virus-in-children/ CASE REPORTS: POWASSAN VIRUS IN CHILDREN Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne illness that can cause severe encephalitis. Animal studies have shown the virus can be transmitted to humans following a tick bite within 15 minutes. However, the cases described in a recent article
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TD - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. *FX - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. *ZX - Eastern equine encephalitis virus ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus; and staphylococcal enterotoxin B. This mixture of microorganisms and toxins was intended ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Around the end of 1970s Esparza became involved in studies of various aspects of this ... Esparza, J; Pina, CI; Novo, E (Jul 1976). "Photoinactivation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus mediated by tetracyclines ... Esparza, J; Sánchez, A (1975). "Multiplication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (Mucambo) virus in cultured mosquito cells". ... Carreño, G; Esparza, J (1977). "Induction of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (Mucambo) virus by iododeoxyuridine in chronically ...
Louis encephalitis virus. MBio 4(3):e00322-13. doi:10.1128/mBio.00322-13. ...
... tick-borne encephalitis virus, poliovirus, and most recently Zika virus, in both in vitro and animal models. Since it has ... September 2015). "Nucleoside inhibitors of tick-borne encephalitis virus". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59 (9): 5483- ... Subsequently it has been widely used in antiviral research and has shown activity against a range of viruses, including Dengue ... February 2011). "Sustained viral response in a hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzee via a combination of direct-acting ...
Soares-Ishigaki EC, Cera ML, Pieri A, Ortiz KZ (2012). "Aphasia and herpes virus encephalitis: a case study". Sao Paulo Medical ... In rare cases, aphasia may also result from herpesviral encephalitis. The herpes simplex virus affects the frontal and temporal ... Naudé H, Pretorius E (3 Jun 2010). "Can herpes simplex virus encephalitis cause aphasia?". Early Child Development and Care. ...
Her thesis was titled "Studies on the Virus of St. Louis Encephalitis." Cook's admission to Bryn Mawr was a subject of intense ... Cook, Enid (1937). "Studies on the Virus of St. Louis Encephalitis". "Letter from M. Carey Thomas to Marion Park , Black at ... Louis encephalitis and on herpes. Beginning in 1946, she was the chief of the Public Health Laboratory at the Instituto ... Panama where she was the first person to isolate the yellow fever virus in Panama, and, along with her physician husband ...
Marr, JS; Calisher, CH (December 2003). "Alexander the Great and West Nile virus encephalitis". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9 ... but the study was limited to detection of bacterial pathogens and DNA viruses, while arenaviruses are RNA viruses. His analysis ...
It is a vector of Japanese encephalitis virus. "An annotated checklist of mosquitoes of Sri Lanka" (PDF). Man and Biosphere ... "Experimental transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by Culex fuscocephala". Am J Trop Med Hyg. 21: 482-6. PMID 4340450.. ...
Kimberlin, D. (2004). Herpes simplex virus, meningitis and encephalitis in neonates. breast, 20, 22. Puopolo, Karen M; Baker, ... The incidence of Herpes simplex virus meningitis is estimated to be 0.2-5.0 cases per 10,000 live births. Neonatal meningitis ... In cases of meningitis caused by Herpes simplex virus, antiviral therapy with (acyclovir or vidarabine) must be started ...
"Alexander the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis". CDC. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011. "Disease, not conflict, ended the reign of ... "Alexander the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis". CDC. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011. Sbarounis CN (June 1997). "Did Alexander ... According to analysis of other authors in response to Marr and Calisher, the West Nile virus could not have infected humans ... who nonetheless noted that the West Nile virus tends to kill the elderly or those with weakened immune systems. The version of ...
Experts hypothesized that he was suffering from a virus that caused the encephalitis.[54] ... In August 2015, it was discovered that Knut died of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. This was the first case discovered in non- ... The bear's apparent seizure was due to his suffering from encephalitis, a swelling of the brain likely triggered by an ... infection.[50] It is unknown what infection caused the swelling, but pathologists believe it was a virus. Although Knut showed ...
The team led by him are involved in research on the pathogenesis of viruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West ... "The host microRNA miR-301a blocks the IRF1-mediated neuronal innate immune response to Japanese encephalitis virus infection". ... "miR-301a mediated immune evasion by Japanese encephalitis virus". Oncotarget. 8 (53): 90620-90621. doi:10.18632/oncotarget. ... He is internationally known for his studies on Japanese encephalitis. Basu is an elected fellow of all the three major Indian ...
2006). "Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in human UNC-93B deficiency". Science. 314 (5797): 308-12. doi:10.1126/science. ... "Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in human UNC-93B deficiency". Science. 314 (5797): 308-12. doi:10.1126/science.1128346. PMID ... Defects in the protein predispose to hypersensitity to infections with herpes simplex virus and mouse cytomegalovirus. The ...
Tests for eastern equine encephalitis virus antibodies were positive in moose or deer in each of Vermont's counties. In 2012, ... Secretary (2014). "Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Deer and Moose Serosurvey Project". Vermont Department of Public Health. ...
Allvarez, Marila C. Armesto (2004). Molecular studies of tick-borne encephalitis virus (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. ... Holmes, Edward (16 April 2020). "Statement from Professor Edward Holmes on the SARS-CoV-2 virus: On the origins of the virus ... Holmes wrote The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses part of the Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution edited by Paul H. ... Walker, Polly Rose (2006). Evolution and infectivity of HIV-1 subtype C viruses (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. EThOS uk. ...
Barrett, AM; Gairdner, D; McFarlan, AM (1952). "An outbreak of encephalitis, possibly due to poliomyelitis virus". British ...
A viral infection following Japanese encephalitis virus infection also increased GPR84 expression by 2-4.5% in the mice brain. ... Gupta N, Rao PV (2011). "Transcriptomic profile of host response in Japanese encephalitis virus infection". Virol. J. 8: 92. ...
"European subtype tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes persulcatus ticks". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17 (2): 323-325. doi ... A recent study of the northernmost tick-borne encephalitis focus in Simo, Finnish Lapland, found I. persulcatus ticks in ... tick-borne encephalitis, and probably human granulocytic anaplasmosis as well. ...
By then it was known that murine encephalitis was caused by a picornavirus, called Theiler's virus, which was discovered by Max ... The causative virus was identified as mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). In 1961, a virus was obtained from a school boy in Epsom, ... A. W. McClurkin isolated and identified the virus in 1965. The virus was named Transmissible gastro-enteritis virus of swine in ... Directed by Andrewes, the research laboratory discovered several viruses such as influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses and ...
It is known to carry Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE). It was found to be a minor vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in ... Several viruses have been found in this mosquito in the Amazon, such as Una virus and Ilheus virus. In Central and South ...
Arthropod-Borne Virus Encephalitides; Differential diagnostic measures; diagnosis, treatment, and control of Japanese B ... encephalitis; proper approach to investigation of problem (34 min). PMF 5049 - PMF 5050 - PMF 5051 (1947) - Therapeutic ...
Even more dramatically, in most of its range in North America, the main vector for the Western equine encephalitis virus is ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus is a concern in the eastern United States. ... Taylor JL, Schoenherr C, Grossberg SE (September 1980). "Protection against Japanese encephalitis virus in mice and hamsters by ... and such birds are typically the main reservoir of the Eastern equine encephalitis virus in North America. Early in the season ...
"Herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis: a review of current disease management with three case reports". Antiviral Chemistry & ... A viral infection may also result in encephalitis triggered by an autoimmune response. The most ubiquitous form, anti-NMDA ... For patients suffering from Herpes simplex virus, more than 90% are found to have lymphocytic pleocytosis of varying levels. ... A viral infection can directly cause encephalitis or trigger a cascade ending in autoimmunity, with both mechanisms eventually ...
Discovered Chandipura virus involvement in encephalitis outbreaks in children in India. Isolation of several strains of ... viruses First visualization of Hepatitis E virus particles, confirmation of the virus as the causative agent of water bore ... Invaluable collection of sera and virus strains: Approx. 260,000 serum samples and >600 strains of viruses isolated from humans ... The Virus Research Center (VRC), Pune came into existence in 1952 under the joint auspices of the ICMR and the Rockefeller ...
Bradshaw MJ, Venkatesan A (July 2016). "Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis in Adults: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and ... As all viruses in the realm are double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, the realm belongs to Group I: dsDNA viruses of Baltimore ... fold MCP viruses, and the suffix -virae, which is the suffix used for virus kingdoms. All viruses in Duplodnaviria contain a ... While viruses in Duplodnaviria make use of the HK97 fold for their major capsid proteins, the major capsid proteins of viruses ...
... of West Nile virus encephalitis as well as other viruses. As of 2019, six vaccines had progressed to human trials but none had ... cross-reactivity with dengue virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus". J. Med. Virol. 83 (10): 1861-5. doi:10.1002/jmv.22180. ... West Nile virus encephalitis (WNE) is the most common neuroinvasive manifestation of WNND. WNE presents with similar symptoms ... The virus is believed to have entered in an infected bird or mosquito, although there is no clear evidence. West Nile virus is ...
It is a major vector of West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus Larvae can be found from the edges of rice fields. ... Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from Culex pseudovishnui Colless, 1957 (Diptera: Culicidae) in Goa.. ... Mourya, DT; Mishra, AC; Soman, RS (1991). "Transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in Culex pseudovishnui & C. ... Adult) Transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in Culex pseudovishnui & C. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes. ...
"STING mediates neuronal innate immune response following Japanese encephalitis virus infection". Scientific Reports. 2: 347. ... Adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, HSV-1 and HSV-2, as well as the negative-stranded RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV ... Although type I IFN is absolutely critical for resistance to viruses, there is growing literature about the negative role of ... Ma Z, Damania B (February 2016). "The cGAS-STING Defense Pathway and Its Counteraction by Viruses". Cell Host & Microbe. 19 (2 ...
Appaiahgari, Mohan Babu; Vrati, Sudhanshu (2007). "DNAzyme-mediated Inhibition of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Replication in ...
West nile virus (WNV), Gadgets-Gully-Virus - en. Gadgets Gully virus (GGYV), FSME-Virus - en. Tick-borne encephalitis virus ( ... Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and Devic's disease,[23] Graves' ophthalmopathy,[24] autoimmune pancreatitis,[25] Opsoclonus ... "Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... myasthenia gravis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers.[2][3][4][5] It is given by slow injection into a vein.[ ...
PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and Devic's disease,[23] Graves' ophthalmopathy,[24] autoimmune pancreatitis,[25] Opsoclonus ... myasthenia gravis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers.[2][3][4][5] It is given by slow injection into a vein.[ ... suggesting the drug in combination with lymphoma may have weakened the body's immune response to the virus.[35] ...
1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... Lindgren E, Gustafson R (July 2001). "Tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden and climate change". Lancet. 358 (9275): 16-8. doi: ... May 2006). "Serological evidence for tick-borne encephalitis, borreliosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Mongolia". ...
Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Encephalitis. *Meningitis. *Unilateral or bilateral hearing loss, observed in up to one third of adults, which becomes ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ...
Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017). *Saudi Arabian MERS (2018). *Kerala Nipah virus (2018) ... "Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.", Virol. J., 7 (52). ... "Origin of the Measles Virus: Divergence from Rinderpest Virus Between the 11th and 12th Centuries". Virology. 7: 52-55. doi ...
Equine Encephalitis [375], Equine Influenza [376], IBR [377] Vesicular Stomatitis [378], BVD [379] Orf [380] ጥቂት ምሳሌዎች ናቸው። የወፍ ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus)ን ክትባት እንደማይከላከለው በጊዜው ከሚያውቁት ሳይንቲስቶችና የበሽታ መከላከያ ክትባት ሠሪዎች ኣንዱ በመሆናቸው በሽታው ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ሊያስከትል ከሚችለው ...
Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ... Since this vaccine was associated with a higher incidence of encephalitis, FNV was not recommended after 1961. Vaccine 17D is ... Viruses reach the stomach of the mosquito, and if the virus concentration is high enough, the virions can infect epithelial ... Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, a 40- to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the ...
1999). "Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States". Science. ... A recent example of an introduced disease is the spread of the West Nile virus, which killed humans, birds, mammals, and ...
Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing ... Arbovirus encephalitis. Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ...
David D, Yakobson B, Rotenberg D, Dveres N, Davidson I, Stram Y (2002). "Rabies virus detection by RT-PCR in decomposed ... ବିଭିନ୍ନ ପ୍ରକାରର ଭୁତାଣୁଦ୍ୱାରା ହେଉଥିବା ଏନ୍‌କେଫାଲାଇଟିସ୍ (encephalitis) ରୋଗ ସାଥିରେ ନିର୍ଣ୍ଣୟ ଦ୍ୱନ୍ଦ ହୁଏ ।. ସାଧାରଣ ଲାଇଟ ... "Transmission of rabies virus from an organ donor to four transplant recipients" (PDF). N Engl J Med. 352 (11): 1103-11. doi ...
Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ... a virus, or a prion. At present, the science to understand this process is available but not the technology to perform it.[25] ... could reasonably be expected to show bacteria, but imaging of viruses had to wait until the development of electron microscopes ...
... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly ... efficacy - empirical - encephalitis - end-stage disease - endemic - endogenous - endoscopy - endotoxin - endpoint - enteric - ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - ...
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ...
Virus-specific T-Lymphocytes (VST) therapy is used for patients who have received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that ... Epidermodysplasia verruciformis Herpes simplex encephalitis Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis Trypanosomiasis Rather than ... These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days by using specific cytokines from adult donors or virus-naive cord ... "Adoptive immunotherapy for primary immunodeficiency disorders with virus-specific T lymphocytes". Journal of Allergy and ...
Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ... Group VII viruses[edit]. Both families in Group VII have DNA genomes contained within the invading virus particles. The DNA ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, ... Saint Louis encephalitis Saint Louis encephalitis virus birds mosquito bite Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS coronavirus ... Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree ... Japanese encephalitis Japanese encephalitis virus pigs, water birds mosquito bite Kyasanur Forest disease ...
For the Japanese encephalitis virus, blockade of CLEC5A cannot inhibit infection of neurons and astrocytes, however anti-CLEC5A ... The researchers discovered that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) also binds to CLEC5A and contributes to viral pathology.[8] ... Interaction of CLEC5A and dengue virus also induces osteolytic activity.[8] Another pathogen is influenza virus and its ... virus receptor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • integral ...
It has been found to be important for the virus pathogenesis. In the case of Cardiovirus A, the virus can cause encephalitis ... Other viruses isolated from humans include the Syr-Darya valley fever virus and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus. "Viral ... Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VHEV), a Theiler-like rat virus (TRV) (which has yet to be named) and Saffold virus ( ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ...
A number of infectious diseases can sometimes cause ALS-like symptoms,[4] including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T ... Encephalitis *Viral encephalitis. *Herpesviral encephalitis. *Limbic encephalitis. *Encephalitis lethargica. *Cavernous sinus ... There are also new methods of developing animal models, including viral transgenesis, in which viruses are used to deliver ... virus (HTLV), Lyme disease, and syphilis.[11] Neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, post-polio syndrome, ...
Iton rabies in usa nga sakit tikang ha virus, nga kawsa han acute encephalitis (inflamasyon ha utok) ha mga mapaso-it-dugo nga ...
The viruses that cause HFMD are spread through close personal contact, through the air from coughing, and the feces of an ... Rarely viral meningitis or encephalitis may complicate the disease. HFMD occurs in all areas of the world. It often occurs in ... The viruses that cause the disease are of the Picornaviridae family. Coxsackievirus A16 is the most common cause of HFMD. ... Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infection caused by a group of viruses. It typically begins with a fever and ...
Semliki forest virus, Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). Many of ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, ... "Sindbis virus proteins nsP1 and nsP2 contain homology to nonstructural proteins from several RNA plant viruses". Journal of ...
In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... Encephalitis is a rare but not unheard of, and can occur in the elderly and present as confusion and slurred speech. ... These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the ... The virus has the potential to infect humans, although no such cases have been observed yet.[7] This virus has not been found ...
It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ... Chikungunya virus is passed to humans when a bite from an infected mosquito breaks the skin and introduces the virus into the ...
Shingles is a viral disease produced by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), the same virus that causes chicken pox. Its symptoms ... Sometimes, serious problems like temporary, partial facial paralysis, ear damage, or encephalitis may occur. Persons with ... The same virus that causes chickenpox also causes shingles. The symptoms are pain and a rash with blisters.[1] The shingles ... The shingles virus is contagious from person to person only by direct contact. For this reason, persons with shingles are ...
Infective conjunctivitis is most commonly caused by a virus.[11] Bacterial infections, allergies, other irritants, and dryness ... caused by herpes simplex viruses, can be serious and requires treatment with aciclovir. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is a ...
A respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (RSV vaccine) is a vaccine which prevents infection by respiratory syncytial virus. No ... Mejias, Asuncion; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rosa; Peeples, Mark E.; Ramilo, Octavio (October 2019). "Respiratory Syncytial Virus ... "Respiratory syncytial virus vaccines". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 11 (3): 430-9. doi:10.1128/CMR.11.3.430. PMC 88889. PMID ... "The respiratory syncytial virus vaccine landscape: lessons from the graveyard and promising candidates" (PDF). The Lancet ...
Louis encephalitis in 1933. Smadel then moved on to New York City to work under scientists Homer Swift and Thomas M. Rivers at ... Following the Allied victory in Europe, Lieutenant Colonel Smadel became the Director of the Department Of Virus and ...
Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE) is a viral disease spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. ... Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Other medically important ... The virus particles are spherical and have a diameter of 40 nm. ... in the Americas include West Nile virus and Powassan virus. ...
Eastern Equine Encephalitis is a rare disease that is caused by a virus spread by infected mosquitoes. ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Mayaro virus (MAYV), and Madariaga (MADV). EEEV has a ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a member of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. Other medically important ... The virus particles are spherical and have a diameter of 60-65 nm. Of the four lineages of EEE antigenic complex, Group I ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Symptoms of La Crosse encephalitis disease include nausea, fatigue, headache, and fever. Get the facts on the life cycle of the ... The La Crosse virus can be transmitted to humans via mosquito bites. ... La Crosse Virus Encephalitis Symptoms, Transmission, and Life Cycle. *Medical Author: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD ... What is the La Crosse virus?. The La Crosse virus (LACV) was first identified in 1960 in La Crosse, Wis., when a 4-year-old who ...
Current: Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a ... mosquito-borne virus that circulates between bird hosts and mosquito populations.. EEEV is transmitted by the bite of an ...
1955)‎. Virus meningo-encephalitis in Austria. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 12 (‎4)‎, 521 - 534. http://www.who. ...
Powassan virus encephalitis resembling herpes simplex encephalitis.. Embil JA, Camfield P, Artsob H, Chase DP. ... Shortly before his trip to Nova Scotia, the patient had traveled in an area where POW encephalitis had occurred in humans (the ... However, hemagglutination inhibition, complement fixation, and neutralization tests identified Powassan virus (POW) as the ... leading to a diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. The patient was treated with vidarabine and made a complete recovery. ...
Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. A 62-year-old man presented with a ... Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis.. Tavakoli NP1, Wang H, Dupuis M, Hull R, Ebel GD, Gilmore EJ, Faust PL. ... This case demonstrates that deer tick virus can be a cause of fatal encephalitis. ... To root the dendrogram, louping ill virus was used as the outgroup. The evolutionary distances were computed with the use of ...
5. New findings in the past week include West Nile virus in Dighton and eastern equine encephalitis in Freetown and New Bedford ... West Nile virus has been detected in the past week in Easton, Mansfield and Stoughton. The Department of Public Health found ... Bridgewater, where EEE was found in mid-July, remains the only town in Plymouth County where either virus has ... The eastern equine encephalitis virus has been found in mosquitoes trapped Monday in Lakeville. ...
2013 have tested positive for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE). ... State Reports Positive Mosquitoes for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Abstract: The State Mosquito Management Program today ... 2013 have tested positive for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE). These results represent the first EEE-positive ... Eastern equine encephalitis is a rare but serious disease in people. On average there are 6 cases each year in the United ...
Japanese encephalitis virus strain SA-14. Mutation(s): 0 EC: 3.4.21.91 (UniProt), 3.6.1.15 (UniProt), 3.6.4.13 (UniProt), 2.1. ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is inflammation and swelling of the brain caused by the JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne member of ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is inflammation and swelling of the brain caused by the JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne member of ... Crystal Structure of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Capsid Protein.. Poonsiri, T., Wright, G.S.A., Solomon, T., Antonyuk, S.V. ...
... , West Nile Encephalitis, West Nile Fever, West Nile Virus. ... West Nile Virus Encephalitis. West Nile Virus Encephalitis Aka: West Nile Virus Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis, West Nile ... West Nile virus, EGYPT VIRUS 101, West Nile Virus, west nile virus organism, Egypt 101 virus, WEST NILE VIRUS, WNV, West Nile ... West Nile -virus Russian. LIKHORADKI ZAPADNOGO NILA VIRUS, ZAPADNOGO NILA LIKHORADKI VIRUS, EGIPET 101 VIRUS, ENTSEFALITA ...
NAME: Japanese encephalitis virus SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: JE, JEV, Japanese B encephalitis (JBE), Arbovirus B, Mosquito- ... prototype member of Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex which also contains St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray valley ... borne encephalitis virus CHARACTERISTICS: Single stranded, positive sense RNA, enveloped, 40-50 nm diameter, Family ... COMMUNICABILITY: Not directly transmitted from person-to-person; virus is not usually demonstrable in the blood of human after ...
Home / For Patients and Families / Rare Disease Information / NIH GARD Report: Nipah virus encephalitis ... NIH GARD Information: Nipah virus encephalitis. This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic ...
Portions of this document last updated: March 01, 2017. Copyright © 2017 Truven Health Analytics Inc. All rights reserved. Information is for End Users use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes.. ...
Regnum: Virus. Group IV: ssRNA(+) Ordo: Unassigned Familia: Flaviviridae Genus: Flavivirus. Species: Murray Valley encephalitis ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Murray_Valley_encephalitis_virus&oldid=6037623" ...
SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: MVE, Australian X disease, Australian encephalitis, mosquito-borne encephalitis, viral encephalitis ... CHARACTERISTICS: This virus is part of the Flavivirus genus and is an enveloped, spherical, positive-strand RNA virus(1,2,3). ... EPIDEMIOLOGY: The MVE virus is present in Australia and New Guinea. The last major outbreak occurred in Australia in 1974 (58 ... COMMUNICABILITY: The virus is not directly transmitted from person-to-person and most arboviruses produce low levels of ...
Regnum: Virus. Group IV: ssRNA(+) Ordo: Unassigned Familia: Flaviviridae Genus: Flavivirus. Species: Tick-borne encephalitis ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tick-borne_encephalitis_virus&oldid=6164892" ...
Saint louis encephalitis virus definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and ... An arbovirus that causes Saint Louis encephalitis and is transmitted by a mosquito. ...
Herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis can trigger anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: case report. Neurology 2013;81:1637-1639. ... HSV-1 is 1 of 8 human herpes viruses (HHV), including HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV; HHV-3), Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4), ... and treatment of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSVE), the most common infectious cause of sporadic encephalitis. ... In children with encephalitis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM and IgG, as well as Epstein-Barr virus serologies (VCA IgG and IgM and ...
This document contains the case definitions for Japanese encephalitis virus infection which is nationally notifiable within ... 1. Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus OR 2. Detection of Japanese encephalitis virus by nucleic acid testing OR 3.IgG ... Replace it with the same text from clinical evidence in West Nile virus/ Kunjin and Murray Valley encephalitis virus case ... 5. Detection of Japanese encephalitis virus-specific IgM in serum in the absence of IgM to Murray Valley encephalitis, West ...
Advice and warnings for the use of Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine nakayama (Je-Vax) during pregnancy. FDA Pregnancy ... Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine nakayama Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings. Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine nakayama ... Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine nakayama Pregnancy Warnings. Japanese encephalitis Nakayama (JE) vaccine has been assigned ... Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine)." Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA. *Tsaio TF "Inactivated Japanese encephalitis ...
Maximilian Larena and Mario Lobigs (October 3rd 2011). Immunobiology of Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Flavivirus Encephalitis ... Maximilian Larena and Mario Lobigs (October 3rd 2011). Immunobiology of Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Flavivirus Encephalitis ... www.intechopen.com/embed/flavivirus-encephalitis/immunobiology-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus /,. Embed this code snippet in ... www.intechopen.com/embed/flavivirus-encephalitis/immunobiology-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus /, ...
2 Abstracts with Vaccination: Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Research. Filter by Study Type. Human Study. ... Vaccination: Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine is a Sub of the following Topic. *Vaccination: All ... 2 Diseases Researched for Vaccination: Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Name. AC. CK. Focus. ... Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease following vaccination against human papilloma virus infection and Japanese encephalitis.Aug 31, 2012. ...
Dropbox is a free service that lets you bring your photos, docs, and videos anywhere and share them easily. Never email yourself a file again!
... Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 49 ...
... Luciana Antoniolli, Rafael Borges, and Luciano Z. ... Encephalitis and meningitis due to BKPyV are unusual and emerging condition. Only a few cases of BKPyV encephalitis have been ... The authors report two HIV-infected patients with the diagnosis of BKPyV encephalitis and discuss the main clinical, diagnostic ...
  • The detective story of the boy's infection and death has heightened the awareness that a virulent La Crosse virus strain is no longer considered to be confined to areas close to Wisconsin and has shown by analysis of viral genomes that only one strain of a relatively rare but virulent strain of La Crosse virus is the usual cause for La Crosse-related encephalitis and deaths. (medicinenet.com)
  • Shortly before his trip to Nova Scotia, the patient had traveled in an area where POW encephalitis had occurred in humans (the eastern part of the state of New York), and he also came in contact with a known reservoir of POW infection (a groundhog) at home. (nih.gov)
  • The herpesviruses are large, double-stranded DNA viruses that are well-adapted to human infection as they establish lifelong infection, rarely cause death of the host, and are readily spread between individuals. (springer.com)
  • This document contains the case definitions for Japanese encephalitis virus infection which is nationally notifiable within Australia. (health.gov.au)
  • Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease following vaccination against human papilloma virus infection and Japanese encephalitis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The authors report two HIV-infected patients with the diagnosis of BKPyV encephalitis and discuss the main clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of this infection in patients with AIDS. (hindawi.com)
  • Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. (medscape.com)
  • Self-reported symptoms associated with West Nile virus infection in RNA-positive blood donors. (medscape.com)
  • Risk factors for encephalitis and death from West Nile virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • Neurologic manifestations and outcome of West Nile virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • Infection of humans and other vertebrate animals is associated with a febrile illness that can progress to a lethal encephalitis or flaccid paralysis syndrome. (bookdepository.com)
  • Studies in mammalian systems have dissected the viral and host factors that determine the pathogenesis and outcome of West Nile virus infection. (bookdepository.com)
  • In West Nile Encephalitis Virus Infection, leading scientists and researchers discuss the West Nile virus, a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a primary cause of viral encephalitis. (bookdepository.com)
  • Your doctor will decide if you should receive this vaccine, especially if you have a high risk of infection with the Japanese encephalitis virus. (rxlist.com)
  • The present invention relates to synthetic catalytic DNA molecules or DNAzymes which specifically cleave the RNA sequences of the Japanese Encephalitis Viral genome and is useful in treating Japanese Encephalitis infection. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Chicken pox is an acute and highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella zoster virus. (medindia.net)
  • Following infection, a person has lifelong immunity to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an immunosuppressive dosage schedule of cyclophosphamide was given to a group of four monkeys concurrently with virus, all animals developed prostrating paralysis 12-14 days after infection. (nih.gov)
  • Older children and adults who develop encephalitis typically experience a first phase (prodromal phase) that mimics systemic infection, and then go on to develop signs and symptoms of nervous system involvement as well such as headache, irritability, restlessness, drowsiness, convulsions and coma. (pestworld.org)
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus causes the dreadful Japanese encephalitis infection in humans, which is defined as a brain infection. (blogarama.com)
  • Although the Japanese encephalitis infection generally shows mild symptoms and can even be asymptomatic, around one out of every 250 infections can cause serious illness, requiring specialized care and treatment (1). (blogarama.com)
  • In the late phase of infection, further evidence was found for translocation of virus via the paracellular pathway. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The HSV-1 UL13 kinase promotes evasion of HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell accumulation in infection sites by downregulating expression of the CD8+ T cell attractant chemokine CXCL9 in the CNS of infected mice, leading to increased HSV-1 mortality due to encephalitis. (jci.org)
  • Unlike Eastern equine encephalitis , the overall mortality of WEE is low (approximately 4%) and is associated mostly with infection in the elderly. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Imaging techniques are helping us to track the infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) - our model virus. (innovations-report.com)
  • After VSV infection, the immune cells of the brain, the microglial cells, first begin to multiply in the olfactory bulb and afterwards migrate to the source of the infection to eliminate the viruses. (innovations-report.com)
  • All the cells which get this message initiate a defensive reaction, which stops virus infection from spreading further. (innovations-report.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the pathogens that can invade the central nervous system, causing acute infection and inflammation of brain. (mdpi.com)
  • We show that disease progression and survival following intranasal infection with a neurotropic virus depends on the circadian time of infection. (pnas.org)
  • The highest expression of REV-ERBα, a component of the molecular circadian clock, coincides with the start of the active cycle, when vesicular stomatitis virus infection leads to lower mortality. (pnas.org)
  • In the current study, we investigated the effect of circadian time of infection on the progression and outcome of VSV-induced encephalitis and demonstrated a significant decrease in the survival rate in mice infected at the start of the rest cycle, zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0). (pnas.org)
  • KISSIMMEE - Osceola County health officials have confirmed a case of eastern equine encephalitis -- a viral infection that is lethal to horses and dangerous to humans -- in a test chicken in Holopaw this week. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • However, since the infection can be so severe, and since EEE virus is known to be circulating in Wisconsin, residents and visitors anywhere in the state should be vigilant in preventing mosquito bites . (wisbusiness.com)
  • Seventeen percent of 238 wild birds and 36 percent of 162 domestic birds at Caymanas, Jamaica, were found to be positive for St. Louis encephalitis virus infection by hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests in 1962. (ajtmh.org)
  • A case of severe encephalitis in a previously healthy 12-year-old girl was associated with a diagnostic rise in antibodies representing recent infection with a California group arbovirus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection has become a major health problem in Europe and is currently a common cause of viral brain infection in many countries. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Primary viraemia responses of herons to experimental infection with Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin and Japanese encephalitis viruses. (canarydatabase.org)
  • Cranes with preexisting EEE virus antibody, apparently reflecting natural infection, exhibited an anamnestic response indicated by a rapid increase and sustained high antibody titer. (usgs.gov)
  • Even though EEE virus vaccine induced neutralizing antibody and produced no adverse side effects, further studies will be required to assess the significance of this response as a strategy for protecting whooping cranes against natural EEE virus infection. (usgs.gov)
  • EEE is a very rare disease that affects only 5-10 humans annually in the U.S. Infection in humans begins with mild flu-like symptoms that progress into disorientation, seizures, coma, encephalitis (an inflammation of the brain) and in most severe cases, death. (wtkr.com)
  • IMPORTANCE TBEV infection causes a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from mild fever to severe encephalitis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Perhaps our local flaviviruses provide some immunity in local wildlife to infection with Japanese encephalitis virus. (theconversation.com)
  • Given the continued ecologic findings of virus activity in animals, it is plausible that humans have acquired TBEV infection, especially persons frequently exposed to ticks, including Japan Self-Defense Forces (JSDF) members of the Northern Army. (cdc.gov)
  • To differentiate TBEV infection from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, which occurs in southwestern Japan, we also conducted neutralization testing for JEV on all TBEV-positive samples. (cdc.gov)
  • However, infection, including Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) - peak risk February to July - was considered in the differential diagnosis. (mja.com.au)
  • The mammary gland: target organ for infection with the caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus . (acronymattic.com)
  • Unlike the epizootic IAB and IC viruses that exploit equines as amplification hosts by generating high-titered viremia as required for infection of mosquito vectors, the enzootic ID strains are generally equine avirulent and generate little or no viremia ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Is there a vaccine or cure for La Crosse virus? (medicinenet.com)
  • There is no vaccine available for humans against La Crosse viruses (LACV). (medicinenet.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis Nakayama (JE) vaccine has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA. (drugs.com)
  • There are no data on the excretion of Japanese encephalitis vaccine into human milk. (drugs.com)
  • Tsaio TF "Inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine. (drugs.com)
  • Neutralizing antibodies, elicited by the mouse brain-derived and formalin-inactivated JEV Nakayama vaccine among a limited number of vaccinees, have reduced neutralizing capacity against circulating GI virus. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Je-Vax ( Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Inactivated) is a vaccine used to help prevent Japanese encephalitis virus disease in adults and children who are at least 12 months old. (rxlist.com)
  • Our Je-Vax (Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Inactivated) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (rxlist.com)
  • The preventive vaccine known as IXIARO is one of the solutions available for protection against Japanese encephalitis virus and is administered in two doses with 28 days between them (7). (blogarama.com)
  • Who should not receive the Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine? (sharecare.com)
  • Anyone who has had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of Japanese encephalitis vaccine should not receive additional doses. (sharecare.com)
  • If you are travelling to Asia and are not going to an area where you will be exposed to the Japanese encephalitis virus, you will not need the vaccine. (sharecare.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis vaccine may harm an unborn baby, so the doctor needs to know about pregnancy or breastfeeding so the benefits and risks can be compared. (sharecare.com)
  • Does Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine interact with other drugs? (sharecare.com)
  • studies were conducted to evaluate the antibody response of cranes following vaccination with a formalin-inactivated EEE virus vaccine. (usgs.gov)
  • BVNRY) announced today the initiation of the first-in-human trial of MVA-BN® WEV, a prophylactic vaccine candidate against the equine encephalitis virus - a rare, but potentially deadly illness. (wn.com)
  • There is a vaccine for Japanese encephalitis, but few travellers choose to have it, as they're often told the risks are low unless they're spending extensive time in rural or high-risk areas. (theconversation.com)
  • Like the previous JEV vaccine, it cannot possibly cause JEV because the virus is killed. (chop.edu)
  • What should we do if our newly adopted daughter started the Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine while in China but did not complete the series before we brought her to the U.S. (chop.edu)
  • In the U.S., the Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine is only recommended for people who are likely to be exposed to JE during travel. (chop.edu)
  • The mortality rate of those that develop EEE is about 33 percent, the highest among human arboviruses (a virus transmitted by arthropod vectors) cases reported in the U.S. Currently, there is no human vaccine for EEE and patients are treated with supportive care. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus . (cdc.gov)
  • Nucleic acid was extracted from formalin-fixed tissue, and the presence of deer tick virus was verified on a flavivirus-specific polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay, followed by sequence confirmation. (nih.gov)
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is inflammation and swelling of the brain caused by the JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne member of the Flavivirus family. (rcsb.org)
  • A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. (fpnotebook.com)
  • CHARACTERISTICS: This virus is part of the Flavivirus genus and is an enveloped, spherical, positive-strand RNA virus(1,2,3). (msdsonline.com)
  • West Nile virus is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a primary cause of viral encephalitis. (bookdepository.com)
  • Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a zoonotic flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive amplicons were sequenced and found most similar to insect flavivirus (ISF), Usutu virus (USUV) and surprisingly also to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus comes from the Flavivirus genus, which also includes viruses such as those that cause dengue, yellow fever, and zika. (blogarama.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses are members of the Japanese encephalitis serological group of the genus Flavivirus and therefore closely related genetically and antigenically. (wisepress.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is the virus associated with tick-borne encephalitis. (novusbio.com)
  • Flavivirus is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viral genus, with members causing severe diseases in humans such as tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, and dengue fever. (diva-portal.org)
  • Japanese encephalitic virus is part of the flavivirus family, which is also responsible for Zika, dengue and yellow fever. (theconversation.com)
  • Although in a murine macrophage cell line, all of the mAb groups showed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of JEV infectivity in vitro, and only two flavivirus cross-reactive mAb groups showed ADE of dengue virus type 2. (jimmunol.org)
  • One of the most pathogenic tick-borne disease for humans is caused by a flavivirus, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (diva-portal.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important vector-borne viruses in Europe and Asia. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Abcam's anti-Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus IgG Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the accurate quantitative measurement of IgG class antibodies against Tick-borne encephalitis virus in Human serum and plasma. (abcam.com)
  • Recombinant Tick-Born Encephalitis Virus glycoprotein E (gE) (95-229) Source: E.coli Description : The protein contains the Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus gE regions, amino acids:(95-229). (fishersci.com)
  • Application: Antigen in ELISA and Western blots, excellent antigen for detection of Tick-borne encephalitis virus with minimal specificity problems. (fishersci.com)
  • Continued expansion of tick-borne pathogens: Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Denmark. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Quality control assessment for the serological diagnosis of tick borne encephalitis virus infections. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Sidorenko M , Radzievskaja J , Rosef O , Paulauskas A . Investigation of the tick-borne encephalitis virus in Norway. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Detects Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope in direct ELISAs. (novusbio.com)
  • Three TBEV sub-types have been described: European or Western tick-borne encephalitis virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne encephalitis virus (formerly known as Russian Spring Summer encephalitis virus, RSSEV). (novusbio.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus causes 13,000 cases of human meningitis and encephalitis annually. (novusbio.com)
  • Here, we used tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) as a model for the flaviviruses and developed a stable human cell line in which the expression of NS proteins can be induced without viral RNA replication. (diva-portal.org)
  • Humans do not transmit the virus to other people (see transmission cycle figure), so body substance isolation (use of gloves, gowns, or universal precautions to prevent transmission) is not necessary. (medicinenet.com)
  • Although rarely infecting humans, this virulent strain of La Crosse virus is likely endemic in a wide region of the U.S. (medicinenet.com)
  • Encephalitis that is caused by a mosquito-borne virus and affects humans, horses, and some bird species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Zika virus is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes which causes mild fever with maculopapular rash. (medindia.net)
  • EEEV transmission to humans involves the bites of some Aedes , Coquillettidia , and Culex mosquito species that feed upon infected birds and then transmit the virus from birds to people. (orkin.com)
  • Mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the 'Culex' variant, carry and transmit the Japanese encephalitis virus in humans (2). (blogarama.com)
  • Humans suffering from Japanese encephalitis don't have enough viral load for the mosquitoes to get infected from and the mosquitoes, therefore, transmit the virus by feeding on pigs or water birds instead, resulting in what's known as an 'enzootic' cycle (3). (blogarama.com)
  • The California encephalitis virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and is transmitted to humans by mosquitos. (sciencephoto.com)
  • EEE virus can be spread to humans, horses, and other animals through the bite of an infected mosquito. (wisbusiness.com)
  • The virus is not spread person to person or directly between animals and humans. (wisbusiness.com)
  • Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) naturally cycles between mosquitos and birds or rodents, with a case fatality rate of up to 15% in humans during epizootic outbreaks. (mdpi.com)
  • Alphaviruses, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and WEEV are grouped geographically as New World viruses capable of causing disease in both equids and humans, exhibiting overt encephalitic features in a significant number of cases. (mdpi.com)
  • Control of Japanese Encephalitis in Japan: Immunization of Humans and Animals, and Vector Control. (wisepress.com)
  • When a vector insect feeds on these animals, it picks up the virus and transmits it to other animals or humans. (valentbiosciences.com)
  • Geographically, the virus is widely spread across Eurasia and annually causes ≈10,000 clinically apparent cases in humans ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Nashville, TN - A horse in West Tennessee has tested positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), a virus that can be fatal for horses and humans. (clarksvilleonline.com)
  • The high level of SLE virus amplification resulted in spillover transmission to humans. (columbia.edu)
  • We hypothesize that without the continued reproductive activity of the vector mosquito, brought about by excessive summer and fall wetness, the unprecedented SLE virus amplification and consequent transmission to humans would not have been realized in 1990. (columbia.edu)
  • The harm from ticks stems from them being excellent vectors for other parasites, in the form of bacteria and virus that via the ticks are provided a bridge to move across the blood streams of different animals, including humans. (diva-portal.org)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis is a rare but deadly illness for humans. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • However, the virus may be transmitted to humans and horses by bridge vectors, which are other kinds of mosquitoes that have contracted the virus by feeding on infected birds. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • No humans or horses have tested positive for West Nile virus in Suffolk this year. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • A 96-well plate has been precoated with Tick-borne encephalitis antigens to bind cognate antibodies. (abcam.com)
  • Additional genetic studies suggest that female mosquitoes can pass the virus to their offspring by having the virus infect the mosquito ovaries. (medicinenet.com)
  • The eastern equine encephalitis virus has been found in mosquitoes trapped Monday in Lakeville. (wickedlocal.com)
  • The State Mosquito Management Program today announced that mosquitoes trapped in Voluntown on July 10, 2013 have tested positive for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE). (ct.gov)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and is not transmitted directly from one person to another. (orkin.com)
  • EEEV human transmission begins with the bites of infected Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and results in the virus being transmitted to birds. (orkin.com)
  • The best way of protecting yourself from Japanese encephalitis virus, besides the vaccination, is to protect yourself from the carrier of the virus, the mosquitoes themselves. (blogarama.com)
  • Reducing the exposure of your skin to mosquitoes can be greatly helpful in reducing the instances of mosquito bites, which consequently would also reduce the chances of you getting the virus. (blogarama.com)
  • An Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae , the WEE virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) transmitted by mosquitoes of the genera Culex and Culiseta . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Host-feeding patterns of Argentine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected during and after an epizootic of western equine encephalitis. (harvard.edu)
  • Arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes collected during and after the 1982-1983 epizootic of western equine encephalitis in Argentina. (harvard.edu)
  • Arthropod collections and virus isolations from Argentine mosquitoes. (harvard.edu)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis is carried by mosquitoes who prey on horses, birds and occasionally people. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The virus usually is detected during the summer months when mosquitoes are more prevalent, Schwartz said. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Mosquitoes acquire EEE virus by feeding on infected birds. (wisbusiness.com)
  • Presence of EEE positive horses in the state confirms that there are mosquitoes in the area infected with the EEE virus that can spread the virus to people and other animals. (wisbusiness.com)
  • The virus that causes VEE is transmitted primarily by mosquitoes that bite an infected animal and then bite and feed on another animal or human. (valentbiosciences.com)
  • SUFFOLK, Va. - The first cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) have been detected in mosquitoes in Hampton Roads, the City of Suffolk said Wednesday. (wtkr.com)
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) Information EEE is a rare disease caused by a virus that is spread by infected mosquitoes. (wn.com)
  • The virus is maintained in nature between mosquitoes and waterbirds, mainly herons and egrets. (theconversation.com)
  • The mosquitoes that spread Japanese encephalitis virus are different to Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus - the mosquitoes that spread dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses. (theconversation.com)
  • The mosquitoes that transmit Japanese encephalitis virus, especially those belonging to the genus Culex , are usually found in wetlands and drainage ditches, and will be out biting mostly at dawn and dusk. (theconversation.com)
  • The Culex group of mosquitoes plays an important role in spreading Japanese encephalitis virus. (theconversation.com)
  • The virus has been detected in sentinel pigs and local mosquitoes from the Cape York Peninsula . (theconversation.com)
  • These local mosquitoes have the potential to spread a number of closely related viruses. (theconversation.com)
  • Genetic studies also suggest that local mosquitoes are not as efficient at spreading the virus compared to those in countries to our north . (theconversation.com)
  • While HSV-1 causes encephalitis in spite of HSV-1-specific humoral and cellular immunity, the mechanism by which HSV-1 evades the immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. (jci.org)
  • mosquito and causes encephalitis (brain inflammation). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a virus that causes encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and, like yellow fever virus , is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito. (chop.edu)
  • The JEV capsid has a helical secondary structure (α helixes 1-4) and a similar protein fold to the dengue virus (DENV), the West Nile virus (WNV), and the Zika virus (ZIKV) capsid proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • Almost half (35 of 75) of articles were on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) alone or associated with dengue. (plos.org)
  • Data on dengue, scrub typhus and rabies encephalitis, among other aetiologies, are also reviewed and discussed. (plos.org)
  • Clinicians should also be vigilant for the development of acute complications, including cerebral edema and status epilepticus, as well as chronic complications, including the development of autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to the N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor and other neuronal cell surface and synaptic epitopes. (springer.com)
  • A repertoire of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against western equine encephalitis virus (WEE) was constructed and characterized. (nih.gov)
  • A subset of antibodies was found to cross-react with other alphaviruses, such as Sindbis virus (SIN), Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). (nih.gov)
  • Following washing, a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labelled anti-Human IgG conjugate is added to the wells, which binds to the immobilized Tick-borne encephalitis-specific antibodies. (abcam.com)
  • The AHDC is now offering a plaque reduction serum neutralization assay for the detection of antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. (cornell.edu)
  • Krishna VD, Rangappa M, Satchidanandam V (2009) Virus-specific cytolytic antibodies to nonstructural protein 1 of Japanese encephalitis virus effect reduction of virus output from infected cells. (springer.com)
  • Protection of mice against Japanese encephalitis virus by passive administration with monoclonal antibodies. (jimmunol.org)
  • We analyzed the prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies to St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus in wild birds during the 1990 SLE epidemic in Indian River County. (columbia.edu)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a member of the genus Alphavirus , family Togaviridae . (cdc.gov)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA viruses of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • JE caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) which transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus and used swine as amplifying host. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The initial presence of SLE HI antibody was associated significantly with modeled drought 15 wk prior, wetting conditions 1 wk prior, and the emergence of the Florida SLE virus vector, Culex nigripalpus, 5 wk prior. (columbia.edu)
  • For those who become ill, inflammation of the brain, encephalitis, is the most dangerous result. (ct.gov)
  • Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito borne viral disease associated with inflammation of the brain. (medindia.net)
  • Those who do become ill may develop encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) that typically begins with the sudden development of fever, headache, chills, and vomiting. (wisbusiness.com)
  • EEE virus is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). (wn.com)
  • A clinically compatible febrile illness of variable severity associated with neurological symptoms ranging from headache to meningitis or encephalitis. (health.gov.au)
  • Encephalitis and meningitis due to BKPyV are unusual and emerging condition. (hindawi.com)
  • Each year approximately 10 000 individuals on the Eurasian continent develop neurological disease, in the form of meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and radiculitis, following a bite by a TBEV infected tick. (diva-portal.org)
  • A new TBE virus (TBEV) micro-focus was identified in tick nymphs collected around a playground in Tisvilde Hegn forest. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Up-regulation of microRNA-142 in simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis leads to repression of sirtuin1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We explored the changes that some elements of this system exhibit in a macaque model of encephalitis induced by simian immunodeficiency virus. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pathogenesis of simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis: viral determinants of neurovirulence. (asm.org)
  • None of five macaques inoculated with SIV/17E-Cl developed simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) encephalitis. (asm.org)
  • 3.IgG seroconversion or a significant increase in antibody level or a fourfold or greater rise in titre of Japanese encephalitis virus-specific IgG proven by neutralisation or another specific test, with no history of recent Japanese encephalitis vaccination. (health.gov.au)
  • Molecular and clinical relationship between live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccination and childhood onset myasthenia gravis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • A case of sudden death after Japanese encephalitis vaccination. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Vaccination for the Japanese encephalitis virus is safe and effective. (blogarama.com)
  • As the epidemiological aspects of Japanese encephalitis (JE) are transformed by vaccination in some countries, highly integrated expert collaborative research and objective data are needed to identify and prioritize the human health, animal health and economic burden due to JE and other pathogens associated with encephalitides. (plos.org)
  • However, through continued surveillance, serological monitoring, and vaccination activities, we are confident that the impact of EEE virus on whooping crane recovery can be overcome to the ultimate benefit of this endangered species. (usgs.gov)
  • In 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) researchers who investigate infectious disease deaths were able to compare the strain of virus that killed the child with strains of other viruses collected. (medicinenet.com)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus (VEEV) is an Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae , a group of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses ( 9a , 27). (asm.org)
  • A case of acute encephalitis syndrome was defined as any person presenting a fever with neurological signs (altered mental status AND/OR motor deficit AND/OR sensory deficit AND/OR seizures of new onset, excluding simple febrile seizures) of sudden onset (fewer than seven days). (plos.org)
  • Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a retrovirus which infects goats and cross-reacts immunologically with HIV, due to being from the same family of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • APHIS info sheet: Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infects goats and. (acronymattic.com)
  • Caprine arthritis encephalitis is a viral disease of goats that is caused by the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). (acronymattic.com)
  • Dr. Lambert, a research microbiologist the CDC who directed the study, said this strain of the La Crosse virus is the only known strain in the entire history of human cases that has been associated with severe and/or fatal outcomes due to the ability of the virus to be highly neuroinvasive (infect nerve cells). (medicinenet.com)
  • Less than 1% of infected individuals show symptoms of severe encephalitis (including seizures, altered mental status , and coma ) and die from the disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • Virus was isolated from only one of three cords from animals inoculated with virus alone, and histological examination indicated less severe neuronal destruction. (nih.gov)
  • An Asn homologous to N475 is similarly found in coronaviral papain-like proteases (PLpro) of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) virus and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) virus. (rcsb.org)
  • In 2019, however, reports of severe encephalitis (swelling and dysfunction of the brain) and death have been reported in 22 U.S. states, mostly around the Atlantic and Gulf coast, and in the Great Lakes region. (pestworld.org)
  • Unfortunately, EEE virus is untreatable and is the most severe of the arboviral encephalitides with a mortality of at least 30 percent. (pestworld.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is the most common cause of sporadic viral encephalitis, which can be lethal or result in severe neurological defects even with antiviral therapy. (jci.org)
  • 2) severe springtime drought, which facilitated amplification of the SLE virus among the Cx. (columbia.edu)
  • In severe cases of EEE a person may experience encephalitis, or swelling of the brain, that may result in death. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • West Nile virus may cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • The responses of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) mosquito vectors to 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) and CO 2 were evaluated using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps at 3 sites in northern Australia. (bioone.org)
  • Potential Vectors of West Nile Virus in North America. (wisepress.com)
  • An arbovirus that causes Saint Louis encephalitis and is transmitted by a mosquito. (dictionary.com)
  • Japanese Encephalitis (JE), a mosquito borne disease, is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in 14 Asian countries due to its epidemic potential, high case fatality rate and increased possibility of lifelong disability in patients who recover from this dreadful disease. (springer.com)
  • Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) antibody was immobilized onto the surfaces of carbon nanoparticles through amide bonds formation between amino groups of carbon nanoparticles and carboxylic groups of JEV antibody. (hindawi.com)
  • Monkeys inoculated with virus only developed serum antibody, but no antibody was detected in suppressed animals. (nih.gov)
  • Nidaira M, Taira K, Onodera I, Morikawa T, Itokazu K, Kudaka J, Ohno A (2007) Detection of Japanese encephalitis virus antibody in a pig on Yonaguni Island, where all pigs were slaughtered in 1997. (springer.com)
  • We conducted neutralizing antibody testing using the virus isolated from Hokkaido in 1993 ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. (nih.gov)
  • During early 2017, we conducted a seroepidemiologic investigation for tickborne encephalitis virus among 291 Japan Self-Defense Forces members in Hokkaido. (cdc.gov)
  • He developed seizures and other symptoms and was diagnosed as having viral encephalitis. (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the symptoms of La Crosse virus? (medicinenet.com)
  • Flu vaccines, according to the best scientific evidence available today, will only work against 10% of the circulating viruses that cause the symptoms of seasonal epidemic influenza. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This patient presented with a rare case of coinfection of CMV and herpes simplex virus type II with psychotic symptoms. (dovepress.com)
  • Since virus was hardly detected by RT-PCR or virus isolation from JEV infected patient, the virus identified from mosquito or swine in the nearby may show indirect evidence of the JEV genotype. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • An isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus, confirmed by the Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratories, was made from a mockingbird nestling in August. (ajtmh.org)
  • Intracerebral inoculation of twelve spider monkeys with large doses of a virulent strain of Japanese encephalitis virus produced a subclinical encephalomyelitis. (nih.gov)
  • The isolate seems to be closely related to Tr 9464 and Ja 7532 viruses, which are both closely related to the Parton strain of SLE virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • KX268728) of tick-borne encephalitis strain HB171/11, isolated from an Ixodes ricinus tick from a natural focus where human neurological disease is rare. (diva-portal.org)
  • To examine the relationship between macrophage tropism and neurovirulence, macaques were inoculated with two recombinant hybrid viruses derived from the parent viruses SIVmac239, a lymphocyte-tropic, non-neurovirulent clone, and SIV/17E-Br, a macrophage-tropic, neurovirulent virus strain. (asm.org)
  • A boy from New York traveling in Nova Scotia had olfactory hallucinations and other signs of temporal lobe involvement, leading to a diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we review the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and clinical and radiological features of herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis in adults, including a discussion of the most common complications and their treatment. (springer.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white cell count was 287 × 10 6 /L with 90% mononuclear cells, CSF protein elevated at 1.49 g/L (normal range [NR], 0.15-0.45 g/L), and CSF glucose 4.5 mmol/L (NR, 2.7-4.2 mmol/L). The most likely diagnosis was thought to be encephalitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and she initially received intravenous immunoglobulin and intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g daily. (mja.com.au)
  • Other medically important alphaviruses found in the Americas include, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Mayaro virus (MAYV), and Madariaga (MADV). (cdc.gov)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen that causes Venezuelan equine encephalitis or encephalomyelitis (VEE). (valentbiosciences.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that circulates between bird hosts and mosquito populations. (in.gov)
  • WNV and Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) are transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Seizures and focal neurologic signs including cranial nerve palsies develop in approximately half of patients infected, and, unfortunately, approximately a third of all people infected with Eastern equine encephalitis die from the disease. (pestworld.org)
  • North American Eastern equine encephalitis virus (13,14), Highlands J virus from North America (15), Western equine encephalitis virus (16) and Sindbis virus (17). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Western equine encephalitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine encephalitis (WEE). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Western equine encephalitis virus was one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological weapons before the nation suspended its biological weapons program. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Neurotropic arboviruses induce interferon regulatory factor 3-mediated neuronal responses that are cytoprotective, interferon independent, and inhibited by Western equine encephalitis virus capsid. (harvard.edu)
  • Reevaluation of the western equine encephalitis antigenic complex of alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) as determined by neutralization tests. (harvard.edu)
  • La Crosse Encephalitis: Epidemiology & Geographic Distribution. (medicinenet.com)
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY: The MVE virus is present in Australia and New Guinea. (msdsonline.com)
  • The terms "Southeastern Asia/epidemiology," "Encephalitis," "Arboviral encephalitis," "Encephalitis, viruses," and "Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis" were used alone and in combination. (plos.org)
  • The MeSH search query found 58,753 references for "Southeastern Asia/epidemiology," 38,160 references for "Encephalitis" and 140 articles for "Southeastern Asia/epidemiology" and "Encephalitis. (plos.org)
  • The emergence of these two viruses, and their well-established propensity to colonise new areas, make it timely to re-examine their ecology, biology, molecular structure, replication and epidemiology, and these therefore provide the focus of this volume. (wisepress.com)
  • Japanese Encephalitis Virus: Ecology and Epidemiology. (wisepress.com)
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis Virus. (wisepress.com)
  • The Ecology and Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in Africa, Europe and Asia. (wisepress.com)
  • The Emergence of West Nile Virus in North America: Ecology, Epidemiology, and Surveillance. (wisepress.com)
  • The Ecology and Epidemiology of Kunjin Virus. (wisepress.com)
  • Phylogeny and Molecular Epidemiology of West Nile and Kunjin Viruses. (wisepress.com)
  • Epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis in Japan. (canarydatabase.org)
  • Powassan virus encephalitis resembling herpes simplex encephalitis. (nih.gov)
  • Prompt recognition and treatment can be life-saving in the care of patients with herpes simplex-1 virus encephalitis, the most commonly identified cause of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. (springer.com)
  • Herein, we review the clinical and radiological manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSVE), the most common infectious cause of sporadic encephalitis. (springer.com)
  • Herpes simplex encephalitis is a rare disease. (dovepress.com)
  • We present a case of 67-year-old Chinese male with the coinfection of CMV and herpes simplex virus type II (HSV-II). (dovepress.com)
  • The courses of 15 brain biopsy-proven cases of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) were followed for 6 to 67 months. (ovid.com)
  • The Japanese Encephalitis Serological Group of Flaviviruses: A Brief Introduction to the Group. (wisepress.com)
  • This previously uncharacterized strategy for HSV-1 evasion of CD8+ T cell accumulation in the CNS has important implications for understanding the pathogenesis and clinical treatment of HSV-1 encephalitis. (jci.org)
  • Pathogenesis and Clinical Features of Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile Virus Infections. (wisepress.com)
  • JEV is an RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus from the Flaviviridae family. (sciencephoto.com)
  • We reported a disposable and sensitive electrochemical biosensor strip based on carbon nanoparticles modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for rapid and sensitive detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV). (hindawi.com)
  • 30. A method of cleaving RNA of Japanese Encephalitis Virus comprising the step of contacting the catalytic DNA molecule of claim 25 with said RNA under conditions suitable for cleavage. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 32. A method of treatment of Japanese Encephalitis and related infectious diseases in animals comprising the steps of introducing said catalytic DNA molecule of claim 25 into infected cells under conditions suitable for cleavage and reduction of infectious Japanese Encephalitis virus or other infectious micro-organisms. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus or 'brain fever' virus damages the brain in two ways, a new study by the National Brain Research Center at Manesar, Haryana, has found. (medindia.net)
  • Li X, Zhu Q, Cao Q, Chen H, Qian P. Japanese Encephalitis Virus Upregulates the Expression of SOCS3 in Mouse Brain and Raw264.7 Cells. (mdpi.com)
  • With the exception of some data on Japanese encephalitis virus, very few prevalence, incidence, cost-ascertainment or clinical follow-up studies seem available on most identified encephalitides circulating in countries of the Mekong region. (plos.org)
  • In a previous study, we performed serial brain-to-brain passages of swine Japanese encephalitis virus in mice and sequenced the complete genomes of the F5 and F20 passaged mouse-adapted variants. (springer.com)
  • Chen CJ, Kuo MD, Chien LJ, Hsu SL, Wang YM, Lin JH (1997) RNA-protein interactions: involvement of NS3, NS5, and 3′ noncoding regions of Japanese encephalitis virus genomic RNA. (springer.com)
  • Lim SI, Kweon CH, Tark DS, Kim SH, Yang DK (2007) Sero-survey on Aino, Akabane, Chuzan, bovine ephemeral fever and Japanese encephalitis virus of cattle and swine in Korea. (springer.com)
  • Lin RJ, Chang BL, Yu HP, Liao CL, Lin YL (2006) Blocking of interferon-induced Jak-Stat signaling by Japanese encephalitis virus NS5 through a protein tyrosine phosphatase-mediated mechanism. (springer.com)
  • Japanese Encephalitis As an Emerging Virus: The Emergence and Spread of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Australasia. (wisepress.com)
  • Immune Responses to Japanese Encephalitis Virus. (wisepress.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus in Northern Taiwan, 1969-1973. (canarydatabase.org)
  • What is Japanese encephalitis virus and how can I avoid it when I travel? (theconversation.com)
  • Given outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis virus have occurred in Torres Strait and neighbouring Papua New Guinea, concern has been raised about the potential introduction and spread of the virus in Australia. (theconversation.com)
  • The mosquito-borne virus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), does not just occur in Japan. (chop.edu)
  • We have identified and characterized nine antigenic epitopes on the E envelope of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) by using mAb. (jimmunol.org)
  • About one of every four people infected with the virus will develop coma and die. (chop.edu)
  • New findings in the past week include West Nile virus in Dighton and eastern equine encephalitis in Freetown and New Bedford. (wickedlocal.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis is a rare but serious disease in people. (ct.gov)
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis on Upswing in New England States," Sept. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatusj, japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although it has dominated recent headlines, Eastern equine encephalitis virus (known as EEE or triple E) is actually not new. (pestworld.org)
  • However, Eastern equine encephalitis is occasionally picked up by other mosquito species (i.e. (pestworld.org)
  • Children under the age of 15 and adults over the age of 50 are most likely to develop Eastern equine encephalitis , at six percent of infected children and two percent of infected adults. (pestworld.org)
  • Identification and characterization of viruses isolated, including new subtypes of western and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses and four new bunyaviruses (Las Maloyas, Resistencia, Barranqueras, and Antequera). (harvard.edu)
  • The last known case involving people was confirmed in 1982, when a 14-year- old Kenansville boy was hospitalized with the eastern equine encephalitis. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (DHS) is urging everyone to continue to protect themselves from mosquito bites now that six horses in Northwestern Wisconsin have tested positive for eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) , caused by the EEE virus, since late July. (wisbusiness.com)
  • REYNOLDSBURG, Ohio (AP) - State officials say the Eastern equine encephalitis virus has been found in a horse in Ohio. (apnews.com)
  • An unprecedented outbreak of fatal eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus occurred during the late summer and fall of 1984 in endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland. (usgs.gov)
  • A person in their 60s has died of Eastern equine encephalitis, Connecticut health officials said Tuesday. (wn.com)
  • There has been a spike in both human and animal cases of Eastern equine encephalitis virus recently, which has killed three people in Connecticut and caused the death of two Mexican gray wolf pups at Binder Park Zoo, Michigan. (wn.com)
  • PORTSMOUTH, N.H. (AP) - New Hampshire health officials say that Eastern equine encephalitis has been detected in three mosquito batches, one in Portsmouth and two in Fremont. (wn.com)
  • WMUR-TV reports the New Hampshire Bureau of Infections Disease Control has raised the risk level in Fremont high, where a batch positive for Eastern equine encephalitis in September. (wn.com)
  • A fifth death due to Eastern Equine Encephalitis has been confirmed in a Cass County resident and a horse has been diagnosed with the disease in Allegan County, according to the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services. (wn.com)
  • GENESEE COUNTY - State and local health officials are warning residents to protect themselves from mosquito bites, following a confirmed case of Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) in Genesee County. (wn.com)
  • This research will focus of developing an agent-based model of the transmission cycle of the Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) virus in the southeastern swamp forest ecosystem. (epa.gov)
  • Equine-virulent, epidemic/epizootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus (VEEV) arise via mutation of progenitor enzootic strains that replicate poorly in equines. (asm.org)
  • Dr. James Tomarken, Suffolk County Commissioner of Health Services, reports another mosquito sample has tested positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) virus. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • With the finding of Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus in the county, Dr. Tomarken is asking the public to take steps to be even more vigilant, especially those who live in or visit the Manorville area. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • Chickens used to detect the presence of mosquito-borne illnesses in St. Johns County have tested positive for West Nile virus and Eastern equine encephalitis, according to a news release from the Florida Department of Health in St. Johns County. (heraldtribune.com)
  • It is important to note that there are no known human cases of (West Nile virus) or (Eastern equine encephalitis) confirmed at this time," according to the release. (heraldtribune.com)
  • We reviewed published Medline-referenced resources on encephalitis and meningoencephalitis and used these to complete an overview of the epidemiological situation in this dynamic region of the world. (plos.org)
  • There is no specific treatment for EEE illness, and death occurs in approximately 30% of people who develop encephalitis from EEE. (wisbusiness.com)
  • The La Crosse virus is classified as an Orthobunyavirus and has a negative three-strand RNA genome. (medicinenet.com)
  • Genome Sequence Analysis of La Crosse Virus and In Vitro and In Vivo Phenotypes. (medicinenet.com)
  • Using phylogenetic approaches, we identified seven amino acid changes in the VEEV genome that represent putative determinants of emergence of the 1992 to 1993 epizootic/epidemic serotype IC strains from enzootic ID viruses circulating sympatrically in western Venezuela ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis: a retrospective study of clinical cases in Bornholm, Denmark. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus - Clinical signs: Firm udder and minimal milk flow in a goat after parturition. (acronymattic.com)
  • Other medically important flaviviruses found in the Americas include West Nile virus and Powassan virus. (cdc.gov)
  • This was done by comparing the sequence of viral genomes found in the child's autopsied brain with many other viral genomes from other sources, including other individuals who had died from La Crosse virus infections. (medicinenet.com)
  • The encephalitis cannot be distinguished clinically from other central nervous system infections. (health.gov.au)
  • Infections leading to overt encephalitis are estimated to be 1 in 1000 cases. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • People traveling to tropical regions, or to places with a high instance of Japanese encephalitis infections need to ensure that they take the appropriate preventive measures to avoid the onset of the disease altogether. (blogarama.com)
  • Due to recent heavy rains, this species is particularly numerous now and will potentially have a longer season to spread the virus to birds and then mosquito species that feed on birds and people before the weather turns cold in the fall. (ct.gov)
  • Equines, rather than rodents, are the primary animal species that carry and spread the disease, as infected equines develop an enormous quantity of virus in their circulatory system. (valentbiosciences.com)
  • The loss of captive whooping cranes to the EEE virus presented a previously unrecognized risk and obstacle to recovery of this species. (usgs.gov)
  • Not only was, there a setback in the captive breeding and reintroduction program for the whooping crane, but, because of the susceptibility of the species to the EEE virus. (usgs.gov)
  • The 2012 West Nile encephalitis epidemic in Dallas, Texas. (medscape.com)
  • The virus was isolated from human samples in 1951 during an epidemic in the Murray Valley, Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important outcome of this study will be a working model of the virus in space and time that will provide critical information to local governments in the Southeastern United States regarding EEE epidemic risk under various urbanization scenarios. (epa.gov)
  • Test chickens are kept in various parts of the county to enable health officials to detect the presence of various strains of encephalitis. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Cell culture passage of alphaviruses, including VEEV ( 2 ) and Sindbis virus ( 7 , 13 ), results in selection for binding to heparan sulfate (HS), and this selection is accompanied by mutations that increase the positive charge of E2 and the small-plaque phenotype characteristic of natural, epizootic VEEV strains ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2016. (medscape.com)
  • CDC researchers reported the virus isolated from the brain of the 6-year-old child who died in Tennessee in 2012 was the rare La Crosse virus. (medicinenet.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis with antisera specific for deer tick virus identified numerous immunoreactive neurons, with prominent involvement of large neurons in the brain stem, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus, and spinal cord. (nih.gov)
  • Intranuclear inclusions were identified and virus was isolated from the patient's brain. (springer.com)
  • Dr. Anirban Basu and his graduate student Sulagna Das have found that the virus behind the disease damages the brain not only by killing brain cells, but also by preventing the birth of new cells from neural stem/progenitor cells (NPC) and depleting the NPC pool. (medindia.net)
  • It's a double hit to the brain, the JE virus causes brain injury by killing neurons as well as prevents its repair," said lead researcher Basu said in a statement. (medindia.net)
  • Each data point is the virus titer in the brain of one mouse. (jci.org)
  • Nevertheless, the brain also has vulnerabilities: Viruses can exploit the odorant system to enter the brain. (innovations-report.com)
  • Upon entry of viruses into the brain via this route, the brain becomes inflamed and life-threatening encephalitis can develop as a consequence. (innovations-report.com)
  • We know that the first line defense in the brain is similar to responses in the rest of the body: Brain cells detect the invading virus and initiate a protective response by producing signal molecules such as interferons. (innovations-report.com)
  • How to help patients with viral encephalitis best without harming the brain is one of the questions TWINCORE scientists are aiming to address. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the olfactory bulb, the first defense reactions against the virus take place: Interferon is produced to fend the viruses off that have migrated up the olfactory nerves and reached the brain. (innovations-report.com)
  • Hopefully, this will help to develop new therapeutic approaches for patients with viral encephalitis to support healing of the brain without harming it. (innovations-report.com)
  • Photomicrograph of mouse brain tissue after dying of Venezuelan Encephalitis. (valentbiosciences.com)
  • MicroRNA (miR)-142 is up-regulated in the brain in HIV and SIV encephalitis (SIVE). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These progenitors of the epizootic viruses circulate continuously or semicontinuously in humid tropical forest habitats in western Venezuela, eastern and central Colombia, and northern Peru ( 1 , 15 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Change all references to Kunjin to West Nile virus/Kunjin. (health.gov.au)
  • MVEV is related to Kunjin virus, which has a similar ecology, but a lower morbidity rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication and Gene Function in Kunjin Virus. (wisepress.com)
  • Interaction of West Nile and Kunjin Viruses with Cellular Components During Morphogenesis. (wisepress.com)
  • West Nile virus has been detected in the past week in Easton, Mansfield and Stoughton. (wickedlocal.com)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "West Nile Virus Encephalitis. (fpnotebook.com)
  • No specific drug treatment exists for West Nile encephalitis (WNE). (medscape.com)
  • The continuing spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere. (medscape.com)
  • Available at https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/west-nile-virus-disease/case-definition/2015/ . (medscape.com)
  • Surveillance for human West Nile virus disease - United States, 1999-2008. (medscape.com)
  • West Nile virus disease: a descriptive study of 228 patients hospitalized in a 4-county region of Colorado in 2003. (medscape.com)
  • West Nile virus: review of the literature. (medscape.com)
  • Long-term sequelae of West Nile virus-related illness: a systematic review. (medscape.com)
  • Keeping Blood Transfusion Safe From West Nile Virus: American Red Cross Experience, 2003 to 2012. (medscape.com)
  • Transmission of West Nile virus from an organ donor to four transplant recipients. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, in a remarkably short period of time, insight has been gained on a wide variety of disciplines related to West Nile virus biology. (bookdepository.com)
  • The chapters are balanced by submissions from newcomers who have made significant recent contributions with those from established investigators who have dedicated their careers to the study of West Nile virus. (bookdepository.com)
  • It is only one of multiple mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses, along with the well-known West Nile virus. (pestworld.org)
  • West Nile Virus in Livestock and Wildlife. (wisepress.com)
  • The Role of Birds in the Ecology of West Nile Virus in Europe and Africa. (wisepress.com)
  • Both EEE and West Nile virus are transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • To date this year, Suffolk County has reported 110 mosquito samples and 10 birds confirmed positive for West Nile virus. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • There is no specific treatment for West Nile virus. (suffolkcountyny.gov)
  • Nonstructural (NS) proteins are not part of the virus coat and are thought to participate in the formation of these viral replication compartments (RCs). (diva-portal.org)
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of important zoonotic infectious diseases in Taiwan. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A heterologous coiled coil can substitute for helix I of the Sindbis virus capsid protein. (harvard.edu)
  • Paradoxically, the artificial, cell culture passage-associated HS binding mutations attenuate VEEV ( 2 ) and Sindbis virus ( 7 , 13 ) for mice, while natural VEEV mutations that increase the E2 positive charge are associated with equine virulence. (asm.org)
  • MVEV is a mosquito-borne virus that is maintained in a bird-mosquito-bird cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scientific study of the genetics of MVEV has been facilitated by the construction and manipulation of an infectious cDNA clone of the virus. (wikipedia.org)