A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.
A complex of antigenic proteins obtained from the brush border of kidney tubules. It contains two principal components LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-2 and LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN. The name of this complex is derived from researcher, Dr. Walter Heymann, who developed an experimental model of membranous glomerulonephritis (GLOMERULONEPHRITIS) by injecting this antigenic complex into rats to induce an autoimmune response.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A genus, commonly called budgerigars, in the family PSITTACIDAE. In the United States they are considered one of the five species of PARAKEETS.
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.

Genetic variation among isolates of western equine encephalomyelitis virus from California. (1/76)

The mechanism for long-term maintenance of western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus in California was investigated by studying genetic variation in the E2 portion of the genome of 55 strains of WEE virus isolated since 1938 from different locations in California. Four major lineages were evident: virus strains isolated from the Central Valley since 1993 and Los Angeles in 1991 formed lineage A; southern California strains isolated since 1978 and isolates from the Central Valley from 1978 to 1987 formed lineage B; northern California isolates from 1968 to 1971 formed lineage C; and early isolates from 1938 to 1961 formed a fourth lineage, D. The separation of strains from north and south of the Tehachapi and San Bernardino Mountains (i.e., the Central Valley and southern California, respectively) since 1991 indicates that there has been little recent movement of virus between the two regions and recent strains from these two locations appear to be evolving independently. However, within the Central Valley and within southern California, virus appears to circulate freely, perhaps by movement of birds or mosquito vectors. Although the current virus lineage in the Central Valley may have been introduced from an unknown source in 1991, introduction and establishment of new viral genotypes from outside California do not seem to occur regularly. It appears most likely that virus is maintained in separate geographic areas of California through local persistence in enzootic foci.  (+info)

Evaluation of the epidemic potential of western equine encephalitis virus in the northeastern United States. (2/76)

The problem of evaluating the epidemic potential of western equine encephalitis in the northeastern United States is presented and possible reasons are discussed for the present lack of human and horse cases of this disease even though increased numbers of isolations of the virus have been obtained in the East during recent years. Epidemiologic factors of vector bionomics and virus strain variations are considered. It is concluded that while this virus strain can no longer be regarded as uncommon in the Northeast, the evidence indicates there is little potential for epidemic expression of this agent in the human and horse population. This appears to be due to differences in the bionomics of the mosquito Culiseta melanura, which serves as the primary enzootic vector in the northeastern United States and in the bionomics of Culex tarsalis that is the vector in the western region of the United States. Other limiting factors in the epidemic potential may be variations between virus strains located in the East and West.  (+info)

Complete genomic RNA sequence of western equine encephalitis virus and expression of the structural genes. (3/76)

The complete nucleotide sequence of the 71V-1658 strain of western equine encephalitis virus (WEE) was determined (minus 25 nucleotides from the 5' end). A 5' RACE reaction was used to sequence the 5' terminus from WEE strain CBA87. The deduced WEE genome was 11508 nucleotides in length, excluding the 5' cap nucleotide and 3' poly(A) tail. The nucleotide composition was 28% A, 25% C, 25% G and 22% U. Comparison with partial WEE sequences of strain 5614 (nsP2-nsP3 of the nonstructural region) and strain BFS1703 (26S structural region) revealed comparatively little variation; a total of 149 nucleotide differences in 8624 bases (1.7% divergence), of which only 28% (42 nucleotides) altered the encoded amino acids. Comparison of deduced nsP1 and nsP4 amino acid sequences from WEE with the corresponding proteins from eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE) yielded identities of 84.9 and 83.8%, respectively. Previously uncharacterized stem-loop structures were identified in the nontranslated terminal regions. A cDNA clone of the 26S region encoding the structural polyprotein of WEE strain 71V-1658 was placed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter and transfected into tissue culture cells. The viral envelope proteins were functionally expressed in tissue culture, as determined by histochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies that recognize WEE antigens, thus, forming the initial step in the investigation of subunit vaccines to WEE.  (+info)

Development of reverse transcription-PCR assays specific for detection of equine encephalitis viruses. (4/76)

Specific and sensitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays were developed for the detection of eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (EEE, WEE, and VEE, respectively). Tests for specificity included all known alphavirus species. The EEE-specific RT-PCR amplified a 464-bp region of the E2 gene exclusively from 10 different EEE strains from South and North America with a sensitivity of about 3,000 RNA molecules. In a subsequent nested PCR, the specificity was confirmed by the amplification of a 262-bp fragment, increasing the sensitivity of this assay to approximately 30 RNA molecules. The RT-PCR for WEE amplified a fragment of 354 bp from as few as 2,000 RNA molecules. Babanki virus, as well as Mucambo and Pixuna viruses (VEE subtypes IIIA and IV), were also amplified. However, the latter viruses showed slightly smaller fragments of about 290 and 310 bp, respectively. A subsequent seminested PCR amplified a 195-bp fragment only from the 10 tested strains of WEE from North and South America, rendering this assay virus specific and increasing its sensitivity to approximately 20 RNA molecules. Because the 12 VEE subtypes showed too much divergence in their 26S RNA nucleotide sequences to detect all of them by the use of nondegenerate primers, this assay was confined to the medically important and closely related VEE subtypes IAB, IC, ID, IE, and II. The RT-PCR-seminested PCR combination specifically amplified 342- and 194-bp fragments of the region covering the 6K gene in VEE. The sensitivity was 20 RNA molecules for subtype IAB virus and 70 RNA molecules for subtype IE virus. In addition to the subtypes mentioned above, three of the enzootic VEE (subtypes IIIB, IIIC, and IV) showed the specific amplicon in the seminested PCR. The practicability of the latter assay was tested with human sera gathered as part of the febrile illness surveillance in the Amazon River Basin of Peru near the city of Iquitos. All of the nine tested VEE-positive sera showed the expected 194-bp amplicon of the VEE-specific RT-PCR-seminested PCR.  (+info)

Inhibition by Agaricus blazei Murill fractions of cytopathic effect induced by western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus on VERO cells in vitro. (5/76)

Anti-viral activities of Agaricus blazei Murill were investigated. The water extracts of the cultured mycelia and fruiting bodies were fractionated with different concentrations of ethanol. To several viruses which have cytopathic effects (CPE) on VERO cells, inhibition of these effects by the ethanol fractions was tested. Strong inhibition of CPE induced by western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus was observed in the mycelial fractions but not those of fruiting bodies.  (+info)

Environmental modification of western equine encephalomyelitis infection in the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). (6/76)

The snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) could be infected with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus and produce a viremia. Furthermore, viremia in hares exposed to variable climatic conditions differed significantly from viremias seen in the control animals held at constant temperatures. The viremia duration and titer were increased in animals subjected to fluctuating temperature and humidity. The time of onset of viremia was accelerated. Antibody response also increased in animals exposed to varying temperatures when compared with controls held at constant temperature and humidity. Snowshoe hares were studied at two distinct seasonal periods: winter, before reproductive activity; and summer, during reproductive midseason. Winter animals experienced greater viremia than did summer hares when exposed to fluctuating temperatures, suggesting a seasonality in the hare's susceptibility to host modification by environmental influences. These findings implicate the snowshoe hare as a possible mammalian amplifying host for WEE virus in the boreal forest.  (+info)

Morphological and physical properties of a multiploid-forming mutant of Western equine encephalitis virus. (7/76)

Morphological and physical properties of a multiploid-forming mutant of Western equine encephalitis virus were studied. Electron micrographs of the infected cells showed that most of mutant virions bud from the plasma or vacuolar membrane as a multiploid particle containing a various number of nucleocapsids enclosed with a defined common envelope. The mutant virions contained three polypeptides which migrated to the position identical with those of wild type on discontinuous acrylamide gels. Cells infected with the mutant virus synthesized the same intracellular viral RNA species as was made after infection of wild type. Cytoplasmic nucleocapsids of the mutant sedimented at 140S and contained 42S virion RNA as those of wild type; they were indistinguishable from those of wild type in an electron microscope examination. On the other hand, mutant nucleocapsids isolated from extracellular virions sedimented as heterogeneous particles larger thant 140S and were shown to be pleomorphic and aggregate in electron micrographs. The budding process of this mutant seemed to be modified, so that it might form the multiploid with the alteration of its nucleocapsids.  (+info)

Pathogenicity of an attenuated, temperature-sensitive mutant of western equine encephalitis virus induced by a chemical mutagen. (8/76)

To know the pathogenicity of the chemically induced, temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of western equine encephalitis virus, designated tsNG39, the lethality for mice injected with tsNG39, virus yield, interferon production, and histological changes in the brains of these mice were examined in parallel with those of mice inoculated with the parent strain (PS). All of the mice injected intracranially with PS died within 3.5 days after injection irrespective of the inoculum size of virus, whereas the lethality of the mice inoculated with tsNG39 varied from 94.3 to 65.5% among groups of mice and this variation seemed to be correlated with the inoculum size of virus rather than with the maximum virus titer in the brain. By histological examination, two types of changes in the brain were distinguished, inflammatory and degenerative ones. Inflammatory changes were more prominent in the brains injected with tsNG39 than in those receiving PS. Degenerative changes were dominant in the brains injected with PS, but they were slight in the earlier phase of infection by tsNG39 became prominent only later. The degree of degenerative change was well correlated with both the virus titer in the mouse brain and the death pattern of mice injected with PS or tsNG39. Since degenerative changes are thought to be caused by the direct effect of injected virus, these results indicated that the factor responsible for the low virulence of tsNG39 was the slow viral growth in the brain.  (+info)

Having confirmed that the E1 and E2 proteins were produced from DNA vaccines, we next evaluated the efficacies of these DNA vaccines in a mouse lethal challenge model of WEEV previously developed in our laboratory (10). Female BALB/c mice (weight, 17 to 25 g) were obtained from the mouse breeding colony at the Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC)-Suffield. The original breeding pairs were purchased from Charles River Canada (St. Constant, Quebec, Canada). The protocols for the mouse experiments were reviewed and approved by the Animal Care Committee of DRDC-Suffield. The guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care were followed for the caring and the handling of the mice. Groups of eight mice each were vaccinated with one of the following DNA vaccines: pE3-E2-6K-E1, pE3-E2, p6K-E1, pVHX-6, or pVAX (vector control). Inactivated WEE vaccine (9) was used as a positive control. Three doses of the DNA vaccine containing 2 μg of plasmid DNA in each vaccine were administered 14 days ...
This table contains provisional cases of national notifiable diseases from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). NNDSS data from the 50 states, New York City, the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories are collated and published weekly on the NNDSS Data and Statistics web page (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/data-and-statistics.html). Cases reported by state health departments to CDC for weekly publication are provisional because of the time needed to complete case follow-up. Therefore, numbers presented in later weeks may reflect changes made to these counts as additional information becomes available. The national surveillance case definitions used to define a case are available on the NNDSS web site at https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/. Information about the weekly provisional data and guides to interpreting data are available at: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/infectious-tables.html ...
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
Equine encephalitis is a family of horse diseases that also affect humans. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. Several forms of viral encephalitis can infect equines, and these include: Eastern equine encephalitis virus Japanese encephalitis virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus West Nile ...
The World Health Organization defines an arbovirus as follows. An arbovirus must produce a viremia in one or more vertebra species, multiply in some arthropod that feeds on viremic blood and be transmitted through feeding. Ticks and mosquitoes are the main arthropod vectors that transmit this virus. The fact that the Missouri Basin states have had the post extensive epidemics of western equine encephalitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) in the country makes South Dakota an excellent area for concentrated arbovirus studies. These major environmental changes might alter the biological balance of the complex ecological factors that determine the occurrence of encephalitis to a point of contributing to future epidemic occurrences of the disease. The arbovirus activity in South Dakota among humans and domestic and wild animals is not known. A more recent mosquito survey in South Dakota. was conducted by Gerhardt in 1964 (SO). The first reported serious epidemic of WEE in the United States occurred
Global and Chinese Drugs for Western Equine Encephalitis Industry, 2017 Market Research Report Size and Share Published in 2017-07-19 Available for US$ 3000 at Researchmoz.us
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus). It is the vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, avian malaria, and arboviruses including St. Louis encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus. Magnification: x5. 5 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/3845
With the recent report of a human case of West Nile Virus (WNV) in southern Nevada, the Nevada Department of Agriculture (NDA) urges horse owners throughout the state to vaccinate against the disease. WNV can cause severe illness in a horses brain, spinal cord and nervous system.. Vaccination is the best protection horse owners have for their animals, Dr. JJ Goicoechea, the NDAs state veterinarian, said. Vaccinations, in conjunction with practices that reduce exposure to mosquitos, are very effective in protecting horses from WNV. Every year, the NDA monitors WNV and other diseases carried by mosquitos (also known as arboviral) very closely for the protection of public health and safety and the agriculture industry. In addition to WNV, the Animal Disease Laboratory at the NDA tests for two other prevalent arboviral diseases: Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus and Western Equine Encephalitis Virus. All three can cause severe disease and death in humans.. West Nile Virus has been prevalent in ...
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturers instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements ...
There are an estimated 20,000 new cases of infectious encephalitis in the United States annually, with incidence of 3 to 7 in every 100,000. Infants and elderly patients are the most severely involved. Homeless patients and those with HIV have highest rates of infections; a higher exposure to mosquitoes in the case of the homeless, and a higher prevalence of opportunistic infections in the immunocompromised population may be contributing factors.3-5 Arboviruses are a family of viruses that are spread through arthropod vectors and are a common cause of encephalitis. Arboviral encephalitis epidemiology has geographic variations.6 California encephalitis is most common in the Midwest. 6 Eastern equine encephalitis is commonest on the East Coast. St. Louis encephalitis is common in both the Midwest and East Coast. West Nile virus (WNV) fever and western equine encephalitis are found throughout the country. 1, 6. ADEM is an uncommon illness, seen more in children than adults. Its incidence in ...
Antigens capable of fixing complement specifically with the appropriate antibodies have been prepared from brain tissue of hamsters and mice infected with the viruses of St. Louis, Japanese, Western, and Eastern encephalitis, and with the West Nile virus. The antigens were freed of the material which reacts with normal serum by means of centrifugation at relatively high speed. In addition, the infectivity of the preparation was destroyed by irradiation with ultraviolet light.. Cross reactions were demonstrated by means of the complement-fixation technique with materials from animals infected with the viruses of Eastern and Western equine encephalitis. No relationship was detectable by this procedure between St. Louis, Japanese, and West Nile viruses. These findings emphasize the need for further investigation and correlation of the immunological reactions of the groups of neurotropic viruses, since the equine agents are apparently unrelated when studied by neutralization and cross-immunity tests ...
Mosquito-borne Diseases. Western equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis Both have occurred in Washington but no reported cases since early 1980\sWest Nile virus Detected in 1999 in New York CityDetected in Washington and 43 other states in 2003Continued surveillance effort in Washington. Slideshow 169017 by Ava
AMY GOODMAN: That was last person that Jen Waller mentions, who suffered a seizure and broken rib after she was pulled from the crowd and arrested, is Occupy Wall Street activist Cecily McMillan. Police say she elbowed an officer in the head, giving him a swollen eye. She faces felony charges of assault and obstructing governmental administration. Cecily was released on Monday afternoon after a judge denied a request from the district attorney that bail be set at $20,000, and shes joining us now for this exclusive interview.. Cecily McMillan is Northeast regional organizer for the Young Democratic Socialists of America and a graduate student at the New School for Social Research. Were also joined by Meghan Maurus, Cecilys attorney and mass defense coordinator at the New York City chapter of the National Lawyers Guild.. We welcome you both to Democracy Now! Cecily, you limped in here. Youre very bruised. You have a bruise over your left eye. And I can see, with your-the scoop neck of your ...
Bruce McMillan received his first camera at age five and his first professional camera at age nine. By the time he finished high school, he was quite accomplished as a photographer. After college, he worked for three years at a television station as a camera operator, director, and producer. For two years after that, he was a caretaker on an island off the Maine coast. In that isolation, he worked on improving his writing skills. By the end of his time on the island, he had photographed and written his first book, Finest Kind o Day: Lobstering in Maine.. McMillan calls himself a photo-illustrator rather than a photographer because, he says, what I do is similar to what other childrens illustrators do . We approach books in the same way. Like other illustrators, he creates each book as a whole. First, he thinks through the story and visualizes how he wants each photograph to look. Only then does he take the photos.. ...
CALGARY, ALBERTA--(Marketwired - Sept. 18, 2014) - Glenn Scott, Chair of the Board of Governors of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), announced today that Tim McMillan will become president of CAPP effective October 1, 2014. McMillan is currently minister of rural health in the government of Saskatchewan. He...
This adapter is just what I needed. It works well, and seems strong enough for its intended use. Fits perfectly on a true anshutz rail. It is a little tight in some of the cheaper rails, as in the Choate stocks but this only requires a couple of seconds on a belt sander. If used on the rails installed in a Mcmillan stock it is a perfect fit. I have 2 of these from Mcmillan, and I have used them on three different rifles. Even if you sand them down a few thousands of an inch to fit the cheaper rails they still seem to work fine in the true anshutz rail, as the set screw takes up the slack.. ...
The food, beverage and agribusiness industries are vital and rapidly growing components of the Canadian and global economies. McMillan can provide support to new and mature companies as they grow and help them overcome obstacles they may face along the way, including navigating the unique regulatory landscape in these sectors.
Sherri McMillan gives personal trainers an easy way to explain aerobic & anaerobic exercise to their clients....and why it is important to do both!
Mcmillan Were Delighted To Sponsor Cedar Lodge Special Schools Night At The Races To Raise Money For A New School Bus. Cedar Lodge School, One Of The O...
Carl McMillan, Dr. is a Dentist in Cary, NC. See dental services, procedures, patient reviews, address, phone number and driving directions here now.
Burke based cosmetic dentist Dr. Alex McMillan, DDS has been providing cosmetic & Implant dentistry and high quality dental care services to the communities of Washington DC, and Burke, Northern Virginia (VA). Visit us today to enhance your smile! Visit us at : http://www.mcmillansedationdentistry.com/ Slideshow 8572 by guest3062
Celebrity Dog Trainer and Emmy Award Winning star of the CBS show Lucky Dog Brandon McMillan joined us live with tips from his new book
JoEllyn McMillan is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Methods Development for Blood Borne Macrophage Carriage of Nanoformulated Antiretroviral Drugs, Registered Bioimaging of Nanomaterials for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Monitoring
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Robert McMillan, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
This case highlights the importance of a penetrating factual analysis, the court stated in its 18-page opinion. Physical presence at or by a specific time is not, as a matter of law, an essential function of all employment. While a timely arrival is normally an essential function, a court must still conduct a fact-specific inquiry, drawing all inferences in favor of the non-moving party. Such an inquiry was not conducted here.. The plaintiff, Rodney McMillan, has worked as a caseworker at New York Citys Human Resources Association since the late 1980s. The HRA requires employees to arrive between 9 and 10 a.m. at work.. McMillan takes daily medications for his schizophrenia that make him sluggish in the morning. As a result, he often arrives as late as 11 a.m.. This was not a problem until 2008, when McMillans supervisor informed him she wouldnt be doing her job if she continues to approve a lateness every single day.. McMillan, who works 35 hours per week including a daily hour lunch ...
Seven Doors to Death: Directed by Elmer Clifton. With Chick Chandler, June Clyde, George Meeker, Michael Raffetto. A shot rings out in a darkened apartment; a woman screams and flees, tricking architect Jimmy McMillan into giving her a ride. McMillan returns and finds a body; but the police find a different body! He and the woman in question (Mary Rawlins, niece of the late owner), both suspects, become allies; among light romantic banter they hunt the real killer behind the seven doors of a blind alley, housing eccentric suspects and a dark, intricate, spooky cellar...
IMG Models is the international leader in talent discovery and model management, widely recognized for its diverse client roster. The agencys offices are located in six world capitals: New York, Los Angeles, Paris, London, Milan, and Sydney.
It was dark when the pain began, I remember that much. I blinked half-awake into an unfamiliar room, wrenched too quickly from the depth of sleep. Consciousness was reluctant, and slow in coming. The glow of the small digital clock said 2 a.m. The pain faded and sleep tugged at me. I was only just…
Information published on this site is not intended as a substitute for medical advice. For medical care, consult a medical professional ...
Peripheral axons of sensory neurons innervate skin cells to form a functional sensory organ. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Rasmussen et al. (2018) demonstrate that scale formation is essential for the development and regeneration of zebrafish sensory axons and vasculature ...
You really do have a lot to be thankful for (dont we all!!) Im right there with you in not remembering life before kids...all the little ones were out of the house the other day and Robert and I were all alone, I said to him See how boring our life would be without these guys!! ...
I was excited to see that the junk man (I say this with a heart full of love for this man) had lots of new stuff out. We were on our way to my moms for lunch after our Storytime and I could barely get a glimpse of a desk/vanity that he had. After lunch, I told my mom about it and she said she wanted to talk to him about a certain kind of old chair that she was looking for so I suggested that we take a little drive over to look around. The desk-thingy I wanted was only $35 and solid wood and in good working condition. It needs to be cleaned and painted, but I had planned to paint it anyway. And he had a gorgeous antique rocker that I REALLY want for $35, but Im not sure Big Daddy will go for that. We did a major de-clutter when we moved and he really likes to know where anything new will go or what its going to be used for. Im not sure that saying it just makes my heart happy will work for me since it doesnt work for him when he wants to buy a new gun ...
It was dark when the pain began, I remember that much. I blinked half-awake into an unfamiliar room, wrenched too quickly from the depth of sleep. Consciousness was reluctant, and slow in coming. The glow of the small digital clock said 2 a.m. The pain faded and sleep tugged at me. I was only just…
Structural Changes in Cartilage and Collagen Studied by High Temperature Raman Spectroscopy M. Fields, N. Spencer, J. Dudhia and P. F. McMillan, Biopolymer
K. Bolton, D. Segal, J. McMillan, A. Sanigorski, I. Broz, K. Walder, J. Jowett, L. Heilbronn, L. Campbell, D. Chisolm, G. Collier. ...
Presented at the AIChE 2013 Spring Meeting and 9th Global Congress on Process Safety meeting by Greg McMillan, CDI Process & Industrial and Hector Torres, East…
sport track field athletics stuart mcmillan food music sprinting performance therapy lee valley dan pfaff christian malcolm bobsleigh football
An afternoon of pulling weeds among the forget-me-nots and lilacs made my eyes drift to these earrings by Zuleykha McMillan on Etsy. Bountiful and bright cane
e TSX Venture Exchange (TSXV) has extended the temporary pricing relief measures (the Relief Measures) it introduced last year relating to private placement financings. Canada Corporate/Commercial Law McMillan LLP 20 Apr 2013
Board certified Sarah McMillan MD specializes in neck lift procedures to remove sagging skin and contour the neck for patients at her Bellevue medical center
The first from the Dunesk draft of the McMillan family Dunesk Octavia by Seawell Icon has gone at 1400gns. Her October born heifer calf Dunesk Cl
Kovacevic S, Anderson D, Morita YS, Patterson J, Haites R, McMillan BNI, Coppel R, McConville MJ, Billman-Jacobe H. 2006. Identification of a novel protein with a role in lipoarabinomannan biosynthesis in mycobacteria.. J Biol Chem. 281(14):9011-7. ...
The encephalitogenic New World alphaviruses, including Venezuelan (VEEV), eastern (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis viruses, constitute a continuing public health threat in the United States. They circulate in Central, South, and North America and have the ability to cause fatal disease in humans and in horses and other domestic animals. We recently demonstrated that these viruses have developed the ability to interfere with cellular transcription and use it as a means of downregulating a cellular antiviral response. The results of the present study suggest that the N-terminal, ∼35-amino-acid-long peptide of VEEV and EEEV capsid proteins plays the most critical role in the downregulation of cellular transcription and development of a cytopathic effect. The identified VEEV-specific peptide CVEE33-68 includes two domains with distinct functions: the α-helix domain, helix I, which is critically involved in supporting the balance between the presence of the protein in the cytoplasm and ...
Togaviridae is a family of viruses. Humans, mammals, birds, and mosquitoes serve as natural hosts. There are currently 32 species in this family, divided among 2 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: Alphaviruses: arthritis, encephalitis; Rubiviruses: rubella. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Cabassou virus Chikungunya virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus Eilat virus Everglades virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus Middelburg virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus Onyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus Sindbis virus Southern elephant seal virus Tonate virus Trocara virus Una virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Whataroa virus Genus: Rubivirus Rubella virus The Togaviridae family belong to group IV of the Baltimore ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis pathogen (VEEV) represents a continuing general public health threat in america. this may play a crucial role in the Molidustat power from the computer virus to build up a persistent, life-long contamination in mosquito vectors. These results demonstrate a fresh facet of VEEV-host cell relationships, as well as the results of the study tend applicable to additional NEW WORLD alphaviruses, such as for example eastern and traditional western equine encephalitis infections. (VEEV) is an associate from the genus within the family members. It circulates constantly in Central, South, and THE UNITED STATES and comes with an ability to trigger fatal Molidustat disease in human beings and horses. Alongside some other NEW WORLD alphaviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis computer virus (EEEV) and traditional western equine encephalitis computer virus (WEEV), VEEV represents a significant public health danger in america (47, 60-62). Infections within the VEEV ...
What is WEE?. WEE is a potentially serious viral disease that primarily affects birds, mosquitoes, humans and horses.. Who gets WEE? Anyone living in an area where virus activity has been identified is at potential risk of infection.. Is WEE in Clark County? As of August 2013, the health districts Vector Control program has identified the virus in a mosquito pool (2013) and in three birds (2003). No human cases have been reported in Clark County.. How does WEE spread?. WEE is most often spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes (WEE carriers) become infected when they feed on infected birds (WEE reservoirs).. Infected mosquitoes can then spread WEE to humans and other animals when they bite. WEE is not spread from person-to-person.. What are the symptoms of WEE?. Most people who are infected with WEE have very mild illness or might never become sick. Mild infections are characterized by fever and headache, without other apparent symptoms.. The symptoms of severe disease can ...
Equine encephalitis is a vector-borne viral disease that can affect equines, other mammals and sometimes humans. There are several forms of the disease caused by different viruses. These include eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis.
The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with
The cardiovascular medicine community lost a leading light with the death, in April 2004, of Gardner C. McMillan. He recognized, early on, the complexity of human and experimental atherosclerosis. Dr McMillans observations, thoughts, and articulate advocacy were always at the forefront of a major shift in how we conceptualize atherogenesis. He led the way in transforming contemporary atherosclerosis and vascular biology research.. Gardner McMillan began his career in medicine by earning a medical degree from McGill University in Montreal, Canada in 1944, taking prize-winning honors in anatomy (the John Munro Elder Prize). He developed a keen interest in pathology during his early postgraduate days, which was solidified with a Masters degree in 1946 and a PhD degree in 1948 under the sponsorship of another pioneering leader of atherosclerosis research, George Lyman Duff. He remained in Dr Duffs department as a Markel Scholar in Medical Science and began his research career with investigations ...
The McMillan Sand Filtration Site is a decommissioned water treatment plant, a twenty-five acres of green space and an abandoned and endangered historic landmark (Most Endangered Properties in 2000 and 2005). The tower-like sand bins and lawns were designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., landscape architect; Allen Hazen, engineer; and Charles Platt, architect. This wonderful infrastructure was a direct legacy of the City Beautiful Movement and part of the McMillan Plan to modernize the city back in 1902 ...
Eventbrite - The University of Queensland School of Education presents Finding the Joy : A UQ Teaching & Learning Week Event with Corrine McMillan - Wednesday, 1 November 2017 at The University of Queensland, Saint Lucia, QLD. Find event and ticket information.
All horses face ongoing exposure to rabies, tetanus, West Nile and Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis (EEE, WEE), all of which can have a fatal impact. Learn about the first and only horse vaccine to contain all five core equine disease antigens in one smooth vaccine.
A high-flying Lower Hutt career woman with no history of drug use has been found to have died of a methamphetamine overdose.. It seemed Lisa McMillan, 39, had everything to live for when her brother discovered her unresponsive on the bedroom floor of her Fairfield flat in 2010.. Her workmates at insurance company AXA had become concerned when she didnt turn up to work on the morning of January 21 - behaviour that was out of character - and called her brother to see if she was okay.. In a report released this morning, Wellington regional coroner Ian Smith said methamphetamine was found in Ms McMillans blood, and was thought to have triggered a brain haemorrhage that caused her death.. A toxicology report found Ms McMillan had 0.24 milligrams of methamphetamine per litre of blood in her system, which was consistent with recreational use.. Attempts to find where she might have bought the drug failed, and other enquiries found that Ms McMillan was a happy, healthy young woman who was well admired ...
ATLANTA (AP) - Trae Young tried to reassure Atlanta coach Nate McMillan after it became clear the Hawks point guard was hiding a sore shoulder.. McMillan had no complaints after Young lifted the Hawks to a crucial win over top-seeded Philadelphia.. Young overcame a cold start to score 25 points, including a floater that gave Atlanta the lead with 1:17 remaining, and the Hawks rallied to beat the 76ers 103-100 on Monday night, tying the Eastern Conference semifinal at 2-2.. Youngs right shoulder was taped, which McMillan saw for the first time when the point guard took off his warmups before the game.. He kind of gave me a look like he didnt know about it, Young said. I told him Were fine, were good, lets go win.. Philly blew an 18-point lead and may have bigger concerns: Big man Joel Embiid spent time in the locker room in the second quarter and was 0-for-12 from the field in the second half. Even before I went back to the locker room I felt like I didnt have it, Embiid ...
Meme watch: Grame McMillan vs. Mark Millar. I dont have the time or inclination to read the whole thread, but Brian Hibbs and Dirk Deppey are already linking to it (Hibbs manages to get in a bald joke; Im still kind of strangely disillusioned to find out McMillan looks so much like Moby). My main concern is Millars claim that he first heard of McMillan only six months ago. Im not sure if this reflects the irrelevance of comics blogs or Millars dependence on his own fiefdom to filter the dark mysteries of the internet, processing them into a cheery, appetizing pablum (which would explain his insistence that Civil War was an unqualified hit among readers of all stripes). I mean really, Fanboy Rampage wasnt some stupid blog where a sociopathic ex-con was attempting (and largely failing, sadly) to exorcise his blinding anger at his stupid fascist father, stupid preening teachers, various stupid girls who wouldnt talk to him, the stupid jerk boss at the tire store who insulted his haircut, the ...
Men 3000 Meter Run =============================================================== 2 alleys waterfall ; hip #s 11-15, to be placed in outside alley World: W 7:24.90 2/6/1998 Daniel Komen, KEN American: A 7:32.43 2/17/2007 Bernard Lagat, Nike Meet: M 7:42.81 3/5/1994 Moses Kiptanui, Kenya Name Year Team Finals =============================================================== Finals 1 Bernard Lagat Nike 8:12.60 2 Galen Rupp Nike/OTC Elite 8:13.49 3 Chris Solinsky OTC/Nike 8:13.85 4 Scott Bauhs adidas 8:15.76 5 Aaron Braun Adams State College 8:17.40 6 Ian Burrell McMillan Elite 8:23.08 7 Brian Medigovich Adams State College 8:23.14 8 Aucencio Martinez Boulder RC/adid 8:24.82 9 Jordan Horn McMillan Elite 8:27.17 10 Jonathan Pierce Asics 8:27.28 11 Kyle King unattached 8:27.33 12 Mark Fruin Team Ind Brooks 8:32.34 13 Thomas Morgan ZAP Fitness 8:36.51 14 Nate Jenkins Saucony 8:41.24 15 Eric Garner unattached 8:42.98 ...
Marathon Legs utilizes the concept of eccentric loading. An eccentric contraction is where the muscle is lengthening as its contracting. Think of lowering a dumbbell slowly. In running, there are a lot of eccentric contractions and with long (and particularly downhill) races, the muscles literally get torn apart due to the total stress on the muscle tissue. These micro-traumas are why you see marathoners hobbling around the day after the race. Their muscles are riddled with damage.. With Marathon Legs, youll perform two Marathon Legs routines per week. Each routine includes 6 exercises and the total routine takes less than 20 minutes. Across the 12-week program, Coach Angela provides new routines as your legs grow more durable. Best of all, NO GYM EQUIPMENT IS NECESSARY.. Marathon Legs Was Designed to Solve the 5 Most Common Challenges that Our Community of nearly 1 Million Runners from 6 Continents is dealing with in long races.. For less than the entry to a 5K, you can build the specific ...
The Limbic System, located in the Frontal Cortex, is the shoe box stuffed with memories in the brain. My Limbic System, on the other hand, is fucked. Walking into my room, I notice I do not have many…
If you cant view the clip above, click on the link below to watch.. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0teUUELYgpA. Getting them There: First, we schedule our meetings one year in advance and distribute this list to our team so they can schedule the meetings into their dayplanners. This way, if they are planning a vacation and are flexible with dates, they can work around our team meetings. Our company meetings are once per month for two hours. Second, our meetings are mandatory for all team members. Its important to note however, that in order to make meetings mandatory we have to pay our team for their time. So we have instituted a meeting wage which is just minimum wage and it enables us to at least compensate our team for their time. If someone cant make it to the meeting, they are still responsible for meeting with us or their direct supervisor. This ensures they are up-to-date with all the meeting information and since everyone knows they are going to have to meet anyways, they might as ...
As I write this, my grandson Thomas is slowly ploughing his way through the entire Harry Potter canon (or is it an oeuvre? I always get the two mixed up); he sits on the settee with a book the size of a breeze block and turns the pages energetically in a room that otherwise brims with silence. I know just how he feels: it’s great to be on a journey through one author’s work, knowing that although you’ve read a few books by them, there are still quite a few more to go and, if they’re still alive and still productive, there will be new books to savour for years to come.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
There is no set fixed price on any of our stocks. Our pricing is designed to let all of our customers get just what they want (within limits) and not have to pay for anything they do not want or need. So you can be a gunsmith or rifle builder who just wants a basic inlet or fully inletted stock blank to finish and accessorize yourself or you can be a customer who wants a full finished, fully adjustable competition stock ready to bolt his rifle into.. On our website just click on stock pricing to see the current price list. Our price list is broken down into two basic sections where most stocks in that group are all priced the same. For the Hunting and Sporting type stocks look in the hunting section for the current price for a fully inletted blank. This price includes the color and finish of your choice. Now click or look in the stock options or accessories list. You will see many optional items here and the price each option will add to the base price. For a hunting stock you can ...
IN John Byrne’s great play The Slab Boys – first seen at the Traverse Theatre in Edinburgh in 1978, but set in 1957 – the hero, Phil McCann, is a working-class lad from Ferguslie Park, then widely seen as one of the roughest, toughest housing schemes in Scotland.
Welcome to Housecall with Dr. Mac! This community was started in 2014 with the goal of helping individuals connect their health dots.
Colombia has been experiencing an intense intrastate conflict for over half a century, and this conflict shows few signs of abating. While it originated...
She married Edward McMillan on 1837 in Robertson County, Texas, son of /McMillan/ and Ann //. He was born 1814 in Londonderry, Ireland, and died MAR 1865 in Robertson County, Texas. He was buried MAR 1865 in Camp Creek Cemetery, Robertson County, Texas ...
Krapohl, E., Rimfeld, K., Shakeshaft, N. G., Trzaskowski, M., McMillan, A., Pingault, J-B., Asbury, K., Harlaar, N., Kovas, Y., Dale, P. S. & Plomin, R., 21 Oct 2014. Article in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ...
The Wild re-signed former Minnesota-Duluth national champ Justin Fontaine to a one-year, two-way contract. The Houston Aeros leading scorer from a year ago (56 points in 64 games) would have to pass through waivers to get to AHL Iowa if he doesnt make the Wild in September. The Wild also re-signed Carson McMillan. Defenseman Tyler Cuma is the teams last unsigned restricted free agent.. ...
Hewlett-Packard Co. (HP) has abandoned plans to integrate a number of advanced technologies it acquired in its 2002 purchase of.... December 2nd, 2004 Robert McMillan @itworldca ...
The goal of every PT clinician and researcher is competency in applying the most effective treatment available to achieve the best outcomes for our patients. In her 2005 McMillan Lecture1, Dr. Rebecca Craik endorsed a three-pronged approach to competency that is comprised of: 1) classifying patients in meaningful ways, 2) standardizing our interventions, and 3) agreeing on the best outcome measures.. To advance the process of agreeing on the best outcome measures, the Academy of Physical Therapy Research formed the EDGE Taskforce (for Evaluation Database to Guide Effectiveness) in 2006. The primary goal of the taskforce is to assist in the identification of a core set of tests/measures for each practice area. It is understood that this process is dynamic and that the core sets may change over time. It is also understood that clinicians/researchers may choose to include additional evaluation/outcome measures beyond those in the recommended core set.. Why is agreement on outcome measures ...
In: Ashcroft, Richard E.; Dawson, Angus; Draper, Heather; McMillan, John R., eds. Principles of Health Care Ethics. 2nd edition. Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2007: 601- ...
WEST CALN TOWNSHIP, Pa. - They hung a 3-year-old boy up by his feet, beat him and duct taped him to a chair. In the end, police say the three days of abuse were enough to kill 3-year-old Scott McMillan.
Tollis, M., Hutchins, E. D., Stapley, J., Rupp, S. M., Eckalbar, W. L., Maayan, I., Lasku, E., Infante, C. R., Dennis, S. R., Robertson, J. A., May, C. M., Crusoe, M. R., Bermingham, E., Denardo, D., Hsieh, S. T. T., Kulathinal, R. J., McMillan, W. O., Menke, D. B., Pratt, S., Rawls, J. & 5 others, Sanjur, O., Wilson-Rawls, N., Wilson Sayres, M., Fisher, R. E. & Kusumi, K., Feb 1 2018, In : Genome biology and evolution. 10, 2, p. 489-506 18 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Tollis, M., Hutchins, E. D., Stapley, J., Rupp, S. M., Eckalbar, W. L., Maayan, I., Lasku, E., Infante, C. R., Dennis, S. R., Robertson, J. A., May, C. M., Crusoe, M. R., Bermingham, E., Denardo, D., Hsieh, S. T. T., Kulathinal, R. J., McMillan, W. O., Menke, D. B., Pratt, S., Rawls, J. & 5 others, Sanjur, O., Wilson-Rawls, N., Wilson Sayres, M., Fisher, R. E. & Kusumi, K., Feb 1 2018, In : Genome Biology and Evolution. 10, 2, p. 489-506 18 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
FACES* Judy McMillan, acting dean of student services/associate professor, Rex Evans, professional counselor/professor, and Bobbie Wright, department head of sociology/professor, all of Thomas
Rent textbook Classroom Assessment : Principles and Practice for Effective Standards-Based Instruction by McMillan, James H. - 9780132099615.
Dr McMillan and her team dripped anaesthetic into Conquers water until the goldfish fell asleep. They then tilted his mouth slightly out of the water in order to place forceps into his mouth to dislodge the stubborn pebble. Ms Marsh said the emergency consultation cost more than $100, with another $400 for the anaesthetic and overnight hospital stay, but Conquer, who she bought for $12, was now doing fine ...
Stefen Heim, Corey T. McMillan, Robin Clark, Stephanie Golob, Nam Eun Min, Christopher Olm, John Powers, Murray Grossman Frontiers in Psychology, in press. PMCID: PMC 4400858 Abstract ...
Brad McMillan, Commonwealth Financial Network CIO, and Cole Smead, Smead Capital Management managing director, discuss the markets and how to prepare for a potential pullback as all major averages are up intraday.
NEW YORK - Good news about hiring and spending at retail businesses helped send the U.S. stock market sharply higher Thursday.. For investors, the pair of government reports offered more encouragement that the U.S. economic recovery will continue, even as Europe and Japan struggle. The Standard & Poors 500 index soared 23.84 points, or 1.5 percent, to 1,636.36.. The gains were broad. All 10 industry groups within the S&P 500 rose, led by retailers and other consumer-discretionary companies. Gannet soared 34 percent, the most in the S&P 500, on news that it would buy another media company, Belo.. The underlying fundamentals of our economy are clearly doing much better, said Brad McMillan, chief investment officer for Commonwealth Financial in Waltham, Mass.. Markets have been turbulent over the past three weeks. The S&P 500 climbed 17 percent from the start of the year to May 21 when it hit an all-time high of 1,669. The index began sliding the next day when the Federal Reserve said it would ...
not really -- but what you really want is the installer , from the nice people at McMillan Enterprises, Inc: , , http://www.mcmillan-inc.com/install1.html , The program gives a message: Cant find DLLs, copy them to the right dir? Can somebody help me? I just trie to compile something with simple.py and it doesnt work! Thnx ...
In the 2013 Federal Budget, the Government targeted a category of transactions, dubbed character conversion transactions, which the Department of Finance (Finance) contended inappropriately used derivative forward agreements (DFAs) to convert investment returns that would otherwise be taxable as ordinary income into capital gains. Canada Tax McMillan LLP 21 Jul 2013
Gillian Danley has always attended the clinic hosted by former Odessa High and Permian volleyball coach Linda McMillan.This year, Danley is paying closer attention than ever.Danley, who has coached
Feeding Habits of Culex tarsalis Coq., a Mosquito Host of the Viruses of Western Equine and St. Louis Encephalitis." Journal of ... "Replacement of virus-destroyed epithelium by keratinized squamous cells in vitamin A-deprived chickens." Proceedings of the ... "Laryngotracheitis virus in chickens: a model for study of acute nonfatal desquamating rhinitis." Journal of Experimental ... "Virus-induced lysosomal enzyme dissolution of nasal turbinate cartilage." The American Journal of Pathology 87.3 (1977): 667. ...
After leaving there, he worked in private industry on the Western equine encephalitis virus. This work resulted to the creation ... From 1946 to 1952, he researched macromolecules and viruses at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. In 1948 ... viruses. While there, he photographed the growth of living cells using ultraviolet light and determined the structure of urea. ...
... later called western equine encephalitis. Meyer proved that it was of viral origin. Later it became clear that the virus can ... among them equine encephalitis. Several diseases transmitted from animals to humans are due to a group of viruses carried by ... Meyer therefore qualified encephalitis as a man-made disease. Subsequently, a vaccine for horses was developed. And it turned ... out that the isolation of the virus by Meyer led to the discovery of similar kinds causing other types of encephalitis in man ...
Tests for eastern equine encephalitis virus antibodies were positive in moose or deer in each of Vermont's counties. In 2012, ... The western border with New York and the area around Lake Champlain lies within the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests. The ... Secretary (2014). "Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Deer and Moose Serosurvey Project". Vermont Department of Public Health. ... U.S. Route 7 runs a north-south path in western Vermont from the Massachusetts state line to the Canada-U.S. border. U.S. Route ...
... and Western and Eastern equine encephalitis. Brazilian scientists are investigating if Culex species transmit zika virus. ... The diseases they vector include arbovirus infections such as West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis, or St. Louis encephalitis ... Arbovirus infections transmitted by various species of Culex include West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis ... Cat Que Virus (CQV)has been largely reported in Culex mosquitoes in China and in pigs in Vietnam. For CQV, domestic pigs are ...
Louis encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Zika virus and West Nile virus. It is taxonomically regarded as a ... Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, and West Nile fever, and may be a vector of the Zika virus. It causes ... Louis encephalitis virus. In India and Southeast Asia, it is the primary vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, a nematode that causes ... Very bad news for Brazil': Zika virus found in second mosquito species by STEPHANIE NOLEN (RIO DE JANEIRO - The Globe) ...
Equine encephalitis viruses, such as Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, and Venezuelan ... Even more dramatically, in most of its range in North America, the main vector for the Western equine encephalitis virus is ... and such birds are typically the main reservoir of the Eastern equine encephalitis virus in North America. Early in the season ... equine encephalitis virus, can be spread by mosquito vectors such as Aedes taeniorhynchus. Tularemia, a bacterial disease ...
It is known to bite humans and can carry a number of diseases, including yellow fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, ... Aedes scapularis has been recorded throughout neo-tropical regions of the western hemisphere. Larval specimens were reported in ...
... including the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, suggesting that the species may serve as a reservoir for that virus. The ... The species is infected by two hantaviruses-Catacamas virus in Honduras and Playa de Oro virus in western Mexico-which are ... Experimental infection of potential reservoir hosts with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Mexico. Emerging Infectious ... Genetic characterization and phylogeny of a hantavirus from Western Mexico (subscription required). Virus Research 131:180-188 ...
Eastern equine encephalitis Western equine encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis Rabies La crosse encephalitis Progressive ... Most viruses that enter can be opportunistic and accidental pathogens, but some like herpes viruses and rabies virus have ... Treatments of proven efficacy are currently limited mostly to herpes viruses and human immunodeficiency virus. The herpes virus ... Infants with encephalitis often have seizures or other abnormal movements. Infants with severe encephalitis may become ...
... singer WEE virus, the western equine encephalitis virus Wee1, a nuclear protein In the Wee Small Hours, album of Frank Sinatra ...
... carries California encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus, Western equine encephalitis[citation needed] ... carries California encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Western equine encephalitis[citation needed] Ochlerotatus euedes ... carries California encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis, heartworm Jamestown Canyon virus, La Crosse virus. West ... carries California encephalitis virus, heartworm, Western equine encephalitis[citation needed] Ochlerotatus camptorhynchus - ...
... syndrome Wernicke's encephalopathy West Nile virus West syndrome Westerhof-Beemer-Cormane syndrome Western equine encephalitis ...
Saint Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ross River ... Flaviviridae viruses transmissible via vectors like mosquitoes include West Nile virus and yellow fever virus, which are single ... Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Western equine encephalitis (WEE) occur in the United States where they cause disease in ... Examples are the Zika virus, chikungunya virus, yellow fever and dengue fever. The re-emergence of the viruses has been at a ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Eastern and Western equine encephalitis, chikungunya fever, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, the ... That law defined a biological agent as: any micro-organism, virus, infectious substance, or biological product that may be ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Q fever, coccidioidomycosis, and a variety of plant and animal pathogens Particular attention ... Rift Valley fever and Venezuelan equine encephalitis). In addition, vaccines are provided to persons who may be occupationally ...
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) Dengue fever Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) Hantavirus Lassa fever Late blight of potato glanders ... Rinderpest Typhus Western equine encephalitis (WEE) Yellow fever Edgewood Arsenal experiments Operation Big Buzz Operation Big ...
Louis encephalitis virus disease West Nile virus disease Western equine encephalitis virus disease Babesiosis Botulism Botulism ... California serogroup virus diseases Chikungunya virus disease Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease Powassan virus disease ... Machupo virus New World arenavirus - Sabia virus Yellow fever Zika virus disease and Zika virus infection Zika virus disease, ... deaths Vibriosis Viral hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Ebola virus Lassa virus Lujo virus Marburg virus ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis) Water supply threats (for example, ... Marburg virus and Ebola virus), and by the family Arenaviridae (for example Lassa virus and Machupo virus). Ebola virus disease ... Death from Ebola virus disease is commonly due to multiple organ failure and hypovolemic shock. Marburg virus was first ... However, some virus samples are still available in Russian and American laboratories. Some believe that after the collapse of ...
An example of a recombinant virus is Western equine encephalitis virus (WEE), which is a recombinant virus between two other ... Both these and mutation within the virus have been suggested as ways in which influenza and other viruses evolve. ... Jeffery Taubenberger on: A Recombinant Virus Viral Genetics Transmission of Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People. ... closely related yet distinct encephalitis viruses. In addition, reassortment is most important for pandemic influenza viruses. ...
Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Western equine encephalitis: a group of ... AIDS-related encephalomyelitis, caused by opportunistic Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. Acute ... collectively termed Equine encephalitis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of brain inflammation ...
... and Western equine encephalitis viruses. This area of the genome forms eight stem loops. Each of these loops contain triplet ... Closely related viruses include Mucambo virus and Everglades virus. Rio Negro virus is a spherical, enveloped virus. The ... The virus was first called Ag80-663 but was renamed to Rio Negro virus in 2005. The virus is a member of the Venezuelan equine ... "Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus disrupts STAT1 signaling by distinct mechanisms independent of host shutoff". Journal of ...
The sole mammalian fatality attributed to HJ was a Florida horse originally diagnosed with Western equine encephalitis in 1964 ... Though nearly identical in structure and natural cycle to the Eastern equine encephalitis virus, it is considerably less ... Highlands J (HJ) virus is a zoonotic alphavirus native to North and South America. It maintains a natural reservoir in the ... Louis encephalitis outbreak in Missouri, 4 patients were found to be comorbidly infected with SLE and HJ, though no harmful ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Viral encephalitis ...
... equine encephalitis virus Japanese encephalitis virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus ... Equine encephalitis is a family of horse diseases that also affect humans. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. ... Several forms of viral encephalitis can infect equines, and these include: Eastern ... West Nile virus This article includes a list of related items that share the same name (or similar names). If an internal link ...
... shingles Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus West Nile virus Western equine encephalitis virus Zika virus Encephalitic viruses ... California encephalitis virus Chandipura virus Chikungunya virus Cytomegalovirus Dengue virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus ... virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus Nipah virus Powassan virus Rabies virus Rubella virus SARS-CoV-2 Snowshoe hare virus St ... such as those against Eastern equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Although ...
Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis and western equine encephalitis emerged in the US. The virus that causes La ... There are numerous causes, including viruses - particularly hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ... yellow fever virus, dengue virus and Pappataci fever virus. More than 100 of such viruses are now known to cause human diseases ... Breitbart M, Rohwer F (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology. 13 (6): 278- ...
... encephalitis were caused by California serogroup viruses than were reported for western equine encephalomyelitis viruses, St. ... Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses combined. California encephalitis virus (CEV) - type strain ... and California encephalitis is a rare cause of disease in the Western World. The original California Encephalitis virus was ... The La Crosse Virus from the same genus is also a common cause of encephalitis in the United States. Other viruses with similar ...
Western and Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus. McJunkin, J. E.; ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector ( ... La Crosse encephalitis was discovered in 1965, after the virus was isolated from stored brain and spinal tissue of a child who ...
... virus (EEEV) is closely related to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and western equine ... most commonly western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and tetanus. Most vaccinations for EEE ... encephalitis virus. The incubation period for Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) disease ranges from 4 to 10 days. The ... Arrigo NC, Adams AP, Weaver SC (January 2010). "Evolutionary patterns of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North versus ...
... an ancestral Sindbis virus-like virus, and an ancestral Eastern equine encephalitis virus-like virus. There have been under 700 ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus Sherman, M. B.; Weaver, S. C. (2010). "Structure of the Recombinant Alphavirus Western Equine ... The Western equine encephalomyelitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine ... Western equine encephalitis virus was one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological ...
Zika virus. Togaviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis * ... Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ...
Western equine encephalitis Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine ... Saint Louis encephalitis Saint Louis encephalitis virus birds mosquito bite Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS coronavirus ... Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree ... Japanese encephalitis Japanese encephalitis virus pigs, water birds mosquito bite Kyasanur Forest disease ...
Zika virus. Togaviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis * ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... After the detection of zika virus in Brazil in April 2015, the first ever in the Western Hemisphere,[77][78] it is now thought ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ...
Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family ... The timing of the arrival of smallpox in Europe and south-western Asia is less clear. Smallpox is not clearly described in ... Other complications include encephalitis (1 in 500 patients), which is more common in adults and may cause temporary disability ... While the Dryvax virus was cultured in the skin of calves and freeze-dried, ACAM2000s virus is cultured in kidney epithelial ...
... and Western equine encephalitis. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine ... Japanese encephalitis. Japanese encephalitis virus. pigs, water birds. mosquito bite. Leprosy. Mycobacterium leprae, ... Saint Louis encephalitis. Saint Louis encephalitis virus. birds. mosquito bite. Swine influenza. any strain of the influenza ... encephalitis virus. horses, donkeys, zebras, birds. mosquito bite. Ebola virus disease (a haemorrhagic fever). Ebolavirus spp. ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. Their genome[14] is contained in two ... Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. It is endemic in West ... The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
Even more dramatically, in most of its range in North America, the main vector for the Western equine encephalitis virus is ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus is a concern in the eastern United States. ... of passerine birds for preference and such birds are typically the main reservoir of the Eastern equine encephalitis virus in ... "Protection against Japanese encephalitis virus in mice and hamsters by treatment with carboxymethylacridanone, a potent ...
Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria, fungi, or parasites.[1][2] ... The number of new cases a year of acute encephalitis in Western countries is 7.4 cases per 100,000 people per year. In tropical ... Herpes simplex, West Nile, Rabies, Eastern equine encephalitis, others[2]. Causes. Infection, autoimmune, certain medication, ... Louis encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis virus), bunyavirus (La Crosse strain), arenavirus (lymphocytic choriomeningitis ...
Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute ... "Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal. 4 (2): 1-3. doi:10.5365/wpsar.2013.4.2.005. PMC 3762971. PMID 24015363.. ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Further information: Influenza A virus subtype H7N9. Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first ...
Western and Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus. ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector ( ... La Crosse Virus The La Crosse encephalitis virus is a type of arbovirus called a bunyavirus.[3] The Bunyavirales are mainly ...
For the virus that causes herpes simplex, see Herpes simplex virus. For all types of herpes viruses, see Herpesviridae. ... Herpesviral encephalitis and herpesviral meningitis Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare life-threatening condition that ... "Comparison of Western blot (immunoblot) and glycoprotein G-specific immunodot enzyme assay for detecting antibodies to herpes ... "Helping You With Herpes - Herpes Viruses Association". Herpes Viruses Association. Archived from the original on 2015-07-26. ...
Zika virus. Togaviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis * ... Detecting antibodies, the virus's RNA, or the virus itself[1]. Differential diagnosis. Dengue fever, Q fever,[2] Ebola virus ... February 1967). "Congo virus: a hitherto undescribed virus occurring in Africa. I. Human isolations-clinical notes". East Afr ... The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses proposed the name Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus, but the Soviets ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_equine_encephalitis_virus western equine encephalitis virus] ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_encephalitis Japanese encephalitis] virus. ,,ref name="pmid20132860",{{. cite. cytuj. journal. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps_virus mumps virus]. ,,ref name="pmid19870227",{{. cite. cytuj. journal. pismo. ,doi=10.1084/jem. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rous_sarcoma_virus Rous sarcoma virus]. ,,ref name="pmid20503720",{{. cite. cytuj. journal. pismo. ,. ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus". Vaccine. 21 (25-26): 4071-4080. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03 ... Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... or based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons,[43] vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV)[45][48] or filovirus- ...
Equine encephalitis (Eastern. *Western. *Venezuelan). *Foodborne illness. *Fungi. *Glanders. *Hantavirus. *Henipavirus. * ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) Botulinum toxin (botulism) Staphylococcal enterotoxin B Smallpox Marburg virus These ... Specimens of deadly bacteria and viruses were stolen from western laboratories and delivered by Aeroflot planes to support the ... Ustinov who was accidentally killed by the virus. The samples of Marburg taken from Ustinov's organs were more powerful than ... It was produced by injecting small amounts of the virus into chicken eggs. An especially virulent strain (codenamed India-1967 ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... The virus is able to cause a lethal encephalitis in rodents,[4] but generally only mild symptoms in humans.[5] Only one lethal ... The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... The modified virus reduced tumour growth and prolonged survival of mice with brain tumours.[9] The modified virus was also ...
Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. *Equine infectious anemia virus. *Feline immunodeficiency virus. *Jembrana disease virus ... "Indeterminate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 western blots: seroconversion risk, specificity of supplemental tests, and an ... "AIDS virus" redirects here. For the computer virus, see AIDS (computer virus). ... Montagnier's group named their isolated virus lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV).[132] As these two viruses turned out to ...
Zika virus. Togaviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis * ... Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 ... The enveloped virus is closely related to the West Nile virus and the St. Louis encephalitis virus. The positive sense single- ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).[3] While most ...
yellow fever virus [77] 1930 western equine encephalitis virus [78] 1933 eastern equine encephalitis virus [78] ... The virus was later shown to be a previously unrecognised herpes virus, which is now called Epstein-Barr virus.[55] ... The importance of tobacco mosaic virus in the history of viruses cannot be overstated. It was the first virus to be discovered ... Epstein-Barr virus is important in the history of viruses for being the first virus shown to cause cancer in humans.[57] ...
Zika virus. Togaviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis * ... the genetic sequence of the virus[97] based on the virus's RNA obtained from the Qatari case.[8][98] ... "Camels in Kenya test positive for MERS virus". Informer East Africa.. *^ "MERS antibody shows promise in rabbits; signs of ... "Mers virus: Saudis warned to wear masks near camels". BBC News. 11 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.. ...
Zika virus. Togaviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis * ...
The viruses which transmit Eastern equine encephalitis, California encephalitis and West Nile virus have been detected in ... in the western part of its range they readily and persistently bite people, especially in areas of shade and throughout most of ... 1986). "Aedes canadensis: A vector of Lacrosse virus (Caligornia Serogroup) in Ohio" (PDF). Journal of the American Mosquito ... It has also shown to be a secondary vector for the La Crosse virus in Ohio. D.M. Wood; P.T. Dang; R.A. Ellis (1979). The ...
Saint Louis encephalitis Scrub typhus Tularemia Venezuelan equine encephalitis West Nile fever Western equine encephalitis Zika ... Dangerous animal viruses are those that require few mutations to begin replicating themselves in human cells. These viruses are ... Rabies African sleeping sickness Dirofilariasis Eastern equine encephalitis Japanese encephalitis ... The West Nile virus appeared in the United States in 1999 in the New York City area, and moved through the country in the ...
Machupo virus (believed to be under development as of 1992) Veepox (hybrid of Venezuelan equine encephalitis with smallpox)[ ... who alerted Western intelligence in 1989 to the vast scope of Moscow's clandestine program. British Prime Minister Margaret ... Smallpox Bubonic plague Anthrax Venezuelan equine encephalitis Tularemia Influenza Brucellosis Marburg virus (believed to be ... Marburg virus, plague, Q fever, Junin virus, glanders, and smallpox. It was the largest producer of weaponized anthrax in the ...
It was later described in the United States after vaccinating horses for Eastern Equine Encephalitis, again using live virus ... Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis, Bacillus anthracis, tetanus antitoxin, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum ... showing that the virus can be spread by inoculation. Measuring levels of virus in the originally infected horses has shown that ... Identification of a previously undescribed divergent virus from the Flaviviridae family in an outbreak of equine serum ...
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus, Everglades virus, Highlands J virus, La Crosse Encephalitis virus in the United States ... Open-water marsh management is used on both the eastern and western coasts of the United States. Rotational impoundment ... Disease organisms transmitted by mosquitoes include West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, ... Zika virus and filariasis in the American tropics; Rift Valley fever, Wuchereria bancrofti, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/eastern-equine-encephalitis-virus-disease/) ... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/western-equine-encephalitis-virus-disease/case-definition/2015/) ... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/western-equine-encephalitis-virus-disease/case-definition/2014/) ... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/western-equine-encephalitis-virus-disease/case-definition/2011/) ...
... against western equine encephalitis virus (WEE) was constructed and characterized. Anti-WEE antibodies were expressed from ... Construction and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against western equine encephalitis virus Hybridoma. 2000 Apr;19(2): ... A repertoire of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against western equine encephalitis virus (WEE) was constructed and ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). Because many of the antibodies were highly ...
... an ancestral Sindbis virus-like virus, and an ancestral Eastern equine encephalitis virus-like virus. There have been under 700 ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus Sherman, M. B.; Weaver, S. C. (2010). "Structure of the Recombinant Alphavirus Western Equine ... The Western equine encephalomyelitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine ... Western equine encephalitis virus was one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological ...
The Western equine encephalitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine encephalitis ( ... Arbovirus encephalitis: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEEV) · Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEEV) · Venezuelan equine ... Arbovirus encephalitis: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV) · Powassan encephalitis (PV) · Deer tick virus encephalitis (DTV). ... Western equine encephalitis virus was one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological ...
Rescue and Characterization of Recombinant Virus from a New World Zika Virus Infectious Clone, Zika Virus Infectious Cell ... Detection of Infectious Virus from Field-collected Mosquitoes by Vero Cell Culture Assay, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: A ... Viruses in Human Sera by Microneutralization Assays Using MDCK-SIAT1 Cells, Multiplexed Isothermal Amplification Based ... Ex Vivo Infection of Murine Epidermis with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1, A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess ...
"Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Encephalitis Virus, Western ... Western Equine*Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine. *Encephalomyelitis Virus, Western Equine. *Western Equine Encephalitis ... "Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine" by people in Profiles. ...
Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) naturally cycles between mosquitos and birds or rodents, with a case fatality rate of ... Alphaviruses, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and WEEV are grouped ... western equine encephalitis virus; WEEV; pathogenicity; median lethal dose (MLD); mouse; aerosol alphavirus; western equine ... Figure 1. Relationship between input (Collison) and output (Impinger) virus titres of Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) ...
Inhibition of DNA synthesis in BHK cells infected with western equine encephalitis virus. 1. Induction of an inhibitory factor ... Inhibition of DNA synthesis in BHK cells infected with western equine encephalitis virus. 1. Induction of an inhibitory factor ...
... cross-reactions were observed between FM virus and members of the western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus antigenic complex. ... Highlands J virus) than with other WEE complex viruses. On the basis of these serological findings, as well as characterization ... A reconsideration of the taxonomy of the WEE complex and discussion of the epizoologic significance of FM virus are presented. ... Unpassaged field strains are nonpathogenic, or of low pathogenicity, for suckling mice; however, plaque-purified FM virus is ...
Analogous mutations were produced in full-length cDNA clones of the Cba 87 strain of western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus by ... the principal natural vector of WEE virus in the United States. Each of the vaccine candidates contained a deletion of the PE2 ... virus or the parental clone (WE2000). Likewise, after intrathoracic inoculation, mosquitoes transmitted the vaccine candidate ... virus in rodent models were identified during efforts to develop an improved VEE vaccine. ...
The three equine encephalitis viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause disease characterized by a severe ... and the Equine Encephalitis viruses. When used as a boost after priming the immune system with best-in-class pDNA vaccines, ... and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) disease. The VesiculoVax™-VEEV and VesiculoVax™-EEEV vaccines used in these ... and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis viruses.. Preliminary studies carried out by Profectus, in collaboration with investigators ...
Identification of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins That Confer Protection after DNA Vaccination. Penelope ... Identification of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins That Confer Protection after DNA Vaccination ... Identification of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins That Confer Protection after DNA Vaccination ... Identification of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins That Confer Protection after DNA Vaccination ...
Western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus (WEEV) is an alphavirus that belongs to the family Togaviridae. The virus is a single- ... Studies of other alphaviruses, such as Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), ... Identification of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins That Confer Protection after DNA Vaccination. Penelope ... Virulence variation among isolates of western equine encephalitis virus in an outbred mouse model. J. Gen. Virol. 90:1848-1858. ...
Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine Encephalomyelitis, Western Equine Humans Mice Molecular Sequence Data Nervous System Point ... Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) is a naturally occurring recombinant virus derived from ancestral Sindbis and Eastern ... Molecular Determinants of Mouse Neurovirulence and Mosquito Infection for Western Equine Encephalitis Virus ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an emerging pathogen of equids and humans, but infection of its rodent reservoir ...
Strong inhibition of CPE induced by western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus was observed in the mycelial fractions but not ... To several viruses which have cytopathic effects (CPE) on VERO cells, inhibition of these effects by the ethanol fractions was ... Encephalitis Dengue Fever West Nile Encephalitis Eastern Equine Encephalitis Western Equine Encephalitis La Crosse Encephalitis ... Encephalitis Viruses In Florida Horses : " West Nile virus " " Eastern equine encephalitis virus ". Maureen T. Long + 1 • Mar ...
western equine encephalitis virus disease western equine encephalitis virus disease Show All... ... eastern equine encephalitis virus disease eastern equine encephalitis virus disease * expenditure expenditure ... eastern equine virus disease eastern equine virus disease * eastern equinevirus disease eastern equinevirus disease ... jamestown canyon virus disease jamestown canyon virus disease * la crosse virus disease la crosse virus disease ...
Tag: Western equine encephalitis virus. Posted on December 15, 2014. May 6, 2016. ...
Western equine encephalitis virus recombinant soluble ectodomain of the envelope E2 glycoprotein. ... Western equine encephalitis virus recombinant soluble ectodomain of the envelope E2 glycoprotein. ... Western equine encephalitis virus recombinant soluble ectodomain of the envelope E2 glycoprotein ... Riboviria / Orthornavirae / Kitrinoviricota / Alsuviricetes / Martellivirales / Togaviridae / Alphavirus / Western equine ...
Louis encephalitis virus, Surveillance, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus, Wetlands",. author = "William Reisen and ... Patterns of avian seroprevalence to Western Equine encephalomyelitis and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in California, USA. ... Patterns of avian seroprevalence to Western Equine encephalomyelitis and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in California, USA. ... Patterns of avian seroprevalence to Western Equine encephalomyelitis and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in California, USA. ...
"Western equine encephalitis virus" virus name. The additional filters enable you with creating a sub-selection of items of this ... For tropical and RG4 viruses. In the event of a major biological incident regarding tropical (exotic) viruses or Risk Group 4 ... For other human viruses of medical importance. The University hospital of Bonn is in charge of our hotline dedicated to other ... distribute and track viruses and derived products. ... Use any term of the related virus lineage (combine with commas ...
... were experimentally infected with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses to describe ... were experimentally infected with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses to describe ... were experimentally infected with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses to describe ... were experimentally infected with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses to describe ...
Access Western Equine Encephalitis Virus Disease case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease 2005 Current Powassan virus disease 2005 Current St. Louis encephalitis virus disease ... Western equine encephalitis virus disease Case Definition(s). *Arboviral Diseases, Neuroinvasive and Non-neuroinvasive , 2015 ...
Children who recover from encephalitis may suffer permanent neurological sequelae. Reservoir hosts of WEE virus * Numerous ... Western Equine Encephalitis. The cause of Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE) was first identified in the 1930s in California. ... WEE virus also can cause severe disease and death in horses.. Causative agent *A virus in the Family Togaviridae, genus ... West Nile Virus in Indiana. HTML , PDF (920KB). *E-242-W. The Biology and Medical Importance of Mosquitoes in Indiana . HTML ...
Fever, headache, prostration, conjunctival inflammation, stiff neck, myalgia, arthralgia, CNS signs (including encephalitis), ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: Western equine encephalomyelitis Abbreviation: WEEV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 2 ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus synonyms, Eastern equine encephalitis virus pronunciation, Eastern equine encephalitis virus ... English dictionary definition of Eastern equine encephalitis virus. n. Abbr. EEE Encephalitis that is caused by a mosquito- ... borne virus and affects humans, horses, and some bird species. It occurs in small epidemics in the... ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus ( ...
Louis encephalitis virus disease. *West Nile virus disease. *Western equine encephalitis virus disease ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease. *Powassan virus disease. *St. ...
Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an enveloped RNA virus that is typically transmitted to ... N2 - Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an enveloped RNA virus that is typically transmitted ... AB - Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an enveloped RNA virus that is typically transmitted ... abstract = "Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an enveloped RNA virus that is typically ...
viral encephalitides (eastern, western, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis; St Louis, California encephalitis; West Nile Virus ... Enteroviral infections (i.e., Group A and B Coxsackie viruses and Echo viruses) (excludes polio virus) ... Ebola virus (see Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers). n/a. n/a. Ebola Virus Disease for Healthcare Workers [2014]. Update: ... Ebola Virus Disease for Healthcare Workers [2014]. Update: Recommendations for healthcare workers can be found at Ebola For ...
Louis encephalitis virus disease to Western equine encephalitis virus disease - 2019. In this Table, provisional cases* of ... Louis encephalitis virus disease to Western equine encephalitis virus disease - 2019. In this Table, provisional cases* of ... Tags , western equine encephalitis virus disease Clear All Sort by Alphabetical. Most Accessed. Most Relevant. Recently Added. ... Tags 2020 arboviral diseases babesiosis nedss western equine encephalitis virus disease and 3 more ...
This is highlighted by the emergence of chikungunya and Zika viruses in the New World. However, to comprehensively understand ... factors influencing reductions in virus activity must also be understood. Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), which ... Continued Evidence of Decline in the Enzootic Activity of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus in Colorado. Robb LL, Hartman DA, ... "Submergence" of Western equine encephalitis virus: Evidence of positive selection argues against genetic drift and fitness ...
  • An Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae , the WEE virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) transmitted by mosquitoes of the genera Culex and Culiseta . (thefullwiki.org)
  • A species of Alphavirus that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America. (jove.com)
  • An alphavirus isolated from nestling Cliff Swallows ( Petrochelidon pyrrhonota ) and House Sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) and from cimicid bugs ( Oeciacus vicarius ) in eastern Colorado, for which we propose the name Fort Morgan (FM) virus, is sensitive to the action of sodium deoxycholate, unstable at pH 2.0-4.0, and demonstrates no characteristics of temperature-sensitive mutants. (ajtmh.org)
  • Western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus (WEEV) is an alphavirus that belongs to the family Togaviridae . (asm.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA viruses of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an enveloped RNA virus that is typically transmitted to vertebrate hosts by infected mosquitoes. (utmb.edu)
  • Surprisingly, the nucleocapsid of WEEV, a New World virus, is more similar to the Old World alphavirus Sindbis virus than to other New World alphaviruses. (utmb.edu)
  • Sherman, M & Weaver, S 2010, ' Structure of the recombinant alphavirus western equine encephalitis virus revealed by cryoelectron microscopy ', Journal of Virology , vol. 84, no. 19, pp. 9775-9782. (utmb.edu)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) are both arthropodborne viruses, belonging to the genus Alphavirus , family Togaviridae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The togavirus genera are Alphavirus , which is carried by mosquitoes, and Rubivirus, which contains rubella, or German measles, virus. (britannica.com)
  • Some Alphavirus species produce severe encephalitis in humans. (britannica.com)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus, re-emerged as a global pathogen in recent past. (portlandpress.com)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an aedes mosquito-transmitted re-emerging alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a debilitating disease [ 1 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that requires cellular membrane cholesterol for both membrane fusion and efficient exit of progeny virus from infected cells. (rupress.org)
  • Three other encephalitis viruses belong to the Alphavirus genus and are also transmitted by mosquito bite. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Recovery from alphavirus encephalitis can occur without apparent neurological damage through the effects of antibody and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). (asm.org)
  • Sindbis virus (SINV) is the prototype alphavirus in the Togaviridae family and is related to western equine encephalitis virus ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • This invention addresses how to rapidly prevent alphavirus-induced encephalitides before and after exposure to alphaviruses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This invention can be used to prevent humans from alphavirus-induced encephalitides in the event of a bioterrorism attack or biowarfare in which alphaviruses such as Venezuelan (VEEV), eastern (EEEV) and western (WEEV) equine encephalitis viruses are deliberately released to humans, a natural outbreak of alphaviruses, and an accidental exposure to alphaviruses in laboratory. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The molecular and cellular aspects of arthritis due to alphavirus infections: lesson learned from Ross River virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cell surface binding of another alphavirus, Ross River virus, was found to be independent of heparan sulfate. (asm.org)
  • A subset of antibodies was found to cross-react with other alphaviruses, such as Sindbis virus (SIN), Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). (nih.gov)
  • Identification and characterization of viruses isolated, including new subtypes of western and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses and four new bunyaviruses (Las Maloyas, Resistencia, Barranqueras, and Antequera). (harvard.edu)
  • Alphaviruses, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and WEEV are grouped geographically as New World viruses capable of causing disease in both equids and humans, exhibiting overt encephalitic features in a significant number of cases. (mdpi.com)
  • Specific mutations associated with attenuation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus in rodent models were identified during efforts to develop an improved VEE vaccine. (ajtmh.org)
  • In vitro synthesis of infectious Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus RNA from a cDNA clone: analysis of a viable deletion mutant. (ajtmh.org)
  • Attenuating mutations in the E2 glycoprotein gene of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus: construction of single and multiple mutants in a full-length CDNA clone. (ajtmh.org)
  • Virulent and attenuated mutant Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus show marked differences in replication in infection in murine macrophages. (ajtmh.org)
  • The award will support the accelerated preclinical development and testing of a vaccine to protect soldiers against aerosol exposure with the Western, Eastern, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis viruses. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Preliminary studies carried out by Profectus, in collaboration with investigators at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB), demonstrated that vaccines based on the Profectus VesiculoVax™ platform provide rapid and durable protection of animals against lethal Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) disease. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Studies of other alphaviruses, such as Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), revealed that the structural proteins consist of a capsid protein, E3 (a signal peptide), E2 (an envelope glycoprotein responsible for receptor binding), 6K (a signal peptide and a possible viroporin), and E1 (an envelope glycoprotein responsible for the fusion of the viruses with cell membrane) ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in the Americas: hidden under the dengue umbrella. (cdc.gov)
  • Mosquito-borne virus diseases 3.1 Yellow fever M. G. R. Varma 3.2 Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever M. G. R. Varma 3.3 Japanese encephalitis M. G. R. Varma 3.4 Other encephalitides G.B. White 3.4.1 Californiaencephalitis 3.4.2 Eastern equine encephalitis 3.4.3 St Louis encephalitis 3.4.4 Western equine encephalitis 3.4.5 Venezuelan equine encephalitis 4. (ciesin.org)
  • They are Western (WEE), Eastern (EEE) and Venezuelan (VEE) equine encephalitis. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Venezuelan, Eastern and Western equine encephalitis. (helsinki.fi)
  • they include such agents as yellow fever and eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses. (nap.edu)
  • includes eastern, western and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis viruses and Getah virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Another study using Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus identified a 32-kDa receptor in mosquito cells which also appears to be a laminin receptor ( 34 ). (asm.org)
  • The virus is transmitted to people and horses by bites from infected mosquitoes (Culex tarsalis and Aedes taeniorhynchus) and birds during wet, summer months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Host-feeding patterns of Argentine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected during and after an epizootic of western equine encephalitis. (harvard.edu)
  • Arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes collected during and after the 1982-1983 epizootic of western equine encephalitis in Argentina. (harvard.edu)
  • Arthropod collections and virus isolations from Argentine mosquitoes. (harvard.edu)
  • Both of these potential candidates replicated in mosquitoes significantly less efficiently than did either wild-type WEE (Cba 87) virus or the parental clone (WE2000). (ajtmh.org)
  • Mosquitoes and encephalitis in the Yakima Valley, Washington. (ajtmh.org)
  • The three equine encephalitis viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause disease characterized by a severe inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) in horses and humans. (fiercepharma.com)
  • WEEV is endemic in western North America, where the virus is transmitted via mosquitoes from its reservoir in wild birds to humans and horses. (asm.org)
  • Both viruses are mainly spread in America and transmitted by mosquitoes to equines, birds and humans, causing a febrile disease (including encephalitis) with a significant frequency of fatal outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like West Nile Virus, this disease is normally found in birds, but is spread around by mosquitoes. (neogen.com)
  • But, with the moisture brings the chance for an increase in mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in Colorado. (lajuntatribunedemocrat.com)
  • Only certain species of mosquitoes carry the virus and very few mosquitoes actually are infected. (lajuntatribunedemocrat.com)
  • Mosquitoes are infected by feeding on a bird with virus in its blood. (lajuntatribunedemocrat.com)
  • These viruses are prevalent from May to September when mosquitoes are most abundant, but the risk to humans occurs primarily from August through early September. (lajuntatribunedemocrat.com)
  • Viruses cause most diseases spread to people by mosquitoes. (kidshealth.org)
  • Mosquitoes are one of the most common pests around the world and the most deadly because of the viruses that they carry. (jcehrlich.com)
  • Already, in Pennsylvania alone, there have been mosquitoes confirmed carrying West Nile virus and others carrying Zika . (jcehrlich.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic zoonosis that circulates in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophagic mosquito, Culiseta melanura , and wild passerine birds in freshwater hardwood swamps in the northeastern U.S. Epidemic/epizootic transmission to humans/equines typically occurs towards the end of the transmission season and is generally assumed to be mediated by locally abundant and contiguous mammalophagic "bridge vector" mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During such infections, the level of the virus may increase in these infected animals facilitating transmission to humans by mosquitoes. (epa.gov)
  • Summer infectious diseases are also transmitted by mosquitoes, including viral diseases caused by the arbovirus and flavivirus families of viruses. (durangoherald.com)
  • Many alphaviruses multiply in the cytoplasm of cells of arthropods and are transmitted to humans from mosquitoes, such as those causing equine encephalitis and Semiliki Forest virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alphaviruses cycle alternately between vertebrates and hematophagous insects (usually mosquitoes), suggesting either that virions bind to receptors that are highly conserved between species or that the virus can use multiple receptors. (asm.org)
  • Western equine encephalitis is a disease that is spread to humans by infected mosquitoes. (giiresearch.com)
  • Reevaluation of the western equine encephalitis antigenic complex of alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) as determined by neutralization tests. (harvard.edu)
  • Al·pha·vi·rus/ ( al´fah-vi″rus ) a genus of viruses of the family Togaviridae that cause encephalitis or febrile illness with rash or arthralgia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • WEE is a recombinant virus between two other alphaviruses, an ancestral Sindbis virus-like virus, and an ancestral Eastern equine encephalitis virus-like virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • We developed two types of chimeric Sindbis virus (SINV)/western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) alphaviruses to investigate their potential use as live virus vaccines against WEE. (utmb.edu)
  • Laine M , Luukkainen R , Toivanen A . Sindbis viruses and other alphaviruses as cause of human arthritic disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Alphaviruses are an important cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis. (asm.org)
  • Pathogenic alphaviruses of the Western hemisphere occur primarily in the summer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses with wide species ranges and diverse tissue tropisms. (asm.org)
  • The alphaviruses belong to a genus of enveloped RNA viruses which can replicate in insects, birds, and mammals, including humans ( 60 ). (asm.org)
  • A better knowledge of the cellular receptors used by alphaviruses would have obvious implications for understanding of the different cellular tropisms and pathogeneses of these viruses, as well as applications to the design of safe live-attenuated vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) naturally cycles between mosquitos and birds or rodents, with a case fatality rate of up to 15% in humans during epizootic outbreaks. (mdpi.com)
  • WEEV causes periodic epizootic outbreaks in Western and Central North America and is maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitos and birds or rodents [ 1 ] Humans are usually infected as a result of close proximity to infected equines and by being bitten by an infected mosquito. (mdpi.com)
  • WEEV is found in the U.S. west of the Mississippi River, as far south as Argentina, and as far north as western Canada. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) is a naturally occurring recombinant virus derived from ancestral Sindbis and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • We previously showed that infection by WEEV isolates McMillan (McM) and IMP-181 (IMP) results in high (∼90-100%) and low (0%) mortality, respectively, in outbred CD-1 mice when virus is delivered by either subcutaneous or aerosol routes. (cdc.gov)
  • WEEV is an important cause of viral encephalitis in humans and horses in the Americas, and infection results in a range of disease, from mild flu-like illnesses to encephalitis, coma, and death. (utmb.edu)
  • In order to establish an accurate, ready-to-use assay for simultaneous detection of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), we developed one duplex TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, which can be used in human and vector surveillance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared with virus isolation, the gold standard, the duplex real time RT-PCR assay we developed was 10-fold more sensitive for both WEEV and EEEV detection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we designed the primers and probes of real-time RT-PCR for EEEV and WEEV, and we have established a duplex real time RT-PCR method for simultaneously detection and discrimination of these two viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The West Nile virus, which can also cause encephalitis, was found in the northeastern United States for the first time in 1999, is a good example of this mode of transmission. (epa.gov)
  • What other viruses cause encephalitis? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Bacterial infections and noninfectious inflammatory conditions also can cause encephalitis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Both HSV type 1 - associated with cold sores and fever blisters around your mouth - and HSV type 2 - associated with genital herpes - can cause encephalitis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The VesiculoVax™-VEEV and VesiculoVax™-EEEV vaccines used in these studies were based on recombinant Isfahan virus (rISFV) that had been engineered to express surface structures of VEEV and EEEV. (fiercepharma.com)
  • WNV and Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) are transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • however, the amino-terminal half of the capsid, which encodes the RNA-binding domain, was derived from either SINV or eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) strain FL93-939. (utmb.edu)
  • This mosquito species serves as the primary vector of EEEV among wild bird species, but also is capable of occasionally contributing to epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans/equines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vermont is a newly emergent region for EEEV activity that is located on the northern boundary of the geographic range of the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • WEE was discovered in 1930 when a number of horses in the San Joaquin Valley of California, USA died of a mysterious encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause of Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE) was first identified in the 1930's in California. (purdue.edu)
  • Acute Encephalitis Hospitalizations, California, 1990-1999: Unrecognized Arboviral Encephalitis? (cdc.gov)
  • Historically, California has experience local transmission of malaria, western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE), St.Louis encephalitis (SLE), California encephalitis viruses, canine heartworm, and West Nile virus (WNV). (mvcac.org)
  • Canine heartworm and West Nile virus continue to have frequent local transmission in California with West Nile virus human cases numbering in the hundreds every year. (mvcac.org)
  • Encephalitis that is caused by a mosquito-borne virus and affects humans, horses, and some bird species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • WN fever was initially considered a minor arbovirosis, usually inducing a nonsymptomatic or a mild flu-like illness in humans, but some cases of encephalitis associated with fatalities were reported in Israel in the 1950s. (springer.com)
  • In Romania, a few cases of WN encephalitis in humans are noticed every year, and in France, recent WN infections have been detected in monitored sentinel birds in 2001 and 2002. (springer.com)
  • In Europe, an enhanced surveillance of WN infection in humans, horses, birds, and vectors may reveal the presence of the virus in different locations. (springer.com)
  • Unlike Eastern equine encephalitis , the overall mortality of WEE is low (approximately 4%) and is associated mostly with infection in the elderly. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was detected by days 10 and 14 after infection with WEE and SLE viruses, respectively, by indirect fluorescent antibody tests, hemagglutination inhibition tests, and plaque reduction neutralization tests on sera and in direct enzyme immunoassays (EIA) on both sera and eluates from filter paper samples. (elsevier.com)
  • A striking example of a defined lipid requirement in membrane fusion is the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) 1 fusion protein, which mediates the cholesterol and sphingolipid- dependent fusion of the virus membrane with the cellular membrane during virus infection. (rupress.org)
  • This simple virus structure protects the virus RNA genome, mediates virus fusion with the cell membrane to release the nucleocapsid and initiate infection, and is efficiently assembled during the budding of progeny virions from the host cell plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • SFV is a highly developed system to study virus membrane fusion and budding, two key steps in infection by all enveloped viruses. (rupress.org)
  • Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus. (nih.gov)
  • Illness ranges from asymptomatic infection (about one in 200 infections is estimated to become clinically apparent) to severe encephalitis with a high mortality and a high rate of permanent neurological sequelae in survivors (approximately 30 per cent). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The incubation period, from infection to developing Japanese encephalitis, is five to 15 days. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus infection. (helsinki.fi)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type I and II infection. (helsinki.fi)
  • Due to the nonrenewable nature of neurons, recovery from viral infection of the central nervous system requires noncytopathic mechanisms for control of virus replication. (asm.org)
  • To establish an in vitro cell culture system that will allow the study of mechanisms of IFN-γ-mediated control of Sindbis virus (SINV) replication in neurons, we have characterized the susceptibility to SINV infection and IFN-γ responsiveness of two neuronal cell lines that can be differentiated in vitro: CSM14.1, a rat nigral cell line, and NSC34, a mouse motor neuron cell line. (asm.org)
  • Differentiated CSM14.1 cells treated 24 h after infection with IFN-γ responded with increased cell viability and clearance of infectious virus. (asm.org)
  • Innate and adaptive immune responses developed in response to SINV infection are critical for host survival and virus clearance ( 4 , 6 , 18 , 39 ), and SINV-induced encephalitis is an excellent model system for study of the factors involved in determining the outcome of viral encephalomyelitis ( 4 , 5 , 17 , 67 , 68 ). (asm.org)
  • Recovery from virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is dependent upon elimination of the infecting virus and preservation of target cells. (asm.org)
  • Serologic studies in the Philippines and elsewhere in Southeast Asia indicated that Ebola virus is a prevalent cause of infection among macaques (Manson 1989). (deliciousghost.com)
  • The mode of primary infection and the natural ecology of these viruses are unknown. (deliciousghost.com)
  • However, in all instances, study of antibody in bats failed to detect evidence of infection, and no virus was isolated form bat tissue. (deliciousghost.com)
  • A primary infection may be a reactivation of a virus that had been inactive after a previous illness. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Also known as post-infection encephalitis, secondary encephalitis often occurs two to three weeks after the initial infection. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Symptoms of an infection might appear within a few days to a couple of weeks after exposure to a mosquito-borne virus. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Infection with the rabies virus, which is usually transmitted by a bite from an infected animal, causes a rapid progression to encephalitis once symptoms begin. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Adult hens, similar to those used for arbovirus surveillance, were experimentally infected with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses to describe the viremia response, to compare serological testing methods, and to evaluate a new method of collecting whole blood onto filter paper strips from lancet pricks of the chicken comb. (elsevier.com)
  • Western equine encephalitis is caused by the western equine encephalitis virus, an arbovirus. (giiresearch.com)
  • Rarely, mosquito-borne diseases can cause serious problems, such as encephalitis , a swelling of the brain. (kidshealth.org)
  • Tick-borne diseases M. G. R. Varma 4.1 Tick-borne virus diseases 4.1 .1 Colorado tick fever 4.1.2 Louping ill 4.1.3 Encephalitis 4.1.4 Kyasanur Forest disease 4.2 Tick-borne borrelioses 4.2.1 Tick-borne relapsing fever 4.2.2 Erythema borreliosis migrans 4.3 Tick-borne rickettsioses 4.3.1 Rocky Mountain spotted fever 4.3.2 Boutonneuse fever, Siberian and Queensland tick typhus 5. (ciesin.org)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, the Agency) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are working closely with each other and with other federal, state, and local agencies to protect the public from mosquito-borne diseases such as the West Nile virus. (epa.gov)
  • Most of these diseases have been prominent as endemic or epidemic diseases in the United States in the past, but today, only the insect-borne (arboviral) encephalitides occur annually and dengue occurs periodically in this country. (epa.gov)
  • Horse Diseases Equine encephalitesFive kinds of viruses kill horses, people and wild animals including birds.Horses are especially sensitive to all of these encephalitis viruses. (powershow.com)
  • Most persons infected with mosquito-borne viral diseases such as West Nile virus remain asymptomatic but a small percentage of those infected will develop a flu-like illness. (durangoherald.com)
  • The Health District has started disease surveillance mosquito trapping targeting species of mosquitos that transmit diseases, including trapping methods for detection of mosquitos capable of transmitting the Zika virus, should they appear in the Truckee Meadows area. (washoecounty.us)
  • Locally, the most prevalent mosquito-borne diseases are West Nile virus and Western equine encephalitis. (vaildaily.com)
  • Please indicate your level of awareness of the following equine diseases. (constantcontact.com)
  • Any of a genus of single-stranded RNA viruses that infect animals and cause diseases such as chikungunya and Eastern equine encephalitis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although a number of movement disorders has been associated with virological diseases such as Coxsackie B, measles, polio, herpesvirus, encephalitis lethargica, western equine encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis 4-8 , dystonia is an uncommon sequelae of post-viral encephalitis usually, it has been associated with other parkinsonian phenomena 9 . (scielo.br)
  • In cases of Japanese encephalitis, the most common of the above diseases, extrapiramidal symptoms were described in 70% of patients 10 , but the majority of them had parkinsonian features as the main symptom and even patients with dystonia rigidity, hypokinesia, masked face and tremor were frequent. (scielo.br)
  • The Western equine encephalitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine encephalitis (WEE). (thefullwiki.org)
  • The Western equine encephalomyelitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Birds can carry these viruses without developing disease and serve as the viral reservoir. (fiercepharma.com)
  • WEE virus also can cause severe disease and death in horses. (purdue.edu)
  • Western Equine Encephalitis disease overview, 2020 pipeline review, insights into leading companies, dominant mechanism of action, majority of administration route of Western Equine Encephalitis therapies, pipeline by phase and others are included. (reportbuyer.com)
  • Horse owners have to be wary of encephalitis, a neurologic disease caused by viruses, otherwise known as "sleeping sickness. (neogen.com)
  • Equine Infectious AnemiaEquine infectious anemia (EIA) is a highly contagious and potentially fatal viral disease for equines. (powershow.com)
  • a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Eventually the virus attacks the cells of the central nervous system, causing the typical symptoms of the disease to appear. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Ross River virus disease. (helsinki.fi)
  • In addition to age, the severity of disease in infected mice is dependent on the virus strain and genetic background of the mouse ( 28 , 61 , 62 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • Terrorism involving use of biological warfare agents (as disease causing viruses or herbicides). (nap.edu)
  • The incubation period for needle- transmitted Ebola virus is 5 to 7 days and that for person to person transmitted disease is 6 to 12 days. (deliciousghost.com)
  • In addition, recent work has shown that HS is also involved in the binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, respiratory syncytial virus, dengue virus, and adeno-associated virus type 2 ( 9 , 21 , 32 , 47 , 62 ). (asm.org)
  • Global Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Western Equine Encephalitis - Pipeline Review, H1 2018 , provides an overview of the Western Equine Encephalitis (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape. (giiresearch.com)
  • Global Markets Direct's Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Western Equine Encephalitis - Pipeline Review, H1 2018 , provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Western Equine Encephalitis (Infectious Disease), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (giiresearch.com)
  • The Western Equine Encephalitis (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide also reviews of key players involved in therapeutic development for Western Equine Encephalitis and features dormant and discontinued projects. (giiresearch.com)
  • Western Equine Encephalitis (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage. (giiresearch.com)
  • The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Western Equine Encephalitis (Infectious Disease). (giiresearch.com)
  • The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Western Equine Encephalitis (Infectious Disease) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (giiresearch.com)
  • The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Western Equine Encephalitis (Infectious Disease) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects. (giiresearch.com)
  • The pipeline guide evaluates Western Equine Encephalitis (Infectious Disease) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (giiresearch.com)
  • Find and recognize significant and varied types of therapeutics under development for Western Equine Encephalitis (Infectious Disease). (giiresearch.com)
  • Formulate corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Western Equine Encephalitis (Infectious Disease) pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics. (giiresearch.com)
  • This is highlighted by the emergence of chikungunya and Zika viruses in the New World. (cdc.gov)
  • Re-emergence of Chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong viruses: evidence for distinct geographical lineages and distant evolutionary relationships. (cdc.gov)
  • Wahid B , Ali A , Rafique S , Idrees M . Global expansion of chikungunya virus: mapping the 64-year history. (cdc.gov)
  • Approximately 15-20% of horses that acquire the virus will die or be put down. (wikipedia.org)
  • Black circles indicate wildlife, domestic animals, and birds from South Africa, February 2010-September 2018, and open circles indicate previously reported virus-positive horses ( 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Horses also may be severely or fatally infected, by equine encephalitis. (britannica.com)
  • All students are required to participate in a weekly Equine Care Day where they learn about barn safety and management skills, perform barn chores, help address the basic needs of the horses, and attend an equine care lecture. (equusfoundation.org)
  • Horses are especially sensitive to all of these encephalitis viruses. (powershow.com)
  • THOUSANDS of horses are killed by these viruses. (powershow.com)
  • ASSUMING virus amplifications in horses and not other hosts. (powershow.com)
  • Insect transmission of EIAV is dependent on the number and habits of the insects, the density of the horse population, the number of times the insect bites the same and other horses, the amount of blood transferred and the level of virus. (powershow.com)
  • Severe symptoms include encephalitis and/or meningitis . (purdue.edu)
  • Central nervous system (e.g., meningitis and encephalitis): For diagnosis of meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum, as well as stool or throat swabs, can be collected because viruses are sometimes shed into these sites. (issuu.com)
  • This often resolves without complication, but a very small percentage of those infected may suffer from serious neurologic problems including meningitis or encephalitis. (durangoherald.com)
  • The major types of viral encephalitis in the United States include St. Louis, LaCrosse, Eastern equine and Western equine. (epa.gov)
  • In general, young children and older adults are at greater risk of most types of viral encephalitis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In the UK, rare cases of Japanese encephalitis are reported in travellers from abroad. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • But by far, the majority of cases of Japanese encephalitis do not have either brain symptoms or serious consequences. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus Sherman, M. B. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant chimeric western and eastern equine encephalitis viruses as potential vaccine candidates. (ajtmh.org)
  • North American Eastern equine encephalitis virus (13,14), Highlands J virus from North America (15), Western equine encephalitis virus (16) and Sindbis virus (17). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis on Upswing in New England States," Sept. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatusj, japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis is up to 90% fatal, with western equine encephalitis being less so. (neogen.com)
  • Examples are western and eastern equine encephalitis, St Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus. (durangoherald.com)
  • These viruses can cause infections such as West Nile, La Crosse, St. Louis, western equine and eastern equine encephalitis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Analogous mutations were produced in full-length cDNA clones of the Cba 87 strain of western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus by site-directed mutagenesis in an attempt to develop an improved WEE vaccine. (ajtmh.org)
  • In 1998, a virulent WN strain from lineage I was identified in dying migrating storks and domestic geese showing clinical symptoms of encephalitis and paralysis in Israel. (springer.com)
  • Zika virus. (neogen.com)
  • Big in the news lately, Zika virus is known for its potential to cause birth defects when passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. (neogen.com)
  • Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One-day-old chickens vaccinated with either of the two vaccine candidates did not become viremic when challenged with virulent WEE virus two weeks later. (ajtmh.org)
  • ISFV is a vesiculovirus related to, but serologically and genetically distinct from, the prototype vesicular stomatitis virus vector used in the Profectus Ebola vaccine currently in development. (fiercepharma.com)
  • The new Japanese encephalitis (IXIARO) vaccine was launched by Novartis more than three years ago, and in 2013 new guidance was given for its use in children. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A heterologous coiled coil can substitute for helix I of the Sindbis virus capsid protein. (harvard.edu)
  • prototypes include Sindbis virus and eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses. (britannica.com)
  • We show here that the widely expressed glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate can participate in the binding of Sindbis virus to cells. (asm.org)
  • Sindbis virus bound to immobilized heparin, and this interaction was blocked by neutralizing antibodies against the viral E2 glycoprotein. (asm.org)
  • Further experiments showed that a high degree of sulfation was critical for the ability of heparin to bind Sindbis virus. (asm.org)
  • However, Sindbis virus was still able to infect and replicate on cells which were completely deficient in heparan sulfate, indicating that additional receptors must be involved. (asm.org)
  • A previous study has identified a role for the 67-kDa high-affinity laminin receptor in binding of Sindbis virus (SV) to rodent and monkey cells but not to avian cells ( 68 ). (asm.org)
  • Animal pathogens are most commonly bacteria and viruses, while common plant pathogens also include fungi. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Class of substances that can destroy or inhibit the growth of pathogenic groups of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. (nap.edu)
  • In addition, however, these carbohydrates are important in the cell surface binding of a number of bacteria, parasites, and viruses ( 52 ). (asm.org)
  • Common childhood infections - such as measles (rubeola), mumps and German measles (rubella) - used to be fairly common causes of secondary encephalitis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • They have a wide geographic distribution and pose a serious threat to human health in certain regions, causing fever, rash, arthralgia, myalgia, and fatal encephalitis. (asm.org)
  • The initial detection of enzootic activity each summer coincided closely with the appearance of hatching year birds of these species in our study areas, perhaps indicating their role in virus amplification. (elsevier.com)
  • In Colorado, these viruses are transmitted to people by a species called Culex tarsalis, a medium-sized mosquito that feeds in the few hours around dawn and dusk. (lajuntatribunedemocrat.com)
  • Vector competence of five common mosquito species in the People's Republic of China for Western equine encephalitis virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Proteins are produced from polyadenylated monocistronic mRNA species transcribed from virus RNA. (deliciousghost.com)
  • Weather factors in the prediction of western equine encephalitis epidemics in Manitoba. (medscape.com)
  • These viruses are normally infections of birds or small mammals. (epa.gov)
  • Birds are the common hosts for several of the various encephalitis viruses. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus, in particular, is also able to replicate itself in pigs and birds. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Work TH, Hurlbut HS, Taylor RM (1955) Indigenous wild birds of the Nile Delta as potential West Nile virus circulating reservoirs. (springer.com)
  • 2. Croup and bronchitis can be caused by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, RSV, and adenovirus. (issuu.com)
  • 4. Pneumonia in adults can be caused by influenza virus, VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and RSV. (issuu.com)
  • Like Japanese encephalitis, these viruses often only produce mild general symptoms - similar to mild influenza . (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Viruses are in highest concentrations during the first several days following onset of symptoms. (issuu.com)
  • Western equine encephalitis (WEE) is difficult to diagnose because of the lack of specificity in symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Encephalitis often causes only mild flu-like signs and symptoms - such as a fever or headache - or no symptoms at all. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Get immediate care if you are experiencing any of the more-severe symptoms associated with encephalitis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Infants and young children with any signs or symptoms of encephalitis should receive urgent care. (mayoclinic.org)
  • These viruses include the poliovirus and the coxsackievirus, which usually cause an illness with flu-like symptoms, eye inflammation and abdominal pain. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Symptoms range from mild to severe and may include only fever and headache to encephalitis with delirium, disorientation or coma. (giiresearch.com)
  • Regarding our specific case, some particular features, such as the beginning of symptoms after several years of encephalitis, points to a progressive decline of dopamine, which is pronounced after exercise. (scielo.br)
  • Vaccines can prevent some mosquito-borne illnesses, such as dengue fever, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis. (kidshealth.org)
  • Not transmitted from person to person except rarely by transfusion, and for West Nile virus by organ transplant, breastmilk or transplacentally [530, 1047]. (cdc.gov)
  • Awareness of West Nile Virus has increased drastically in the past two decades, and people are taking preventive measures more than ever. (neogen.com)
  • West Nile virus detection in urine. (nih.gov)
  • Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. (nih.gov)
  • Current challenges posed by the emergence of West Nile virus in the Western hemisphere illustrate the importance of cooperation and partnership at all levels of government to protect public health. (epa.gov)
  • West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus. (springer.com)
  • Smithburn KC (1942) Differentiation of West Nile virus from the viruses of Saint Louis encephalitis and Japanese B encephalitis. (springer.com)
  • Melnick JL, Paul JR, Riordan JT, Barnett VH, Goldblum N, Zabin E (1951) Isolation from human sera in Egypt of a virus apparently identical to West Nile virus. (springer.com)
  • Taylor RM, Work TH, Hurlbut HS, Rizk F (1956) A study of the ecology of West Nile virus in Egypt. (springer.com)
  • George S, Gourie-Devi M, Rao JA, Prasad SR, Pavri KM (1984) Isolation of West Nile virus from the brains of children who had died of encephalitis. (springer.com)
  • Murgue B, Zeller H, Deubel V (2002) The ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in Africa, Europe. (springer.com)
  • In: Mackenzie JS, Barrett ADT, Deubel V (eds) Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. (springer.com)
  • DNA vaccines encoding different portions of the structural proteins of western equine encephalitis virus were tested for the efficacy of their protection in a 100% lethal mouse model of the virus. (asm.org)
  • The Powassan virus is carried by ticks and causes encephalitis in the Midwestern United States. (mayoclinic.org)
  • V. Summary of the case against Culex tarsalis Coquillett as a vector of the St. Louis and western equine viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • Viremia and serological responses in adult chickens infected with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. (elsevier.com)
  • Reference strains in this study included Chikgunya virus (CHIK), Japanese B encephalitis virus (JEV), Tick born encephalitis virus (TBEV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), Dengue virus (DEN) and Yellow fever virus (YFV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Saint Louis encephalitis and Rocio encephalitis. (helsinki.fi)
  • a Mosquito Host of the Viruses of Western Equine and St. Louis Encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This family also includes the dengue virus and yellow fever virus. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • 2018. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/icd/view/ICD-10-CM/919424/all/A83_4___Australian_encephalitis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • NOTE: transmission of WEE virus in Indiana might occur in southwestern counties with irrigated agriculture. (purdue.edu)
  • Where does Japanese encephalitis occur and how many people are affected? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A second process, recombination, can occur ineither segmented or unsegmented viruses when `donor'nucleotide sequence is introduced into a single, contiguous ` acceptor ' RNA molecule to produce a new RNA containing genetic information from more than one source. (biology-online.org)
  • Stiff-person spectrum disorders (SPSD) (N=71), cerebellar ataxia (N=55), epilepsy (N=35) and limbic encephalitis (N=7) could occur either in isolation or as part of an overlap syndrome (N=44), and were designated core manifestations. (scoop.it)
  • Examples of substances handled by a BSL-4 lab include: Marburg virus, Ebola virus, Lassa fever and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. (globalresearch.ca)
  • The virus causes a high fever, severe headaches, joint paint, rashes, mild gum or nose bleeding and low white cell count. (neogen.com)
  • It is caused by a tick-borne virus and produces fever and flu-like illness within a few days of the tick bite. (durangoherald.com)
  • Ebola virus, a member of the Filoviridae, burst from obscurity with spectacular outbreaks of severe, haemorrhagic fever. (deliciousghost.com)
  • This virus contains an envelope that is made up of glycoproteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection of North American eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses by nucleic acid amplification assays. (cdc.gov)
  • 5. The classification of viruses is based on nucleic acid type, size and shape of virion, and presence or absence of an envelope. (issuu.com)
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • With differentiation, CSM14.1 cells reduced virus replication and became progressively resistant to virus-induced cell death, resulting in prolonged virus replication. (asm.org)
  • Type I interferon (IFN) is important for initial control of virus replication ( 6 , 16 , 55 ), and both humoral ( 6 , 19 , 39 , 63 ) and cellular ( 4 , 33 ) arms of the adaptive immune response play critical roles in facilitating clearance from the CNS. (asm.org)
  • Passive transfer of SINV antibody to persistently infected immunodeficient SCID mice rapidly clears infectious virus from the CNS without neurologic sequelae ( 6 , 39 ), and treatment of persistently infected mature dorsal root ganglia, neurons, and AT3-Bcl2 prostatic carcinoma cells with anti-E2 monoclonal antibody suppresses SINV replication ( 11 , 12 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • The replication in and destruction of the host cell is rapid and produces a large number of viruses budding from the cell membrane. (deliciousghost.com)
  • Certain viruses can actually infect the mosquito itself, getting into the anticoagulants and other chemicals that they transmit when they bite. (jcehrlich.com)
  • Members of my parents generation recall public-health admonitions to avoid swimming pools during the summer because of concerns about polio, a virus that can infect the nervous system and produce chronic paralysis. (durangoherald.com)
  • By hemagglutination-inhibition (HI), complement-fixation, and neutralization tests, cross-reactions were observed between FM virus and members of the western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus antigenic complex. (ajtmh.org)
  • Short-incubation HI tests indicated that the new isolate shared closer antigenic relationships with WEE complex virus strains from the eastern United States (Highlands J virus) than with other WEE complex viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • On the basis of these serological findings, as well as characterization of the structural polypeptides and oligonucleotides, we suggest that FM is a distinct virus belonging to the WEE antigenic complex. (ajtmh.org)
  • Antigenic shift in in¯uenza A virus is an example of this sort of genetic exchange and serves as a good illustration of the potential evolutionary significance of such events. (biology-online.org)
  • Encephalitis (en-sef-uh-LIE-tis) is inflammation of the brain. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Calculations of attributable risk show that GC is one of the major cofactors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission ( 19 ), increasing risks of HIV transmission about threefold. (asm.org)
  • A repertoire of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against western equine encephalitis virus (WEE) was constructed and characterized. (nih.gov)
  • Each of the antibodies was functionally assessed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), Western blotting, and immunoprecipitations. (nih.gov)
  • All antibodies bound to WEE antigen in ELISAs, whereas only a subgroup of antibodies was found to be active in Western blotting and immunoprecipitations. (nih.gov)
  • Laboratory tests that detect antibodies to WEE virus in a patient's blood. (purdue.edu)
  • Neutralizing antibodies to arthropod-borne viruses in human beings and animals in the Union of South Africa. (cdc.gov)