A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A group of abnormal hemoglobins in which amino acid substitutions take place in either the alpha or beta chains but near the heme iron. This results in facilitated oxidation of the hemoglobin to yield excess methemoglobin which leads to cyanosis.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Provenance and geographic spread of St. Louis encephalitis virus. MBio 4(3):e00322-13. doi:10.1128/mBio.00322-13. ...
Her thesis was titled "Studies on the Virus of St. Louis Encephalitis." Cook's admission to Bryn Mawr was a subject of intense ... Cook, Enid (1937). "Studies on the Virus of St. Louis Encephalitis". "Letter from M. Carey Thomas to Marion Park , Black at ... During her time at the university she published a number of journal articles on her research into St. Louis encephalitis and on ... Panama where she was the first person to isolate the yellow fever virus in Panama, and, along with her physician husband ...
Dermanyssus gallinae has been shown to transmit the virus causing St Louis encephalitis virus between chickens. (the main ... doi:10.1001/archderm.1980.01640280071023 [4] Smith, M. G. (1947). St.Louis encephalitis: transmission of virus to chickens by ... St. Louis: Mosby / Elsevier, ISBN 0-323-0776-17. McDaniel, B. (1979) How to Know the Mites and Ticks. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown ... St. Louis: Saunders / Elsevier, ISBN 978-1-4160-4412-3. Hendrix, C.M. & Robinson, E. (2011) Diagnostic Parasitology for ...
It is a disease vector of St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus. Strickman, D.; Darsie, R. F. Jr. (1988). "The previously ...
St. Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, and West Nile fever, and may be a vector of the Zika virus. It causes ... Louis encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Zika virus and West Nile virus. It is taxonomically regarded as a ... In the southern U.S., it is the primary vector of St. Louis encephalitis virus. In India and Southeast Asia, it is the primary ... Very bad news for Brazil': Zika virus found in second mosquito species by STEPHANIE NOLEN (RIO DE JANEIRO - The Globe) ...
"Preliminary studies of Aedes bahamensis as a host and potential vector of St. Louis encephalitis virus". J Am Mosq Control ... They are thought to be capable of transmitting St. Louis encephalitis. "Systematic Catalog of Culicidae". Retrieved 18 February ...
Feeding Habits of Culex tarsalis Coq., a Mosquito Host of the Viruses of Western Equine and St. Louis Encephalitis." Journal of ... 2. 7 MBL ST, WOODS HOLE, MA 02543: Marine Biological Laboratory, 1953. Bang, Betsy G., and Frederik B. Bang. "Laryngotracheitis ... "Replacement of virus-destroyed epithelium by keratinized squamous cells in vitamin A-deprived chickens." Proceedings of the ... "Virus-induced lysosomal enzyme dissolution of nasal turbinate cartilage." The American Journal of Pathology 87.3 (1977): 667. ...
They may be a reservoir for Powassan or St Louis encephalitis virus, based on some antibody screening analyses. Columbian ...
... to Viruses of St. Louis and Japanese B Encephalitis". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 47 (1): 178-181. doi:10.3181/00379727- ... Eaton, M. D.; Beck, M. D. (1941). "A New Strain of Virus of Influenza B Isolated During an Epidemic in California". ... Horsfall, FL; Hahn, RG (29 February 1940). "A Latent Virus in Normal Mice Capable of Producing Pneumonia in ITS Natural Host". ... Some derivative works of the Waterhouse publication which also presented the existence of the hamster were Louis Fraser's 1849 ...
"Effect of rearing temperature on transovarial transmission of St. Louis encephalitis virus in mosquitoes [Aedes albopictus and ...
They are competent arbovirus vectors known to transmit the West Nile virus as well as Japanese and St. Louis encephalitis. They ... Research has shown that Japanese Encephalitis Virus and West Nile virus have different infection rates depending on genetic ... from Germany Have Vector Competence for Japan Encephalitis Virus but are Refractory to Infection with West Nile Virus". ... They are capable of experimental transmission of West Nile virus and is considered to be an active vector of West Nile virus ...
... chimeras of St Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus exhibit altered in vitro cytopathic and growth phenotypes". Journal ... In Herpes simplex virus, the structural gene sequence responsible for virulence was found in two locations in the genome ... Knipe, David; Ruyechan, William; Honess, Robert; Roizman, Bernard (1979). "Molecular genetics of Herpes Simplex Virus: The ...
... chloropterus has been found infected with St. Louis encephalitis virus and Ilhéus virus, and transmits yellow fever ... Isolation of Ilhéus Virus from Sabethes chloropterus captured in Guatemala in 1956. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and ... virus to humans. As listed by the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit: Subgenus Davismyia Lane and Cerqueira Sabethes (Davismyia) ...
The diseases they vector include arbovirus infections such as West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis, or St. Louis encephalitis ... Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and Western and Eastern equine encephalitis. Brazilian scientists are ... Cat Que Virus (CQV)has been largely reported in Culex mosquitoes in China and in pigs in Vietnam. For CQV, domestic pigs are ... Antibodies against the virus have been reported in swine reared locally in China. Arbovirus infections transmitted by various ...
Louis, MO: Elsevier. pp. 269-270. ISBN 978-1-4557-0892-5. Ed Yong (18 March 2013). "Distinctive virus behind mystery horse ... It was later described in the United States after vaccinating horses for Eastern Equine Encephalitis, again using live virus ... 2010). Equine Internal Medicine (Third ed.). St Louis, MO: Saunders. pp. 957-959. ISBN 978-1-4160-5670-6.CS1 maint: multiple ... showing that the virus can be spread by inoculation. Measuring levels of virus in the originally infected horses has shown that ...
Dermanyssus gallinae has been shown to transmit between chickens the virus causing St Louis encephalitis (the main transmitters ... Smith, M. G. (1947). "St. Louis encephalitis: transmission of virus to chickens by infected mites Dermanyssus gallinae and ... St. Louis: Mosby / Elsevier, ISBN 0-323-0776-17. Lancaster, J.L. & Meisch, M.V. (1986). Arthropods in Livestock and Poultry ... St. Louis: Saunders / Elsevier, ISBN 978-1-4160-4412-3. Hendrix, C.M. & Robinson, E. (2011). Diagnostic Parasitology for ...
Louis encephalitis virus and also invented an antibody to the disease. The Institute procured Social Security numbers and other ... Sean finally discovers the secret behind the 100% remission: the Institute itself created the cancer using transformed St. ... Because the virus was encephalotropic, it manifested with early neural symptoms in the infected patients, in the form of ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "St. Louis Encephalitis". Vector Disease Control. Retrieved 14 July 2017. CS1 maint: ... the primary enzootic vector to wild birds and the primary epidemic vector to humans of the Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus ... It has been experimentally demonstrated to be capable of transmitting West Nile virus (WNV). Its habit of feeding on both birds ... It is also a vector of transmission of Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), dog heartworm, and Avian malaria. Jonathan F. Day ( ...
St Louis ME (May 2001). "Incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in the United States". American Journal of ... Herpesviral encephalitis and herpesviral meningitis Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare life-threatening condition that ... For the virus that causes herpes simplex, see Herpes simplex virus. For all types of herpes viruses, see Herpesviridae. ... St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. .. *^ Tankéré F, Bernat I (September 2009). "[Bell's palsy: from viral aetiology to ...
West Nile virus, Zika virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Kyasanur ... Dengue fever virus (DENV) is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus. Other members of the same genus include ... When a mosquito carrying dengue virus bites a person, the virus enters the skin together with the mosquito's saliva. It binds ... In towns and cities, the virus is primarily transmitted by the highly domesticated A. aegypti. In rural settings the virus is ...
The U.S. federal government revised its diagnosis from St. Louis encephalitis to West Nile virus on September 27, 1999, citing ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (C.D.C.) initially identified the mystery illness as St. Louis encephalitis on ... Not only did her actions lead to the discovery of the West Nile virus in the United States, but, by alerting authorities, Asnis ... Asnis' patients were diagnosed with West Nile virus in September 1999, the first known human cases of the disease in the United ...
Louis encephalitis virus West Nile virus Spondweni virus group Spondweni virus Zika virus Yellow fever virus group Yellow fever ... virus group Dengue virus Japanese encephalitis virus group Japanese encephalitis virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus St. ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus Ross River virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus' ... virus Tick-borne viruses Mammalian tick-borne virus group Kyasanur forest disease virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Family ...
St. Louis encephalitis, tularemia, typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, West Nile fever, Zika fever, and many others. Insects ... The phlebotomic action opens a channel for contamination of the host species with bacteria, viruses and blood-borne parasites ... doi=10.1161/01.STR.0000217403.66996.6d. Epub 2006 Mar 30. PMID=16574922. Scharfetter C, Hagenbuchner K (1967). "Blutdurst als ... eastern equine encephalitis, filariasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, malaria, rabies, sleeping sickness, ...
Eastern equine encephalitis Western equine encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis Rabies La crosse encephalitis Progressive ... Most viruses that enter can be opportunistic and accidental pathogens, but some like herpes viruses and rabies virus have ... Treatments of proven efficacy are currently limited mostly to herpes viruses and human immunodeficiency virus. The herpes virus ... Infants with encephalitis often have seizures or other abnormal movements. Infants with severe encephalitis may become ...
Eastern equine encephalitis St Louis encephalitis Japanese encephalitis West Nile encephalitis Tick-borne encephalitis Herpes ... encephalitis virus Varicella-zoster encephalitis La Crosse encephalitis Measles encephalitis Nipah virus encephalitis ... Poliomyelitis Slow virus infections, which include: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis Progressive multifocal ... chorea Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Guillain-Barré syndrome Central nervous system viral disease Encephalitis ...
... to transmit St. Louis encephalitis virus. The last finding resolved an important epidemiological question concerning tick ... Later postings with the FAO took him to St. Lucia and Ethiopia, where he consulted at tick-control project sites. In 1990 he ... vector relationships and transmission of Quaranfil and Nyamanini viruses, and the inability of the fowl argasid Argas persicus ... involvement in the American viral encephalitides. After completing his undergraduate education at Cairo University, Kaiser ...
... a previously undescribed neurotropic virus found during the experimental transmission of encephalitis virus from the 1933 St. ... Louis epidemic from which it was differentiated and he demonstrated the virus in the central nervous system, spinal fluid, ... Armstrong's worldwide recognition as a virologist is due (a) to his discovery, in 1934, of the virus that is the agent in a ... He coined the name Lymphocytic choriomeningitis in 1934 after isolating the hitherto completely unknown virus. He discovered in ...
Multiple functions of the herpes simplex virus type 1 Page 86 Washington University in St. Louis - 2008 "Xenophagy is proving ... expression of the mammalian autophagy promoting protein Beclin 1 protects mice against lethal Sindbis virus encephalitis " John ...
... serogroup virus diseases Chikungunya virus disease Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease Powassan virus disease St. Louis ... Machupo virus New World arenavirus - Sabia virus Yellow fever Zika virus disease and Zika virus infection Zika virus disease, ... encephalitis virus disease West Nile virus disease Western equine encephalitis virus disease Babesiosis Botulism Botulism, ... deaths Vibriosis Viral hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Ebola virus Lassa virus Lujo virus Marburg virus ...
... carries La Crosse virus, Plasmodium gallinaceum, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus Aedes aurifer Bites humans Aedes ... California encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon virus, Sindbis virus, West Nile virus Aedes clivis ... carries California encephalitis virus, Keystone virus, trivittatus virus, West Nile virus, Western equine encephalitis Aedes ... Louis encephalitis Aedes esoensis Aedes fulvus Bites humans, carries Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, West Nile virus ...
Dengue virus (DENV), St.-Louis-Enzephalitis-Virus - en. Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus ( ... West nile virus (WNV), Gadgets-Gully-Virus - en. Gadgets Gully virus (GGYV), FSME-Virus - en. Tick-borne encephalitis virus ( ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP (2007). Dermatology (2nd ed.). St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. .. [page needed] ... 1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... Lindgren E, Gustafson R (July 2001). "Tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden and climate change". Lancet. 358 (9275): 16-8. doi: ... New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312140687. .. *^ Williams, Carolyn (2007). Infectious disease epidemiology : theory and ...
LaFleur-Brooks M (2008). Exploring Medical Language: A Student-Directed Approach (7th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri, US: Mosby ... CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ...
Smadel was a member of the virological team that first recognized an outbreak of St. Louis encephalitis in 1933. ... Following the Allied victory in Europe, Lieutenant Colonel Smadel became the Director of the Department Of Virus and ... St. Louis in 1931. It was at WU that he met his future wife, Elizabeth Moore. ...
Gene therapy typically involves the use of a non-infectious virus (i.e., a viral vector such as the adeno-associated virus) to ... Schwarz ST, Afzal M, Morgan PS, Bajaj N, Gowland PA, Auer DP (2014). "The 'swallow tail' appearance of the healthy nigrosome - ... Louis ED (November 1997). "The shaking palsy, the first forty-five years: a journey through the British literature". Movement ... most commonly encephalitis and chronic ischemic insults, as well as less frequent entities such as basal ganglia tumors and ...
Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family ... Louis I of Spain in 1724 (died), Peter II of Russia in 1730 (died),[153] George Washington (survived), king Louis XV in 1774 ( ... Downie, A. W.; Fedson, D. S.; Vincent, L. St; Rao, A. R.; Kempe, C. H. (December 1969). "Haemorrhagic smallpox". Epidemiology ... Other complications include encephalitis (1 in 500 patients), which is more common in adults and may cause temporary disability ...
St. Louis. Retrieved 2016-12-02.. *^ "Print Friendly". www.lifeextension.com. Archived from the original on 2016-12-02. ... Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and ... For example, more than half of cases of encephalitis, a severe illness affecting the brain, remain undiagnosed, despite ... Viruses are also usually identified using alternatives to growth in culture or animals. Some viruses may be grown in ...
a b Donaldson, Ross I. (2009). The Lassa Ward:One Man's Fight Against One of the World's Deadliest Diseases. St. Martin's Press ... Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ... Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. Their genome[14] is contained in two ... Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. It is endemic in West ...
La Crosse virus. *Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). *Measles. *Mumps. *St. Louis encephalitis virus ... common stomach viruses).[3][4][5] However, other viruses can also cause viral meningitis. For instance, West Nile virus, mumps ... Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus have a specific antiviral therapy. For herpes the treatment of ... Tyler KL (June 2004). "Herpes simplex virus infections of the central nervous system: encephalitis and meningitis, including ...
St. Louis encephalitis) ভাইৰাছৰ ওচৰ সম্পৰ্কীয়৷ [9][10] ... Japanese Encephalitis Virus reviewed and published by WikiVet, accessed 11 October 2011. ... "Japanese encephalitis virus infection initiates endoplasmic reticulum stress and an unfolded protein response". J. Virol. খণ্ড ... "Molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of Muar strain of Japanese encephalitis virus reveal it is the missing fifth ...
February 1918 drawing by Marguerite Martyn of a visiting nurse in St. Louis, Missouri, with medicine and babies ... One hypothesis is that the virus strain originated at Fort Riley, Kansas, in viruses in poultry and swine which the fort bred ... It was implicated in the outbreak of encephalitis lethargica in the 1920s.[21] ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ...
St. Louis encephalitis) ভাইরাস গভীরভাবে সম্পর্কিত। [৯][১০] ... Japanese Encephalitis Virus ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ১৮ জুলাই ২০১৩ তারিখে reviewed and published by WikiVet, accessed 11 ... "Japanese encephalitis virus infection initiates endoplasmic reticulum stress and an unfolded protein response"। J. Virol.। 76 ( ... "Molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of Muar strain of Japanese encephalitis virus reveal it is the missing fifth ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ... "The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 29 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.. ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ...
Additional possible viral causes are arbovirus (St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis virus), bunyavirus (La Crosse ... Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria, fungi, or parasites.[1][2] ... Limbic encephalitis[edit]. Main article: Limbic encephalitis. Limbic encephalitis refers to inflammatory disease confined to ... Encephalitis lethargica[edit]. Main article: Encephalitis lethargica. Encephalitis lethargica is identified by high fever, ...
St. Louis encephalitis virus),ජැපනීස්න් එන්සෙපල්යිටීස් වෛරසය (Japanese encephalitis virus), ටික්-බොර්න් එන්සෙඵලිටිස් වෛරසය ( ... tick-borne encephalitis virus), ඛ්යසනුර් ෆොරෙස්ට්ඩිසීස් වෛරසය (Kyasanur forest disease virus), සහ ඔම්ස්ක් හෙමොරහජ්ක් උණ වෛරසය ( ... මෙම කුලයට අයත් අනෙකුත් වෛරස ලෙස කහ උණ වෛරසය(yellow fever virus),වෙස්ට් නයිල් වෛරසය (West Nile virus),ශාන්ත ලුවි එන්සෙඵලිටිස් ... A ඩෙංගු වෛරසය ඉලේට්‍රෝන අන්වීක්ෂණයට පෙනෙන අයුරු(රුපය මැද ඇති කුඩා කළු පැහැ තිත්) micrograph showing dengue virus virions (the ...
"প্ৰকাশক St. Louis. https://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/bacterial-pathogenesis/deck/11094651. ... Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and ... For example, more than half of cases of encephalitis, a severe illness affecting the brain, remain undiagnosed, despite ... Viruses are also usually identified using alternatives to growth in culture or animals. Some viruses may be grown in ...
Carroll SA, Bird BH, Rollin PE, Nichol ST (2010). "Ancient common ancestry of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus". Mol ... Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ... Detecting antibodies, the virus's RNA, or the virus itself[1]. Differential diagnosis. Dengue fever, Q fever,[2] Ebola virus ... February 1967). "Congo virus: a hitherto undescribed virus occurring in Africa. I. Human isolations-clinical notes". East Afr ...
Mosby's pocket dictionary of medicine, nursing & health professions (6th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby/Elsevier. 2010. p. traumatic ... Herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus may respond to treatment with antiviral drugs such as aciclovir, but there are ... Encephalitis, brain tumor, lupus, Lyme disease, seizures, neuroleptic malignant syndrome,[5] naegleriasis[6]. ... Viruses that cause meningitis include enteroviruses, herpes simplex virus (generally type 2, which produces most genital sores ...
Red Cross workers remove a flu victim in St. Louis, Missouri (1918) ... Modern research, using virus taken from the bodies of frozen victims, has concluded that the virus kills through a cytokine ... "Children and encephalitis lethargica: A historical review". Pediatric Neurology (Elsevier) 37 (2): 79-84. doi:10.1016/j. ... "virus.stanford.edu. Stanford University. Retrieved February 4, 2016.. *↑ Johnson NP; Mueller J 2002. "Updating the accounts: ...
Naudé H, Pretorius E (3 Jun 2010). "Can herpes simplex virus encephalitis cause aphasia?". Early Child Development and Care. ... Brookshire R. "Introduction to neurogenic communication disorders (7th edition). St. Louis, MO: Mosby".. Cite journal requires ... "Aphasia and herpes virus encephalitis: a case study". Sao Paulo Medical Journal. 130 (5): 336-41. doi:10.1590/S1516- ... aphasia may also result from herpesviral encephalitis.[19] The herpes simplex virus affects the frontal and temporal lobes, ...
St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0.. *^ Tankéré F, Bernat I (September 2009). "[Bell's palsy: from viral aetiology to ... HSV is the most common cause of viral encephalitis. When infecting the brain, the virus shows a preference for the temporal ... For the virus that causes herpes simplex, see Herpes simplex virus. For all types of herpes viruses, see Herpesviridae. ... "Helping You With Herpes - Herpes Viruses Association". Herpes Viruses Association. Archived from the original on 2015-07-26. ...
Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing ... St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders. ISBN 0-8089-2325-0.. External links[edit]. *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-- ... Arbovirus encephalitis. Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
圣路易斯脑炎(英语:Saint Louis encephalitis) *SLEV(英语:St. Louis encephalitis virus) ... Australian encephalitis(英语:Murray Valley encephalitis virus) *MVEV(英语:Murray Valley encephalitis virus) ... 虫媒病毒性脑炎:Tick-borne encephalitis(英语:Tick-borne encephalitis) *TBEV(英语:Tick-borne encephalitis virus) ... California encephalitis(英语:California encephalitis) *CEV(英语:
West Nile virus, Zika virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Kyasanur ... Dengue fever virus (DENV) is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus. Other members of the same genus include ... When a mosquito carrying dengue virus bites a person, the virus enters the skin together with the mosquito's saliva. It binds ... the virus is primarily transmitted by the highly domesticated A. aegypti. In rural settings the virus is transmitted to humans ...
Ron Fairly, 81, American baseball player (Los Angeles Dodgers, St. Louis Cardinals) and broadcaster (Seattle Mariners), cancer. ... Former US Senator Kay Hagan dead at 66 after three-year battle with encephalitis ... problems caused by West Nile virus.[61] ... Lou Frey: Former longtime congressman from Winter Park has died ... Louis-Christophe Zaleski-Zamenhof, 94, Polish engineer.[62]. 10[change , change source]. *Raymond Baumhart, 95, American ...
The enveloped virus is closely related to the West Nile virus and the St. Louis encephalitis virus. The positive sense single- ... Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).[3] While most ... The natural hosts of the Japanese encephalitis virus are birds, not humans, and many believe the virus will therefore never be ...
聖路易斯腦炎(英語:Saint Louis encephalitis) *SLEV(英語:St. Louis encephalitis virus) ... Australian encephalitis(英語:Murray Valley encephalitis virus) *MVEV(英語:Murray Valley encephalitis virus) ... 蟲媒病毒性腦炎:Tick-borne encephalitis(英語:Tick-borne encephalitis) *TBEV(英語:Tick-borne encephalitis virus) ... California encephalitis(英語:California encephalitis) *CEV(英語:
Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE) is a viral disease spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. ... St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Other medically important ... The virus particles are spherical and have a diameter of 40 nm. ... in the Americas include West Nile virus and Powassan virus. ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: St. Louis encephalitis Abbreviation: SLEV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 3 ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Arthropod species & virus source(a) Method of Infection log10/ml (b) Incubation period (c) Transmision by bite (d) Assay of ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: St. Louis encephalitis Abbreviation: SLEV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 3 ...
Immunisation with DNA polynucleotides protects mice against lethal challenge with St. Louis encephalitis virus.. Phillpotts RJ1 ... pSLE1 expressing the St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE) prM/E protein under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early ... and to produce multivalent vaccines such as would be required for immunisation against dengue virus disease. ... protein promoter produced SLE-specific antibody and were protected against lethal challenge with the virulent virus. ...
... Heather ... St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that can cause ... Louis Encephalitis virus infections during the 2002 West Nile virus epidemic in the United States. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2004; ... Both viruses are endemic throughout much of the United States and have the same Culex species mosquito vectors and avian hosts ...
St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) belong to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex (Flavivirus ... St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are members of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex; they ... Seroprevalence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) in Horses, Uruguay. Analía ... W. K. Reisen, "Epidemiology of St. Louis encephalitis virus," Advances in Virus Research, vol. 61, pp. 139-183, 2003. View at ...
An isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus, confirmed by the Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratories, was made from a ... were found to be positive for St. Louis encephalitis virus infection by hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests in ... The isolate seems to be closely related to Tr 9464 and Ja 7532 viruses, which are both closely related to the Parton strain of ... sentinel chickens suggest that between March and August there probably was an increase in the transmission rate of SLE virus. ...
Browse by Outcome: Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis (2 articles). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
Epidemiology of St. Louis encephalitis virus. Adv Virus Res. 2003;61:139-83 . DOIPubMed ... Isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus from a patient in Belem, Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1981;30:145-8 .PubMed ... Isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus from arthropods in Pará, Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1964;13:449 .PubMed ... Isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus from man in Argentina. Acta Virol. 1971;15:148-54 .PubMed ...
St. Louis encephalitis virus in wild birds during the 1990 South Florida epidemic: The importance of drought, wetting ... We analyzed the prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies to St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus in wild birds ... st. louis encephalitis; amplification; wild birds; culex nigripalpus; hydrology; tampa bay area; hydrology; model; USA; ... The high level of SLE virus amplification resulted in spillover transmission to humans. We hypothesize that without the ...
Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus produced detectable viremias of seven to 27 (median 13) days duration and maximum titers of 2.7 ... The antibody response of sloths to SLE virus was slow, being undetectable until several weeks post-inoculation. However, both ... Sloths with naturally acquired SLE virus antibody did not become detectably viremic after experimental inoculation. Neither ... pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were infected by feeding on sloths circulating at least 4.8 log10 SMicLD50 of SLE virus per ...
... of the St. Louis encephalitis virus antisera. Sera from sentinel chicken flocks in Maryland were also assayed. These data ... Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine/immunology*. *Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis/immunology*. *Encephalitis, St. Louis/diagnosis* ... Louis encephalitis viruses in sentinel chickens.. Oprandy JJ1, Olson JG, Scott TW. ... Louis encephalitis virus in sentinel chickens. Antigens were spot-filtered through the membrane. Membranes were dipped into ...
Louis Encephalitis Virus antibody [6b6c-1] for ELISA, ICC/IF. Anti-St. Louis Encephalitis Virus mAb (GTX39036) is tested in ... St. Louis Encephalitis Virus antibody [6b6c-1] See all St. Louis Encephalitis Virus products ... Specifications: St. Louis Encephalitis Virus antibody [6b6c-1]. Specificity. This antibody reacts with other members of ... Saint Louis encephalitis virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Reference for St. Louis Encephalitis Virus antibody [6b6c-1]. ...
Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLE) from mosquito virus screening sample collected in Lubbock. The following is a press release from ... The City of Lubbock Health Department: The City of Lubbock Health Department has confirmed St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLE) ... The City of Lubbock Health Department confirmed a case of the St. ... The City of Lubbock Health Department has confirmed St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLE) from a mosquito virus screening sample ...
Differential diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) infections can be complicated due to ... Differentiation of West Nile and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infections by Use of Noninfectious Virus-Like Particles with ... Differentiation of West Nile and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infections by Use of Noninfectious Virus-Like Particles with ... Differentiation of West Nile and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infections by Use of Noninfectious Virus-Like Particles with ...
MULTIPLICATION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS OF ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS IN MICE WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON ITS FATE IN THE ALIMENTARY ... MULTIPLICATION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS OF ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS IN MICE WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON ITS FATE IN THE ALIMENTARY ... Louis encephalitis virus.. 6. There was no evidence of multiplication in the nasal mucosa of mice which succumbed with ... 3. Centrifugal spread began when the virus in the brain reached a concentration of about 400 million LD50 and virus appeared in ...
Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis Entomology Female Florida Forecast Forecasting Humans Hydrology Models, ... We present a seasonal forecast of St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission in Indian River County, Florida. We derive an ... and quantify the relationship between Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) transmission and hydrologic conditions in Indian ... In the northeast United States, control of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors has been unfocused because of a lack of accurate ...
Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis Humans Kidney Transplantation Male Tissue Donors Transfusion Reaction ... Louis encephalitis virus infection. RESULTS The patient presented with symptoms of central nervous system infection. Recent St ... In addition, no St. Louis encephalitis virus-infected mosquito pools were identified around the patients residence. CONCLUSION ... St. Louis encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infrequently causes epidemic central nervous system infections ...
Shop our wide variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and more. ... Browse our selection of Encephalitis products for sale in our online store. ZeptoMetrix offers a diverse collection of ... St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Culture Fluid (1 mL) (BSL-3) #0810080CF Log in for Price ... St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Lysate (1 mg) #0810080 Log in for Price ...
Louis Encephalitis virus (SLEV). SLEV is related to West Nile Virus (WNV) and is transmitted via the bite of Culex mosquitoes, ... Resources for Additional Information on St. Louis Encephalitis are:. • California Department of Public Health, https://www.cdph ... have received confirmation that a mosquito sample from Stanislaus County has tested positive for St. ...
Louis Encephalitis Virus from Culex Nigrlpalpus Mosquitoes in Jamaica. by E. A. Belle et al. ... Encephalitis Viruses In Florida Horses : " West Nile virus " " Eastern equine encephalitis virus ". Maureen T. Long + 1 • Mar ... Provenance and Geographic Spread of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus. *Anne Kopp, Thomas R. Gillespie, +9 authors Sandra Junglen ... Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene of St. Louis encephalitis virus. *L. D. Kramer, L. J. Chandler ...
Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) in the Americas. We found significant rate heterogeneity among lineages, such that relaxed ... and the region between 15 degrees N and 30 degrees N latitude appears to be the major source of virus for the rest of North ... coalescent approach on a dataset of 73 envelope gene sequences we estimated substitution rates and dates of divergence for St. ... Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis, Encephalitis, St. Louis, Evolution, Molecular, Gene Flow, Genetic Speciation, Geography, Humans ...
Categories , Public Health Surveillance View Types , Calendars Tags , st. louis encephalitis virus disease Clear All ... st. louis encephalitis virus disease st. louis encephalitis virus disease Show All... ... st. louis virus disease st. louis virus disease * status status * streptococcal toxic shock syndrome streptococcal toxic shock ... eastern equine encephalitis virus disease eastern equine encephalitis virus disease * expenditure expenditure ...
Categories , Policy Surveillance Tags , st. louis encephalitis virus disease Federated Domains , chronicdata.cdc.gov Clear All ... st. louis encephalitis virus disease st. louis encephalitis virus disease Show All... ... st. louis virus disease st. louis virus disease * status status * streptococcal toxic shock syndrome streptococcal toxic shock ... eastern equine encephalitis virus disease eastern equine encephalitis virus disease * expenditure expenditure ...
Louis Encephalitis Virus in the Americas. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * St. Louis Encephalitis Viruses Medicine ... Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus in the Americas. Adrián Diaz, Lark L Schneider, Nathan Burkett-Cadena, Jonathan F. ... Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus in the Americas. / Diaz, Adrián; Schneider, Lark L; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan; Day, ... Diaz, A, Schneider, LL, Burkett-Cadena, N & Day, JF 2018, Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus in the Americas, ...
Louis Encephalitis Virus Disease case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ... St. Louis encephalitis virus disease 2005 Current West Nile virus disease 2005 Current Western equine encephalitis virus ... California serogroup virus diseases 2015 Current Chikungunya virus disease 2005 Current Eastern equine encephalitis virus ...
... and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses to describe the viremia response, to compare serological testing methods, and to ... and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses to describe the viremia response, to compare serological testing methods, and to ... and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses to describe the viremia response, to compare serological testing methods, and to ... and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses to describe the viremia response, to compare serological testing methods, and to ...
WHAT IS ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS SEROLOGY TEST?. St. Louis encephalitis virus is a group B arbovirus, a member of ... Symptoms may range from mild headache and fever to encephalitis and death. This virus occurs in the western, central, and ... This virus causes inflammation of the tissues of the central nervous system. ... WHAT IS ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS SEROLOGY TEST?. WHAT IS ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS SEROLOGY TEST?. ...
Migration and transmission history of St. Louis encephalitis virus Auguste AJ., Dunham EJ., Pybus OG., Holmes EC., Carrington ... A Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing membrane-anchored spike as a cost-effective inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ... Interferons and viruses induce a novel primate-specific isoform dACE2 and not the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 ... Virus-host interactome and proteomic survey of PMBCs from COVID-19 patients reveal potential virulence factors influencing SARS ...
St. Louis Encephalitis: How You Can Prevent This Potentially Dangerous Virus. Steve Jenkins November 7, 2019. MOSQUITO CONTROL ... Unfortunately, the St. Louis encephalitis virus is no exception. Just recently, parts of the United States have been under ... St. Louis Encephalitis. Most infections are usually relatively mild and result in fever, headaches, and general malaise, but ... Acute effects of the virus (such as neuroinvasive disease) are more common in the elderly. Rarely does it result in long-term ...
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus . (cdc.gov)
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that can cause outbreaks of acute febrile illness and neurologic disease. (cdc.gov)
  • however, since WNV was first identified in the United States in 1999, SLEV disease incidence has been substantially lower than WNV disease incidence, and no outbreaks involving the two viruses circulating in the same location at the same time have been identified. (cdc.gov)
  • Seventy-nine (68%) patients had neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis), including 47 (63%) with WNV infection, 17 (89%) with SLEV infection, and 15 (65%) with unspecified flavivirus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Health care providers should consider both WNV and SLEV infections in the differential diagnosis of cases of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis and obtain appropriate cerebrospinal fluid, serum specimens, or both for laboratory testing ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) belong to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex ( Flavivirus genus, Flaviviridae family). (hindawi.com)
  • To the Edito r: St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a flavivirus that can asymptomatically infect humans or cause clinically apparent disease that manifests with fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We report the isolation of SLEV from a person in Peru and describe a unique collection method, using oropharyngeal swab specimens, for detecting this virus. (cdc.gov)
  • The initial screening tests indicated reactivity to yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and SLEV. (cdc.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis from the initially sequenced 10,850-nt region of the St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) genome, isolated from a woman in Peru, 2006. (cdc.gov)
  • Differential diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) infections can be complicated due to the high degree of cross-reactivity observed in most serodiagnostic assays. (asm.org)
  • In an effort to provide a more specific diagnostic test, we developed virus-like particle (VLP) antigens with reduced cross-reactivity for both SLEV and WNV by identifying and mutating envelope protein amino acids within the cross-reactive epitopes of VLP expression plasmids. (asm.org)
  • The East Side and Turlock Mosquito Abatement Districts (MADs) have received confirmation that a mosquito sample from Stanislaus County has tested positive for St. Louis Encephalitis virus (SLEV). (cerescourier.com)
  • SLEV is related to West Nile Virus (WNV) and is transmitted via the bite of Culex mosquitoes, the same mosquitoes that transmit WNV. (cerescourier.com)
  • Using a Bayesian coalescent approach on a dataset of 73 envelope gene sequences we estimated substitution rates and dates of divergence for St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) in the Americas. (ox.ac.uk)
  • After the introduction of West Nile virus in 1999, activity of SLEV decreased considerably in the United States. (elsevier.com)
  • Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the emerging SLEV in the western United States is related to the epidemic strains isolated during a human encephalitis outbreak in Córdoba, Argentina, in 2005. (elsevier.com)
  • In the most severe cases, SLEV and West Nile virus can affect the central nervous system and lead to meningitis or encephalitis, potentially causing death or long-term disabilities. (mynewsla.com)
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) present ecological and antigenic similarities and are responsible for serious human diseases. (fiocruz.br)
  • The seroprevalence determined using the plaque reduction neutralisation test was 12.2% for SLEV, 16.2% for WNV and 48.6% for a combination of both viruses. (fiocruz.br)
  • along with the Japanese encephalitis, Cacipacore, Murray Valley encephalitis, Koutango, Usutu and Yaounde viruses, SLEV and WNV constitute the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex [Index of Viruses. (fiocruz.br)
  • SLEV and WNV can cause encephalitis in humans and WNV also causes encephalitis in equines. (fiocruz.br)
  • SLEV is widely distributed in the Americas (from Canada through Argentina) and serological studies have demonstrated a wide circulation of this virus in temperate and subtropical regions (Sabattini et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • 2003), with the first epidemic of SLEV human encephalitis occurring in 2005 (Spinsanti et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Because genome sequences from US states reporting SLEV activity are not publicly available and surveillance for SLEV in South and Central America is not routinely performed, the pathway or pathways by which the virus came to the southwestern United States remain unclear (question mark). (cdc.gov)
  • The molecular characterization of SPH253157, a new strain of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), isolated in 2004 from the first case of human infection recognized in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is reported. (bvsalud.org)
  • The St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). (virginia.gov)
  • Anyone bitten by a mosquito in an area where the virus is circulating can become infected with SLEV. (virginia.gov)
  • almost 90% of elderly persons infected with SLEV disease develop encephalitis. (virginia.gov)
  • Polynucleotide vaccine technology provides a unique opportunity to produce vaccines against flavivirus diseases of low incidence cheaply and rapidly, and to produce multivalent vaccines such as would be required for immunisation against dengue virus disease. (nih.gov)
  • During natural flavivirus infections, noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of viral premembrane/membrane (prM/M) and envelope (E) proteins are produced in addition to mature, infectious virions ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Human flavivirus infections appear to provide lifelong immunity to the infecting virus, yet only temporally transient protection to heterologous flavivirus infections ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Protective virus-specific antibodies are elicited by the E glycoprotein, which contains both virus-specific and flavivirus cross-reactive epitopes. (asm.org)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family in the genus Flavivirus . (cornell.edu)
  • Traditional test used for flavivirus antibody detection where cross-reactivity with other viruses may occur, e.g. (cornell.edu)
  • Outgroups comprised four flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis group. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Flavivirus genus constitutes some of the most serious human pathogens including Japanese encephalitis, dengue and yellow fever. (indigo.ca)
  • A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a representative virus of the JEV serogroup in genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. (bioportfolio.com)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, which includes St. Louis encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, and Kunjin virus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • St. Louis Encephalitis Virus, member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. (tn.gov)
  • only WNV infection may lead to fatal encephalitis in equines. (hindawi.com)
  • Seventeen percent of 238 wild birds and 36 percent of 162 domestic birds at Caymanas, Jamaica, were found to be positive for St. Louis encephalitis virus infection by hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests in 1962. (ajtmh.org)
  • Experimental infection of 11 Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths with St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus produced detectable viremias of seven to 27 (median 13) days duration and maximum titers of 2.7 to 6.5 (median 5.1) log 10 median suckling mouse intracranial lethal doses (SMicLD 50 ) per ml. (ajtmh.org)
  • Colonized Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were infected by feeding on sloths circulating at least 4.8 log 10 SMicLD 50 of SLE virus per ml, and subsequently transmitted the infection to mice and chicks. (ajtmh.org)
  • Neither sloths nor cormorants become overtly ill from SLE virus infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • 2. When the virus was introduced directly into the brain or the nasal cavities and mouth, none was found in the intestinal tract until there was general centrifugal spread from the central nervous system during the last stages of the infection at 96 or 120 hours after inoculation when the virus in the entire brain had reached a concentration of about 3 billion LD 50 . (rupress.org)
  • 7. At the terminal stage of infection the virus content per milligram of tissue was as great in the leg muscles as in the sciatic nerves. (rupress.org)
  • The overall direction of gene flow during the period represented by the phylogeny is from South to North, and the region between 15 degrees N and 30 degrees N latitude appears to be the major source of virus for the rest of North America, which is consistent with migratory birds returning to their northern breeding grounds having acquired infection while wintering in the region of the Gulf of Mexico. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was detected by days 10 and 14 after infection with WEE and SLE viruses, respectively, by indirect fluorescent antibody tests, hemagglutination inhibition tests, and plaque reduction neutralization tests on sera and in direct enzyme immunoassays (EIA) on both sera and eluates from filter paper samples. (elsevier.com)
  • The virus persists in passerines but infection does occur in other bird species such as raptors and corvids. (cornell.edu)
  • The most significant impact of WNV in veterinary medicine excluding wildlife is the incidental infection of equines which can lead to viral encephalitis. (cornell.edu)
  • Even though a viremia develops early in the infection of the horse, the amount of virus in blood is too low to infect mosquitoes. (cornell.edu)
  • West Nile virus infection can cause West Nile fever (WNF) and West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease (WNND). (medicinenet.com)
  • Illness ranges from asymptomatic infection (about one in 200 infections is estimated to become clinically apparent) to severe encephalitis with a high mortality and a high rate of permanent neurological sequelae in survivors (approximately 30 per cent). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The incubation period, from infection to developing Japanese encephalitis, is five to 15 days. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • What is included in long-term monitoring of West Nile virus infection? (medscape.com)
  • The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. (medscape.com)
  • Acute flaccid paralysis syndrome associated with West Nile virus infection--Mississippi and Louisiana, July-August 2002. (medscape.com)
  • West Nile virus infection modulates human brain microvascular endothelial cells tight junction proteins and cell adhesion molecules: Transmigration across the in vitro blood-brain barrier. (medscape.com)
  • Human infection with SLE virus depends on a number of variables that drive virus transmission. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that epidemics may result when a specific combination of biotic and abiotic conditions favor SLE virus minimum field infection rates that approach 1:1,000 in Cx. (nih.gov)
  • Previous infection with dengue virus (DENV) partially protects against JE and might also influence serum neutralising antibody titres against JEV. (bioportfolio.com)
  • IgM (indicating recent infection) against both viruses was detected in a small number of participants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Serological evidence of infection with dengue and Zika viruses in horses on French Pacific Islands. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Neuronal transcriptomic responses to Japanese encephalitis virus infection with a special focus on chemokine CXCL11 and pattern recognition receptors RIG-1 and MDA5. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Poor performance of two rapid immunochromatographic assays for anti-Japanese encephalitis virus immunoglobulin M detection in cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients with suspected Japanese encephalitis virus infection in Laos. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Individuals with severe illness secondary to West Nile virus infection are at increased risk of pulmonary complications in the rehabilitation setting. (medscape.com)
  • A study by Greco et al suggested that West Nile virus infection could, in predisposed persons, contribute to the development of myasthenia gravis. (medscape.com)
  • This list incorporates the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) position statements approved in 2016 by CSTE for national surveillance, that were implemented in January 2017, including updated surveillance case definitions for salmonellosis, shigellosis, vibrioisis, perinatal hepatitis B virus infection, invasive pneumococcal disease, Lyme disease, and tularemia reported through August 7, 2018. (cdc.gov)
  • St. Louis encephalitis is an infection of the brain that is spread to people from birds and other animals by mosquitoes. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • This is the first reported evidence of infection of red squirrels and chipmunks with a Modoc-like virus. (bioone.org)
  • Formal confirmation of yellow fever virus (YFV) infection, however, requires immunohistochemical detection of YFV antigen, amplification of YFV genomic sequences from blood or solid tissues by PCR, or a test for viremia involving cultivation of YFV infectious particles. (asm.org)
  • Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects including microcephaly. (kdheks.gov)
  • Initial infection by the virus and primary spread of the virus causes the onset of non-specific symptoms such as headache and fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • It then can result in encephalitis, when inflammation of the brain, produced by infection by the virus, damages nerve cells, which affects signaling of the brain to the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all three cases there was strong laboratory evidence confirming infection, due to the presence of neutralizing antibodies linked to California encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are other flaviviruses that cause viral encephalitis. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Rapid development of a DNA vaccine for Zika virus. (genetex.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported no mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in the U.S., but travelers can catch Zika in destinations such as the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America and South America. (lasvegassun.com)
  • Other members of the genus include St. Louis encephalitis virus, dengue virus, Zika virus and yellow fever virus. (cornell.edu)
  • Few of us will forget the Zika virus epidemic of 2016 , which resulted in hundreds of infants being born with birth defects after their mothers were infected during pregnancy. (yahoo.com)
  • Zika virus disease is caused by the Zika virus, which is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. (kdheks.gov)
  • Zika virus can also be spread through sexual contact. (kdheks.gov)
  • There has be no local transmission of Zika virus in Kansas. (kdheks.gov)
  • Learn more about Zika virus at http://www.cdc.gov/zika/index.html . (kdheks.gov)
  • Effects of Zika Virus Strain and Aedes Mosquito Species on Vector Competence. (wadsworth.org)
  • We used unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing to diagnose a fatal case of meningoencephalitis caused by St. Louis encephalitis virus in a patient from California in September 2016. (cdc.gov)
  • La Crosse, a member of what's known as the California serogroup viruses, can cause fever and flu-like symptoms. (yahoo.com)
  • California encephalitis orthobunyavirus type strain California encephalitis virus was discovered in Kern County, California and causes encephalitis in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • California encephalitis orthobunyavirus belongs to the Bunyaviridae family of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incubation period of California encephalitis is usually 3-7 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • The California encephalitis virus invades the CNS through either the cerebral capillary endothelial cells or the choroid plexus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, most cases of encephalitis have been associated with the La Crosse virus, and California encephalitis is a rare cause of disease in the Western World. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1996 to 1998, approximately three times as many reported human cases of arboviral encephalitis were caused by California serogroup viruses than were reported for western equine encephalomyelitis viruses, St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain injury from West Nile virus encephalitis or meningitis can result in cognitive, gross motor, and fine motor delays. (medscape.com)
  • But occasionally, they can progress to more serious illnesses, causing severe symptoms such as paralysis, inflammation of the brain ( encephalitis ), inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord ( meningitis ), and other neurological symptoms. (yahoo.com)
  • According to the CDC , about 1 in 150 people infected with the virus develop encephalitis or meningitis. (yahoo.com)
  • A rapid dot immunoassay for the detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in sentinel ch. (nih.gov)
  • Chickens were experimentally infected with eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis and bled on a daily basis. (nih.gov)
  • The dot immunoassay correctly identified 99% (123/124) of the eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and 100% (67/67) of the St. Louis encephalitis virus antisera. (nih.gov)
  • Viremia and serological responses in adult chickens infected with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. (elsevier.com)
  • Adult hens, similar to those used for arbovirus surveillance, were experimentally infected with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses to describe the viremia response, to compare serological testing methods, and to evaluate a new method of collecting whole blood onto filter paper strips from lancet pricks of the chicken comb. (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of neutralizing antibodies to these viruses in horses from Uruguay. (hindawi.com)
  • Subsequent immunofluorescence assay analyses using monoclonal antibodies against yellow fever virus and all 4 dengue virus serotypes were negative. (cdc.gov)
  • We analyzed the prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies to St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus in wild birds during the 1990 SLE epidemic in Indian River County. (columbia.edu)
  • These data indicate that the dot immunoassay should be considered as an alternative to current assays for the screening of sera for antibodies to virus antigens. (nih.gov)
  • This assay could easily be performed in the field and allows for the screening of antibodies to several different viruses in one test. (nih.gov)
  • The results indicate that neutralization assay is still the serological test with the highest sensitivity and specificity relative rates for detecting antibodies against SLE virus . (bvsalud.org)
  • Plasmid DNA launches live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus and elicits virus-neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c mice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Four general frequencies of human St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus (epidemic, focal, sporadic, and no transmission) occurred in Florida between 1990 and 1999. (nih.gov)
  • Although there have been no cases of St. Louis encephalitis reported in the state this year, five counties, Hendry, Collier, Lee, Charlotte and Martin, are on alert against a potential epidemic. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The last epidemic of St. Louis encephalitis in Florida occurred in 1977 when 78 people in 20 counties in the southern and central part of the state contracted the disease. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • As the Labor Day weekend begins, an epidemic alert for St. Louis encephalitis has been issued in Palm Beach County after more chickens tested positive. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The name of the virus goes back to 1933 when within five weeks in autumn an encephalitis epidemic of explosive proportions broke out in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, and the neighboring St. Louis County. (wikipedia.org)
  • The previously unknown virus that caused the epidemic was isolated by the NIH team first in monkeys and then in white mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three other encephalitis viruses belong to the Alphavirus genus and are also transmitted by mosquito bite. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Genus Tequatrovirus ( T4virus , T4-ähnliche Viren , en. (wikipedia.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA viruses of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mosquitoes, primarily from the genus Culex, become infected by feeding on birds infected with the Saint Louis encephalitis virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The La Crosse Virus from the same genus is also a common cause of encephalitis in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses cause most diseases spread to people by mosquitoes. (kidshealth.org)
  • Rarely, mosquito-borne diseases can cause serious problems, such as encephalitis , a swelling of the brain. (kidshealth.org)
  • West Nile virus and other arboviral diseases--United States, 2012. (medscape.com)
  • Diseases associated with NXT1 include St. Louis Encephalitis . (genecards.org)
  • Mosquitoes can transmit debilitating diseases including West Nile virus, and St. Louis encephalitis. (epa.gov)
  • The lab studies both mosquito and tick-borne agents including the flaviviruses West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Powassan virus, as well as alphaviruses Eastern equine encephalitis virus and Chikungunya virus, among others. (wadsworth.org)
  • Detection, Diagnosis and Vaccine Development , the third volume of The Flaviviruses details the current status of technologies for detection and differentiation of these viruses, their use in surveillance and outbreak investigation, and also reviews the latest clinical research. (indigo.ca)
  • The new Japanese encephalitis (IXIARO) vaccine was launched by Novartis more than three years ago, and in 2013 new guidance was given for its use in children. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • This study will determine whether it is safe and effective to administer Japanese encephalitis (JE) live attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine at the same time as measles vaccine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We describe novel plasmid DNA that encodes the full-length Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genomic cDNA and launches live-attenuated JEV vaccine in vitro and in vivo. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Updated estimation of the impact of a Japanese encephalitis immunization program with live, attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine in Nepal. (bioportfolio.com)
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus is a group B arbovirus, a member of Flaviviridae, that is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes, with the donor host being birds. (genomicmedicineuk.com)
  • Assessment of arbovirus surveillance 13 years after introduction of West Nile virus, United States(1). (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Ciota is Deputy Director of the Arbovirus Laboratory, which performs testing, surveillance and research of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). (wadsworth.org)
  • The evolution of virulence of West Nile virus in a mosquito vector: implications for arbovirus adaptation and evolution - art. (wadsworth.org)
  • Mosquitoes serve as its carrier and for this reason this virus is known as an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus). (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial presence of SLE HI antibody was associated significantly with modeled drought 15 wk prior, wetting conditions 1 wk prior, and the emergence of the Florida SLE virus vector, Culex nigripalpus, 5 wk prior. (columbia.edu)
  • And in August, the CDC reported that four Florida residents have died so far in 2010 from eastern equine encephalitis, a mosquito-borne horse virus that typically only affects about six people a year nationwide. (treehugger.com)
  • OCALA -- The 11th person in Florida infected with the West Nile virus was announced Tuesday by the Marion County Health Department. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis, which has been the most dangerous form of the disease, typically makes only one or two people in Florida sick each year. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Chancey C, Grinev A, Volkova E, Rios M. The global ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus. (medscape.com)
  • De ngue Epidemiology: Virus Epidemiology, Ecology and Emergence. (booktopia.com.au)
  • This antibody reacts with other members of Flaviviridae including Japanese Encepahalitis (Nakayama), West Nile (EG101), Murray Valley Encephalitis (Original), Yellow Fever (17D), Dengue 1 (Hawaii), Dengue 2 (New Guinea C), Dengue 3 (H87) and Dengue 4 (H241). (genetex.com)
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Saint Louis encephalitis virus is related to Japanese encephalitis virus and is a member of the family Flaviviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of August 2019, every state but Hawaii has reported West Nile virus infections according to the Centers for Disease Control. (medicinenet.com)
  • Other medically important flaviviruses found in the Americas include West Nile virus and Powassan virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Other flaviviruses that circulate in Argentina include dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Bussuquara virus (BSQV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) (Sabattini et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • St Louis and Murray Valley flaviviruses. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The virus was related antigenically to a number of flaviviruses which have been isolated from mammals in Central America and North America and was related most closely to Modoc virus. (bioone.org)
  • Although the literature concerning the neuropsychologic assessment and cognitive rehabilitation of patients with encephalitis is limited, neurocognitive testing may be useful in identifying deficits, and neurocognitive therapy to treat those deficits plays a significant part in the rehabilitation process. (medscape.com)
  • The mortality rate is less than 1% and most patients with encephalitis clinical symptoms recover completely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purpose: To sequence 100 Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) strains representing the entire spatial and temporal distribution of EEEV in the New World. (vt.edu)
  • Serologically negative birds and mammals of species, known from other studies to be exposed naturally to St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus in Memphis, Tennessee, and other selected species were inoculated experimentally with strains of SLE virus to determine their potential as natural hosts. (bioone.org)
  • We demonstrate reliable detection by both assays of different strains of yellow fever virus with improved sensitivity and specificity. (asm.org)
  • Strains were isolated at different points in time (from 1933 to 2001) which allowed for the estimation of divergence times of SLE virus clades and the overall evolutionary rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, this study found an increase in the effective population size of the SLE virus around the end of the 19th century that corresponds to the split of the latest North American clade, suggesting a northwards colonization of SLE virus in the Americas, and a split from the ancestral South American strains around 1892. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental SLE viremia onset was delayed and maximum titer depressed in two sloths concurrently infected with naturally acquired viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • Since then, the virus has moved to the south of the continent, with reports of infections in birds and equines in the Caribbean, Venezuela, Colombia, and Argentina [ 12 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Humans are exposed to the virus when they are bitten by mosquitoes that have fed on infected birds. (everythinglubbock.com)
  • Several species of wild birds of the Ardeidae, Columbidae, Fringillidae, Furnariidae, Icteridae, Tyranidae and Phytotomidae families are infected with this virus in Argentina (Monath & Heinz 1996, Diaz 2009). (fiocruz.br)
  • The introduction of this virus was associated with encephalitis outbreaks in humans and massive deaths among birds, particularly Corvidae (Anderson et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Birds are vectors (intermediate carriers) of the virus. (medicinenet.com)
  • Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds, which circulate the virus in their blood. (medicinenet.com)
  • So far in Sacramento County, 63 mosquito samples and 37 dead birds have tested positive for West Nile virus. (sacbee.com)
  • Birds are the common hosts for several of the various encephalitis viruses. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus, in particular, is also able to replicate itself in pigs and birds. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Because the mosquitoes that carry encephalitis are more likely to bite birds than people, health departments throughout the state keep small flocks of chickens that are tested frequently in order to provide an early warning for the presence of the disease. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Infected birds carry the virus with them as they travel in summer and winter, thus acting as reservoirs in their new nesting sites. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although no people in Lake County have come down with the virus, a pair of horses died from the disease last month and four birds have tested positive. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • St. Louis encephalitis spreads to humans by the bite of a night-biting mosquito, which feeds primarily on birds. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The virus seems to have evolved in northern Mexico and then spread northwards with migrating birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • While West Nile Virus has previously been reported this is the first report of SLE in 2019. (everythinglubbock.com)
  • A batch of mosquitoes trapped in Playa Vista tested positive for the St. Louis Encephalitis virus, which is similar to West Nile virus, vector control officials said Friday. (mynewsla.com)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody prepared against the envelope glycoprotein of West Nile virus (WNV) was purified from clone E58 hybridoma supernatant by protein G affinity chromatography. (atcc.org)
  • In the past few summers, there have been three cases of West Nile virus and three cases of St. Louis encephalitis reported in the region. (lasvegassun.com)
  • The Southern Nevada Health District reported cases of West Nile Virus in people every year since 2004, with one exception. (lasvegassun.com)
  • Since 2004, when West Nile virus was first discovered in Southern Nevada, Clark County has administered a Vector Surveillance program for mosquitoes. (lasvegassun.com)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is a microorganism (virus) transmitted by mosquitoes and, more rarely, ticks. (medicinenet.com)
  • History of West Nile Virus in the U.S. (medicinenet.com)
  • West Nile virus was discovered in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda. (medicinenet.com)
  • In 2012, the CDC confirmed an outbreak of 1,118 cases of West Nile virus, the highest number of reported cases since the virus was first detected in the U.S. Of those, 56% of patients from 47 states developed neuroinvasive disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • According to the CDC, since 1999 more than 50,000 people have been reported with West Nile virus in the U.S. More than 2,300 of those people died. (medicinenet.com)
  • How Does West Nile Virus Infect Mosquitoes? (medicinenet.com)
  • How Do People Get Infected With West Nile Virus? (medicinenet.com)
  • Almost all people infected with West Nile virus contract the disease through the bite of an infected mosquito. (medicinenet.com)
  • It is important to remember that West Nile virus is not contagious and cannot be transmitted from person to person. (medicinenet.com)
  • Horses can also catch West Nile virus, but are also dead-end hosts and cannot infect humans. (medicinenet.com)
  • Upticks in the number of mosquitoes carrying West Nile virus are common in late summer. (sacbee.com)
  • So far, no human cases of West Nile virus or St. Louis encephalitis have been reported in the area. (sacbee.com)
  • West Nile virus: a primer for the clinician. (medscape.com)
  • Host factors involved in West Nile virus replication. (medscape.com)
  • Zaayman D, Human S, Venter M. A highly sensitive method for the detection and genotyping of West Nile virus by real-time PCR. (medscape.com)
  • West Nile virus in the western hemisphere. (medscape.com)
  • The West Nile Virus outbreak of 1999 in New York: the Flushing Hospital experience. (medscape.com)
  • Hackethal V. West Nile Virus, Arborviruses Still Source of Severe Illness. (medscape.com)
  • West Nile Virus Disease Cases and Presumptive Viremic Blood Donors by State - United States, 2014. (medscape.com)
  • West Nile virus disease cases and deaths reported to CDC by year and clinical presentation, 1999‐2014. (medscape.com)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "West Nile Virus Encephalitis. (fpnotebook.com)
  • When the West Nile virus was first detected in mosquitoes in the waterfront areas of northern Queens in September 1999, panic swept through the city. (nydailynews.com)
  • But today, West Nile virus has mostly faded from public concern. (nydailynews.com)
  • Though health officials aren't eager to revisit the panic of those early years of the West Nile virus, they don't want New Yorkers to become complacent. (nydailynews.com)
  • West Nile virus had been seen in Africa and parts of Europe , but had no previous history in North America . (nydailynews.com)
  • Elderly patients who are severely deconditioned because of West Nile virus encephalitis may be predisposed to deep venous thrombosis (DVT). (medscape.com)
  • In a study of 29 patients with myasthenia gravis, the investigators found that 17% of subjects demonstrated anti-West Nile virus immunoglobulin G (IgG), although none of the patients apparently had clinical signs or symptoms of the virus. (medscape.com)
  • That forecast first generated national buzz in 1999, when West Nile virus - a native of North Africa that was alien to North America - made its U.S. debut in New York. (treehugger.com)
  • Even West Nile virus, which wasn't isolated in a lab until 1937, evolved 1,000 years ago and may have killed Alexander the Great . (treehugger.com)
  • St. Louis encephalitis is a rare disease that is related to the West Nile virus and is transmitted by infected mosquitoes. (virginia.gov)
  • helped detect West Nile virus in U.S. (latimes.com)
  • Dr. Deborah Asnis is credited with help sounding the alarm on the West Nile virus in the United States. (latimes.com)
  • It was that last clue that eventually unlocked the mystery, leading to the diagnosis of the first known West Nile virus cases in the country. (latimes.com)
  • In late September it was finally determined that the actual disease was West Nile virus, also carried by the insects. (latimes.com)
  • West Nile virus can cause a few days or weeks of fever and other flu-like symptoms, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash, as well as fatigue and weakness that can last for weeks or even months during recovery. (yahoo.com)
  • West Nile virus is the most common mosquito-borne disease in Kansas and the United States. (kdheks.gov)
  • Several species of mosquitoes are responsible for transmission of arboviruses but Culex species are the primary vector for West Nile virus in Kansas and the United States. (kdheks.gov)
  • Sequence-Specific Fidelity Alterations Associated with West Nile Virus Attenuation in Mosquitoes. (wadsworth.org)
  • West Nile virus adaptation to ixodid tick cells is associated with phenotypic trade-offs in primary hosts. (wadsworth.org)
  • Cooperative interactions in the West Nile virus mutant swarm. (wadsworth.org)
  • Other viruses with similar disease symptoms but genetically unrelated include: St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute effects of the virus (such as neuroinvasive disease) are more common in the elderly. (swatmosquitosystems.com)
  • Purpose: To determine DENV incidence amongst acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFI) and identify other viruses associated with AUFI during a 1-year longitudinal, passive surveillance study at a major hospital in Trinidad & Tobago (T&T). (vt.edu)
  • Dengue virus is an under-recognised causative agent of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES): Results from a four year AES surveillance study of Japanese encephalitis in selected states of IndiaDengue virus is an under-recognised causative. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain that can cause minor symptoms, such as headaches, to more severe symptoms such as seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines can prevent some mosquito-borne illnesses, such as dengue fever, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis. (kidshealth.org)
  • This family also includes the dengue virus and yellow fever virus. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Factors influencing the transmission and control of arboviral encephalitis, in general, include: the season, geographical location, patient age, and the regional climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Officials are concerned West Nile may act more like St. Louis encephalitis which, although less serious, causes extensive outbreaks every seven to 10 years. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • WNV and Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) are transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The hallmark of this group of viruses is their transmission by various species of mosquitoes. (cornell.edu)
  • To date, more than 300 different species of bird have been found to carry the virus in the U.S. However, there is no evidence the virus can be spread directly from a bird to a human. (medicinenet.com)
  • The vector control group also warned Monday of another disease carried by the same species of mosquito called St. Louis encephalitis that is "re-emerging throughout the state," showing up in Placer, Yuba and Stanislaus counties in recent weeks. (sacbee.com)
  • Comparisons of the experimental data with information obtained from field investigations provided a better understanding of the contributions of the various vertebrate species to the transmission and maintenance of SLE virus in nature. (bioone.org)
  • Only certain species of mosquitoes carry the virus and very few mosquitoes actually are infected. (lajuntatribunedemocrat.com)
  • In Colorado, these viruses are transmitted to people by a species called Culex tarsalis, a medium-sized mosquito that feeds in the few hours around dawn and dusk. (lajuntatribunedemocrat.com)
  • The virus has also been identified in more than 250 bird species in the United States, including blue jays, ravens, magpies, sparrows, and starlings. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Encephalitis that is caused by a mosquito-borne virus and affects humans, horses, and some bird species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Change the names of 43 virus species to accord with ICVCN Code, Section 3-II, Rule 3.13 regarding the use of ligatures, diacritical marks, punctuation marks (excluding hyphens), subscripts, superscripts, oblique bars and non-Latin letters in taxon names" (ZIP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most people infected with SLE virus have no apparent illness. (everythinglubbock.com)
  • Human infections range from asymptomatic to self-limiting mild flu-like illness to hemorrhagic fever or encephalitis ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • During subsequent blood meals, the virus may be injected into humans and animals, where it can multiply and possibly cause illness. (medicinenet.com)
  • Although typical manifestation of WNV is asymptomatical, the virus can cross the blood-brain barrier and cause severe illness, paralysis, and even death in humans and animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When the insect feeds on another animal or human, the virus can be transmitted through the bite and cause serious illness. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Isolation of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus from Culex Nigrlpalpus Mosquitoes in Jamaica. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Most humans who contract the virus have been bitten by an infected mosquito, often the common house mosquito (Culex pipiens). (medicinenet.com)
  • We monitored the abundance and serological status of wild avian amplification hosts, virus isolations from Culex nigripalpus Theobald females, and SLE virus transmission to sentinel chickens during 1990, 1993, and 1997. (nih.gov)
  • Symptoms may range from mild headache and fever to encephalitis and death. (genomicmedicineuk.com)
  • Doctors may give you supportive therapy to help with the symptoms, but the actual virus will be unaffected by any treatment. (swatmosquitosystems.com)
  • Also like West Nile, most people who contract the virus do not show any symptoms. (mynewsla.com)
  • St. Louis encephalitis can cause similar symptoms. (sacbee.com)
  • Eventually the virus attacks the cells of the central nervous system, causing the typical symptoms of the disease to appear. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Like Japanese encephalitis, these viruses often only produce mild general symptoms - similar to mild influenza . (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • But by far, the majority of cases of Japanese encephalitis do not have either brain symptoms or serious consequences. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • What are the symptoms of St. Louis Encephalitis? (virginia.gov)
  • St. Louis encephalitis can affect the central nervous system, often producing flulike symptoms such as fever, headaches and disorientation. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Secondary spread and the multiplication of the virus in the CNS (central nervous system) causes symptoms such as stiff neck, lethargy and seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • While valuable tools for diagnosing presumptive flaviviral infections, these assays use antigens prepared from virus-infected suckling mouse brains (SMB). (asm.org)
  • Neuroviral Infections: RNA Viruses and Retroviruses presents an up-to-date overview of the general principles of infections and major neuroviral infections caused by RNA viruses and retroviruses. (routledge.com)
  • The Southern Nevada Health District reported an increase of St. Louis encephalitis in 2016. (lasvegassun.com)
  • This case is associated with the recent 2015-2016 reemergence of this virus in the southwestern United States. (cdc.gov)
  • An isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus, confirmed by the Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratories, was made from a mockingbird nestling in August. (ajtmh.org)
  • Isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus from adult Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). (utmb.edu)
  • Virus isolation can be done on all samples suitable for PCR EXCEPT formalin-fixed tissues. (cornell.edu)
  • Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE) is a viral disease spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. (everythinglubbock.com)
  • Severe neuroinvasive disease (often involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) occurs more commonly in older adults. (everythinglubbock.com)
  • A person cannot get the virus, for example, from touching or kissing someone who has the disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in many Asian countries. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The mosquito-borne disease was identified, wrongly as it turned out, as St. Louis encephalitis. (latimes.com)
  • Wherever it is built, the high-security facility will replace Plum Island Animal Disease Center on Plum Island, New York, the only location in the United States for research on the live virus that causes foot-and-mouth disease. (nbcnewyork.com)
  • Late Friday, laboratory tests confirmed six cases of the virus in humans in the central part of the state -- the first confirmation of the mosquito- transmitted disease in four years. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • St. Louis encephalitis is a serious disease, and that`s why we`re encouraging people to take a few simple precautions that can substantially reduce their chances of becoming infected,`` state Health Officer Dr. Charles Mahan said. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Saint Louis encephalitis is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Saint Louis encephalitis virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • no cytopathic effect was observed, and the culture was negative for influenza virus and for other respiratory viruses amenable to culture (e.g., adenovirus and parainfluenza virus). (cdc.gov)
  • The viruses used in animals consisted of St. Louis encephalitis, PR8 strain of influenza and Lansing strain of poliomyelitis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here we report that weanling mice given a single intramuscular injection of 50 micrograms of a plasmid, pSLE1 expressing the St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE) prM/E protein under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early protein promoter produced SLE-specific antibody and were protected against lethal challenge with the virulent virus. (nih.gov)
  • The antibody response of sloths to SLE virus was slow, being undetectable until several weeks post-inoculation. (ajtmh.org)
  • Sloths with naturally acquired SLE virus antibody did not become detectably viremic after experimental inoculation. (ajtmh.org)
  • This virus causes inflammation of the tissues of the central nervous system. (genomicmedicineuk.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes central nervous system neuronal injury and inflammation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • What is Japanese encephalitis? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • It's thought that only in 100 adults who come into contact with Japanese encephalitis actually develop any visible signs of it. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • How does Japanese encephalitis spread? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus is passed on by the bite of an infected mosquito that has previously sucked blood from an infected animal or person. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Where does Japanese encephalitis occur and how many people are affected? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • In the UK, rare cases of Japanese encephalitis are reported in travellers from abroad. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Low population Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) seroprevalence in Udayapur district, Nepal, three years after a JE vaccination programme: A case for further catch up campaigns? (bioportfolio.com)
  • Changing Geographic Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotypes, 1935-2017. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a leading identified cause of encephalitis in Asia, often occurring in rural areas with poor access to laboratory diagnostics. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Development of an improved RT-qPCR Assay for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) RNA including a systematic review and comprehensive comparison with published methods. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major cause of encephalitis in Asia, and the commonest cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 2) severe springtime drought, which facilitated amplification of the SLE virus among the Cx. (columbia.edu)
  • The virus was ecologically characterized in Egypt during the 1950s and later linked to severe human meningoencephalitis in elderly patients during a 1957 outbreak in Israel. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An in house indirect immmunofluorescence assay ( IFA ) in relation to neutralization (NT) reference test, was assessed as a fast and cheap method to carry out serological surveys for St. Louis Encephalitis virus (SLE). (bvsalud.org)
  • In temperate areas of the United States, Saint Louis encephalitis cases occur primarily in the late summer or early fall. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the southern United States where the climate is milder Saint Louis encephalitis can occur year-round. (wikipedia.org)
  • North American Eastern equine encephalitis virus (13,14), Highlands J virus from North America (15), Western equine encephalitis virus (16) and Sindbis virus (17). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The isolate seems to be closely related to Tr 9464 and Ja 7532 viruses, which are both closely related to the Parton strain of SLE virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • In 1997 the Ministry of Public Health of Uruguay began dengue virus surveillance through serological diagnosis in human cases and detection and control of the vector Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti . (hindawi.com)
  • 3. Centrifugal spread began when the virus in the brain reached a concentration of about 400 million LD 50 and virus appeared in the pharynx, tongue, and adrenals before it was demonstrable in the intestinal tract, blood, or viscera such as the spleen, liver, and kidneys. (rupress.org)
  • Up until 1999, WNV was considered an "Old World" virus, but in that year its introduction into the US in the New York City area triggered an epizootic that spread the virus to all 48 contiguous states. (cornell.edu)
  • The virus cannot be spread to other people or animals. (hernandocounty.us)
  • It stayed relatively quiet at first, averaging 50 cases and six deaths a year through 2001, but then it took off: More than 4,000 Americans caught West Nile in 2002, and nearly 10,000 joined them in '03, while the virus spread to 46 states and began killing hundreds each year. (treehugger.com)
  • How is St. Louis encephalitis spread? (virginia.gov)
  • After its arrival in the New Work area,, the virus spread rapidly across the United States , as well as northward into Canada and southward into Mexico. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The virus is not spread from person to person. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • A primary spread of virus occurs, with seeding of the reticuloendothelial system, mainly in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the ongoing replication of the virus a secondary spread occurs, with the seeding of the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all the cases reach this stage, depending on the efficiency of viral replication at the different stages and the degree of virus spread. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversions detected in local and sentinel chickens suggest that between March and August there probably was an increase in the transmission rate of SLE virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • The high level of SLE virus amplification resulted in spillover transmission to humans. (columbia.edu)
  • We hypothesize that without the continued reproductive activity of the vector mosquito, brought about by excessive summer and fall wetness, the unprecedented SLE virus amplification and consequent transmission to humans would not have been realized in 1990. (columbia.edu)
  • The goal of the Auguste lab is to study the ecology, evolution, transmission dynamics, pathogenesis and develop interventions arthropod-borne viruses. (vt.edu)
  • Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatusj, japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunisation with DNA polynucleotides protects mice against lethal challenge with St. Louis encephalitis virus. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Despite the high concentrations of virus which developed in the intestinal tract following intravenous inoculation, it was not demonstrable in the stools, differing in this respect from Theiler's virus in mice and poliomyelitis virus in human beings and monkeys. (rupress.org)
  • 5. No antiviral agent was found in the stools, but the urine of normal mice having a pH of 5.6, inactivated large amounts of St. Louis encephalitis virus. (rupress.org)
  • 6. There was no evidence of multiplication in the nasal mucosa of mice which succumbed with encephalitis following nasal instillation of the virus, the course of events being comparable in this respect to the behavior of the M.V. poliomyelitis virus in rhesus monkeys. (rupress.org)
  • Blood samples from these animals were tested for virus by inoculation of suckling mice. (bioone.org)
  • Blood clots from two deer mice yielded isolates of the same virus. (bioone.org)
  • The city has also changed the pesticide it uses to kill the mosquitoes that carry the virus. (nydailynews.com)
  • Infected mosquitoes then transmit the virus to humans and animals during their feeding process. (virginia.gov)
  • Researchers were surprised to discover the mosquito-borne virus in such a densely populated urban area. (nydailynews.com)

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