A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.

Genetic and fitness changes accompanying adaptation of an arbovirus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells. (1/102)

The alternating host cycle and persistent vector infection may constrain the evolution of arboviruses. To test this hypothesis, eastern equine encephalitis virus was passaged in BHK or mosquito cells, as well as in alternating (both) host cell passages. High and low multiplicities were used to examine the effect of defective interfering particles. Clonal BHK and persistent mosquito cell infections were also evaluated. Fitness was measured with one-step growth curves and competition assays, and mutations were evaluated by nucleotide sequencing and RNA fingerprinting. All passages and assays were done at 32 degrees C to eliminate temperature as a selection factor. Viruses passaged in either cell type alone exhibited fitness declines in the bypassed cells, while high-multiplicity and clonal passages caused fitness declines in both types of cells. Bypassed cell fitness losses were mosquito and vertebrate specific and were not restricted to individual cell lines. Fitness increases occurred in the cell line used for single-host-adaptation passages and in both cells for alternately passaged viruses. Surprisingly, single-host-cell passage increased fitness in that cell type no more than alternating passages. However, single-host-cell adaptation resulted in more mutations than alternating cell passages. Mosquito cell adaptation invariably resulted in replacement of the stop codon in nsP3 with arginine or cysteine. In one case, BHK cell adaptation resulted in a 238-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region. Many nonsynonymous substitutions were shared among more than one BHK or mosquito cell passage series, suggesting positive Darwinian selection. Our results suggest that alternating host transmission cycles constrain the evolutionary rates of arboviruses but not their fitness for either host alone.  (+info)

Evaluation of the epidemic potential of western equine encephalitis virus in the northeastern United States. (2/102)

The problem of evaluating the epidemic potential of western equine encephalitis in the northeastern United States is presented and possible reasons are discussed for the present lack of human and horse cases of this disease even though increased numbers of isolations of the virus have been obtained in the East during recent years. Epidemiologic factors of vector bionomics and virus strain variations are considered. It is concluded that while this virus strain can no longer be regarded as uncommon in the Northeast, the evidence indicates there is little potential for epidemic expression of this agent in the human and horse population. This appears to be due to differences in the bionomics of the mosquito Culiseta melanura, which serves as the primary enzootic vector in the northeastern United States and in the bionomics of Culex tarsalis that is the vector in the western region of the United States. Other limiting factors in the epidemic potential may be variations between virus strains located in the East and West.  (+info)

Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. (3/102)

Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) has been diagnosed either serologically or by virus isolation. Until now, the recovery of EEE virus has been delegated to reference laboratories with the expertise and resources needed to amplify the virus in a susceptible vertebrate host and/or to isolate and identify the virus in cell culture. We report a case in which EEE virus was recovered directly from a patient's cerebrospinal fluid in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. Many clinical virology laboratories routinely use these cells to recover adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and enterovirus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of EEE virus in A549 cell culture. This report demonstrates the possibility of recovery of EEE virus in cell culture without the necessity of bioamplification or maintaining unusual cell lines.  (+info)

Eastern equine encephalitis virus in birds: relative competence of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). (4/102)

To determine whether eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus infection in starlings may be more fulminant than in various native candidate reservoir birds, we compared their respective intensities and durations of viremia. Viremias are more intense and longer lasting in starlings than in robins and other birds. Starlings frequently die as their viremia begins to wane; other birds generally survive. Various Aedes as well as Culiseta melanura mosquitoes can acquire EEE viral infection from infected starlings under laboratory conditions. The reservoir competence of a bird is described as the product of infectiousness (proportion of feeding mosquitoes that become infected) and the duration of infectious viremia. Although starlings are not originally native where EEE is enzootic, a starling can infect about three times as many mosquitoes as can a robin.  (+info)

Genetic and antigenic diversity among eastern equine encephalitis viruses from North, Central, and South America. (5/102)

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), the sole species in the EEE antigenic complex, is divided into North and South American antigenic varieties based on hemagglutination inhibition tests. Here we describe serologic and phylogenetic analyses of representatives of these varieties, spanning the entire temporal and geographic range available. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed additional genetic diversity within the South American variety; 3 major South/Central American lineages were identified including one represented by a single isolate from eastern Brazil, and 2 lineages with more widespread distributions in Central and South America. All North American isolates comprised a single, highly conserved lineage with strains grouped by the time of isolation and to some extent by location. An EEEV strain isolated during a 1996 equine outbreak in Tamaulipas State, Mexico was closely related to recent Texas isolates, suggesting southward EEEV transportation beyond the presumed enzootic range. Plaque reduction neutralization tests with representatives from the 4 major lineages indicated that each represents a distinct antigenic subtype. A taxonomic revision of the EEE complex is proposed.  (+info)

Development of reverse transcription-PCR assays specific for detection of equine encephalitis viruses. (6/102)

Specific and sensitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays were developed for the detection of eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (EEE, WEE, and VEE, respectively). Tests for specificity included all known alphavirus species. The EEE-specific RT-PCR amplified a 464-bp region of the E2 gene exclusively from 10 different EEE strains from South and North America with a sensitivity of about 3,000 RNA molecules. In a subsequent nested PCR, the specificity was confirmed by the amplification of a 262-bp fragment, increasing the sensitivity of this assay to approximately 30 RNA molecules. The RT-PCR for WEE amplified a fragment of 354 bp from as few as 2,000 RNA molecules. Babanki virus, as well as Mucambo and Pixuna viruses (VEE subtypes IIIA and IV), were also amplified. However, the latter viruses showed slightly smaller fragments of about 290 and 310 bp, respectively. A subsequent seminested PCR amplified a 195-bp fragment only from the 10 tested strains of WEE from North and South America, rendering this assay virus specific and increasing its sensitivity to approximately 20 RNA molecules. Because the 12 VEE subtypes showed too much divergence in their 26S RNA nucleotide sequences to detect all of them by the use of nondegenerate primers, this assay was confined to the medically important and closely related VEE subtypes IAB, IC, ID, IE, and II. The RT-PCR-seminested PCR combination specifically amplified 342- and 194-bp fragments of the region covering the 6K gene in VEE. The sensitivity was 20 RNA molecules for subtype IAB virus and 70 RNA molecules for subtype IE virus. In addition to the subtypes mentioned above, three of the enzootic VEE (subtypes IIIB, IIIC, and IV) showed the specific amplicon in the seminested PCR. The practicability of the latter assay was tested with human sera gathered as part of the febrile illness surveillance in the Amazon River Basin of Peru near the city of Iquitos. All of the nine tested VEE-positive sera showed the expected 194-bp amplicon of the VEE-specific RT-PCR-seminested PCR.  (+info)

Differential evolution of eastern equine encephalitis virus populations in response to host cell type. (7/102)

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) cycle between hosts in two widely separated taxonomic groups, vertebrate amplifying hosts and invertebrate vectors, both of which may separately or in concert shape the course of arbovirus evolution. To elucidate the selective pressures associated with virus replication within each portion of this two-host life cycle, the effects of host type on the growth characteristics of the New World alphavirus, eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, were investigated. Multiple lineages of an ancestral EEE virus stock were repeatedly transferred through either mosquito or avian cells or in alternating passages between these two cell types. When assayed in both cell types, derived single host lineages exhibited significant differences in infectivity, growth pattern, plaque morphology, and total virus yield, demonstrating that this virus is capable of host-specific evolution. Virus lineages grown in alternation between the two cell types expressed intermediate phenotypes consistent with dual adaptation to both cellular environments. Both insect-adapted and alternated lineages greatly increased in their ability to infect insect cells. These results indicate that different selective pressures exist for virus replication within each portion of the two-host life cycle, and that alternation of hosts selects for virus populations well adapted for replication in both host systems.  (+info)

Clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and virologic findings of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in two horses. (8/102)

Natural eastern equine encephalitis alphavirus (EEEV) infection was diagnosed in two adult horses with anorexia and colic, changes in sensorium, hyperexcitability, and terminal severe depression. Myocardium, tunica muscularis of stomach, intestine, urinary bladder, and spleen capsule had coagulative necrosis and perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. Central nervous system (CNS) lesions were diffuse polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis characterized by perivascular T lymphocyte cuffing, marked gliosis, neuronophagia, and multifocal microabscesses. Lesions were more prominent within cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon. EEEV was identified in the cytoplasm of cardiac myocytes and smooth muscle cells of spleen, stomach, intestine, urinary bladder, blood vessels, and dendritic cells. In the CNS, EEEV-positive cells included neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and neutrophils. EEEV was isolated from the CNS of both horses. The detailed description of the encephalic and spinal EEEV localization and the findings of EEEV in extraneural tissues contribute to the understanding of this important multisystemic zoonotic disease.  (+info)

State Reports Positive Mosquitoes for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Abstract: The State Mosquito Management Program today announced that mosquitoes trapped in Voluntown on July 10, 2013 have tested positive for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE).
With spring around the corner, Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory wants to prepare your horses for West Nile virus and Equine Encephalitis virus. This AgriLife agency reports on annual trends in positive disease cases and discusses the best way to prepare horses with vaccinations and your veterinarians help. Last year, the Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, TVMDL, documented fewer cases of West Nile virus than in previous years. The number of positive cases of West Nile virus in horses seen at TVMDL fluctuates from year to year, which is common with mosquito-borne diseases. In 2019, the agency reported only four positive cases in horses, none of which came from Texas. However, as West Nile cases went down, the agency saw a slight increase in another prominent mosquito-borne disease: Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus, EEEV.. TVMDL reported 16 cases of EEEV cases in 2019, with four of those positive cases coming from out of Texas. Over 98% of the cases involving ...
Abstract. Florida has the highest degree of endemicity for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) of any state in the United States and is the only state with year-round transmission of EEEV. To further understand the viral population dynamics in Florida, the genome sequence of six EEEV isolates from central Florida were determined. These data were used to identify the most polymorphic regions of the EEEV genome from viruses isolated in Florida. The sequence of these polymorphic regions was then determined for 18 additional Florida isolates collected in four geographically distinct regions over a 20-year period. Phylogenetic analyses of these data suggested a rough temporal association of the Florida isolates, but no clustering by region or by source of the isolate. Some clustering of northeastern isolates with Florida isolates was seen, providing support for the hypothesis that Florida serves as a reservoir for the periodic introduction of EEEV into the northeastern United States.
BioAssay record AID 357781 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against Eastern equine encephalitis virus in BHK21 cells assessed as inhibition of virus-induced cytopathogenicity.
A case of eastern equine encephalitis in a horse has been reported in the Hunts Mills area of Chesterfield County. No case of human infection has been reported and eastern equine encephalitis is rare in humans, according to the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control. In the United States there are approximately five to 10 cases of eastern equine encephalitis annually, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The disease causes inflammation of the brain and can be fatal.
Eastern equine encephalitis: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on eastern equine encephalitis at PatientsLikeMe. 6 patients with eastern equine encephalitis experience fatigue, insomnia, depressed mood, pain, and anxious mood.
The New York State Department of Health informed Suffolk County health officials that two additional mosquito sample have tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, also referred to as EEE. The mosquito samples, of Culiseta melanura species, were collected in the Manorville area on October 1, 2019. No new mosquito samples have tested positive for West Nile virus. To date this season, Suffolk County has reported 77 mosquito samples that have tested...
An unprecedented outbreak of fatal eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus occurred during the late summer and fall of 1984 in endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland. As part of efforts to prevent future epizootics of EEE. studies were conducted to evaluate the antibody response of cranes following vaccination with a formalin-inactivated EEE virus vaccine. Viral specific neutralizing antibody was elicited in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes following 1M inoculation with the vaccine. Among the 1M-inoculated cranes, peak antibody titers of 1:80 on days 30 to 60 had waned to undetectable levels by days 90 to 120. Although the initial titers were not increased by the first booster dose, the duration of the antibody was extended considerably. Whooping cranes, receiving vaccine 6 months after their first vaccination, developed titers of 1:80 to 1:320 by...
Recent research has indicated increasing rates of urbanization and habitat fragmentation may put mammalian populations at greater risk in the future for epidemics caused by arboviruses. Increasing knowledge of vector and host activity patterns and foraging behavior has set the stage for using use agent-base models to more accurately predict the occurrence in space and time of arboviral activity and epidemics. This research will focus of developing an agent-based model of the transmission cycle of the Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) virus in the southeastern swamp forest ecosystem. This research will add a critical spatial component to our understanding of the EEE virus. This will allow for the prediction of potential areas of outbreak of EEE in mammalian populations in the Southeast. ...
Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have deemed Eastern Equine Encephalitis an emergent threat. The mosquito-borne virus had a resurgence in 2019, infecting 36 people in the United States and killing 14.
Background Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic zoonosis that circulates in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophagic mosquito, Culiseta melanura, and wild...
Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005-2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN). The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. The DBSCAN algorithm identified five
This is the first large-scale genomic study of an important, neuroinvasive alphavirus pathogen in North America. Using high-throughput sequencing methods, we obtained a total of 433 complete genome sequences of EEEV strains collected from many states in the United States between 1934 and 2014, particularly from Florida, New York, and Massachusetts. These new EEEV sequence data significantly increased the number of publicly available genome sequences from 16 to more than 400 (a ,20-fold increase) and, for the first time, allowed a comprehensive study of the genomic diversity and evolution of EEEV in North America. Our analyses show that the EEEV genome is highly conserved in general, and the evolution of EEEV is strongly clock-like. Notably, our phylogenetic analyses suggest different geographic regions in the United States are experiencing different epidemiological dynamics of EEEV. Most importantly, the phylogeography of EEEV in the United States appears to be compatible with a source-sink ...
Vector Smart™ NAM-e multiplex PCR test to provide proactive defense against mosquito populations carrying the deadly eastern equine encephalitis virus. Salt Lake City, Utah - December 10, 2019 - Co-Diagnostics, Inc. (Nasdaq: CODX), a molecular diagnostics company with a unique, patented platform for the development of diagnostic tests, announced today the launch of their Vector Smart™ NAM-e (North American Mosquito-East) multiplex test, which detects the eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus among mosquito populations, along with West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE).. EEE is a mosquito-borne disease that kills roughly one-third of those infected and typically leaves survivors with mild to severe brain damage according to the CDC. 2019 brought an unexpected surge in cases of EEE in the US, more than 5 times the average, and the 36 confirmed cases across 8 states resulted in 14 deaths.. Mosquito populations are tested, monitored, and controlled by over 1,000 MADs ...
September 5, 2019 - Mosquitoes infected with Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) have now been found in Wellfleet. Bourne, Falmouth, and Truro have also detected EEE in samples of mosquitoes in August. Below please see the most recent map provided by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Residents are urged to take personal protective activities like using EPA approved repellents and avoiding mosquitoes at peak times. West Nile virus activity has also been identified in several communities in Massachusetts. Get updated information at http://www.mosquitoresults.com/. ...
Horse owners should review vaccination records with their veterinarians to ensure that EEE and WNV vaccinations are current and to take precautions against mosquito bites, especially when residing in areas with known infected mosquitoes said Dr. Mary Jane Lis, State Veterinarian for the Connecticut Department of Agriculture. The mortality rate of EEE infected horses showing clinical signs is 75-90%. Surviving horses have a high incidence of residual neurologic deficits ...
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Many of our clients are concerned about Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) in their dog or cat. The EEE virus is spread by infected mosquitos. Dr. Taryn Clark talks about symptoms and how you and your pets can best avoid the virus.
Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) officials confirmed the discovery of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus - a mosquito-borne viral disease - in a central-Ohio horse and a northwest-Ohio horse.
TRENTON) - A 2 year old Gloucester County mare is the first reported case in 2015 of Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), a serious, mosquito-borne illness in horses. The horse had not been vaccinated against EEE was humanely euthanized on August 25.. Horse owners need to be vigilant in vaccinating their animals against diseases spread by mosquitoes, said New Jersey Secretary of Agriculture Douglas H. Fisher. Vaccinated animals are much less likely to contract deadly diseases such as EEE and West Nile Virus.. EEE causes inflammation of the brain tissue and has a significantly higher risk of death in horses than West Nile Virus infection. West Nile virus is a viral disease that affects horses neurological systems. The disease is transmitted by mosquito bite. The virus cycles between birds and mosquitoes with horses and humans being incidental hosts. EEE infections in horses are not a significant risk factor for human infection because horses (like humans) are considered to be dead-end hosts ...
EEEP : Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is within the alphavirus group. It is a low prevalence cause of human disease in the eastern and Gulf Coast states. EEE is maintained by a cycle of mosquito/wild bird transmission, peaking in the summer and early fall, when man may become an adventitious host. The most common clinically apparent manifestation is a mild undifferentiated febrile illness, usually with headache. Central nervous system involvement is demonstrated in only a minority of infected individuals, it is more abrupt and more severe with EEE than other arboviruses, with children being more susceptible to severe disease. Fatality rates are approximately 70% for EEE.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is a disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. EEE most often infects horses but can infect humans. There is no vaccine for humans and approximately 1/3 of those infected die of the disease. The majority of those who survive, suffer brain damage. The mortality rate in horses is 70-90%. Fortunately for horses, there are vaccines available to help protect against infection.. Dr. Amanda House, University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine Clinical Associate Professor, advises, It is critical that every horse in Florida be vaccinated for EEE at least twice a year. Horses under 4 years of age or those new to the state should be vaccinated three times a year. EEE is a deadly disease that vaccination can help reduce or eliminate.. Mosquito control on farm is also critical for decreasing the incidence of disease in animals and in humans. Dr. Carissa Wickens, University of Florida State Extension Horse Specialist, has this to say about mosquito control, ...
Alabama 08/11/10 al.com: by Casandra Andrews, Press Register - A sentinel chicken from the Elberta area has tested positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis, according to the Baldwin County Health Department. In June, EEE was detected in sentinel chickens in the Orange Beach area and in July in the Magnolia Springs area. Ongoing public health surveillance…
A 90-year-old Levy County man is dead after contracting eastern equine encephalitis, according to the Levy County Health Department. Health Department Director Barbara Locke said Thursday the man, who was not able to be identified because of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, got the disease some time in the middle of January and died about a week later. Its unusual, Locke said. Were the first human case (in 2013) for the state. Its also the first confirmed case ever for human infection of EEE in the county, she said. Locke said its likely the man, who lived a few miles outside of Bronson near County Road 337, contracted the disease in Levy County. You can never be absolutely sure, she said, But were pretty sure. Its pretty likely, she said, adding that the man rarely traveled out of the county. The disease, first identified in the 1930s, is transmitted from birds by infected mosquitoes to humans and horses. Locke said one horse this year, about 25 miles north
ZACHARY PLAINSMAN-NEWS -- JULY 19, 2012 -- An increase in Eastern Equine Encephalitis and West Nile Virus cases in horses has prompted Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry Commissioner Mike Strain, D.V.M., to warn owners to vaccinate.
Connecticut environmental officials are expanding the area being closed in a state forest in response to the discover of Eastern equine encephalitis in human-biting mosquitoes. The state Department of Energy and Environmental Protection said Tuesday that it is closing a 300-acre area in Pachaug State Forest in Voluntown, near Rhode Island.
Suffolk County Mosquito Control Boston and Chelsea MA - Eastern Equine Encephalitis - Suffolk County Mosquito Control, state agency. Mosquito control for Boston and Chelsea, Massachusetts.
To find out more about Eastern Equine Encephalitis or how to make sure your Savannah, GA, yard is mosquito free this summer and fall, call us today at (912) 348-8247 or fill out our form, We look forward to hearing from you soon!
Tennessee officials are advising people to take precautions after a horse in West Tennessee tested positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis.
A deer found dead in the Charlotte area tested positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis. This was the first time the deadly virus has appeared in Eaton
A 7-year-old alpaca in Camden County and a 2-year-old gelding horse in Ocean County are the fourth and fifth reported animal cases of Eastern Equine Encephalitis in New Jersey this year ...
Learn more about Eastern Equine Encephalitis at Medical City Dallas DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
- The report reviews key players involved in the therapeutics development for Eastern Equine Encephalitis and enlists all their major and minor projects - The report summarizes all the dormant and discontinued pipeline projects
The eastern equine encephalitis virus has been found in mosquitoes trapped Monday in Lakeville. West Nile virus has been detected in the past week in Easton, Mansfield and Stoughton. The Department of Public Health found the virus in samples collected on Aug. 5. New findings in the past week include West Nile virus in Dighton and eastern equine encephalitis in Freetown and New Bedford. Bridgewater, where EEE was found in mid-July, remains the only town in Plymouth County where either virus has
ENCEFALOMIELITE EQUINA PDF - Background: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a highly lethal zoonotic disease caused by Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEv), an RNA virus of the
Definition : Serology reagents intended to detect antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis virus, a virus of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. This virus may cause subclinical infections in humans, with only a low-grade fever; in some cases this fever may be followed by encephalitis, characterized by increasing drowsiness, neck rigidity, confusion, paralysis, convulsions, and coma. The virus is typically transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes.. Entry Terms : Reagents, Serology, Virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Antibody. UMDC code : 22370 ...
The Oswego County Health Department announced that the eastern equine encephalitis virus has appeared in several more mosquito pools during the state health
Graphs showing weekly mosquito trapping data since June reveal dramatic declines in both the overall amount of mosquito activity and the number of trapped mosquitoes testing positive for EEE. States throughout the Northeast are also experiencing an active season for EEE. In addition to the virus being found in mosquitoes, there have been ten human cases of EEE infection in Massachusetts, including two fatalities, and three human cases in Rhode Island, including one fatality. Although EEE-infected mosquitoes continue to be detected in the southeastern corner of Connecticut, the numbers are declining and we are not experiencing the excessively high levels of activity seen in Massachusetts. There are currently no plans to implement widespread pesticide sprays in the state ...
A mosquito collected in Bridgehampton on Sept. 12 has tested positive for West Nile virus, the Suffolk County health commissioner announced on Thursday.. The mosquito sample from Bridgehampton was one of four collected on Sept. 12 and 13 to test positive for the virus. The others were collected in West Babylon, Huntington Station, and Islip.. To date, 116 mosquito samples have tested positive for West Nile virus in the county, and four have tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis virus. No horses have tested positive for mosquito-borne illness in the county to date this year.. ...
A mosquito collected in Bridgehampton on Sept. 12 has tested positive for West Nile virus, the Suffolk County health commissioner announced on Thursday.. The mosquito sample from Bridgehampton was one of four collected on Sept. 12 and 13 to test positive for the virus. The others were collected in West Babylon, Huntington Station, and Islip.. To date, 116 mosquito samples have tested positive for West Nile virus in the county, and four have tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis virus. No horses have tested positive for mosquito-borne illness in the county to date this year.. ...
Massachusetts officials have raised the risk level from the dangerous Eastern equine encephalitis virus to critical in some towns and say the threat from mosquito-born illness is the highest in decades. via Massachusetts takes fresh steps against dangerous mosquitoes | Reuters.
Duval County Health Department officials confirmed that a 15-year-old girl has the third local case of chikungunya fever, spread by bites from infected mosquitoes. They also confirmed that a 7-year-old Duval County girl is recovering from this years first reported case of Vibrio vulnificus infection, the so-called flesh-eating bacteria apparently contracted after a swim in the St. Johns River.. Clay County health officials also warned residents that several horses in the county tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis virus which can spread to humans.. Duval Health Department spokesman Charles Griggs said the public can take precautions in both cases to not put themselves at risk.. The 15-year-old Jacksonville girl recently traveled out of the country. Health officials did not reveal her current condition after the chikungunya infection or where she had traveled, but the disease has been a problem in the Caribbean.. Symptoms include sudden high fever, severe joint pain, headache, ...
New study finds a communitys use of airplanes to spread pesticide each summer may pose a greater risk of autism spectrum disorder and developmental disorders among children born in the area. AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS. BALTIMORE, MD - New research to be presented at the Pediatric Academic Societies 2016 Meeting suggests that the use of airplanes to spray anti-mosquito pesticides may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder and developmental delays among children.. Researchers who will present the abstract, Aerial Pesticide Exposure Increases the Risk of Developmental Delay and Autism Spectrum Disorder, identified a swampy region in central New York where health officials use airplanes to spray pyrethroid pesticides each summer. The pesticides target mosquitos that carry the eastern equine encephalitis virus, which can cause swelling of the brain and spinal cord. They found that children living in ZIP codes in which aerial pesticide spraying has taken place each summer since 2003 were ...
Recent rains have cleared drains of some larvae, but mosquito foes are warning that saturated wetlands and containers that trap water could still breed bugs capable of spreading the West Nile and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses.
This is the time of year that we are extremely vulnerable to the spread of mosquito-borne viruses and we need to protect our livestock and ourselves stated McMillan. I want to encourage horse owners to vaccinate their horses for both EEE and West Nile Virus as soon as possible.. EEE is a mosquito-transmitted disease that is much more severe than West Nile Virus (WNV). The mortality rate in horses from WNV is reported at around 30%, while the rate for EEE is almost 90%. Infected mosquitoes are the primary source for EEE. The virus causes inflammation or swelling of the brain and spinal cord. General symptoms include central nervous system signs such as: head pressing, convulsions, lack of response to facial stimulation, fever above 103 degrees, ataxia, paralysis, anorexia, depression and stupor. Other symptoms may include irregular gait, teeth grinding, in-coordination, circling, and staggering. All symptoms may not be exhibited by an infected horse.. Commissioner McMillan and State ...
EEE is a mosquito-borne disease that kills roughly one-third of those infected and typically leaves survivors with mild to severe brain damage according to the CDC. 2019 brought an unexpected surge in cases of EEE in the US, more than 5 times the average, and the 36 confirmed cases across 8 states resulted in 14 deaths.. Mosquito populations are tested, monitored, and controlled by over 1,000 MADs (mosquito abatement districts, publicly funded departments at the city, county, and state level) in North America. The Company has been presenting its mosquito diagnostic products to MADs at vector control conferences across the country this year. Revenue from the Companys mosquito abatement vertical began earlier in 2019, and is expected to significantly increase as demand grows for the NAM-e and other tests to help provide a first-line of defense against the spread of certain mosquito-borne illnesses.. 18 infections you can get from mosquitoes. Like the other tests in the Companys Vector Smart ...
The mosquito sample was collected on July 19 in Bridgewater. There have been no human cases of reported West Nile virus infection or EEE so far this year in Massachusetts. Both diseases are carried by infected mosquitoes.
TRENTON) - A 7-year-old horse in Monmouth County is the third reported case of Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), a serious, mosquito-borne illness in horses, in New Jersey for 2018. The horse had not been vaccinated against EEE in 2018 and was euthanized on September 4, 2018.. This is another sad and unfortunate reminder that horse owners need to be vigilant in vaccinating their animals against diseases spread by mosquitoes, New Jersey Secretary of Agriculture Douglas H. Fisher said. Vaccinated animals are much less likely to contract deadly diseases such as EEE and West Nile Virus.. EEE causes inflammation of the brain tissue and has a significantly higher risk of death in horses than West Nile Virus infection. West Nile virus is a viral disease that affects a horses neurological system. The disease is transmitted by a mosquito bite. The virus cycles between birds and mosquitoes with horses and humans being incidental hosts. EEE infections in horses are not a significant risk factor for ...
By Dr. Katie Hennessy. Triple E, or EEE, is a mosquito spread virus that is spread to animals - most often to horses - and also to humans by infected mosquitoes. In horses, EEE causes inflammation or swelling of the brain and spinal cord, and in 70 to 95 percent of all cases, the disease is fatal. As of late July, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services had reported 44 cases of EEE statewide for 2018, with two cases in Polk County. To view an interactive map of EEE cases by county, see the QR code. For state health and agriculture officials, and well as for horse owners and veterinarians, that is an alarming number, considering that Florida had just six cases of the virus for all of 2017. For the entire nation, only 86 cases of EEE were documented last year, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Mosquitoes become infected with the EEE virus when they feed on infected birds, which circulate high levels of the virus in their blood. Infected mosquitoes then transmit ...
Public health experts said tick season is now in full swing, meaning that residents need to start protecting themselves from the critters and the diseases they carry. The illness can be hard to spot, Saul said, as the tell-tale bulls eye rash associated with it only appears in half of those infected. Unlike (mosquito-borne diseases) West Nile virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus, we have a lot of Lyme disease every year in Connecticut, said Randall Nelson, public health veterinarian for the Connecticut Department of Public Health. At this time of year, Nelson said, ticks are typically at the nymph stage, meaning they havent reached their full adult size.
85 Equine rotavirus 85 Rotavirus A 85 Rotavirus C 85 Rotavirus sp. 86 Rift Valley fever virus 87 Human papillomavirus 61 88 Norwalk virus 89 Crane hepatitis B virus 89 Duck hepatitis B virus 89 Heron hepatitis B virus 89 Rosss goose hepatitis B virus 89 Sheldgoose hepatitis B virus 90 Rotavirus A 91 Human herpesvirus 4 92 Human herpesvirus 2 93 Murine norovirus 93 Norwalk virus 94 Bat coronavirus BM48- 31/BGR/2008 94 Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 94 recombinant SARS coronavirus 94 recombinant coronavirus 94 synthetic construct 95 Eastern equine encephalitis virus 96 Amapari virus 96 Guanarito virus 97 Human respiratory syncytial virus 97 Respiratory syncytial virus 98 GB virus A 99 Feline rotavirus 99 Rotavirus A 99 Rotavirus C 100 AdEasy vector pShuttle 100 Adenoviral expression vector Ad-hiNOS 100 Adenoviral vector Ad-SAR1- x/ASX 100 Cloning vector pdeltaE1sp1A(CMV-GFP) 100 EGFP expression vector Ad- EGFP 100 Homo sapiens 100 Human adenovirus C 100 Recombination vector ...
LEBANON, Maine - Selectmen Chairman Robert Frizzell was notified on Monday of a positive case of Eastern equine encephalitis in town. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but serious viral disease spread by mosquitoes that can affect people and horses. EEE can also cause disease in captive birds such as the ring-necked pheasant, emu, ostriches, quail and ducks. EEE infection and disease can occasionally occur in other livestock, deer, dogs, other mammals, reptiles and amphibians.
Zhu, F. C.; Liang, Z. L.; Li, X. L.; Ge, H. M.; Meng, F. Y.; Mao, Q. Y.; Zhang, Y. T.; Hu, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Li, J. X.; Gao, F.; Chen, Q. H.; Zhu, Q. Y.; Chu, K.; Wu, X.; Yao, X.; Guo, H. J.; Chen, X. Q.; Liu, P.; Dong, Y. Y.; Li, F. X.; Shen, X. L.; Wang, J. Z. (2013). Immunogenicity and safety of an enterovirus 71 vaccine in healthy Chinese children and infants: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial. The Lancet. 381 (9871): 1037-45. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61764-4. PMID 23352749 ...
A horse from Richmond was euthanized on Sept. 20 after test results confirmed that it had tested positive for eastern equine encephalitis, according to the state Health Department.. The 1-year-old horse was taken to Tufts Veterinary School in Massachusetts for treatment, but records showed the animal was not fully immunized against EEE, a disease spread by mosquitoes. It was subsequently put down. Last week officials in Connecticut confirmed the first case of EEE in a horse this year when a 2-year-old miniature horse tested positive. The animal from Griswold, Conn., had not been vaccinated against EEE or West Nile virus.. In the most recent samples, mosquito pools set in Providence, East Providence and nearby North Kingstown were confirmed positive for West Nile. Test results from a mosquito pool in Exeter tested positive for EEE. ...
Massachusetts EEE death, 2nd Human EEE Death Reported In Mass.. A Freetown man in his 70s has died after contracting Eastern Equine Encephalitis, the towns board of health confirmed Friday. His death marks this years second fatality linked to the virus in Massachusetts.. The Bristol County man was also the 10th Massachusetts resident infected with EEE this year, according to the states Department of Public Health.. We continue to emphasize the need for people to protect themselves from mosquito bites, Public Health Commissioner Monica Bharel said in a statement. The unusually warm weather expected this weekend will increase outdoor activity among people and mosquitoes. It is absolutely essential that people take steps to avoid being bitten by a mosquito.. ...
If you needed a reason to avoid getting bitten by mosquitos, an urgent situation has developed in New Jersey this summer. A sample of mosquitoes from Washington Township, NJ has tested positive for West Nile Virus and Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), according to local officials. Its the first sample to ever test positive for EEE in Warren County. In short, its something to be concerned about because mosquitoes carrying EEE can potentially kill you. WHAT IS THE MOSQUITO-BORNE DISEASE KNOWN AS EEE? EEE is a virus that causes brain inflammation and, though rare, can be fatal. Just earlier this month, a Massachusetts woman died after being infected with EEE. West Nile Virus also causes brain inflammation and is typically more prevalent than EEE, though EEE has a higher mortality rate. Approximately a third of those infected with EEE die, and theres currently no specific treatment for the virus, according to the CDC. Theres no specific treatment for West Nile Virus, either. Public officials ...
This year to date, in Rhode Island, 10 mosquito pools have tested positive for West Nile Virus, and three mosquito pools have tested positive for EEE. West Nile Virus is well-established throughout the state and, indeed, throughout the country, and EEE has been found inmost areas of Rhode Island in prior years. The unusually high number of mosquitoes testing positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Southeastern Massachusetts suggests that the Rhode Island area this year has been at a higher than normal risk for EEE, according to DEM officials ...
WNV, along with Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), are arboviruses that are transmitted from the bite of an infected mosquito. WNV was first identified in New Hampshire in August of 2000. Thus far in 2017, the DHHS Public Health Lab has tested 915 mosquito batches, three animals, and 12 people for WNV and EEE. There have been no positive tests for EEE yet this year. Last year, one mosquito batch tested positive for WNV in New Hampshire and there were no positive batches for EEE. No humans or animals tested positive for WNV or EEE last year ...
ALSTEAD, N.H. (AP) - New Hampshire health officials are trapping mosquitoes in the southwestern part of the state to see how widesspread Eastern equine encephalitis might be following news that an emu in Alstead had come down with the disease.Jose Montero, director of the state Department of Health and Human Services, called the discovery of the infected emu an important finding.He said the disease known as EEE, which is carried by infected mosquitoes, had not found in southwestern New
CONCORD - State health officials say the first positive test for Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) this year was found in a batch of mosquitoes in Exeter.
CONCORD - State health officials says the first positive test for Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) this year was found in a batch of mosquitoes in Exeter.
Halifax is at Moderate risk for West Nile virus (WNv) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE). Residents and visitors should take normal precautions regarding mosquitoes and ensure that any outsi
West Newbury Fire Chief Michael Dwyer, West Newbury Health Agent Paul Sevigny and Groveland Finance and Personnel Director Denise Dembkoski report that the mosquito traps in both towns tested negative for Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) this week.
Herpes simplex encephalitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/condition/herpes-simplex-encephalitis. Updated August 29, 2019. Accessed October 18, 2019.. Eastern equine encephalitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/condition/eastern-equine-encephalitis. Updated October 1, 2019. Accessed October 18, 2019.. Mann AP, Grebenciucova E, Lukas RV. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis: diagnosis, optimal management, and challenges. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2014;10:517-525.. Meningitis and encephalitis information page. National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Meningitis-and-Encephalitis-Information-Page. Updated March 27, 2019. Accessed October 18, 2019.. Nicholas MK, Collins J, et al. Youmans Textbook of Neurological Surgery, 7th Edition. Section II: General Neurosurgery. AIDS. 2016.. Petersen LR, Brault AC, et al. West Nile virus: review of the ...
Herpes simplex encephalitis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113755/Herpes-simplex-encephalitis. Updated February 14, 2015. Accessed October 2, 2017. Eastern equine encephalitis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114677/Eastern-equine-encephalitis. Updated February 4, 2016. Accessed October 2, 2017. Mann AP, Grebenciucova E, Lukas RV. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis: diagnosis, optimal management, and challenges. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2014;10:517-525. Nicholas MK, Lukas R, van Besein K. Youmans Textbook of Neurological Surgery, 6th Edition. Section II: General Neurosurgery. Chapter 46. AIDS. 2011. NINDS meningitis and encephalitis information page. National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Meningitis-and-Encephalitis-Information-Page. Accessed October 2, 2017. Serafini A, Lukas RV, VanHAerents S, et al. ...
Each summer brings renewed fears of mosquito-borne diseases. Summer is certainly when mosquitoes are most active in South Carolina, but you can get ill from a mosquito bite any time of year.. Thankfully, some of the worst mosquito-borne diseases are uncommon in the Hilton Head. Malaria only shows up in the United States in people that have recently traveled abroad.. On the other hand, anything is possible. Hilton Head sees plenty of international tourists. However, our warm climate, wet ground, and vibrant plant life make the area an excellent mosquito breeding ground.. Possible Mosquito Diseases in South Carolina. Viral diseases and infections are the primary reason to get Hilton Head mosquito treatment as a preventive measure, but mosquitoes can also spread other germs and microorganisms.. Known diseases spread by mosquitoes in South Carolina include:. • West Nile virus. • La Cross encephalitis virus. • Eastern equine encephalitis. • Other encephalitis (brain inflammation) ...
A New Hampshire resident has been hospitalized in Maine with Eastern equine encephalitis, a potentially deadly disease carried by mosquitoes, according to the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The patient, an individual in his or her 50s whose identity is being withheld in accordance…. Maine news, sports, politics, election results, and obituaries from the Bangor Daily News.
New Hampshire health officials say a batch of mosquitoes from Londonderry has tested positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis, the first finding of the disease in the state this year.
August 14, 2013. The Town of Amherst has been identified by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) to be at high risk for Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), a rare viral infection that is dangerous and often fatal to humans and spread by mosquitoes that are most active from dusk to dawn.. While there have been no human cases reported in the state for EEE this year, two horses in neighboring Belchertown have died from the disease during the past week and mosquitoes caught in Amherst have tested positive for the virus. ...
Bogs and birdbaths are frozen over now, but the approach of spring will bring with it the annual swarms of mosquitoes and the attendant risks of eastern equine encephalitis, West Nile virus and the potential for new diseases to reach the Bay State.
You may have heard news reports about the diseases that mosquitoes carry. Not only do these diseases affect people, but dogs and horses are affected as well. Did you know that dogs can contract canine heart-worm from mosquitoes, and horses can contract a form of encephalitis called Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE)? And you might be interested to know that both animals and people can contract the West Nile Virus.. Mosquitoes famously carry other diseases as well. They can carry Dengue Fever, Yellow Fever, Elephantiasis, Chikungunya and they also spread the huge worldwide problem of Malaria. Most recently, there have been reports of mosquitoes carrying the Zika Virus which leads to Zika Fever. While symptoms of Zika might be mild, side effects are especially troubling. A link has been found between Zika and Microcephaly in infants and Giullain-Barre Syndrome in adults.. When you call the Lake Nona mosquito control experts from Termite Lawn & Pest to come out and treat your property for ...
Beyond Pesticides, September 14, 2012) The State of Massachusetts has been unable to produce the records backing up its claim that the biggest aerial spraying of pesticides in Commonwealth history this July significantly reduced mosquito-borne disease risks, according to Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER). Further, the state has no proof aerial spraying is an effective safeguard against Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE).. In a July 31 press release, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) announced that aerial spraying the weekend of July 20-22 reduced the mosquito population by approximately 60 percent within the 21-community spray zone in Southeastern Massachusetts. DPH Commissioner John Auerbach was quoted as crediting aerial spraying for causing a significant reduction in the volume of mosquitoes.. Immediately following that release, New England PEER Director Kyla Bennett submitted a public records request for the materials supporting these claims. More ...
Alabamas Agriculture & Industries Commissioner is alerting horse owners to vaccinate, after two horses in Alabama and Mississippi tested positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis.
Eco Systems Pest Management has been performing pest control for over 25 years. We are experts in the control of Mosquitoes and Ticks. We are a privately owned company that cares about our customers.. With concerns about Lyme disease, Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), and West Nile virus (WNV), the management of mosquito and tick populations is of utmost concern to many of our customers. We at Eco Systems have developed treatment plans that are second to none.. When it come to disease carrying insects we dont fool around ...
The Georgia Department of Public Health has confirmed a human case of west Nile virus in a 48-year-old Bryan County man. Although this is the first confirmed case of human WNV in the Coastal Health District, the virus has been circulating among the mosquito population in southeast Georgia, in other parts of the state, and around the country. As of Sept. 28, there had been 44 confirmed cases of WNV in Georgia including four deaths (two in Dougherty County; one in Early County; and one in Gwinnett County), according to a press release from the Coastal Health District.. Weve known that the virus is out there which is why we have continually urged residents in all of our counties to protect themselves from mosquito bites, said Diane Weems, M.D., interim health director for the Coastal Health District. Sally Silbermann, public information officer with the Coastal Health District, said no other details are available about the case.. Mosquitoes can carry WNV and Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE). ...
TRENTON, N.J. - A 15-year-old Cumberland County mare the became ill on Sept. 30, is the third reported case in 2017 of Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), a serious, mosquito-borne illness in horses, according to a statement by the New Jersey Department of Agriculture.. Also, a 10-year-old Salem County stallion, which became ill on Sept. 29, is the second case of West Nile Virus (WNV) in .... ...
The last thing I want to bring up is some of the diseases that are typically spread by insect vectors, not human to human, but that may be more widespread because of a lack of natural prevention. Malaria, West Nile Virus, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis are just a few diseases spread by mosquitoes to humans. EEE has a 35% mortality rate in humans, and has recently shown up in humans in Michigan, Florida, and other locations. Why are these becoming more prevalent? I think it has to do with White Nose Syndrome, a deadly fungus that is destroying bat populations. It was first seen a few years ago in the Northeast, but is rapidly spreading around the country. Its mortality rate is over 90% in the caves that it has been found in. I saw something today that said that the little brown bat may be extinct by 2014 at its current death rate. With that many bats dying off the mosquitoes are losing a natural predator that is allowing them to be more prolific ...
The Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (VDACS) announced on Friday, July 22, 2016 the third case of Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) in a Virginia horse this year. The horse, a mare from Chesapeake, contracted the disease one day and died the next. Vaccination history is unknown. All three horses have been from the Tidewater area.. One of the reasons most veterinarians recommend a six-month vaccination schedule in Tidewater Virginia is because of the prevalence […]. ...
The difference is that deer tick virus is carried by the Ixodes scapularis tick -- the black-legged tick -- that also spreads Lyme disease and at least two other tick-borne illnesses in the state. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says the virus can cause encephalitis, inflammation of the brain, and meningitis, inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord. [...] the CDC says those who do become ill can suffer headaches, fever, headache, vomiting, weakness, confusion, loss of coordination, speech difficulties, and seizures. Studies by the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station in New Haven have found the virus in the two places where researchers collected ticks in Bridgeport and North Branford. Schleiter of Western Connecticut Health Network said Connecticut is in a similar position with eastern equine encephalitis.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis, also known as triple E, has been detected for the first time this year in New Hampshire. The Department of Health and Human
Weeks of consistent above normal rains have filled farm ponds, ditches, swamps and anything else which will hold water. While this is a positive trend for the water table and minimized, if not eliminates, the need for irrigation, there is a down side. The mosquito population is multiplying rapidly along with the potential for disease outbreaks. Of particular concern are floodwater mosquitoes which populate pastures in puddles and pools of standing water. These mosquitoes lay their eggs in moist soil and will tolerate, and in many cases, require the inevitable dry-out after the wet period.. The most notable of these floodwater mosquitoes is the Aedes genus which contains at least ten species. The term Aedes has its origins in Greek, meaning unpleasant. Aedes atlanticus is commonly found in pastures. It is a participant in the transmission of heart worms in dogs, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis in horses. Heavy blood loss may also result from excessive exposure to swarms of mosquitos. The ...
For certain young fish, mosquito larvae are one of the most delicious and nutritious food sources available - and by placing a few fish in standing water where mosquitoes are likely to lay eggs, youll be able to eliminate these pests at the larval stage and avoid the risk of mosquito-borne diseases like the Zika virus, Eastern Equine encephalitis, dengue virus, and even yellow fever. The fewer mosquitos who are able to make it to adulthood, the lower your risk of mosquito-borne diseases - and the less you need to spend on DEET spray and citronella candles in order to have a pleasant evening outside.. Although larger fish like sunfish are generally happiest in ponds or lakes (at least at the adult stage), smaller fish can be kept in birdbaths, water fountains, and other bodies of water that can often serve as a depository for mosquito eggs. As the warm summer weather turns to autumn, youll be able to transplant these fish to public water sources like rivers or creeks or even keep them in your ...
The Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry is urging horse owners to vaccinate their animals for both Eastern Equine Encephalitis and the West Nile Virus.
Online Resources - Communicable Diseases: aids, amebiasis, babesiosis, campylobacteriosis, chickenpox, chlamydia, cryptosporidiosis, eastern equine encephalitis, ehrlichiosis, giardiasis, gonorrhea, group a streptococcal disease, group b streptococcal disease, hepatitis a, hepatitis b, hepatitis c, hib/haemophilus influenza type b infections, hiv, influenza, lyme, measles, meningitis (meningococcal disease), mumps, pertussis (whooping cough), polio, rabies, rocky mountain spotted fever, rubella (german measles), salmonellosis, shigellosis, syphilis, tuberculosis, varicella (chicken pox), west nile virus
The Indiana State Department of Health says a rare virus that can be deadly to humans in mosquitoes and horses has been detected in Northern Indiana.
10] https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/organisms?search_string=%2A&amp%3Bamp%3Bregion=127%2C113&amp%3Bregion=64&region=54%2C64%2C108%2C109%2C126%2C128%2C133&per-page=20&sort-by=taxon&order-by=asc&classification=10&keep=PROHIBITED&page= ...
Vincent, Alan, and Kathy discuss new influenza virus NA inhibitors, detection of EEEV antibody and RNA in snakes, and replication of the coronavirus EMC in human airway epithelial cells.
4.0 4.1 Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D. (red.) (2011). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist.. Species 2000: Reading, UK. Ginkuhà 24 september 2012. ...
Asustek Computer on December 1 unveiled its Eee Pad Transformer Prime tablet PC for launch in the Taiwan market at recommended retail prices of NT$17,900 (US$591) and NT$20,900 for 32GB and 64GB versions respectively.
Detailed review of the Asus Eee PC 1015PEM (Intel Atom N550, Intel Graphics Media Accelerator 3150, 10.1, 0 kg) with numerous measurements, benchmarks and ratings
ASUS have announced the UK launch of the Eee Top PC ET2010 series - a superior all-in-one PC which brings everyday computing and outstanding multimedia performance together inside a minimalist and stylish package.With a super-slim 1
Have you heard mention of Eastern equine encephalitis-or EEE, for short-in the news lately? This dangerous disease is on the rise here in Michigan. EEE can affect both horses and … Read More ». ...
The Massachusetts Department of Health is urging five communities to curtail evening outdoor activities after the death of a Norfolk County woman from
Despite hundreds of cases seen each year throughout the United States, some horse owners decline to vaccinate their horses against eastern
... an ancestral Sindbis virus-like virus, and an ancestral Eastern equine encephalitis virus-like virus. There have been under 700 ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus Sherman, M. B.; Weaver, S. C. (2010). "Structure of the Recombinant Alphavirus Western Equine ... Western equine encephalitis virus was one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological ... Unlike Eastern equine encephalitis, the overall mortality of WEE is low (approximately 4%) and is associated mostly with ...
... virus (EEEV) is closely related to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and western equine ... most commonly western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and tetanus. Most vaccinations for EEE ... "Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE)". ceh.vetmed.ucdavis.edu. Retrieved 5 November 2022. "Eastern Equine Encephalitis". Centers ... encephalitis virus. The incubation period for Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) disease ranges from 4 to 10 days. The ...
Secretary (2014). "Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Deer and Moose Serosurvey Project". Vermont Department of Public Health. ... and eastern equine encephalitis virus whose antibodies were found in moose or deer in each of Vermont's counties. Vermont is in ... The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the state's eastern border with New Hampshire, though much of the river flows ... The western border with New York and the area around Lake Champlain lies within the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests. The ...
Secretary (2014). "Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Deer and Moose Serosurvey Project". Vermont Department of Public Health. ... and eastern equine encephalitis virus whose antibodies were found in moose or deer in each of Vermont's counties. Vermont is in ... Eastern New England English-also found in New Hampshire, Maine and eastern Massachusetts-was common in eastern Vermont in the ... The eastern part of the state may have also been occupied by the Androscoggin and Pennacook peoples. To the west, the ...
It is known to carry Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE). It was found to be a minor vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in ... ferox occurs throughout the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, south through Mexico, Central and South America, and ... Several viruses have been found in this mosquito in the Amazon, such as Una virus and Ilheus virus. In Central and South ...
... causing transfer of the virus. C. melanura is a vector of Eastern equine encephalitis virus. Scott & Lorez 1998 find EEEV ... melanura primarily take their blood meals from birds and are responsible for transmitting the eastern equine encephalitis virus ... Mammals can also become infected with the virus when other genera of mosquito, such as Aedes, Coquillettidia, and Culex, take ... Kramer, Laura D.; Ciota, Alexander T. (2015). "Dissecting vectorial capacity for mosquito-borne viruses". Current Opinion in ...
These include: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are more ... MIDV is classified as an Old World Alphavirus which also includes Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Ndumu virus, Barmah Forest virus ... The virus also affects epithelial tissue in the form of a rash and nervous tissue in the form of encephalitis. There is no ... "Old World Viruses 'New' Cause of Equine Neurologic Disease". TheHorse.com. Retrieved 2017-11-01. Leung, Jason Yat-Sing; Ng, ...
Coxsackie B virus vaccine Cytomegalovirus vaccine Chikungunya vaccine Eastern Equine encephalitis virus vaccine for humans ... Pandya, J.; Gorchakov, R.; Wang, E.; Leal, G.; Weaver, S. C. (2012). "A vaccine candidate for eastern equine encephalitis virus ... vaccine MERS vaccine Nipah virus vaccine Norovirus vaccine Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine SARS vaccine West Nile virus ... "H5N1 Influenza Virus Vaccine, manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur, Inc. Questions and Answers". FDA. 12 April 2019. "Hepatitis C ...
It bites humans and can carry West Nile virus and Eastern equine encephalitis. It has short, budlike anal gills.[citation ...
Pandya, J.; Gorchakov, R.; Wang, E.; Leal, G.; Weaver, S. C. (2012). "A vaccine candidate for eastern equine encephalitis virus ... "H5N1 Influenza Virus Vaccine, manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur, Inc. Questions and Answers". FDA. 12 April 2019. Nakkazi, E. ( ... De Thé, G.; Bomford, R.; Kazanji, M.; Ibrahim, F. (2007). "Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus: Necessity for and Feasibility of a ... De Thé, G.; Bomford, R.; Kazanji, M.; Ibrahim, F. (1994). "Human T cell lymphotropic virus: Necessity for and feasibility of a ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Fowlpox virus. An association has not been found ...
A few cases of eastern equine encephalitis virus, carried by mosquitoes, occur each year. Poison ivy is indigenous to all the ... Stands of black pine, pitch pine and occasional eastern red cedar trees can be found in the depressions between the dunes. ...
mitchellae is a suspected vector of Tensaw virus and secondary vector of Eastern equine encephalitis. H. G. Dyar. 1905. A new ... Arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes collected in Waycross, Georgia, 1963, during an outbreak of equine encephalitis. American ...
Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis and western equine encephalitis emerged in the US. The virus that causes La ... There are numerous causes, including viruses - particularly hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ... yellow fever virus, dengue virus and Pappataci fever virus. More than 100 of such viruses are now known to cause human diseases ... Breitbart M, Rohwer F (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology. 13 (6): 278- ...
It is also a vector of transmission of Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), dog heartworm, and Avian malaria. Jonathan F. Day ( ... the primary enzootic vector to wild birds and the primary epidemic vector to humans of the Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus ... Louis Encephalitis". Vector Disease Control. Retrieved 14 July 2017. Jonathan F. Day; G. Alan Curtis (1994). "When it rains, ... It has been experimentally demonstrated to be capable of transmitting West Nile virus (WNV). Its habit of feeding on both birds ...
... the eastern equine encephalitis virus subgroup (eastern equine encephalitis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses) and the ... Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Caaingua virus Cabassou virus Chikungunya virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus ... Tonate virus Trocara virus Una virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Whataroa virus The ... Barmah Forest virus complex Barmah Forest virus Eastern equine encephalitis complex Eastern equine encephalitis virus (seven ...
One of these packaging signals is in the nsP1 coding sequence in the Venezuelan, Eastern, and Western equine encephalitis ... Closely related viruses include Mucambo virus and Everglades virus. Rio Negro virus is a spherical, enveloped virus. The ... The virus was first called Ag80-663 but was renamed to Rio Negro virus in 2005. It is a former member of the Venezuelan equine ... "Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus disrupts STAT1 signaling by distinct mechanisms independent of host shutoff". Journal of ...
... and Western and Eastern equine encephalitis. Brazilian scientists are investigating if Culex species transmit zika virus. ... The diseases they vector include arbovirus infections such as West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis, or St. Louis encephalitis ... Arbovirus infections transmitted by various species of Culex include West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis ... Cat Que Virus (CQV) has been largely reported in Culex mosquitoes in China and in pigs in Vietnam. For CQV, domestic pigs are ...
California encephalitis virus Chandipura virus Chikungunya virus Cytomegalovirus Dengue virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus ... shingles Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus West Nile virus Western equine encephalitis virus Zika virus Encephalitic viruses ... virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus Nipah virus Powassan virus Rabies virus Rubella virus SARS-CoV-2 Snowshoe hare virus St ... such as those against Eastern equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Although ...
Mosquitoes are collected from around the state of Connecticut then tested for West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis and ... 1960: R.C. Wallis of the Station and collaborators isolated a virus that causes encephalitis from Aedes vexans, mosquitoes ...
It was later described in the United States after vaccinating horses for Eastern Equine Encephalitis, again using live virus ... Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis, Bacillus anthracis, tetanus antitoxin, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum ... showing that the virus can be spread by inoculation. Measuring levels of virus in the originally infected horses has shown that ... Identification of a previously undescribed divergent virus from the Flaviviridae family in an outbreak of equine serum ...
... such as eastern equine encephalitis and bovine herpesvirus 5. Bovine malignant catarrhal fever Canine brain tumors de Cardenas ... Several viruses that cause encephalitis or meningoencephalitis can lead to the neurological sign of head pressing, ...
Western and Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus. McJunkin, J. E.; ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector ( ... La Crosse encephalitis was discovered in 1965, after the virus was isolated from stored brain and spinal tissue of a child who ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus Japanese encephalitis virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis ... Equine encephalitis is a family of horse diseases that also affect humans. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. ... Several forms of viral encephalitis can infect equines, and these include: ... virus West Nile virus This article includes a list of related items that share the same name (or similar names). If an internal ...
Eastern equine encephalitis Western equine encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis Rabies La crosse encephalitis Progressive ... Most viruses that enter can be opportunistic and accidental pathogens, but some like herpes viruses and rabies virus have ... Treatments of proven efficacy are currently limited mostly to herpes viruses and human immunodeficiency virus. The herpes virus ... Infants with encephalitis often have seizures or other abnormal movements. Infants with severe encephalitis may become ...
Equine encephalitis viruses, such as Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, and Venezuelan ... and such birds are typically the main reservoir of the Eastern equine encephalitis virus in North America. Early in the season ... Even more dramatically, in most of its range in North America, the main vector for the Western equine encephalitis virus is ... equine encephalitis virus, can be spread by mosquito vectors such as Aedes taeniorhynchus. Tularemia, a bacterial disease ...
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus, Everglades virus, Highlands J virus, La Crosse Encephalitis virus in the United States ... Disease organisms transmitted by mosquitoes include West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, ... Zika virus and filariasis in the American tropics; Rift Valley fever, Wuchereria bancrofti, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya ... "Aerial spraying planned in eight Orange County cities in battle to control West Nile virus; Vector Control says it's safe". The ...
The viruses which transmit Eastern equine encephalitis, California encephalitis and West Nile virus have been detected in ... The females are seldom troublesome to humans in eastern North America, even when recently emerged females are extremely ... 1986). "Aedes canadensis: A vector of Lacrosse virus (Caligornia Serogroup) in Ohio" (PDF). Journal of the American Mosquito ... It has also shown to be a secondary vector for the La Crosse virus in Ohio. D.M. Wood; P.T. Dang; R.A. Ellis (1979). The ...
Japanese B encephalitis, filariasis, Lyme disease, leishmaniasis, typhus fever, plague, and Eastern equine encephalitis. As an ... RID insect repellents are used to repel insects which may carry a number of diseases, including Ross River virus, dengue fever ...
Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV), Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), Guaroa virus (GROV), Hart Park virus (HPV ... Sindbis virus (SINV), Tahyna virus (TAHV), Tsuruse virus (TSUV), Tyuleniy virus (TYUV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus ( ... Melao virus (MELV) Marituba virus (MTBV), Mount Elgon bat virus (MEBV), Mucambo virus (MUCV), Murray Valley Encephalitis virus ... Japanese encephalitis virus (JBEV), Ketapang virus (KETV), Kunjin virus (KUNV), La Crosse virus (LACV), Mayaro virus (MAYV), ...
Rabies African sleeping sickness Dirofilariasis Eastern equine encephalitis Japanese encephalitis Saint Louis encephalitis ... Dangerous non-human viruses are those that require few mutations to begin replicating themselves in human cells. These viruses ... Scrub typhus Tularemia Venezuelan equine encephalitis West Nile fever Western equine encephalitis Zika fever Pets can transmit ... The West Nile virus first appeared in the United States in 1999, in the New York City area. Bubonic plague is a zoonotic ...
Antigenic evolution of influenza viruses of humans appears to be faster than influenza viruses in swine and equines. In wild ... An atypical form of encephalitis called encephalitis lethargica, characterized by headache, drowsiness, and coma, may rarely ... Influenza epidemics in modern times have the tendency to start in the eastern or southern hemisphere, with Asia being a key ... that contain weakened viruses. There are three types of inactivated vaccines: whole virus, split virus, in which the virus is ...
... "act as vectors of West Nile virus, Western equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis". The California Office of ... Mudpots and mud volcanoes are found on the eastern side of the Salton Sea, including the mobile Niland Geyser. The area is used ... Eastern Coachella communities have disproportionately higher rates of asthma and respiratory complications because of high ... built on the eastern shore in the 1950s. Due to the increasing salinity and pollution of the lake over the years from ...
Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses combined. California encephalitis virus (CEV) - type strain ... The La Crosse Virus from the same genus is also a common cause of encephalitis in the United States. Other viruses with similar ... The original California Encephalitis virus was isolated and put alongside fifteen other related viruses that are now ... Since then, most cases of encephalitis have been associated with the La Crosse virus, and California encephalitis is a rare ...
California encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon virus, Sindbis virus, West Nile virus Aedes clivis ... carries California encephalitis virus, Keystone virus, trivittatus virus, West Nile virus, Western equine encephalitis Aedes ... carries Cache Valley virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, Eastern equine encephalitis, West Nile virus, Yellow Fever, Zika virus ... Louis encephalitis Aedes esoensis Aedes fulvus Bites humans, carries Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, West Nile virus ...
Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Western equine encephalitis: a group of ... AIDS-related encephalomyelitis, caused by opportunistic Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. Chronic ... collectively termed Equine encephalitis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of brain inflammation ...
Caliciviruses Hepatitis A Mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses California encephalitis Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) ... Kyasanur Forest virus LaCrosse virus (LACV) Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) Western equine encephalitis (WEE) West Nile ... Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever virus, Alkhurma virus, Kyasanur Forest virus (reclassified from B to C) Powassan virus (Deer Tick virus ... Nipah virus Rabies SARS coronavirus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses Other hantaviruses Other ...
West and Eastern Equine Encephalitis, psittacosis, among others. Some specialized equipment has also been fielded in some ... A separate station allows testing for bacteria and viruses, accommodating up to four people. Some 200 bacteria and 50 virus ... including rabies and human respiratory disease viruses. JWL-I Model Bioaerosol Sampler: Like the LVAS mentioned above, the ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE), Q fever, botulism or a staph infection. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA ... At 1620 UTC (11:20 a.m. Eastern time in the U.S.), Apollo 15 astronaut David Scott became the first person to drive a wheeled ... Apollo 15 made the fourth manned landing on the Moon at 6:16 p.m. Eastern time (2316 UTC), as astronauts David Scott and James ... At 9:52 a.m. Eastern time (1442 UTC), Scott and Irwin removed Rover 1, the lunar rover, from the compartment below the module ...
... la crosse virus MeSH B04.909.777.270.150 - encephalitis virus, eastern equine MeSH B04.909.777.270.369 - encephalitis virus, ... chikungunya virus MeSH B04.820.850.054.320 - encephalitis virus, eastern equine MeSH B04.820.850.054.340 - encephalitis virus, ... encephalitis virus, eastern equine MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.340 - encephalitis virus, venezuelan equine MeSH B04.909.777.923. ... venezuelan equine MeSH B04.909.777.270.440 - encephalitis virus, western equine MeSH B04.909.777.270.475 - encephalitis viruses ...
... virus Saumarez Reef virus Sepik virus Tembusu virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Tyuleniy virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus ... The European and Far Eastern tick-borne encephalitis strains diverged about 1087 (1610-649) years ago. European tick-borne ... From statements by Orsolya Kutasi, DVM, of the Szent Istvan University, Hungary at the 2009 American Association of Equine ... virus Japanese encephalitis virus Jugra virus Jutiapa virus Kadam virus Kedougou virus Kokobera virus Koutango virus Kyasanur ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Viral encephalitis ...
Western/Eastern/Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis) Coronaviruses (SARS, MERS, SARS-CoV-2) Enterovirus D68 Filoviruses (Ebola and ... Parainfluenza Virus and Human Metapneumovirus) Respiratory Syncytial Virus Tuberculosis Zika Virus In July 2010, a ... among other viruses, and therapeutic antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19) and other pathogens. ... mAb114 is a monoclonal antibody therapy that is being evaluated as a treatment for Ebola virus disease and has shown great ...
"CDC - Eastern Equine Encephalitis". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-14. Wingate, David B. (1982-01-01). "Successful ... the yellow-crowned night heron is an intermediate host and amplifier of the eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus ( ... It is transmitted by mosquitoes: an infected mosquito will transmit the virus to a yellow-crowned night heron, which will be ... Because of the long distances over which yellow-crowned night herons travel during migration, they can carry the virus over ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus Ross River virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus' ... Louis encephalitis virus West Nile virus Spondweni virus group Spondweni virus Zika virus Yellow fever virus group Yellow fever ... Dengue virus group Dengue virus Japanese encephalitis virus group Japanese encephalitis virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus ... virus Tick-borne viruses Mammalian tick-borne virus group Kyasanur forest disease virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Family ...
... phlebovirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus African horse sickness virus African swine fever virus Avian influenza virus ... Far Eastern subtype Flavivirus Siberian subtype Flavivirus Kyasanur Forest disease virus Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus Variola ... Foot-and-mouth disease virus Goatpox virus Lumpy skin disease virus Avian avulavirus 1 (formerly Newcastle disease virus) Small ... Newly characterized viruses closely related to select agents and/or BSL-4 viruses (for example newly discovered henipaviruses ...
Eastern Equine Encephalitis is a rare disease that is caused by a virus spread by infected mosquitoes. ... Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. EEE virus has a single- ... The other three groups (IIA, IIB, and III) are caused by related Madariaga virus (formerly known as South American EEE virus) ... The virus particles are spherical and have a diameter of 60-65 nm. Of the four lineages of EEE antigenic complex, Group I ...
Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Mexican Wolf Pups at Zoo, Michigan, USA Kimberly A. Thompson. , Eileen Henderson, Scott D ... Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Mexican Wolf Pups at Zoo, Michigan, USA. ... Plaque reduction neutralization test results for eastern equine encephalitis virus in banked serum samples from 3 Mexican wolf ... Pups were tested before (all pups), during (pup 2), and after (pup 3 only) an outbreak of eastern equine encephalitis. ...
Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine Genetic Variation Horses Molecular Epidemiology Phylogeny ... Title : Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Mexican Wolf Pups at Zoo, Michigan, USA Personal Author(s) : Thompson, Kimberly A ... During the 2019 Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) outbreak in Michigan, two 2-month old Mexican wolf pups experienced ... Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Mexican Wolf Pups at Zoo, Michigan, USA Cite ...
Access Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Disease case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease 2005 Current Powassan virus disease 2005 Current St. Louis encephalitis virus disease ...
EEE virus has been detected in mosquitoes from Truro, Massachusetts, the MA Department of Public Health reports, already ... Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) virus has been detected in mosquitoes from Truro, Massachusetts, the Massachusetts Department ... Livestock owners should contact their veterinarian for approved repellents to reduce the likelihood of West Nile Virus and EEE ... Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) Virus Confirmed in Mosquitoes from Truro. * Prev Post ...
Fever (S), headache (S), prostration (S), stiff neck (S), myalgia(S), arthralgia (S), CNS signs (including encephalitis)(S), ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis Abbreviation: EEEV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. Yes SALS Level. 2 ...
Other reported etiologies included Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Powassan virus (POWV), St. Louis encephalitis ... Eastern equine encephalitis, although rare, remained the most severe arboviral disease, with a 33% case-fatality rate. ... virus (SLEV), and California serogroup viruses such as La Crosse virus (LACV) and Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV). Arboviruses ... also had encephalitis or meningitis. The La Crosse virus disease patient with acute flaccid paralysis also had encephalitis. ...
Encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain parenchyma, presents as diffuse and/or focal neuropsychological dysfunction. ... particularly in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), Japanese virus encephalitis (JE). ... AFB-acid-fast bacillus; CSF-cerebrospinal fluid; EEE-eastern equine encephalitis; HSV-herpes simplex virus; RBC-red blood cell ... Hayasaka D, Aoki K, Morita K. Development of simple and rapid assay to detect viral RNA of tick-borne encephalitis virus by ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus isolated and virus titers from mosquitoes obtained in Connecticut, USA, 2009* ... Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Mosquitoes and Their Role as Bridge Vectors Philip M. Armstrong. and Theodore G. Andreadis ... Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Mosquitoes and Their Role as Bridge Vectors. ... virus isolates. Infection rate/1,000 mosquitoes, MLE (95% CI). Mean Ct by qRT-PCR. Mean titer log10 PFU/ mosquito pool. % ...
melanura from 10 EEE virus foci in the eastern North America were genotyped with double-digest RAD-seq. Following alignment of ... melanura throughout its eastern range and detects evidence of gene flow between populations in northeastern North America. This ... this mosquito species that could influence vector-host interactions and the risk of human and equine infection with EEE virus. ... In addition to its principal role in enzootic transmission of EEE virus among avian hosts, recent studies on the blood-feeding ...
Eastern Equine Encephalitis is a rare disease that is caused by a virus spread by infected mosquitoes. ... Control and reduce the number of mosquitoes that can spread viruses. This can reduce your chances of getting sick. ... Control and reduce the number of nuisance mosquitoes that bother people but do not spread viruses. ... control districts or local government departments track both nuisance mosquitoes and mosquitoes that can spread viruses. When ...
... mosquitoes tested positive last week for Eastern Equine Encephalitis, otherwise know as Triple E or EEE. ... Eastern Equine Encephalitis and Other Viruses. by Mark OBrien , Sep 30, 2019 ... mosquitoes tested positive last week for Eastern Equine Encephalitis, otherwise know as Triple E or EEE. This is timely but not ... have initiated a protocol intended to develop vaccines for the Stupidity and Gullibility Viruses. ...
Categories: Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) belongs to the family Flaviviridae (group B arborviruses). ... Louis encephalitis and eastern equine encephalitis viruses in Florida: 1978-1993. J Med Entomol. 1996 Jan. 33(1):132-9. [QxMD ... Surveillance for Western Equine Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viruses Using Reverse Transcription Loop- ... Louis encephalitis are evident only in the CNS, although St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) has been isolated from vitreous ...
Eastern Equine Encephalitis and West Nile Virus detected in sentinel chickens. MOBILE, Ala. - Sentinel chickens used by the ... Eastern Equine Encephalitis and West Nile Virus detected in sentinel chickens Mark Bryant ... to detect mosquito-borne diseases in the community have tested positive for Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) and West Nile ... Virus (WNV). Both are a form of mosquito-borne encephalitis.. EEE has been confirmed by laboratory results, according to Dr. ...
Encephalitis (such as West Nile and Eastern Equine). *Hepatic encephalopathy. *Infection. *Inflammation ... Antibodies and DNA of common viruses: None. *Bacteria: No bacteria grows in a lab culture ...
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) *West Nile virus (WNV). This page contains tips and tricks to help prevent tick bites. ... West Nile virus. Brochures and guides. Preventing Disease Spread by Ticks (PDF) (DOC) - a fold-out, color brochure that ...
Cotton Rats and House Sparrows as Hosts for North and South American Strains of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus [PDF - 439 KB ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) is an arbovirus that causes severe disease in ... Cotton Rats and House Sparrows as Hosts for North and South American Strains of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus. Emerging ... Cotton Rats and House Sparrows as Hosts for North and South American Strains of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus. Emerging ...
... contagious equine metritis (CEM); Eastern, Western and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis; equine infectious anemia; foot and mouth ... disease, leptospirosis; Newcastle disease; pseudorabies; swine influenza virus (SIV); vesicular stomatitis; and West Nile ... encephalitis.. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ( FAO) has designated the NVSL as a Reference Centre ... Eastern Fish Health Workshop. FAZD-Ag Screening Tools. FMD Scientific Conference. International Conference on TSE Prevention ...
Human deaths related to West Nile virus. -. -. -. -. -. -. Horse cases. 0. 0. 1. 1. EEE. Eastern Equine. Encephalitis. -. -. ... West Nile virus is spread to humans mainly when an infected mosquito bites them. In a small number of cases, West Nile virus ... Less than 1% of people with West Nile virus develop other serious illnesses such as meningitis and encephalitis. Meningitis is ... Talk to your doctor if you have think you symptoms of West Nile virus. West Nile virus in humans is confirmed by a blood test ...
Helps prevent West Nile Virus and Eastern & Western Equine Encephalitis!. *See below for Gallon shipping requirements. ...
West Nile Virus (Fact Sheet). *Eastern Equine Encephalitis (Fact Sheet). *Dengue (Fact Sheet) ... Many agents are viruses, including those causing the following (click "fact sheet" after each for more information): ...
... such as West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) that infect humans [7,56]. Culex territans tested ... Competency of reptiles and amphibians for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hygi. 2011, 85, 421-425. [Google ... Identification of reptilian and amphibian blood meals from mosquitoes in an eastern equine encephaomyelitis virus focus in ... Mechanical and Salivary Transmission of Viruses. Mechanical and salivary transmission of viruses by mosquitoes may also occur ...
Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE). *St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE) - reports by medical blogs suggest that the 80 year experience ... what viruses and symptoms are linked with the West Nile virus, and who is discussing the spread of the virus? The post will ... Louis Encephalitis (SLE) virus behavior and what could be expected from WNV. In short, patterns of behavior have direct links ... The virus is endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa with the spread attributed by ticks (vectors) to wild pigs in the region. The virus ...

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