A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.

Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (1/78)

The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification.  (+info)

Seroepidemiology of California and Bunyamwera serogroup (Bunyaviridae) virus infections in native populations of Alaska. (2/78)

This study investigated the geographic distribution and prevalence of antibodies to California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in Native populations of Alaska, and demographic and ecologic risk factors associated with exposure. Sera (n = 1,635) from 18 communities were screened using an ELISA. All age groups were tested for antibodies to Jamestown Canyon (JC), Inkoo (INK), snowshoe hare (SSH), and Northway (NOR) viruses; persons > or = 45 years old (n = 90) from six communities were additionally tested for antibodies to Tahyna (TAH), Batai (BAT), Cache Valley (CV), and Sindbis (SIN) viruses. Thirty free-ranging mammals were tested by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for antibodies to all eight viruses and to Getah (GET) virus. In Natives, overall antibody prevalence was 24.9% (JC = 17.6%, monotypic JC = 6.5%, INK = 11.1%, monotypic INK = 0.6%, SSH = 6.8%, monotypic SSH = 3.5%, and NOR = 6.2%). Five TAH, CV, and BAT virus exposures may be serologic cross-reactions, and no SIN virus antibodies were detected. Sindbis-like virus antibodies were found in 30% of the mammals. Most mammals had antibodies to NOR (83.3%) and California serogroup (70.0%) viruses; no GET virus exposures were found. Significant risk factors for human bunyavirus exposures were age group, ethnic-linguistic group, biotic province, climate zone, terrestrial vegetation, and presence of some ungulates and small mammals in communities. Sex was not a significant risk factor.  (+info)

Bunyavirus superinfection and segment reassortment in transovarially infected mosquitoes. (3/78)

Rapid evolution of bunyaviruses may occur by RNA segment reassortment between closely related viruses. Reassortment between viruses occurs in dually infected mosquitoes when two different viruses are simultaneously ingested or when the second virus is ingested within 2 days of the first virus. By 3 days after oral infection, interference to superinfection occurs, thus limiting the potential for evolution. Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes can also be transovarially infected (TI+) with LaCrosse (LAC) virus. In these studies, the potential for oral superinfection of TI+ mosquitoes was assessed. Approximately 20% of mosquitoes TI+ with either a temperature-sensitive LAC virus or wild-type (wt) LAC virus became superinfected by ingesting blood meals containing wt LAC or snowshoe hare (SSH) viruses. LAC virus TI+ mosquitoes superinfected with SSH virus were detected by blot hybridization or RT-PCR. Viruses from these mosquitoes were plaque purified and genotyped using RT-PCR. Reassortant genomes were detected in 2.3% of the viruses genotyped, and 4.0% of the genomes tested were diploid for one genome segment.  (+info)

Serological diagnosis of California (La Crosse) encephalitis by immunofluorescence. (4/78)

A method of indirect immunofluorescence was developed and examined retrospectively as a serological test for the laboratory diagnosis of California encephalitis (CE). LaCrosse virus immunofluorescence immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM studies were done on paired sera from 50 patients with acute central nervous system infections. CE had been documented in 25 patients by hemagglutination inhibition, neutralizing, complement fixing, and/or precipitin tests. Five (20%) of the acute and 16 (64%) of the convalescent sera from CE patients had La Crosse IgM antibodies. Seven (28%) of the acute and all of the convalescent CE specimens had La Crosse IgG antibodies. Titers ranged from less than 4 to 256. IgG antibodies were present in all 11 sera collected 1 to 2 years after CE, but IgM antibodies were absent. The 25 serum pairs from patients who did not have CE were negative for IgM and IgG antibodies. This study indicated that La Crosse immunofluorescence antibody tests were as sensitive and specific for CE as conventional hemagglutination-inhibition tests, and would detect at least 20% of patients during their acute illness.  (+info)

The first reported case of California encephalitis in more than 50 years. (5/78)

A recent case of California encephalitis, a rare mosquito-borne viral disease, represents only the fourth ever reported and the first since the initial three cases in 1945. This case was diagnosed retrospectively on the basis of a rise in antibody titer between acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of California serogroup viruses isolated in Russia. (6/78)

Nucleotide sequencing was used to characterize unidentified California (CAL) serogroup virus isolates from Russia. These viruses were isolated from mosquitoes and humans during epidemiologic investigations on the role of CAL serogroup viruses in the increased incidence of arboviral encephalitis in Russia. Most of the isolates were identified serologically as snowshoe hare (SSH), Inkoo (INK), and Tahyna (TAH) viruses, but some of the isolates were difficult to classify serologically, suggesting that they could be reassortant viruses. There is evidence that at least 2 of these viruses are not reassortant viruses. Sequence analysis revealed that the Russian viruses differ from other Eurasian and North American CAL serogroup viruses in all of the segments analyzed. They are most closely related to SSH virus. Whether they differ sufficiently to be considered a new group of SSH-like viruses remains to be determined.  (+info)

Non-random reassortment between the tripartite RNA genomes of La Crosse and snowshoe hare viruses. (7/78)

The process of reassortment between the tripartite RNA genomes (segments designated L, M and S) of snowshoe hare and La Crosse bunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae) has been investigated by polymerase chain reaction analysis of greater than 250 progeny recovered at 72 h post-infection from dual wild-type virus infections involving high multiplicities (approximately 5) of each virus in a BHK-21 cell line. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that RNA segment reassortment was not random, and for these two viruses the data appeared to fit the hypothesis that there was a preference for homologous L-M and M-S associations among the progeny formed.  (+info)

Mosquitoborne viruses, Czech Republic, 2002. (8/78)

Specimens from residents (N = 497) of an area affected by the 2002 flood were examined serologically for mosquitoborne viruses. Antibodies were detected against Tahyna (16%), Sindbis (1%), and Batai (0.2%) viruses, but not West Nile virus. An examination of paired serum samples showed 1 Tahyna bunyavirus (California group) infection.  (+info)

TABLE 5. Annual reported cases of notifiable diseases and rates, by sex, United States, excluding U.S. Territories and Non-U.S. Residents, 2019 column labels in same order that data fields appears in each record below: Disease Female, No. Female, Rate Male, No. Male, Rate Sex not stated, No. Total, No. tab delimited data: Anthrax 1 0.00 1 Arboviral diseases, Chikungunya virus disease 101 0.06 91 0.06 192 Arboviral diseases, Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease, Neuroinvasive 11 0.01 27 0.02 38 Arboviral diseases, Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease, Non-neuroinvasive Arboviral diseases, Jamestown Canyon virus disease, Neuroinvasive 7 0.00 18 0.01 25 Arboviral diseases, Jamestown Canyon virus disease, Non-neuroinvasive 8 0.00 12 0.01 20 Arboviral diseases, La Crosse virus disease, Neuroinvasive 17 0.01 31 0.02 48 Arboviral diseases, La Crosse virus disease, Non-neuroinvasive 5 0.00 2 0.00 7 Arboviral diseases, Powassan virus disease, Neuroinvasive 11 0.01 28 0.02 39 Arboviral diseases, ...
AUGUSTA (WGME) -- The Maine Center for Disease Control is warning Mainers after a Kennebec County resident was diagnosed with the mosquito-borne Jamestown Canyon virus.The Maine CDC wants to raise awareness about Jamestown Canyon virus, Eastern equine ence
This table contains provisional cases of national notifiable diseases from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). NNDSS data from the 50 states, New York City, the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories are collated and published weekly on the NNDSS Data and Statistics web page (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/data-and-statistics.html). Cases reported by state health departments to CDC for weekly publication are provisional because of the time needed to complete case follow-up. Therefore, numbers presented in later weeks may reflect changes made to these counts as additional information becomes available. The national surveillance case definitions used to define a case are available on the NNDSS web site at https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/. Information about the weekly provisional data and guides to interpreting data are available at: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/infectious-tables.html ...
Summary A case of severe encephalitis in a previously healthy 12-year-old girl was associated with a diagnostic rise in antibodies representing recent infection with a California group arbovirus. This case is the first report of human disease associated with this infection since the original studies in California and is the initial report of a case from Florida.
California Encephalitis Antibody, IgG by IFA, Serum,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
ICD-10 A83.5 is california encephalitis (A835). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for certain infectious and parasitic diseases.
Encephalitis, California serogroup viral information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
The Cree communities of James Bay are in risk for contracting infectious diseases transmitted by wildlife. serogroup infections (Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses) were evaluated in three and six communities respectively. Seroprevalence varied widely among communities: snowshoe hare computer virus (1% to 42%) (14% to 37%) species (10% to 27%) Jamestown Canyon computer virus (9% to 24%) (0% to 18%) (4% to 12%) (0% to 10%) (0% to 4%) and species (0% to 1%). Tenovin-6 No subject had serological evidence of Sin Nombre computer virus exposure. These data suggest that large proportions of the Cree populace have been exposed to at least one of the targeted zoonotic brokers. The Cree populace particularly those most heavily exposed to fauna as well as the medical staff living in these regions should be aware of these diseases. Greater awareness would not only help to decrease exposures but would also increase the chance of appropriate diagnostic testing. et Tenovin-6 au ont été vérifiées ...
What is the definition and uses of cephalic veinuses? What problems can occur with the cephalic vein? These are frequently-asked questions by those who are suffering from the disease in Jamestown. Read on to learn the answers to these questions.
The Maine Center for Disease Control is warning Mainers after a Kennebec County resident was diagnosed with the mosquito-borne Jamestown Canyon virus ...
BUFFALO, N.Y. - U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration New York Division Special Agent in Charge Ray Donovan and U.S. Attorney James P. Kennedy, Jr. announced today that Terrence M. McRae, 40, of Jamestown, NY, pleaded guilty before U.S. District Judge Lawrence J. Vilardo to possessing with intent to distribute methamphetamine. The charge carries a maximum sentence of 20 years in prison and a $1,000,000 fine. Assistant U.S. Attorney Joshua A. Violanti, who is handling the case, stated that on September 6, 2019, members of the Jamestown Metro Drug Task Force executed a New York State search warrant at the residence of Richard Kinsey on Newland Avenue in Jamestown. Before the execution of the warrant, investigators observed co-defendants Richard Kinsey and Brandi Whitford arrive and enter the residence. A short time later, the defendant and another individual entered the residence. As investigators moved into the residence to begin executing the search warrant, they observed McRae exit the residence to a
Does anyone still have a ruptured duck? *** If you love animals and your pet has a very special place in your heart, please consider spending one hour, supporting the proposed Jamestown Animal Shelter. On Tuesday evening, May 27, from 6 to 7 p.m., the Jamestown Town Council will hold a public workshop on the need for an animal shelter in Jamestown. Councilwomen Barbara Szepatowski says that since 2004, talks between Paws and Claws staff and the Town have resulted in an on again - off again plan. With the Teen Center a huge success, the new Town Hall open, and the Highway Barn and Landfill Closure settled, now seems like the opportune time to get this project back on track and open. Ms. McGuirls eighth grade students will be present their senior project on the shelter, Paws and Claws will provide information on the number of animals they have cared for since 2000 and also the number fostered and re-homed due to a death in the family, the owners moving, a lack of interest in their pet; or ...
Its the 21st century and were no closer to defeating the common cold much less hair loss. Or are we closer? Lets take a look at the facts first.
Jamestown Colony: Jamestown Colony, first permanent English settlement in North America, located near present-day Williamsburg, Virginia.
Eventbrite - Trainerkart Americas, INC presents Data Science Certification Training in Jamestown New York Area - Tuesday, October 16, 2018 | Friday, October 19, 2018 at Business Hotel, Jamestown, NY. Find event and ticket information.
In its first entry into the Babe Ruth League in many years, Jamestown fielded a group of exciting young players sponsored by the Ali Dunn-Packer Foundation and ended the season with a commendable record of 5 wins and 6 losses in the regular schedule and 2 wins and 2 losses in the playoffs. The team returned to the Babe Ruth League through the efforts of Tony Rafanelli, president of the Jamestown Baseball Association, who met with families of potential players and put together the entry into the Newport League. Kudos to Jim Bryer, league manager, who led the islanders to the playoffs and a highly successful return to the Babe Ruth League. Players were: Matthew Baptista, John Rafanelli, Carl DeVellis, Michael Schnack, Kevin Flanagan, Ryan Southworth, Jake Garbelotti, Christian Tiexiera, Anthony Irwin, Alessandro Baccari, Kahn Kurt, Nicholas Baccari, Harry Mielde, Nathaniel Vigneault, Tom Munro, Will Deffley, Ben Normand, Michael Harpool, and Joshua Page. Coaches were Tony Rafanelli, Roland ...
In Home Health Care Services | Jamestown, CA: Comfort Keepers provides compassionate home health care services to seniors in Jamestown, CA.
Last week, Scottish nationalists, many of whom wish to secede, swept past Labor to become the first party of Scotland. Welsh separatists also made gains. Following the Irish, the other Celts want out of the England of Elizabeth II. Is this better, Your Majesty?. The Great Britain of Tony Blair may be more diverse than the land of Victoria and Edward VII, Lloyd George and Winston Churchill - but is it a better nation?. Only if one worships diversity can one say Britain is a better, stronger or greater country than she was on the eve of the Great War, a century ago, when Britannia ruled a fourth of the world.. But the new orthodoxy demands we say this. And Her Majesty was careful to conform. Fifty years on, we are now in a position to reflect more candidly on the Jamestown legacy, said the queen, as she began to reflect less candidly.. At Jamestown, Three great civilizations came together for the first time - Western European, native American and African.. ...
View a complete Jamestown, CO cost of living report and index. Includes average cost of groceries, health care, housing, goods and services as well as average prices of goods in Jamestown, CO.
Jamestown, NY (PRWEB) October 13, 2014 -- People who suffer from gum disease in Jamestown, NY can now visit Dr. Paul Boger for the LANAP® protocol, which is an
Find an Anesthesiologist in Jamestown, NY 14702. Anesthesiologist reviews, phone number, address and map. Find the best Anesthesiologist in Jamestown, NY 14702
snowshoe - MedHelps snowshoe Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for snowshoe. Find snowshoe information, treatments for snowshoe and snowshoe symptoms.
The latest trends and statistics to help you find the top accredited computer programming schools in Jamestown, North Carolina. Insight on students, faculty and computer programmer salaries.
Up-to-date information to help you find the best accredited business management schools in Jamestown, North Carolina. Learn about students, faculty and business management professional salaries.
Sea-level rise this century may threaten Jamestown in Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in the Americas; the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, which launches all of NASAs human spaceflight missions; and the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse in North Carolina, the tallest brick lighthouse in the United States, a new study finds. These iconic locales are…
Does not guarantee acceptance of JCC students. Provides a link to key foundation courses that competitive transfer candidates must have completed or have in progress at the time of their application. JCC courses that Cornell accepts as equivalent to its foundation courses are at cals.cornell.edu/admissions/apply/transfer/requirements/ under transfer agreements - Jamestown Community College. Lists grade point average and other requirements for application. Cornell University will accept up to 60 credits in transfer. (latest update 2014)
Find info concerning Jamestown Community College health classes. Whether you are considering an associates degree (CNA, LVN, or LPN), or a bachelor of science in nursing (RN), you will find many doors opening after graduation.
Information about Jamestown Community College class schedule 2015, registering in a technical degree program to develop job skills, or just learning how to make extra money online.
Get the facts about Jamestown Community College online classes. In order to earn a higher salary, you may complete an accredited college degree program, as well as seek internship experience.
Info concerning University of Jamestown anatomy classes online. Completion of an accredited nursing program or other medical training can qualify you to start working in a private hospital immediately.
Info concerning University of Jamestown HVAC classes. Engineering job offers command high salaries due to accelerating technical innovation in manufacturing and heavy industry.
Find information about Jamestown Community College EMT classes. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Property details for 1326 Jamestown Road in Williamsburg, VA 23185. This property is one of many commercial real estate listings on Showcase.com, the premier location to search space for rent or commercial property for sale.
Dr. Robert J. Bates, Urologist, not only focuses on your medical care, but approaches your care from a health and lifestyle perspective. There are few urological conditions that have not been encountered. Patients should not assume that just because its not a life threatening problem, it should not be dealt with. At the minimum, if it is a urological concern, come and find out what your options are and together, we can work through those options. It is really about improving quality of life. Your comfort and confidence are our primary concerns. The best advice we can provide is that it never hurts to ask, investigate and look into options to pursue.. Routine clinic appointments are seen in the JRMC Clinic, a department of Jamestown Regional Medical Center. Urology procedures are performed in the state-of-the-art surgical services department at JRMC.. ...
Photos, maps, description for 12 Jamestown Street Randolph, NY. Search homes for sale, get school district and neighborhood info for Randolph, NY on c21turnerbrokers.com -- Real Estate Search.
Find Advanced Technical Marketing I located at 2671 S Highway 92, Jamestown, Kentucky, 42629. Contact 2703436001. Ratings, reviews, hours, phone number and directions from ChamberofCommerce.com
English settlers arrived at Jamestown expecting riches to fall into their hands, but were soon faced with a much harsher reality.
Find info concerning Jamestown Community College x-ray tech program. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Find Gavilon Fertilizer LLC in Jamestown, ND 58401-9308 on Yellowbook. Get contact details or leave a review about this business.
Roger, Chad & Staff at Jamestown Livestock want to Thank you for your business this last year and look forward to helping you again this year! Happy Holidays ...
CALL NOW 888-398-0059, Jamestown, NC, Guilford County. Corporate accuracy with local touch in DNA Paternity Test, Urine Drug Test, Hair Follicle Drug Test, DOT Test, EtG Alcohol Test, 5 Panel, 9 Panel, 10 Panel, 12 Panel, 14 Panel test, USCG, MRO, AABB, onsite, mobile, after hours. Excellent customer service - Veritas laboratories.
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: California serogroup SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Arbovirus, mosquito-borne encephalitis; includes LaCrosse, California encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Snowshoe hare, Guaroa, Inkoo, Tahyna, Trivittatus CHARACTERISTICS: Bunyavirus, ssRNA, enveloped, 90-100 nm diameter, helical capsid SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD PATHOGENICITY: Onset is abrupt, typically with a severe bifrontal headache, fever, vomiting, lethargy and convulsions; less frequently, there is only aseptic meningitis; fatalities and neurologic sequelae are rare: convalescence may be prolonged EPIDEMIOLOGY: Viruses originally found in California but disease due to LaCrosse virus occurs mainly in midwestern North America with scattered cases elsewhere; cases occur in summer and early fall and are commonly limited to areas and years of high temperature and many mosquitoes, particularly in young males (4-14 years); Jamestown Canyon is uncommon and disease ...
Jamestown (originally James Town) was named after Sir James Fergusson, the Governor of South Australia when the town was surveyed in 1871. Its streets are all named for towns in his native Scotland.[2] Major products of the area are grain, legumes, wool and timber. The worlds first plantation forest was the Bundaleer Forest first planted in the area in 1876. The local area had first been granted self-government as the District Council of Belalie in 1875, but the township of Jamestown itself had separated as the Corporate Town of Jamestown in 1878. The Belalie council, comprising the surrounding areas, merged into the new District Council of Jamestown in 1935. Jamestown continued with two municipalities, one for the town and one for the surrounding area, until their amalgamation in 1991; the amalgamated municipality then merged into the new Northern Areas Council in 1997.[2] ...
Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14, 1607. It is commonly regarded as the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States, following several earlier failed attempts. It was founded by the Virginia Company, headquartered in London. The location at Jamestown Island was selected primarily because it offered a favorable strategic defensive position against other European forces which might approach by water. However, the colonists soon discovered that the swampy and isolated site was plagued by mosquitoes and tidal river water unsuitable for drinking, and offered limited opportunities for hunting and little space for farming. The area was also inhabited by Native Americans. What became known as the Starving Time in the Virginia Colony occurred during the winter of 1609 10. Only 60 of 214 English colonists survived. Throughout the 17th century, Jamestown was the capital of the Virginia Colony. On October 20, 1698, the statehouse ...
Get info about Jamestown ND nursing education. Seek out accredited healthcare programs for the best training. Given a brief hospital internship or prior work experience, you can expect a great return on your medical education.
Discover hidden attractions, cool sights, and unusual things to do in Jamestown, North Dakota from Legendary Albino Buffalo to Worlds Largest Buffalo.
There are several hypocrisies that emerge from this discovery. One is the immediate cover that western anthros and archeologists attempt to provide for this practice by labeling it survival cannibalism. When Columbus, and later Franciscus de Vitoria, Edward Coke, and their successors, developed and applied legal justifications for the waging of just war against indigenous peoples, evidence of cannibalism was on the top of the list. The coining of the term survival cannibalism provides a Eurocentric shield to suggest that the Jamestown folks were still culturally superior to the Powahtans around therm, but that the English invaders only resorted to cannibalism as a last resort to survive. Any reasonable person would have done the same, right? The resulting implication is that he Indians, on the other hand, were permanently mired in a culturally and spiritually inferior condition (reportedly engaging in cannibalism on a regular basis), requiring remediation (or extermination, whichever ...
Learn about Jamestown Community College social psychology. Whether you are considering an associates or a bachelors degree, your educational investment may pay off with a higher-paying job, or an in-house promotion.
Easy 1-Click Apply (SNOWSHOE MOUNTAIN) Snowshoe - Adventure Guide job in Snowshoe, WV. View job description, responsibilities and qualifications. See if you qualify!
Dr. Glaser offers a unique prospective on neurovirology, having both a veterinary and medical background and she brings this expertise to the California Encephalitis Project (CEP), where she has served as director since its inception in 1998. The CEP was initiated to investigate and characterize etiologic agents and the epidemiologic features of encephalitis. The CEP examines infectious viral groups including herpesviruses, enteroviruses, and arboviruses. Non-viral etiologies such as amoeba, rickettsia and mycoplasma also fall within the CEPs scope of investigation. Testing for infectious agents was coordinated by the Centers for Disease Control and incorporated many other laboratories throughout the world to identify and characterize pathogens. Under the direction of Dr. Glaser, over 6000 cases have been referred to the CEP, and although the etiology of many cases remain unexplained, several important findings regarding encephalitis have emerged. Limitations of molecular testing for ...
All wild animals carry diseases. In some cases these might be of concern because they can spread to humans or domestic animals. In other cases they may be of interest simply because the signs of the disease have been seen and you want to know more. Though diseases are relatively common in these animals there is usually an increase in reporting when the hare populations are at a peak. High populations mean that there is an increased chance of one animal infecting another. In addition, when there are too many animals in one area, the amount of available food is reduced so that the animals become weaker and more vulnerable to disease. The two common tapeworm infections in the snowshoe hare of this province are described in this fact sheet.
Snowshoe hares that camouflage themselves by changing their coats from brown in summer to white in winter face serious threats from climate change, and its uncertain whether hare populations will be able to adapt in time, ...
Answer: B. Plaque reduction neutralization test. PRNT is used to confirm JCV infection following a positive or equivocal result for IgM-class antibodies by enzyme immunoassay or immunofluorescence assay. PRNT is also used to compare the endpoint neutralizing antibody titers between closely related viruses, with the infectious virus most frequently identified as the one with at least a 4-fold or higher endpoint titer compared to the other tested viruses. This is especially helpful if serologic testing is positive for more than one virus in the California serogroup, which occurs frequently due to the cross-reactivity of these assays. ...
Southern California regulators are moving to ban a widely used dry-cleaning solvent as carcinogenic, the first U.S. locality to do so. The industry is fiercely opposed.
My son has high functioning autism. He is a middle schooler, reading 2 years below grade level. He has difficulty in comprehension and inferencing, but not decoding. The school uses the Jamestown Reading Navigator. Is this an effective program? This is a link to the Jamestown Reading Navigator and to the program
A man died Thursday morning after firefighters said the all-terrain vehicle he was driving hit a car. It happened near the intersection of Buchanan Street and Oak Street in the city limits of California.
The City of High Point has increased sampling and water mains are being flushed. Samples taken above and below the positive sample location showed no bacteria, which indicates an isolated incident. The sample was taken from a private water line on Sherry Court in Jamestown. Jamestowns water supply is a consecutive system of High Points, according to Jamestown Public Services Director Paul Blanchard. CONTINUE. ...
re: ...representatives of Virginias eight recognized tribes will spend a week touring England and discussing their history and culture as part of the 18-month commemoration of Jamestown, the first permanent English colony in what became the United States./For Englands Jamestown 2007 organizers, the trip is a chance to revive social and economic links between Virginia and Kent County, where the trip is centered./For Indians, its a first step toward healing scars of violence and betrayal formed long ago./Roughly 60 chiefs and tribal members will make the trip, the first by an official Virginia Indian delegation to England in more than 250 years ...
Get STD Test Results In As Little As 48 Hours. Visit Our Kansas Lab For A Fast & Affordable Test. Confidential Results and Peace of Mind
Temple Health refers to the health, education and research activities carried out by the affiliates of Temple University Health System (TUHS) and by the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University. TUHS neither provides nor controls the provision of health care. All health care is provided by its member organizations or independent health care providers affiliated with TUHS member organizations. Each TUHS member organization is owned and operated pursuant to its governing documents ...
One theme of these poems is a fascination with the prairie. As you travels west from Fargo North Dakota you soon approach an line of hills rising 200 to 300 feet from the valley floor. Geologists call this the Pembina Escarpment. As your road winds up these hill you be entering the middle plateau of the Great Plains called the Drift Prairie. If you were to continue west of Jamestown you would come to another wall of 300 foot high hills called the Missouri Escarpment. However if you turn south at Jamestown and follow the James River south you will come to the little town where Rick was born and I grew up wandering the prairie and finding ancient campgrounds and arrow heads and wondering what life was like centuries before in this fascinating land. Many of Ricks poems celebrate the beauty of this land and the animals and people that live here now and lived here over the centuries ...
JRMC Surgical Services offers both same-day and in-patient services. Approximately 1,500 surgeries and 1,300 endoscopic procedures are performed each year in the Surgery Center. Highly skilled surgeons lead surgical teams that include nurse anesthetists, registered nurses and surgical technologists. Our medical staff offer multiple surgical specialties.. JRMC is a leader in the region for the surgical services provided. The state-of-the-art rooms at JRMC are equipped with the latest, most advanced technology for patients to receive the best quality care. With three surgical suites and a fully equipped endoscopy suite, JRMC can schedule your surgery in a timely matter.. ...
The Grom 2019 exercise of Russian strategic forces last week (October 15-17) received limited media attention, which was overwhelmed by the escalation of the Syrian calamity (see EDM, October 17) and the continuation of the Brexit drama. But this years Grom maneuvers were, in fact, unprecedented in both their scale and intensity. Official information is deliberately imprecise. But reportedly, launches of ballistic missiles by submarines of the Northern and Pacific fleets were coordinated with missile strikes from Tu-95MS long-range bombers and with the test of a land-based intercontinental missile; ships of the Northern Fleet and the Caspian Flotilla practiced Kalibr cruise missile strikes against onshore targets; and S-400 surface-to-air missile systems in Crimea defended against a simulated air attack (Rossiiskaya gazeta, October 17). This complex test of the whole range of Russian capabilities highlights achievements in preparations for a full-scale nuclear war (Ezhednevny Zhurnal, October ...
Burlington Daily Times, May 14, 1861. We are not a homogeneous people. We never have been so. What is distinctively denominated American civilization has streamed across the continent on parallel or nearly parallel lines, from the two centers, Plymouth Rock and Jamestown. Other elements have, from time to time, been worked in, to be sure, but they have been leavened and molded by the controlling and primary power that set the whole movement agoing. A large foreign population is of no material account. If reckoned by the head, they would present a formidable army, but when estimated by the juster and proper standard of the power they exert in shaping our affairs and the destiny of the nation they shrink at once to an inappreciable value.. These two great currents of civilization were radically different on the start. Plymouth Rock had little sympathy with Jamestown. The plain, stern, reverent Puritan could not fraternize with the extravagant, profligate and courtly planter of the old Dominion. ...
Green, gold, proud - the same three words used to introduce JCCs new logos are being used to describe the colleges reaction to recent news from the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC).
By Zaal Anjaparidze. The parliamentary elections in Georgia, which are scheduled for November 2, are turning into a struggle between the forces of the past, grouped around President Eduard Shevardnadze, and a newborn opposition that adheres to Western values. The fact that the leaders of this opposition were until recently Shevardnadze loyalists gives added spice to the election struggle. The elections could propel this fresh blood to power. On the other hand, despite a sharp social-economic crisis, political disorder and territorial disintegration, President Shevardnadze remains the center of attraction for political and public forces in Georgia.. Shevardnadze has already disproved the forecasts of experts, who had predicted that he would try to keep an equal distance from the various political parties. That would have left room for the political maneuvers at which he is so adept, before and after the elections. Shevardnadze probably learned a lesson from the events of November 2001, when, ...
Denise has figured this out. The island is Jamestown Island, located between the Narragansett Verrazano Bridge and the Pell Bridge to Newport, Rhode Island, shown in a previous photo. The street where this building is located is at the foot of Narragansett Avenue in Jamestown. ...
If you are going to cruise offshore on your sailboat, you will need an abandon ship bag. Shop LRSE for quality abandon ship bags and other survival equipment.
JAMESTOWN -Local police have made yet another arrest in the effort to crack down on the illegal drug trade in the city. The latest major bust took place on Friday shortly before 5:30 a.m., when the Jamestown Metro Drug Task Force, New York State … [Read more...] ...
With Bradford missing six of the past seven games with a knee injury, Keenum replaced him as the starter and Sloter was his backup each time although he didnt get into a game. Vikings coach Mike Zimmer doesnt anticipate Sloter will dress out at Washington.. Its cool with me, Sloter said. Thats what they ask me to do, so Im going to do it to the best of my ability.. With the roster spot needed for Bridgewater, the Vikings did not want to risk waiving Sloter to get him on the practice squad for fear another team would claim him. Sloter is glad to stick around.. It feels good, he said. This is where I want to be, so Im looking forward to being able to help in any way I can.. A familiar foe. The Vikings (6-2) will play Washington (4-4) for the seventh time in eight years. The only season the teams havent met this decade was in 2015. ...
I had a harder time finding this pet than just about any other -- even the seasonal/time-based pets! There are very few in the area, and most of them are not battleable. Worse, there seems to phasing issues because often I will see one and itll be gone by the time I land. Sometimes I could still target them, but theyd be invisible. I dont recall any quest phasing in this area, so perhaps its just a weird bug.. These pets can be primary or secondaries, so if you cant find any rabbits in the snow-covered areas, you should head east to Strahnbrad and fight the rats there in hopes you cross one as a secondary. Thats how I finally got one. ...
The Snowshoe cat is very special. Continue reading our post to learn more about this adorable family companion. Let them purr their way into anyones heart!
Meander past frozen waterfalls, over snow covered rivers, and below breathtaking views of Longs Peak on a quintessential Colorado snowshoe hike.
Building Wooden Snowshoes & Snowshoe Furniture Audiobook ✔ download free by Gil Gilpatrick published by INDEPENDENT PUBLISHERS GROUP
Wilhelm SW, Suttle CA (October 1999). "Viruses and Nutrient Cycles in the Sea: Viruses play critical roles in the structure and ... Bradshaw MJ, Venkatesan A (July 2016). "Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis in Adults: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and ... As all viruses in the realm are double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, the realm belongs to Group I: dsDNA viruses of Baltimore ... fold MCP viruses, and the suffix -virae, which is the suffix used for virus kingdoms. All viruses in Duplodnaviria contain a ...
It is known to carry Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE). It was found to be a minor vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in ... Mosquitoes of North America [California library reprint series edition 1974]. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: UC Press; 1955. ... Several viruses have been found in this mosquito in the Amazon, such as Una virus and Ilheus virus. In Central and South ...
mitchellae is a suspected vector of Tensaw virus and secondary vector of Eastern equine encephalitis. H. G. Dyar. 1905. A new ... Mosquitoes of North America (North of Mexico). Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Pp. 204-205; http ... Arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes collected in Waycross, Georgia, 1963, during an outbreak of equine encephalitis. American ...
Eaton, M. D.; Beck, M. D. (1941). "A New Strain of Virus of Influenza B Isolated During an Epidemic in California". ... Louis and Japanese B Encephalitis". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 47 (1): 178-181. doi:10.3181/00379727-47-13077. ISSN ... On 10 February 1948, with the help of the governor of Alabama and others, Marsh was successful in convincing the California ... Horsfall, FL; Hahn, RG (29 February 1940). "A Latent Virus in Normal Mice Capable of Producing Pneumonia in ITS Natural Host". ...
Later it became clear that the virus can also infect humans causing encephalitis, sometimes with deadly complications. - Meyer ... And the California State Department of Health decided (in 1929) to monitor the mussels closely, and to publicize a ban on ... Meyer therefore qualified encephalitis as a man-made disease. Subsequently, a vaccine for horses was developed. And it turned ... out that the isolation of the virus by Meyer led to the discovery of similar kinds causing other types of encephalitis in man ...
Quail in the Ecology of Mosquito-Borne Encephalitis Viruses in California, USA". Vector-Role and Zoonotic Diseases. 6 (3): 248- ... The California quail is easily infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV). In California, the virus' ... Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05456-3. "California Quail media". Internet Bird Collection. ... San Quintin California quail - San Diego County to southern Baja California The California quail is a highly sociable bird that ...
La Crosse virus (LACV) is part of the California serogroup bunyavirus and is transmitted by O. triseriatus. La Crosse virus ... eastern encephalitis, Venezuelan encephalitis, and western encephalitis. Because of its potential for international spread and ... "La Crosse Encephalitis Virus Infection in Field-CollectedAedes albopictus,Aedes japonicus, andAedes triseriatusin Tennessee". ... It is a known vector of La Crosse encephalitis and canine heartworm disease. In the laboratory, it has been found to vector ...
The viruses which transmit Eastern equine encephalitis, California encephalitis and West Nile virus have been detected in ... 1986). "Aedes canadensis: A vector of Lacrosse virus (Caligornia Serogroup) in Ohio" (PDF). Journal of the American Mosquito ... It has also shown to be a secondary vector for the La Crosse virus in Ohio. D.M. Wood; P.T. Dang; R.A. Ellis (1979). The ...
Genus Orthobunyavirus Bunyamwera virus California encephalitis virus Jamestown Canyon virus La Crosse encephalitis virus Genus ... Louis encephalitis virus West Nile virus Spondweni virus group Spondweni virus Zika virus Yellow fever virus group Yellow fever ... Dengue virus group Dengue virus Japanese encephalitis virus group Japanese encephalitis virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus Ross River virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus' ...
... carries California encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis, heartworm Jamestown Canyon virus, La Crosse virus. West ... carries California encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus, Western equine encephalitis[citation needed] ... carries California encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, Sindbis virus[citation needed] Ochlerotatus cantator - brown ... carries California encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Western equine encephalitis[citation needed] Ochlerotatus euedes ...
2012). Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses. Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of ... Murphy earned a BS and a DVM from Cornell University and a PhD from the University of California, Davis. He served as Chief, ... encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers, with over 250 peer-reviewed journal articles. Murphy was as an electron microscopy pioneer ... Murphy was an editor of the sixth edition of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses's Virus Taxonomy (1995). His ...
... encephalitis West Nile encephalitis Tick-borne encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis Rabies California encephalitis virus ... Varicella-zoster encephalitis La Crosse encephalitis Measles encephalitis Nipah virus encephalitis Poliomyelitis Slow virus ... Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis Amoebic brain abscess Viral meningitis Eastern equine encephalitis St Louis encephalitis ... chorea Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Guillain-Barré syndrome Central nervous system viral disease Encephalitis ...
California encephalitis virus, La Crosse encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus and Snowshoe hare virus vector: mosquitoes ... "Bunyaviridae - Negative Sense RNA Viruses - Negative Sense RNA Viruses (2011)". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ... La Crosse virus was first recognized in a fatal case of encephalitis in La Crosse, Wisconsin 1977: Rift Valley Fever virus ... Viruses. 12 (9): 1010. doi:10.3390/v12091010. Virus Taxonomy: 2018 Release, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, ...
... ("TAHV") is a viral pathogen of humans classified in the California encephalitis virus (CEV) serogroup ... The virus was unknown in Europe and was found to belong to the California group and eventually found to occur in most European ... Lu Z, Fu S-H, Wang F-T, Nasci RS, Tang Q, Liang G-D. Circulation of Diverse Genotypes of Tahyna Virus in Xinjiang, People's ... These enveloped viruses have a three-segmented negative-strand RNA genome. of approximately 13 kb in total length. The three ...
Coxsackie B virus) Chickenpox Cytomegalovirus Eastern equine encephalitis virus California encephalitis virus Enteroviruses ... 2 Newcastle disease Human parainfluenza viruses Human rhinovirus Measles MERS coronavirus Human respiratory syncytial virus ... Hendra virus Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E Herpes HIV-1, - ...
California serogroup virus diseases Chikungunya virus disease Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease Powassan virus disease ... Louis encephalitis virus disease West Nile virus disease Western equine encephalitis virus disease Babesiosis Botulism Botulism ... Machupo virus New World arenavirus - Sabia virus Yellow fever Zika virus disease and Zika virus infection Zika virus disease, ... deaths Vibriosis Viral hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Ebola virus Lassa virus Lujo virus Marburg virus ...
In either case, the infection can lead to encephalitis or meningitis. Coltivirus is a genus of viruses. Viruses are ... Not surprisingly, Colorado tick fever virus can be found in places like California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, ... Since then, the virus took on some differences, and is now considered its own species of virus. European Eyach virus was ... Antibody to the virus is found only about two weeks after symptoms begin to show, but the virus can still be found in blood ...
Thompson, W.H.; Kalfayan, B.; Anslow, R.O. (1965). "Isolation of California encephalitis virus from a fatal human illness". Am ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector ( ... La Crosse Virus The La Crosse encephalitis virus is a type of arbovirus called a bunyavirus.[3] The Bunyavirales are mainly ...
The virus is able to cause a lethal encephalitis in rodents,[4] but generally only mild symptoms in humans.[5] Only one lethal ... The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... The modified virus reduced tumour growth and prolonged survival of mice with brain tumours.[9] The modified virus was also ... The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research ...
Neurotropic viruses that cause infection include Japanese Encephalitis, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, and California ... A neurotropic virus is a virus that is capable of infecting nerve cells. A neurotropic virus is said to be neuroinvasive if it ... Those causing slow virus infection include measles virus, rubella and JC viruses, and retroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic ... Many arthropod-borne neurotropic viruses, like West Nile virus, spread to the brain primarily via the blood system by crossing ...
Known flavivirus vector-borne viruses include Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and West Nile ... that MODV was the responsible virus for a case of aseptic meningitis when the virus was first discovered in California. ... the Sal Vieja virus, and the San Perlita virus. Little information is known about these viruses as well. The MODV virus has a ... "Exchanging the yellow fever virus envelope proteins with Modoc virus prM and E proteins results in a chimeric virus that is ...
The Absettarov virus (ABSV) is a strain of tick-borne encephalitis virus (Far Eastern subtype) in the genus Flavivirus. It was ... Mahy, Brian W J (2001). A dictionary of virology (3. ed.). San Diego, Calif. [u.a.]: Academic Press. pp. 1. ISBN 978-0-12- ... Virus taxonomy. Seventh report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego. 1162 pp https ...
... symptoms of RNA viruses include: hepatitis, encephalitis, mild fever, and hemorrhagic fever. The primary hosts for the HP virus ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "University of California Mosquito Research Program." University of California Mosquito ... The Flanders virus is similar to the antigentic make-up of the Hart Park virus. Both the HP and Flanders viruses are part of ... Hart Park virus, or HP virus, is a single-stranded RNA arbovirus that is primarily transmitted through mosquitoes. The HP virus ...
California encephalitis virus Chandipura virus Chikungunya virus Cytomegalovirus Dengue virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus ... virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus Nipah virus Powassan virus Rabies virus Rubella virus SARS-CoV-2 Snowshoe hare virus St ... shingles Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus West Nile virus Western equine encephalitis virus Zika virus Encephalitic viruses ... Louis virus Tahyna virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Varicella-zoster virus, which causes both chickenpox and ...
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) Dengue fever Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) Hantavirus Lassa fever Late blight of potato glanders ... Whitecoat Project 112 Project Bacchus Project Clear Vision Project Jefferson 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack 1989 California ... Rinderpest Typhus Western equine encephalitis (WEE) Yellow fever Edgewood Arsenal experiments Operation Big Buzz Operation Big ...
... he was hired by the State of California to study an outbreak of encephalitis in horses in Bakersfield. As a result of this work ... Here McClure discovered that birds that were shot showed blood that appeared to be positive for viruses while those samples ... Self-published, Camarillo, CA. Photos of Pseudochelidon sirintarae by H. E. McClure in the Archive of the Oriental Bird Club ( ... McClure described the rumours that they "... were supposed to be inoculating birds with viruses and freeing them to take ...
... type strain California encephalitis virus was discovered in Kern County, California and ... California encephalitis virus (CEV) - type strain Inkoo virus (INKV) South river virus (SORV) Hammon, W. M.; Reeves, W. C. ( ... and California encephalitis is a rare cause of disease in the Western World. The original California Encephalitis virus was ... Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Virus. The incubation period of California encephalitis is usually 3-7 days. An early symptoms ...
Thompson, W.H.; Kalfayan, B.; Anslow, R.O. (1965). "Isolation of California encephalitis virus from a fatal human illness". Am ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector ( ... Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus. McJunkin, J. E.; de los Reyes, E. C.; Irazuzta, J. E.; ...
Prior to the 1990s, the only tests for California serogroup virus infections performed by most state diagnostic laboratories ... Powassan virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Saint Louis encephalitis and Western equine encephalitis virus, the latter ... with La Crosse virus being 91%, Eastern equine encephalitis virus 100% and Powassan virus 80% neuroinvasive. No specific ... Jamestown Canyon encephalitis is an infectious disease caused by the Jamestown Canyon virus, an orthobunyavirus of the ...
Louis Encephalitis at eMedicine The Encephalitis Society - A Global resource on Encephalitis "St. Louis encephalitis virus". ... "Genotypic and phenotypic variation of selected Saint Louis encephalitis viral strains isolated in California". Am. J. Trop. Med ... Saint Louis encephalitis virus is related to Japanese encephalitis virus and is a member of the family Flaviviridae. This ... Only infected mosquitoes can transmit Saint Louis encephalitis virus. Once a human has been infected with the virus it is not ...
PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... Although the function of CD20 is unknown, it may play a role in Ca2+ influx across plasma membranes, maintaining intracellular ... anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and Devic's disease,[23] Graves' ophthalmopathy,[24] autoimmune pancreatitis,[25] Opsoclonus ... "Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ...
PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... Although the function of CD20 is unknown, it may play a role in Ca2+ influx across plasma membranes, maintaining intracellular ... anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and Devic's disease,[23] Graves' ophthalmopathy,[24] autoimmune pancreatitis,[25] Opsoclonus ... Maloney DG, Grillo-López AJ, White CA, et al. (September 1997). "IDEC-C2B8 (Rituximab) anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy in ...
1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... "Phac-aspc.gc.ca. 4 July 2012. Archived from the original on 27 December 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2012.. ... Lindgren E, Gustafson R (July 2001). "Tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden and climate change". Lancet. 358 (9275): 16-8. doi: ... Walsh CA, Mayer EW, Baxi LV (January 2007). "Lyme disease in pregnancy: case report and review of the literature". Obstetrical ...
California encephalitis *CEV. *Jamestown Canyon virus. *Tete virus. *Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift ... Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ...
Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017). *Saudi Arabian MERS (2018). *Kerala Nipah virus (2018) ... The historian William H. McNeill[10] asserts that the Antonine Plague and the later Plague of Cyprian (251-ca. 270) were ... "Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.", Virol. J., 7 (52). ... "Origin of the Measles Virus: Divergence from Rinderpest Virus Between the 11th and 12th Centuries". Virology. 7: 52-55. doi ...
Equine Encephalitis [375], Equine Influenza [376], IBR [377] Vesicular Stomatitis [378], BVD [379] Orf [380] ጥቂት ምሳሌዎች ናቸው። የወፍ ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus)ን ክትባት እንደማይከላከለው በጊዜው ከሚያውቁት ሳይንቲስቶችና የበሽታ መከላከያ ክትባት ሠሪዎች ኣንዱ በመሆናቸው በሽታው ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ሊያስከትል ከሚችለው ... Tilahun Yilma (University of California, Davis) 1996. *[[1,228]] Haile Selassie I University Alumni, Addis Abeba ...
1999). "Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States". Science. ... For example, barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis) was introduced to California on serpentine soils, which have low water- ... 2004). "Spread of exotic cordgrasses and hybrids (Spartina sp.) in the tidal marshes of San Francisco Bay, California". USA ... However, the governments of California and New Zealand have announced more stringent control for vessel hull fouling within ...
David D, Yakobson B, Rotenberg D, Dveres N, Davidson I, Stram Y (2002). "Rabies virus detection by RT-PCR in decomposed ... ବିଭିନ୍ନ ପ୍ରକାରର ଭୁତାଣୁଦ୍ୱାରା ହେଉଥିବା ଏନ୍‌କେଫାଲାଇଟିସ୍ (encephalitis) ରୋଗ ସାଥିରେ ନିର୍ଣ୍ଣୟ ଦ୍ୱନ୍ଦ ହୁଏ ।. ସାଧାରଣ ଲାଇଟ ... Hanlon CA, Zoretic J, Fischbach B, Niezgoda M, El-Feky WH, Orciari L, Sanchez EQ, Likos A, Klintmalm GB, Cardo D, LeDuc J, ... "Transmission of rabies virus from an organ donor to four transplant recipients" (PDF). N Engl J Med. 352 (11): 1103-11. doi ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, ... "science.gc.ca. Government of Canada. 22 October 2018. Archived from the original on 20 June 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2019. ... Saint Louis encephalitis Saint Louis encephalitis virus birds mosquito bite Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS coronavirus ... Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree ...
For the Japanese encephalitis virus, blockade of CLEC5A cannot inhibit infection of neurons and astrocytes, however anti-CLEC5A ... Watson AA, O'Callaghan CA (January 2010). "Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of human CLEC5A (MDL-1), a dengue ... The researchers discovered that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) also binds to CLEC5A and contributes to viral pathology.[8] ... Interaction of CLEC5A and dengue virus also induces osteolytic activity.[8] Another pathogen is influenza virus and its ...
Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood. pp. 79-80. ISBN 978-0-313-38713-5. . Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.. ... A number of infectious diseases can sometimes cause ALS-like symptoms,[4] including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T ... Encephalitis *Viral encephalitis. *Herpesviral encephalitis. *Limbic encephalitis. *Encephalitis lethargica. *Cavernous sinus ... Harwood CA, McDermott CJ, Shaw PJ (August 2009). "Physical activity as an exogenous risk factor in motor neuron disease (MND): ...
... the California Department of Public Health identified a strong form of the virus, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), where nail loss in ... Rarely viral meningitis or encephalitis may complicate the disease. HFMD occurs in all areas of the world. It often occurs in ... The viruses that cause HFMD are spread through close personal contact, through the air from coughing, and the feces of an ... The viruses that cause the disease are of the Picornaviridae family. Coxsackievirus A16 is the most common cause of HFMD. ...
California encephalitis *CEV. *Jamestown Canyon encephalitis. *Tete virus. *Tahyna virus *TAHV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ... Chikungunya virus is passed to humans when a bite from an infected mosquito breaks the skin and introduces the virus into the ...
TD - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. *FX - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. *ZX - Eastern equine encephalitis virus ... CA - camite. *CN - mace. *CNB - mace-benzene mixture. *CNC - mace-chloroform mixture ...
Petrik MS, Wong MC, Tabata RC, Garry RF, Shaw CA (2007). "Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War illness induces motor neuron ... Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA (July 1997). "A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation ...
Japanese encephalitis 17 (as of June 2018[update]) India 2018-present 2018 Nipah virus outbreak Nipah virus infection ... Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 103. ISBN 978-1851096589. .. *^ Timothy Brook (1 September 1999). The Confusions of ... 2015-16 Zika virus epidemic Zika virus. Hundreds (as of 1 April 2016[update]) Africa 2016 2016 yellow fever outbreak in Angola ... Lives at Risk: Public Health in Nineteenth-Century Egypt. ark.cdlib.org, Berkeley: University of California Press, c1990. ...
Gene therapy typically involves the use of a non-infectious virus (i.e., a viral vector such as the adeno-associated virus) to ... Davie CA (2008). "A review of Parkinson's disease". British Medical Bulletin. 86 (1): 109-27. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldn013. PMID ... most commonly encephalitis and chronic ischemic insults, as well as less frequent entities such as basal ganglia tumors and ... Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage learning. pp. 108-44. ISBN 978-0-8400-3298-0.. ...
Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family ... Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24220-3. .. *. Mack T (2003). "A different view of smallpox and ... Other complications include encephalitis (1 in 500 patients), which is more common in adults and may cause temporary disability ... While the Dryvax virus was cultured in the skin of calves and freeze-dried, ACAM2000s virus is cultured in kidney epithelial ...
Powassan encephalitis. *Heartland virus. *Kemerovo tickborne viral fever. *Bhanja virus. Protozoan infection. *Babesiosis ... Pacific Coast (northern California to Washington). B. duncani Kentucky, Missouri, and Washington. B. divergens ...
Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and ... Ferguson NM, Donnelly CA, Anderson RM (May 2001). "The foot-and-mouth epidemic in Great Britain: pattern of spread and impact ... For example, more than half of cases of encephalitis, a severe illness affecting the brain, remain undiagnosed, despite ... Viruses are also usually identified using alternatives to growth in culture or animals. Some viruses may be grown in ...
Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing ... "Hundreds of evacuees to be held on bases in California; Hong Kong and Taiwan restrict travel from mainland China". The ... Arbovirus encephalitis. Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
California encephalitis *CEV. *Jamestown Canyon virus. *Tete virus. *Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift ... Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. Their genome[14] is contained in two ... Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. It is endemic in West ... The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ...
One hypothesis is that the virus strain originated at Fort Riley, Kansas, in viruses in poultry and swine which the fort bred ... It was implicated in the outbreak of encephalitis lethargica in the 1920s.[21] ... in a letter to the journal published in April 2010 by Andrew Noymer and Daisy Carreon of the University of California, Irvine, ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ...
California encephalitis *CEV. *Jamestown Canyon virus. *Tete virus. *Tahyna virus *TAHV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
Even more dramatically, in most of its range in North America, the main vector for the Western equine encephalitis virus is ... www.idrc.ca/en/ev-27870-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html។ ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus is a concern in the eastern ... "Protection against Japanese encephalitis virus in mice and hamsters by treatment with carboxymethylacridanone, a potent ... West Nile virus, dengue fever, filariasis, Zika virus and other arboviruses, rendering it the deadliest animal family in the ...
Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria, fungi, or parasites.[1][2] ... CA; International Encephalitis, Consortium. (October 2013). "Case definitions, diagnostic algorithms, and priorities in ... Louis encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis virus), bunyavirus (La Crosse strain), arenavirus (lymphocytic choriomeningitis ... virus), reovirus (Colorado tick virus), and henipaviruses.[10][11] The Powassan virus is a rare cause of encephalitis.[citation ...
Moser CA, Speaker TJ, Offit PA (1997). "Effect of microencapsulation on immunogenicity of a bovine herpes virus glycoprotein ... Moser CA, Speaker TJ, Berlin JA, Offit PA (1996). "Aqueous-based microencapsulation enhances virus-specific humoral immune ... Offit PA, Moser CA (2009). "The problem with Dr Bob's alternative vaccine schedule". Pediatrics. 123 (1): e164-9. doi:10.1542/ ... Moser CA, Cookinham S, Coffin SE, Clark HF, Offit PA (1998). "Relative importance of rotavirus-specific effector and memory B ...
Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute ... 2 to 10 km from the RA is the control area (CA) that serves as a buffer zone in case of spread. Culling is not recommended ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Further information: Influenza A virus subtype H7N9. Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first ...
Herrera BB, Chang CA, Hamel DJ, Mboup S, et al «Continued Transmission of Zika Virus in Humans in West Africa, 1992-2016» (en ... Bogovic P, Strle F «Tick-borne encephalitis: A review of epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management» (en anglès). ... Virus del Zika. Zika virus Imatge colorejada d'un microscopi electrònic de transmissió. Els virus, colorejats de blau, tenen 40 ... El virus del Zika està emparentat taxonòmicament amb els virus del dengue, la febre groga, l'encefalitis japonesa, el virus de ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... California. #section tr td {vertical-align:text-top;}. SECTION I - Full Virus Name and Prototype Number. Prototype Strain ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: California encephalitis Abbreviation: CEV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 2 ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Section IV - Virus Properties. Physicochemical. RNA, Single Strand Pieces (number of genome segments). 3 Infectivity. ... Titer with virus strain BFS 283 usually 160 to 640. Some other strains produce poorer or no HA; enhanced by sonication. ... Titer with virus strain BFS 283 usually 160 to 640. Some other strains produce poorer or no HA; enhanced by sonication. ...
... the virus genetic material. The California encephalitis virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and is transmitted to ... Coloured transmission electron micrograph of California encephalitis virus particles (virions). Each particle consists of an ... In humans, the virus damages nerve cells, causing encephalitis (brain inflammation), stiff neck, lethargy and seizures. It was ... first discovered in 1943 in California, USA. - Stock Image C002/2840 ...
This case is the first report of human disease associated with this infection since the original studies in California and is ... Summary A case of severe encephalitis in a previously healthy 12-year-old girl was associated with a diagnostic rise in ... antibodies representing recent infection with a California group arbovirus. ... California Encephalitis Virus Infection: A Case Report * * Donald T. Quick†, Arthur G. Smith‡, Arthur L. Lewis§, Gladys E. ...
Louis encephalitis virus phylogeny with 2015 California (USA CA) and 2014 and 2015 Arizona (USA AZ) genomes (black circles). ... Louis encephalitis virus phylogeny with 2015 California (USA CA) and 2014 and 2015 Arizona (USA AZ) genomes (black circles). ... Louis encephalitis virus in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. J Med Entomol. 1992;29:472-82.DOIPubMed ... Louis encephalitis virus in southeastern California, 2003-2006. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:494-508.PubMed ...
Louis encephalitis virus in a patient from California in September 2016. This case is associated with the recent 2015-2016 ... reemergence of this virus in the southwestern United States. ... Louis encephalitis virus. A) Multiple sequence alignment of 32 ... Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016 Charles Y. Chiu. , Lark L. Coffey, Jamie Murkey ... University of California, Davis, California, USA (L.L. Coffey, K. Symmes); University of California, Los Angeles, California, ...
Isolation of CE virus from 1 of 109 pools of Aedes sp. larvae collected during May 1974 suggests maintenance of this virus over ... During four summers 1971 through 1974, this virus was recovered from 26 of 648 pools derived from 30,686 mosquitoes of 4 ... Neutralizing antibodies to CE virus were detected in 705 of 4,913 (14%) mammals collected during summers 1971 through 1974, ... virus (snowshoe hare subtype) was isolated from 1 of 38 pools comprising 970 unengorged female Aedes canadensis mosquitoes and ...
keywords = "Avian serology, California, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Surveillance, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus, ... Patterns of avian seroprevalence to Western Equine encephalomyelitis and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in California, USA. ... Patterns of avian seroprevalence to Western Equine encephalomyelitis and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in California, USA. ... Patterns of avian seroprevalence to Western Equine encephalomyelitis and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in California, USA. ...
West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that can cause ... Comparison of Characteristics of Patients with West Nile Virus or St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Neuroinvasive Disease During ... California. The goal of the study was to determine whether scented sugar baits detect WNV and St. Louis encephalitis virus ( ... Scented sugar baits deployed in California deserts detected early West Nile virus (WNV) transmission by mosquitoes, ...
California encephalitis (CE) and hanta virus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are both caused by zoonotic viruses that belong to ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV), which belongs to genus orthobunyavirus, is the causative agent of CE. Sin Nombre virus ( ... "Topical review: La Crosse and other forms of California encephalitis". J Child Neurol. vol. 14. 1999. pp. 1-14. ... Both viruses are 90-100 nm in diameter, spherical negative-stranded, tri-segmented RNA viruses. ...
... antibodies to California encephalitis virus, a pathogenic class of viruses of the California serogroup that replicates in blood ... IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Serology, Virus, California Encephalitis, IgM Antibody. Definition : Serology reagents intended to ... Home > Specialties > IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Serology, Virus, California Encephalitis, IgM Antibody ... This virus may cause encephalitis; it is usually transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. ...
... encephalitis occurring in a kidney recipient shortly after organ transplantation was identified. ... Fatal transplant-associated west nile virus encephalitis and public health investigation-california, 2010. ... BACKGROUND: In December 2010, a case of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis occurring in a kidney recipient shortly after organ ... CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should suspect WNV as a cause of encephalitis in organ transplant recipients and report cases to public ...
Syndromes, severity vary with the virus; flu- like illness, meningitis, or encephalitis common with North American viruses ... North and South America, Europe, Africa, Asia; possibly worldwide; distribution of each virus varies ... California encephalitis virus serogroup (California serogroup) infections. Viral Diseases. Animals Involved. Many wild and ...
Louis encephalitis virus in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * St. ... Louis encephalitis virus in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California.. W. K. Reisen, R. P. Meyer, M. M. Milby, S. B. ... Louis encephalitis virus in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. / Reisen, W. K.; Meyer, R. P.; Milby, M. M.; Presser ... Louis encephalitis virus in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Journal of Medical Entomology, 29(3), 472-482. https ...
California encephalitis *CEV. *Jamestown Canyon virus. *Tete virus. *Tahyna virus *TAHV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
viral encephalitides (eastern, western, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis; St Louis, California encephalitis; West Nile Virus ... Enteroviral infections (i.e., Group A and B Coxsackie viruses and Echo viruses) (excludes polio virus) ... Ebola virus (see Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers). n/a. n/a. Ebola Virus Disease for Healthcare Workers [2014]. Update: ... Ebola Virus Disease for Healthcare Workers [2014]. Update: Recommendations for healthcare workers can be found at Ebola For ...
Herpes B encephalitis--California. MMWR 1973;22:333-4. *. Stones PB. Cited in: Graham-Jones O, ed. Some diseases of animals ... The report of a case of encephalitis caused by B virus in a monkey handler in 1932 indicated that B virus can be highly ... Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) is a member of the herpes group of viruses that is enzootic in rhesus (Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus ... Correlation of B virus and herpes simplex virus antibodies in human sera. J Lab Clin Med 1967;70:170-8. ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus synonyms, Eastern equine encephalitis virus pronunciation, Eastern equine encephalitis virus ... English dictionary definition of Eastern equine encephalitis virus. n. Abbr. EEE Encephalitis that is caused by a mosquito- ... borne virus and affects humans, horses, and some bird species. It occurs in small epidemics in the... ... Louis encephalitis virus (eight), eastern equine encephalitis virus (seven), and unspecified California serogroup virus (three ...
California; SLEV; St. Louis encephalitis virus; United States; West Nile virus; Zika virus; arboviruses; flavivirus infections ... Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016.. Chiu CY, Coffey LL, Murkey J, Symmes K, Sample ... Louis encephalitis virus in a patient from California in September 2016. This case is associated with the recent 2015-2016 ... Louis encephalitis virus. A) Multiple sequence alignment of 32 complete SLEV genomes from GenBank and the 2 SLEV genomes ...
Encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. ... San Francisco, California, United States, 941102859 UCSF - San Francisco Gen Hosp. San Francisco, California, United States, ... Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Immune System Diseases. Slow Virus ... MedlinePlus related topics: Encephalitis HIV/AIDS Toxoplasmosis Drug Information available for: Pyrimethamine Sulfadiazine ...
Biron CA. (1999) Endogenous glucocorticoids protect against cytokine-mediated lethality during viral infection. J Immunol 162(6 ... 2008) Ly6c+ "inflammatory monocytes" are microglial precursors recruited in a pathogenic manner in West Nile virus encephalitis ... Intranasal (i.n.) vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection is a well-established murine encephalitis model. A single ... Nuclear receptor REV-ERBα mediates circadian sensitivity to mortality in murine vesicular stomatitis virus-induced encephalitis ...
Public health: Encephalitis viruses persist in southern California. Hilgardia 34(3):9-10. DOI:10.3733/ca.v034n03p9b ... Public health: Encephalitis viruses persist in southern California. Author. Telford H. Work Author Affiliations. Telford H. ... CA 90024. Publication Information. Hilgardia 34(3):9-10. DOI:10.3733/ca.v034n03p9b. March 1980. ... Public health: Control of mosquito-borne encephalitis. Public health: Mosquitoes as carriers of viral diseases. Public health: ...
Sathuperi virus; LACV, La Crosse virus; CEV, California encephalitis virus; SAV, San Angelo virus; JSV, Jerry Slough virus; JCV ... Melao virus; KEY, Keystone virus; LUMV, Lumbo virus; TVTV, Trivittatus virus; BUNV, Bunyamwera virus. Highlighted in grey are ... SBV, Schmallenberg virus; SHAV, Shamonda virus; DOUV, Douglas virus; AKV, Akabane virus; SATV, ... MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, UK.. 2. MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, ...
This case is associated with the recent 2015-2016 reemergence of this virus in the southwestern United States. ... Louis encephalitis virus in a patient from California in September 2016. ... Louis encephalitis virus; UCSF, University of California, San Francisco; WNV, West Nile virus. ... Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016 Charles Y. Chiu. , Lark L. Coffey, Jamie Murkey ...
Chambers at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on books over $25! ... Virus Epidemiology, Ecology and Emergence. Japanese Encephalitis. Epidemiology of St Louis encephalitis virus. West Nile Virus ... Dengue Epidemiology: Virus Epidemiology, Ecology and Emergence.. Epidemiology and Ecology of Yellow Fever virus. Virus ... Chimeric Flaviviruses: novel vaccines against dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Prospects for ...
Encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain parenchyma, presents as diffuse and/or focal neuropsychological dysfunction. ... Drugs Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine * 2002 234159-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions California ... The specific prodrome in encephalitis caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), ... Movement disorders (St Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis [EEE], western equine encephalitis [WEE]) ...
California encephalitis, Hantaan, sin nombre, and Crimean-Congo viruses. Retroviridae. Human T lymphotropic and human ... Louis encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, and dengue virus. 2. West Nile virus a. First reported in the U.S. in 1999 in New ... Louis encephalitis virus). A number of animals, including birds and horses, serve as reservoirs for these viruses. Rabies virus ... Arboviruses include West RNA genome of the virus. These changes lead to Nile virus and western equine encephalitis virus. ...
Thompson, W.H.; Kalfayan, B.; Anslow, R.O. (1965). "Isolation of California encephalitis virus from a fatal human illness". Am ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector ( ... La Crosse Virus The La Crosse encephalitis virus is a type of arbovirus called a bunyavirus.[3] The Bunyavirales are mainly ...
Louis encephalitis virus. *California serogroup viruses. *Yellow fever virus. *Eastern equine encephalitis virus and ... Powassan Virus, Q Fever, Rickettsia, Tularemia, Virus, West Nile Virus, Yellow Fever, Zika Virus ... Zika viruses borne by mosquitoes have shown one of the largest leaps during this period. West Nile virus infections remain the ... Some of the notorious infections transmitted by these vectors include Lyme disease, Zika virus infection and West Nile virus ...
  • A case of severe encephalitis in a previously healthy 12-year-old girl was associated with a diagnostic rise in antibodies representing recent infection with a California group arbovirus. (ajtmh.org)
  • This case is the first report of human disease associated with this infection since the original studies in California and is the initial report of a case from Florida. (ajtmh.org)
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was detected in summer 2015 in southern California after an 11-year absence, concomitant with an Arizona outbreak. (cdc.gov)
  • During the period of co-detection of both viruses (July-November), peak minimum infection rates were higher for WNV than for SLEV. (cdc.gov)
  • Scented sugar baits deployed in California deserts detected early West Nile virus (WNV) transmission by mosquitoes, representing a potential improvement to conventional arbovirus surveillance that relies heavily on infection rates in mosquito pools. (cdc.gov)
  • Rodents are the main natural reservoir in which the virus can establish asymptomatic persistent infection. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Clinicians should suspect WNV as a cause of encephalitis in organ transplant recipients and report cases to public health departments for prompt investigation of the source of infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • Seventeen additional cases of B virus infection in humans were described through 1973 (2)* and four cases, including the first known case of person-to-person transmission of the virus, occurred in Pensacola, Florida, in 1987 (5). (cdc.gov)
  • This extreme degree of morbidity and mortality has given the impression that B virus infection in humans nearly always results in severe or fatal disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The frequency of mild or asymptomatic B virus infection, however, has never been adequately assessed. (cdc.gov)
  • The occurrence of the four 1987 cases of B virus infection prompted CDC to convene a working group to discuss guidelines for preventing B virus infection in monkey handlers. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of the working group was to supplement existing methods with specific guidelines intended to minimize transmission of B virus infection from macaque monkeys to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • As with herpes simplex virus I infection in humans, primary infection with B virus in macaques may result in gingivostomatitis with characteristic buccal mucosal lesions, but it probably occurs frequently without such signs. (cdc.gov)
  • Except for one instance of person-to-person transmission, however, all cases of B virus infection in humans have occurred in persons exposed to monkeys or monkey tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • The working group recognizes that B virus infection may occur in persons not handling live macaques. (cdc.gov)
  • One case of B virus infection occurred following the person's exposure to contaminated cell cultures of simian origin, and one case occurred after the patient had cleaned a monkey skull (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Although transmission of infection has not been documented for persons working with B virus in the laboratory, such work is potentially hazardous. (cdc.gov)
  • The working group also recognizes that the paucity of information regarding the transmissibility of B virus, the efficacy of measures to prevent transmission, and the chemotherapy of B virus infection have rendered these guidelines difficult to formulate. (cdc.gov)
  • The risk of acquiring B virus infection from macaques appears to be very low. (cdc.gov)
  • Persons who have handled macaques since B virus infection was first reported in humans number in the thousands, yet only 22 well-documented cases of infection have been described. (cdc.gov)
  • We show that disease progression and survival following intranasal infection with a neurotropic virus depends on the circadian time of infection. (pnas.org)
  • The highest expression of REV-ERBα, a component of the molecular circadian clock, coincides with the start of the active cycle, when vesicular stomatitis virus infection leads to lower mortality. (pnas.org)
  • In the current study, we investigated the effect of circadian time of infection on the progression and outcome of VSV-induced encephalitis and demonstrated a significant decrease in the survival rate in mice infected at the start of the rest cycle, zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0). (pnas.org)
  • Symptoms of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in neonates (aged 1-45 d) may include localized skin, eye, or mouth lesions in the early phase of illness with encephalitis. (medscape.com)
  • As noted above, Toxoplasma infection causing encephalitis is found in immune-suppressed patients. (medscape.com)
  • La Crosse encephalitis was discovered in 1965, after the virus was isolated from stored brain and spinal tissue of a child who died of an unknown infection in La Crosse, Wisconsin in 1960. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the notorious infections transmitted by these vectors include Lyme disease, Zika virus infection and West Nile virus infection. (news-medical.net)
  • The herpesviruses are large, double-stranded DNA viruses that are well-adapted to human infection as they establish lifelong infection, rarely cause death of the host, and are readily spread between individuals. (springer.com)
  • Mutagenesis of these clusters indicated that the predictions accurately detected areas crucial for virus infection. (springer.com)
  • In addition to the fusion peptide area in domain 2, at least two other surface areas play an important role in virus infection. (springer.com)
  • Human herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in neonates can result in devastating outcomes, including mortality and significant morbidity. (cps.ca)
  • Estimated rates of neonatal human herpes simplex virus (NHSV) infection vary across different regions of the world. (cps.ca)
  • We identified thirteen cases of suspected encephalitis with HPeV infection between May 2013 and December 2014. (aappublications.org)
  • Although any exposed person can become infected with a zoonotic pathogen, risks are particularly high for those with a compromised or incompletely developed immune system, such as the young, elderly, pregnant and those with immune function-reducing conditions or treatments, including diabetes, cancer, infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and radiation therapy. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • For example, U.S. National Park Service employees showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses, Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • The teratogenic effects in ruminants are hypothesized to reflect virus circulation in late summer/early autumn 2011, leading to intrauterine infection with SBV during a specific period of gestation ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • What are the steps to West Nile Virus Infection? (sporcle.com)
  • Interestingly, a larger NS1-related protein, NS1′, is often detected during infection with the members of the Japanese encephalitis virus serogroup of flaviviruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. (mdpi.com)
  • Other arthropods, like ticks, are also susceptible to WNV infection, and the virus has been repeatedly isolated from both soft and hard ticks [ 9 ], although their role as vectors of WNV transmission is still uncertain. (mdpi.com)
  • can herpes simplex virus 2 infection of a new born during birth cause encephalitis? (healthtap.com)
  • Encephalitic viruses first cause infection and replicate outside of the central nervous system (CNS), most reaching the CNS through the circulatory system and a minority from nerve endings toward the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many encephalitic viruses often have characteristic symptoms of infection, helping to aid diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various ways of preventing viral encephalitis exist, such as vaccines that are either in standard vaccination programs or which are recommended when living in or visiting certain regions, and various measures aimed at preventing mosquito, sandfly, and tick bites in order to prevent arbovirus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 50% of people who become sick after Powassan virus infection are permanently affected (chronic headaches, muscle wasting, and poor memory) and 10% die. (petmd.com)
  • Under experimental conditions (e.g., the virus being injected intravenously or directly into the brain), illness or evidence of infection could be induced, but no naturally occurring, symptomatic infections of Powassan virus have been identified in dogs, cats, or horses. (petmd.com)
  • California serogroup and Powassan virus infection of cats. (petmd.com)
  • Unlike Eastern equine encephalitis, the overall mortality of WEE is low (approximately 4%) and is associated mostly with infection in the elderly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Past infection with the BK virus is widespread, but significant consequences of infection are uncommon, with the exception of the immune-compromised and the immunosuppressed. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • Healthy individuals can be infected with the virus and show no signs or symptoms, due to the immune system's ability to keep the infection in check. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • Tahyna virus infection, a neglected arboviral disease in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An improved understanding of the complex mechanisms regulating YFV-17D attenuation will provide insights into the key virus-host interactions that regulate host immune responses and infection outcomes as well as open novel avenues for the development of innovative vaccine strategies. (asm.org)
  • Serologic evidence of Jamestown Canyon virus infection in white-tailed deer populations from Connecticut. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus infection and mode of horizontal transmission of hantavirus in bank voles. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The therapeutic advances achieved in the management of neonatal HSV infection, herpes simplex encephalitis, VZV infections of the normal and immunocompromised host, and congenital CMV infection will be summarized in this review. (springer.com)
  • 1991). Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in relation to asymptomatic maternal infection at the time of labor. (springer.com)
  • La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV), which belongs to genus orthobunyavirus, is the causative agent of CE. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus ) which has a mosquito vector ( Ochlerotatus triseriatus synonym Aedes triseriatus ). (wikipedia.org)
  • La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The La Crosse encephalitis virus is a type of arbovirus called a bunyavirus . (wikipedia.org)
  • No specific therapy is available at present for La Crosse encephalitis, and management is limited to alleviating the symptoms and balancing fluids and electrolyte levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intravenous ribavirin is effective against La Crosse encephalitis virus in the laboratory , and several studies in patients with severe, brain biopsy confirmed, La Crosse encephalitis are ongoing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a trial with 15 children being infected with La Crosse viral encephalitis were treated at certain phases with ribavirin (RBV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, this was the largest study of antiviral treatment for La Crosse encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • La Crosse virus (LACV), family Bunyaviridae, was first identified as a human pathogen in 1960 after its isolation from a 4 year-old girl with fatal encephalitis in La Crosse, Wisconsin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pathogenesis of La Crosse virus in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Economic and social impacts of La Crosse encephalitis in western North Carolina. (semanticscholar.org)
  • First isolation of La Crosse virus from naturally infected Aedes albopictus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • La Crosse encephalitis presenting like herpes simplex encephalitis in an immunocompromised adult. (semanticscholar.org)
  • La Crosse, a member of what's known as the California serogroup viruses, can cause fever and flu-like symptoms. (yahoo.com)
  • In addition to the La Crosse and Jamestown Canyon virus cases, there were four other cases of California serogroup virus disease for which the specific infecting virus was unknown. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • After WNV, the next most commonly reported cause of arboviral disease was La Crosse virus (LACV) (85 cases), followed by Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) (22), Powassan virus (POWV) (15), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) (eight). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The California encephalitis virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and is transmitted to humans by mosquitos. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Sequence comparisons showed close identity of California and Arizona isolates with 2005 Argentine isolates, suggesting introduction from South America and underscoring the value of continued arbovirus surveillance. (cdc.gov)
  • The trend of decreasing mosquito abundance in midsummer in southern California (especially in the Coachella Valley), concurrent with increasing arbovirus activity, has been well documented ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Serology reagents intended to detect immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to California encephalitis virus, a pathogenic class of viruses of the California serogroup that replicates in blood-feeding arthropods (i.e., an arbovirus) and belongs to the genus Bunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae. (optometricmanagement.com)
  • West Nile virus (WNV, Flaviviridae , Flavivirus ) is an emerging zoonotic arbovirus ( art hropod- bo rne virus ) widely distributed throughout the world and with considerable impact both on public health and on animal health [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • An alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, the WEE virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) transmitted by mosquitoes of the genera Culex and Culiseta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serological evidence of the distribution of California serogroup viruses in the U.S.S.R..- Signs and symptoms of infections caused by California serogroup viruses in humans in the U.S.S.R..- Arbovirus activity in Canada. (booktopia.com.au)
  • A) Multiple sequence alignment of 32 complete SLEV genomes from GenBank and the 2 SLEV genomes corresponding to the case-patient's strain and a strain from a mosquito collected in June 2016 from Kern County, California (red circles and text). (cdc.gov)
  • The cluster containing the 2014-2016 California and Arizona SLEV genome, including those from the case-patient and 2016 mosquito pool, is rooted by SLEV strains sequenced from mosquitoes collected in Argentina in 1978 and 2005 (black circles). (cdc.gov)
  • B) Geographic spread of SLEV in the Americas, from Argentina in 2005 to California and Arizona during 2014-2016. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we expanded deployment of scented sugar baits into suburban Sacramento and Yolo (2015, 2016) and Riverside Counties (2016), California. (cdc.gov)
  • We used unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing to diagnose a fatal case of meningoencephalitis caused by St. Louis encephalitis virus in a patient from California in September 2016. (cdc.gov)
  • This case is associated with the recent 2015-2016 reemergence of this virus in the southwestern United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Few of us will forget the Zika virus epidemic of 2016 , which resulted in hundreds of infants being born with birth defects after their mothers were infected during pregnancy. (yahoo.com)
  • Diversity of resistance mechanisms in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae at a health care system in Northern California, from 2013 to 2016. (nih.gov)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA viruses of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • North American Eastern equine encephalitis virus (13,14), Highlands J virus from North America (15), Western equine encephalitis virus (16) and Sindbis virus (17). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) naturally cycles between mosquitos and birds or rodents, with a case fatality rate of up to 15% in humans during epizootic outbreaks. (mdpi.com)
  • Mosquito-borne virus diseases 3.1 Yellow fever M. G. R. Varma 3.2 Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever M. G. R. Varma 3.3 Japanese encephalitis M. G. R. Varma 3.4 Other encephalitides G.B. White 3.4.1 Californiaencephalitis 3.4.2 Eastern equine encephalitis 3.4.3 St Louis encephalitis 3.4.4 Western equine encephalitis 3.4.5 Venezuelan equine encephalitis 4. (ciesin.org)
  • Western equine encephalitis virus was one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological weapons before the nation suspended its biological weapons program. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 23-year-old sentinel surveillance program, founded by the California Department of Health Services, has been the state's first line of defense in the fight against St. Louis and Western equine encephalitis, diseases that affect both people and animals. (latimes.com)
  • 3. Pneumonia in children can be caused by RSV, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). (issuu.com)
  • Following the demonstration that vidarabine was an efficacious treatment for neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, herpes simplex encephalitis, and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections of children, significant advances were achieved with the development of second generation anti-viral drugs. (springer.com)
  • This invention can be used to prevent humans from alphavirus-induced encephalitides in the event of a bioterrorism attack or biowarfare in which alphaviruses such as Venezuelan (VEEV), eastern (EEEV) and western (WEEV) equine encephalitis viruses are deliberately released to humans, a natural outbreak of alphaviruses, and an accidental exposure to alphaviruses in laboratory. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A new method for predicting interacting residues in protein complexes, InterProSurf, was applied to the E1 envelope protein of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEEV). (springer.com)
  • Alphaviruses, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and WEEV are grouped geographically as New World viruses capable of causing disease in both equids and humans, exhibiting overt encephalitic features in a significant number of cases. (mdpi.com)
  • Zika viruses borne by mosquitoes have shown one of the largest leaps during this period. (news-medical.net)
  • WPXI - Pitt researchers are looking to lessons learned about Zika when preparing for the possibility of Rift Valley Fever virus, noting that it's important to develop therapies and vaccines now. (pitt.edu)
  • Zika virus can be transmitted via intercourse. (sporcle.com)
  • Arthropod-borne flaviviruses such as dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) are a cause of major health concerns worldwide ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • The Flavivirus genus constitutes some of the most serious human pathogens including Japanese encephalitis, dengue and yellow fever. (indigo.ca)
  • Flaviviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses infecting more than 100 million people a year with the main representatives including West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The viruses from the Japanese encephalitis virus subgroup of this genus include JEV, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), WNV, and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recently, it was proposed-based on computational analysis of RNA sequence and structure of the members of the Japanese encephalitis virus subgroup-that the NS1′ protein is produced as the result of a −1 ribosomal frameshift ( 11 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Almost half (35 of 75) of articles were on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) alone or associated with dengue. (plos.org)
  • As the epidemiological aspects of Japanese encephalitis (JE) are transformed by vaccination in some countries, highly integrated expert collaborative research and objective data are needed to identify and prioritize the human health, animal health and economic burden due to JE and other pathogens associated with encephalitides. (plos.org)
  • With the exception of some data on Japanese encephalitis virus, very few prevalence, incidence, cost-ascertainment or clinical follow-up studies seem available on most identified encephalitides circulating in countries of the Mekong region. (plos.org)
  • Viral encephalitis caused by the mosquito-born japanese encephalitis virus. (icd10data.com)
  • Is japanese encephalitis vaccine safe while pregnant or breast-feeding? (healthtap.com)
  • For some forms of viral encephalitis, such as Eastern equine encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis, there may be a significant amount of necrosis of nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • WNV belongs to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex ( 14 ) . (canada.ca)
  • Chikungunya & Equine Encephalitis Viruses are what Family of Arboviruses? (sporcle.com)
  • Even though US epidemics have not occurred since 1989, SLEV activity was documented continually in California until 2003, the year West Nile virus (WNV) activity was detected in the state. (cdc.gov)
  • During 2003-2015, no SLEV activity was detected in California despite ongoing SLEV surveillance and a 6-fold statewide increase in mosquito pool testing in response to the invasion of WNV. (cdc.gov)
  • The absence of SLEV activity suggested its elimination from California ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In Arizona, SLEV has been detected less frequently than in California, with low enzootic activity reported most years during 1972-2006 (Arizona State Public Health Laboratory, unpub. (cdc.gov)
  • Beginning in July 2015, SLEV activity was detected in mosquito pools, and sentinel chicken seroconversions were detected in the Coachella Valley in Riverside County, California. (cdc.gov)
  • Given the reemergence of SLEV in California and Arizona in summer 2015, the purpose of this study was to describe the temporal and spatial detection of SLEV in California, compare its circulation intensity with that of WNV in California in 2015, and define the genetic relatedness of SLEV from both states to SLEV from elsewhere to infer a possible origin and pattern of spread. (cdc.gov)
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance in mosquitoes and sentinel chickens in Coachella Valley, Riverside County, California, USA, 2015. (cdc.gov)
  • Because genome sequences from US states reporting SLEV activity are not publicly available and surveillance for SLEV in South and Central America is not routinely performed, the pathway or pathways by which the virus came to the southwestern United States remain unclear (question mark). (cdc.gov)
  • The goal of the study was to determine whether scented sugar baits detect WNV and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) concurrent with mosquito infections in trapped pools in areas of high human density. (cdc.gov)
  • family Flaviviridae , genus Flavivirus ) was recognized in California in 1937 and caused periodic epidemics in humans and equines until 1989, including a 1984 outbreak in Los Angeles ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is the virus associated with tick-borne encephalitis. (novusbio.com)
  • Flavivirus NS1 is a nonstructural protein involved in virus replication and regulation of the innate immune response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Flavivirus NS1 is a multifunctional protein shown to play a role in virus replication and assembly ( 13 , 15 , 18 , 20 ), as well as in the modulation of the innate immune response ( 6 , 7 , 24 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • West Nile virus is a so-called flavivirus commonly found in Africa, West Asia and the Middle East. (latimes.com)
  • Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, infecting ~200,000 people worldwide annually and causing about 30,000 deaths. (asm.org)
  • Viral encephalitis by arboviruses is (Not treatable OR Treatable) while herpes viral encephalitis is (Treatable OR Not Treatable). (sporcle.com)
  • California Encephalitis Virus is in what Family of Arboviruses? (sporcle.com)
  • Encephalitic viruses are typically transmitted either from person-to-person or are arthropod-borne viruses, called arboviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some are transmitted from person-to-person, whereas others are transmitted by animals, especially bites from arthropods such as mosquitos, sandflies, and ticks, such viruses being called arboviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following encephalitis caused by arboviruses, calcification may occur in the CNS, especially among children. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last five viruses (all arboviruses) are automatically added from June 1st through November 30th or when travel history or mosquito exposure history warrants. (wadsworth.org)
  • Surveillance for arboviruses in the Soviet Union: relationships between ecologic zones and virus distribution. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Skin infections: Rash site and, depending on the virus, serum and urine b. (issuu.com)
  • West Nile virus infections remain the most common mosquito borne infections in the US. (news-medical.net)
  • The majority of West Nile Virus Infections are? (sporcle.com)
  • Many cases of viral encephalitis are not identified either because of lack of testing or mild illness, and serological surveys indicate that asymptomatic infections are common. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of course it is possible that Powassan virus infections are being missed due to a lack of testing. (petmd.com)
  • Although covering a wide range of subjects and perspectives, the book is intended to provide readers with an integrated view of the geographical distribution, properties and effects, recognition and prevention of infections with these and other viruses. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Provisional evidence of Hantaanlike virus infections in humans and Seoul-like virus infections in rodents. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Rapid advances have been achieved in the therapy of herpes virus infections of children over the past 25 years. (springer.com)
  • The second generation anti-viral drug, namely acyclovir, and, subsequently, valacyclovir and famciclovir, now provide both efficacious as well as safe anti-viral therapy for a variety of herpes virus infections. (springer.com)
  • Encephalitis surveillance through the Emerging Infections Program, 1997-2010. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) Encephalitis Project established syndromic surveillance for encephalitis in New York, California, and Tennessee, with the primary goal of increased identification of causative agents and secondary goals of improvements in treatment and outcome. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In the emergency department (ED), beyond supportive care, viral encephalitides are not treatable, with the exceptions of HSV and VZV encephalitis. (medscape.com)
  • The different forms of viral encephalitis are called viral encephalitides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seroprevalence of Jamestown Canyon virus in Nova Scotia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tsutsui and colleagues (9) showed that dairy calves lost their maternally derived antibodies against Akabane virus at -4 months of age, and Grimstad and colleagues (10) showed that young white-tailed deer lost their maternally derived antibodies against Jamestown Canyon virus at 5-6 months of age. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Detects Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope in direct ELISAs. (novusbio.com)
  • Three TBEV sub-types have been described: European or Western tick-borne encephalitis virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne encephalitis virus (formerly known as Russian Spring Summer encephalitis virus, RSSEV). (novusbio.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus causes 13,000 cases of human meningitis and encephalitis annually. (novusbio.com)
  • A study of the NS3 nonstructural protein of tick-borne encephalitis virus using monoclonal antibodies against the virus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The envelope protein E of tick-borne encephalitis virus and other flaviviruses: structure, functions and evolutionary relationships. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Laboratory diagnosis of tick-borne encephalitis. (booktopia.com.au)
  • New perspective vaccines from tick-borne encephalitis virus propagated in green monkey kidney cell cultures. (booktopia.com.au)
  • We reviewed published Medline-referenced resources on encephalitis and meningoencephalitis and used these to complete an overview of the epidemiological situation in this dynamic region of the world. (plos.org)
  • But occasionally, they can progress to more serious illnesses, causing severe symptoms such as paralysis, inflammation of the brain ( encephalitis ), inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord ( meningitis ), and other neurological symptoms. (yahoo.com)
  • Viral encephalitis is inflammation of the brain parenchyma, called encephalitis, by a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decreased virus activity in the Bakersfield area during 1990 could not be attributed to immunity in passeriform birds, because a small seroprevalence survey indicated that few adult birds had antibodies to SLE virus. (elsevier.com)
  • [1] Blood samples are tested for viral RNA , viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinicians should also be vigilant for the development of acute complications, including cerebral edema and status epilepticus, as well as chronic complications, including the development of autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to the N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor and other neuronal cell surface and synaptic epitopes. (springer.com)
  • Their bodies create antibodies to fight off the viruses. (latimes.com)
  • Characterization of Dugbe virus by biochemical and immunochemical procedures using monoclonal antibodies. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Dugbe virus susceptibility to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies as a marker of virulence in mice. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Children with HPeV encephalitis were predominantly young, female infants with seizures and diffusion restriction on MRI. (aappublications.org)
  • A case of acute encephalitis syndrome was defined as any person presenting a fever with neurological signs (altered mental status AND/OR motor deficit AND/OR sensory deficit AND/OR seizures of new onset, excluding simple febrile seizures) of sudden onset (fewer than seven days). (plos.org)
  • Long-term complications of viral encephalitis typically relate to neurological damage, such as experiencing seizures, memory loss, and intellectual impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of his subacute neurologic decline with seizures, medial temporal lobe signal abnormality on initial MRI, and positive serum anti-GAD antibody, a diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis was considered. (cmaj.ca)
  • Most exposures to the virus do not result in illness, but when symptoms do arise they can be quite severe and include fever, headache, vomiting, weakness, confusion, loss of coordination, speech difficulties, and seizures. (petmd.com)
  • Neurosyphilis may rarely mimic autoimmune encephalitis, and recognition of this is critical to ensure accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment with antimicrobial therapy. (cmaj.ca)
  • Given his previous response to immunotherapy, we initiated five days of 0.4 mg/kg intravenous immunoglobulin per day, in case his symptoms were owing to autoimmune encephalitis. (cmaj.ca)
  • Results of this project have provided insight into well-established causal pathogens and identified newer causes of infectious and autoimmune encephalitis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The rodent hosts show no clinical symptoms and act as amplifiers of the virus. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • [1] Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever , sore throat , muscular pain , and headaches . (wikipedia.org)
  • The length of time between exposure to the virus and the development of symptoms ( incubation period ) is between 2 and 21 days, [1] [19] and usually between 4 and 10 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • B virus-related disease is characterized by a variety of symptoms, which generally occur within 1 month of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • These symptoms include vesicular skin lesions at or near the site of inoculation, localized neurologic symptoms, and ultimately, encephalitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in older children and adults is not typically associated with active herpetic eruptions and is characterized by the acute onset of more severe symptoms of encephalitis early in the course of illness. (medscape.com)
  • Viruses are in highest concentrations during the first several days following onset of symptoms. (issuu.com)
  • From an epidemiologic and pathophysiologic perspective, encephalitis is distinct from meningitis, though on clinical evaluation both can be present, with signs and symptoms of meningeal inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • What causes flu-like symptoms in West Nile Virus? (sporcle.com)
  • West Nile virus can cause a few days or weeks of fever and other flu-like symptoms, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash, as well as fatigue and weakness that can last for weeks or even months during recovery. (yahoo.com)
  • Viral encephalitis can be diagnosed based on the individual's symptoms, personal history, such as travel history, and different clinical tests such as histology, medical imaging, and lumbar punctures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prognosis is good for most individuals who are infected by an encephalitic virus but is poor among those who develop severe symptoms, including viral encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral encephalitis encompasses a group of inflammatory diseases of the brain caused by a variety of viral agents and exhibiting common clinical symptoms. (wadsworth.org)
  • The clinical picture ranges from mild aseptic meningitis to severe encephalitis. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Sin Nombre virus (SNV), a member of the hantavirus genus, is the major cause of HCPS in North America. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) is a member of the herpes group of viruses that is enzootic in rhesus (Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus (M. fascicularis) and other Asiatic monkeys of the genus Macaca. (cdc.gov)
  • All those viruses are members of the Simbu serogroup, family Bunyaviridae , genus Orthobunyavirus , and known as arthropod-borne viruses that can cause illness in ruminants ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Can you pick the Arboviral Encephalitis & Dengue? (sporcle.com)
  • What virus is the most important arboviral concern for human health? (sporcle.com)
  • The terms "Southeastern Asia/epidemiology," "Encephalitis," "Arboviral encephalitis," "Encephalitis, viruses," and "Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis" were used alone and in combination. (plos.org)
  • An example of arboviral transmission is the West Nile virus, which usually is incidentally transmitted to people from the bites of Culex mosquitos, especially Culex pipiens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is the Powassan Virus a Threat to Pets? (petmd.com)
  • Powassan virus has garnered the attention of people living in the northeastern and Great Lakes regions of the United States, not because it is all that common but because it can cause a potentially devastating illness. (petmd.com)
  • A number of diseases are spread by ticks to pets, and Powassan virus has been identified in other mammals like woodchucks, squirrels, and chipmunks. (petmd.com)
  • A review of the scientific literature and peer-to-peer communication between veterinarians reveals that Powassan virus appears to pose little threat to pets. (petmd.com)
  • Powassan viral encephalitis: a review and experimental studies in the horse and rabbit. (petmd.com)
  • The MeSH search query found 58,753 references for "Southeastern Asia/epidemiology," 38,160 references for "Encephalitis" and 140 articles for "Southeastern Asia/epidemiology" and "Encephalitis. (plos.org)
  • West Nile virus is an ecological generalist [ 3 ] with an extraordinarily complex eco-epidemiology. (mdpi.com)
  • Bunyavirus (California Encephalitis) have what unique qualities? (sporcle.com)
  • Dolin R. California encephalitis, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and bunyavirus hemorrhagic fevers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with measles can be spreading the virus for four days before and after the rash appears, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cbc.ca)
  • California encephalitis (CE) and hanta virus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are both caused by zoonotic viruses that belong to the Bunyaviridae family. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Take a look at viruses in the Bunyaviridae family. (study.com)
  • The primary exception to this is herpes simplex encephalitis, which is treatable with acyclovir. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since there is no specific treatment for LAC encephalitis, physicians often do not request the tests required to specifically identify LAC virus, and the cases are reported as aseptic meningitis or viral encephalitis of unknown cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report of a case of encephalitis caused by B virus in a monkey handler in 1932 indicated that B virus can be highly pathogenic for humans (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Viruses corresponding to non-pathogenic flora (e.g., anelloviruses) or contaminants found in the NTC were not reported. (cdc.gov)
  • The report explains that these vectors or insects are capable of carrying and transmitting pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses and parasites. (news-medical.net)
  • The Western equine encephalomyelitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Telford H. Work is Professor of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. (ucanr.edu)
  • The management of encephalitis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (medscape.com)
  • Many of these diseases are vector-borne, including malaria (re-emerging), West Nile virus, Lyme disease, American boutonneuse fever (a new rickettsial disease), and others. (indigo.ca)
  • Study the structure, mode of transmission and diseases associated with the Arenaviridae family of viruses. (study.com)
  • Tick-borne diseases M. G. R. Varma 4.1 Tick-borne virus diseases 4.1 .1 Colorado tick fever 4.1.2 Louping ill 4.1.3 Encephalitis 4.1.4 Kyasanur Forest disease 4.2 Tick-borne borrelioses 4.2.1 Tick-borne relapsing fever 4.2.2 Erythema borreliosis migrans 4.3 Tick-borne rickettsioses 4.3.1 Rocky Mountain spotted fever 4.3.2 Boutonneuse fever, Siberian and Queensland tick typhus 5. (ciesin.org)
  • Has been isolated from patients with various neoplastic and degenerative diseases such as myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, thyroiditis de Quervain, and Graves' disease but the role of the virus is unclear. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • Ebola virus disease ( EVD ), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever ( EHF ) or simply Ebola , is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of substances handled by a BSL-4 lab include: Marburg virus, Ebola virus, Lassa fever and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Tick- And Mosquito-Borne Viruses, Archives of Virology. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Isolation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus from patients and from autopsy specimens. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Ecology of ticks as potential vectors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Senegal: epidemiological implications. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Of the emerging bovine zoonotic pathogens, 13 (52%) are bacteria, six (24%) are viruses, four (16%) are parasites, one (4%) is fungal, and one (4%) is a prion. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Phylogeny and spread of St. Louis encephalitis virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Ecological observations on the 1989 outbreak of St. Louis encephalitis virus in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. (elsevier.com)
  • Temporal and spatial patterns of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus transmission were compared at permanent study areas in the southern San Joaquin Valley during years with low (1988 and 1990) and elevated (1989) viral activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Ecological observations on the 1989 outbreak of St. Louis encephalitis virus in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. (elsevier.com)
  • Dysuria and pyuria are reported with St Louis encephalitis. (medscape.com)
  • A neonate with herpes simplex virus 1 encephalitis was treated with intravenous acyclovir. (asm.org)
  • Herein, we review the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and clinical and radiological features of herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis in adults, including a discussion of the most common complications and their treatment. (springer.com)
  • Both in vivo (8) and in vitro efficacy of acyclovir (Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, unpublished data) against B virus has been demonstrated. (cdc.gov)
  • Her herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 serostatus was not examined, and her history of acyclovir (ACV) use was not clear. (asm.org)
  • When should you give Acyclovir for Viral Encephalitis? (sporcle.com)
  • LAC virus is a zoonotic pathogen cycled between the daytime-biting treehole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus , and vertebrate amplifier hosts (chipmunks, tree squirrels) in deciduous forest habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zoonotic viruses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • LAC encephalitis initially presents as a nonspecific summertime illness with fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and lethargy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study the Flaviviridae family of viruses, like yellow fever and hepatitis C. (study.com)
  • West Nile fever ( 6 ) , West Nile encephalitis, WN fever ( 1 , 10 ) , West Nile disease ( 12 ) , and West Nile neuroinvasive disease ( 10 ) . (canada.ca)
  • The virus spread westwards across the United States, southward into Central America and the Caribbean, and northward into Canada(8,10,11), resulting in the largest epidemics of neuroinvasive WNV fever ever known(8,10). (canada.ca)
  • In a previous study, we defined specific viruses associated with unexplained fever in young children ( 7 , 8 ), and MSS allowed us to detect viruses that were not included in the extensive PCR testing that had been carried out on the samples ( 7 - 9 ). (asm.org)
  • MSS has also been used to detect numerous unsuspected viruses from individuals with a variety of clinical syndromes, including encephalitis and fever of unknown origin ( 10 - 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Dengue virus re-exposure (INCREASES or DECREASES) disease severity? (sporcle.com)
  • Enhanced disease upon re-exposure of Dengue Virus is thought to occur via what mechanism? (sporcle.com)
  • 1993). Encephalitis in immunocompetent patients due to herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2 as determined by type-specific polymerase chain reaction and antibody assays of cerebrospinal fluid. (springer.com)
  • LACV is a major cause of pediatric encephalitis in North America and infects up to 300,000 persons each year of which 70-130 result in severe disease of the central nervous system (CNS). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The virus circulates among rodents and vector mosquitoes and sometimes infects humans, causing a febrile illness with occasional neurological manifestations. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • The source of the virus was confirmed as a type of mouse-eared bat that is common in North America . (newsday.com)
  • These results can aid in the design of new vaccines against alphaviruses and other viruses. (springer.com)
  • Detection, Diagnosis and Vaccine Development , the third volume of The Flaviviruses details the current status of technologies for detection and differentiation of these viruses, their use in surveillance and outbreak investigation, and also reviews the latest clinical research. (indigo.ca)
  • Central nervous system (e.g., meningitis and encephalitis): For diagnosis of meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum, as well as stool or throat swabs, can be collected because viruses are sometimes shed into these sites. (issuu.com)
  • A differential diagnosis can also be done to rule out other causes of the encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Viral Encephalitis Laboratory offers a molecular test panel for health care providers to assist in the diagnosis of hospitalized viral encephalitis cases. (wadsworth.org)
  • 1991). Rapid diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis by nested polymerase chain reaction assay of cerebrospinal fluid. (springer.com)
  • 1998). Use of Guthrie cards for the early diagnosis of neonatal herpes simplex virus disease. (springer.com)
  • Anyone bitten by a mosquito in an area where the virus is circulating can get infected with LACV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans are accidental dead-end hosts, as they don't develop enough virus titers in their bloodstream to infect feeding mosquitoes. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids , such as blood from infected humans or other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Encephalitis that is caused by a mosquito-borne virus and affects humans, horses, and some bird species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If the female mosquito is infected, she may lay eggs that carry the virus, and the adults coming from those eggs may be able to transmit the virus to chipmunks and to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses are prevalent from May to September when mosquitoes are most abundant, but the risk to humans occurs primarily from August through early September. (lajuntatribunedemocrat.com)
  • It is believed that humans can get sick with this virus if they breathe in contaminated dust from mice nests or droppings. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Causes encephalitis in humans. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • Death from LAC encephalitis occurs in less than 1% of clinical cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herein, we review the clinical and radiological manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSVE), the most common infectious cause of sporadic encephalitis. (springer.com)
  • We aimed to describe the clinical features and outcome of human parechovirus (HPeV) encephalitis cases identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study. (aappublications.org)
  • The virus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), was isolated from blood of affected cattle, and similar clinical manifestations were observed in experimentally infected calves ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To demonstrate the utility of MSS with targeted sequence capture for detecting clinically important viruses and characterizing clinically important viral features, we used ViroCap to analyze clinical samples from a diagnostic virology laboratory containing a broad range of medically relevant viruses. (asm.org)
  • Compared with clinical testing, MSS enhanced taxonomic assignment for 15 viruses, and codons associated with antiviral drug resistance in influenza A virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) could be analyzed. (asm.org)
  • Overall, in clinical samples, MSS with targeted sequence capture provides enhanced virus detection and information of clinical and epidemiologic relevance compared with clinical testing and MSS without targeted sequence capture. (asm.org)
  • These experiences suggest that expanding the repertoire of current clinical tests for viruses could be useful and that sequencing could be a powerful, comprehensive diagnostic tool. (asm.org)
  • Another 25 viruses including Hanta virus, Human Herpes Virus 6, Simian Virus 40, etc. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • Another 25 viruses including Hanta virus, Human Herpes Virus 6, Simian Virus 40, etc. 21 vials suitable for energy wok by kinesiologists, homeopaths, etc. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • Two nurses standing near Mayinga N'Seka , a nurse with Ebola virus disease in the 1976 outbreak in Zaire . (wikipedia.org)
  • California, for instance, experienced a terrible measles outbreak in 2015 due to declines in vaccine coverage, while last year the Twin Cities suffered a prolonged measles outbreak among the Somali immigrant community,' Hotez said by email. (cbc.ca)
  • SLE virus also was detected in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (14/65) and Cx. (elsevier.com)
  • In Colorado, these viruses are transmitted to people by a species called Culex tarsalis, a medium-sized mosquito that feeds in the few hours around dawn and dusk. (lajuntatribunedemocrat.com)
  • The virus is transmitted to people and horses by bites from infected mosquitoes (Culex tarsalis and Aedes taeniorhynchus) and birds during wet, summer months. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tule mosquitoes are fierce biters," she said of Culex erythrothorax, a mosquito species that most commonly carries viruses. (latimes.com)
  • 4 Complications of the disease include pneumonia and encephalitis, which can be fatal. (cmaj.ca)
  • HPeV encephalitis is associated with neurodevelopmental sequelae despite reassuring short-term outcomes. (aappublications.org)
  • Discover the virus family that includes equine encephalitis, rubella and German measles. (study.com)
  • The virus is maintained in the mosquito population through trans-ovarian transmission. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • WNV and Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) are transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The virus is maintained over the winter by transovarial transmission in mosquito eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mosquito-Transmitted Encephalitis Viruses. (indigo.ca)
  • But, with the moisture brings the chance for an increase in mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in Colorado. (lajuntatribunedemocrat.com)
  • These viruses are maintained in a bird-mosquito-bird cycle. (lajuntatribunedemocrat.com)
  • When the virus appears in the summer it is often mosquito-borne, but in the winter it is almost assuredly the result of contact with another person who has the illness. (howstuffworks.com)
  • And health experts are paying attention to several other mosquito-borne viruses here. (yahoo.com)
  • A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the japanese b encephalitis virus (encephalitis virus, japanese) occurring throughout eastern Asia and australia. (icd10data.com)
  • Officials say mosquito species that carry harmful viruses like to feed on birds. (latimes.com)
  • Ted Toppin, a spokesman for the Mosquito and Vector Control Assn. of California, said more than $200,000 is spent each year to purchase and test the chickens. (latimes.com)
  • West Nile virus and other mosquito-borne viruses present in Eastern Europe. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2. Croup and bronchitis can be caused by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, RSV, and adenovirus. (issuu.com)
  • 4. Pneumonia in adults can be caused by influenza virus, VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and RSV. (issuu.com)
  • In December 2010, a case of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis occurring in a kidney recipient shortly after organ transplantation was identified. (pasteur.fr)
  • Not transmitted from person to person except rarely by transfusion, and for West Nile virus by organ transplant, breastmilk or transplacentally [530, 1047]. (cdc.gov)
  • Final 2008 West Nile Virus Activity in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • What blocks the BBB breach in West Nile Virus? (sporcle.com)
  • A diffuse maculopapular rash throughout the trunk is usually a 'good sign' and is associated with milder disease in West Nile Virus. (sporcle.com)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is now endemic in the USA. (cambridge.org)
  • West Nile virus: where are we now? (cambridge.org)
  • Using site-directed mutagenesis of these sequence elements in an infectious clone of the Kunjin subtype of West Nile virus, we demonstrate that NS1′ plays a role in viral neuroinvasiveness. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As West Nile virus creeps westward across the country, California state and local officials are hoping that a flock of 2,000 hens will sound an alarm when infected mosquitoes reach the West Coast. (latimes.com)
  • Now officials are hoping they'll be able to use the domestic leghorn hens to detect West Nile virus when it enters the state, and warn the public to take needed precautions before people are infected. (latimes.com)
  • Since earlier this year, officials have been testing for West Nile virus, which has infected 113 people in the United States this year, leading to five deaths. (latimes.com)
  • West Nile virus is an icosahedral, enveloped virus of 40 to 50 nm in diameter ( 1 , 5 , 10 ) and has a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome ( 1 , 5 , 6 , 12 ) . (canada.ca)
  • 1. Encephalitis typically has a viral etiology. (issuu.com)
  • Data on dengue, scrub typhus and rabies encephalitis, among other aetiologies, are also reviewed and discussed. (plos.org)
  • The cause of death was rabies encephalitis. (newsday.com)
  • Prompt recognition and treatment can be life-saving in the care of patients with herpes simplex-1 virus encephalitis, the most commonly identified cause of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. (springer.com)
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis on Upswing in New England States," Sept. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatusj, japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • WEE is a recombinant virus between two other alphaviruses, an ancestral Sindbis virus-like virus, and an ancestral Eastern equine encephalitis virus-like virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus Sherman, M. B. (wikipedia.org)
  • May be cross reactivity with other arthropod borne viruses. (texas.gov)
  • Arthropod-borne-virus Survey in St. Lawrence County, New York. (nysed.gov)
  • NSs protein of Schmallenberg virus counteracts the antiviral response of the cell by inhibiting its transcriptional machinery. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that the NSs protein of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) induces the degradation of the RPB1 subunit of RNA polymerase II and consequently inhibits global cellular protein synthesis and the antiviral response. (nih.gov)
  • These results resemble previous data obtained in Alzheimer's disease human tissue samples and suggest that the endocannabinoid system may participate in the development of human immunodeficiency virus-induced encephalitis, because activation of CB 2 receptors expressed by immune cells is likely to reduce their antiviral response and thus could favor the CNS entry of infected monocytes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) is a revolutionary approach to viral diagnostic testing that allows simultaneous detection of a broad range of viruses, detailed taxonomic assignment, and detection of mutations associated with antiviral drug resistance. (asm.org)