Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Infections with viruses of the genus HENIPAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Its POLLEN is one of the major ALLERGENS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A class of amoeboid EUKARYOTES that forms either filiform subpseudopodia or lobopodia. Characteristics include the absence of sorocarps, sporangia, or similar fruiting bodies. Lobosea were formerly members of the phylum Sarcomastigophora, subphylum Sarcodina, under the old five kingdom paradigm.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A neurosurgical procedure that removes or disconnects the epileptogenic CEREBRAL CORTEX of a hemisphere. Hemispherectomy is usually performed for patients with intractable unilateral EPILEPSY due to malformations of cortical development or brain lesions. Depending on the epileptogenic area in the hemisphere, cortical removal can be total or partial.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

Immunogenicity, genetic stability, and protective efficacy of a recombinant, chimeric yellow fever-Japanese encephalitis virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a live, attenuated vaccine candidate against Japanese encephalitis. (1/401)

Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus, having a 60-year history of safe and effective use, is an ideal vector to deliver heterologous genes from other medically important flaviviruses. A chimeric YF/Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (ChimeriVax-JE virus) was constructed by insertion of the premembrane and envelope (prME) genes of an attenuated human vaccine strain (SA14-14-2) of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus between core and nonstructural (NS) genes of a YF 17D infectious clone. The virus grew to high titers in cell cultures and was not neurovirulent for 3- to 4-week-old mice at doses /=10(3) pfu of ChimeriVax-JE virus were solidly protected against intraperitoneal challenge with a virulent JE virus. Genetic stability of the chimera was assessed by sequential passages in cell cultures or in mouse brain. All attenuating residues and the avirulent phenotype were preserved after 18 passages in cell cultures or 6 passages in mouse brains.  (+info)

The anamnestic neutralizing antibody response is critical for protection of mice from challenge following vaccination with a plasmid encoding the Japanese encephalitis virus premembrane and envelope genes. (2/401)

For Japanese encephalitis (JE), we previously reported that recombinant vaccine-induced protection from disease does not prevent challenge virus replication in mice. Moreover, DNA vaccines for JE can provide protection from high challenge doses in the absence of detectable prechallenge neutralizing antibodies. In the present study, we evaluated the role of postchallenge immune responses in determining the outcome of JE virus infection, using mice immunized with a plasmid, pcDNA3JEME, encoding the JE virus premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) coding regions. In the first experiment, 10 mice were vaccinated once (five animals) or twice (remainder) with 100 micrograms of pcDNA3JEME. All of these mice showed low (6 of 10) or undetectable (4 of 10) levels of neutralizing antibodies. Interestingly, eight of these animals showed a rapid rise in neutralizing antibody following challenge with 10,000 50% lethal doses of JE virus and survived for 21 days, whereas only one of the two remaining animals survived. No unimmunized animals exhibited a rise of neutralizing antibody or survived challenge. Levels of JE virus-specific immunoglobulin M class antibodies were elevated following challenge in half of the unimmunized mice and in the single pcDNA3JEME-immunized mouse that died. In the second experiment, JE virus-specific primary cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity was detected in BALB/c mice immunized once with 100 micrograms of pcDNA3JEME 4 days after challenge, indicating a strong postchallenge recall of CTLs. In the third experiment, evaluation of induction of CTLs and antibody activity by plasmids containing portions of the prM/E cassette demonstrated that induction of CTL responses alone were not sufficient to prevent death. Finally, we showed that antibody obtained from pcDNA3JEME-immunized mice 4 days following challenge could partially protect recipient mice from lethal challenge. Taken together, these results indicate that neutralizing antibody produced following challenge provides the critical protective component in pcDNA3JEME-vaccinated mice.  (+info)

Degradation of Japanese encephalitis virus by neutrophils. (3/401)

The ability of neutrophils to degrade the phagocytosed Japanese encephalitis (JE) virion, via triggering of the respiratory burst and generation of toxic radicals has been investigated. JEV or JEV-induced macrophage derived factor (MDF) induces increase in intracellular oxidative signals with generation of superoxide anion (O2-), via activation of cytosolic NADPH and subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide, with maximum activity on day 7 post infection. The response was sensitive to anti-MDF antibody treatment. Further, the study revealed rapid degradation of phagocytosed JE viral protein and nucleic acid. The viral protein degradation was partially dependent on the generation of toxic oxygen species as it could be abrogated by pretreatment of the cells with staurosporine.  (+info)

The epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis on Taiwan during 1966-1997. (4/401)

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an endemic disease in Taiwan. A mass vaccination program of children against JE was first implemented in 1968. Along with general improvements in various aspects of living conditions over the years, the program has brought JE well under control. The main characteristics of JE epidemiology in Taiwan in the past 3 decades are as follows. The transmission mode remains unchanged-that is, the amplification stage of the virus in pigs is followed by a human epidemic each year. The frequency of JE incidence has dropped significantly. The incidence rate of confirmed cases was 2.05 per 100,000 in 1967, the highest in record, and merely 0.03 per 100,000 in 1997. Confirmed cases occur sporadically all over the island. The peak of the epidemic season has shifted from August in the 1960s to June since the 1980s. The age distribution of confirmed cases has shifted gradually from mainly children to adults. Vaccine efficacy for those having received more than 2 doses of the vaccine is estimated to be about 85%.  (+info)

Japanese encephalitis vaccine (inactivated, BIKEN) in U.S. soldiers: immunogenicity and safety of vaccine administered in two dosing regimens. (5/401)

The safety and immunogenicity of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine (Nakayama strain, monovalent / BIKEN) was studied in 538 U.S. soldiers in 1990. Three doses of vaccine from three consecutively manufactured lots were given on days 0, 7, and either 14 or 30. Serum for antibody determination was drawn at months 0, 2, and 6. Japanese encephalitis plaque reduction neutralization tests were performed by three laboratories on each specimen. Five hundred twenty-eight (98%) participants completed the immunization series. All recipients without antibody before immunization developed neutralizing antibody against JE virus. There were no differences in geometric mean titer among the three test lots at months 2 and 6. Soldiers who received the third dose on day 30 had higher titers at both time points. Antibody to yellow fever had no significant effect on immune response to vaccine. Conclusions drawn from analysis of serologic data from the three labs were nearly identical. Symptoms were generally limited to mild local effects and were reduced in frequency with each subsequent does in the series (21% to 11%; P < 0.0001). Generalized symptoms were rare (e.g., fever = 5%) with no reported cases of anaphylaxis.  (+info)

An intranasal challenge model for testing Japanese encephalitis vaccines in rhesus monkeys. (6/401)

Placebo-controlled field efficacy trials of new Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines may be impractical. Therefore, an animal model to evaluate efficacy of candidate JE vaccines is sought. Previous work has shown that exposure of monkeys to JE virus (JEV) via the intranasal route results in encephalitis. Here we report the further development of this model and the availability of titered virus stocks to assess the protective efficacy of JE vaccines. To determine the effective dose of our JE challenge virus, dilutions of a stock JEV (KE-93 isolate) were inoculated into four groups of three rhesus monkeys. A dose-dependent response was observed and the 50% effective dose (ED50) was determined to be 6.0 x 10(7) plaque forming units (pfu). Among animals that developed encephalitis, clinical signs occurred 9-14 days postinoculation. Infection with JEV was confirmed by detection of JEV in nervous tissues and IgM to JEV in the cerebrospinal fluid. Viremia with JEV was also detected intermittently throughout infection. Validation of the model was performed using a known effective JE vaccine and saline control. One ED90 of virus (2.0 x 10(9) pfu) was used as a challenge dose. Four of four animals that received saline control developed encephalitis while one of four monkeys administered the JE vaccine did so. This study demonstrates that the virus strain, route of inoculation, dose, and the outcome measure (encephalitis) are suitable for assessment of protective efficacy of candidate JE vaccines.  (+info)

Production of lethal infection that resembles fatal human disease by intranasal inoculation of macaques with Japanese encephalitis virus. (7/401)

Twelve rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) challenged intranasally with a wild-type Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) developed clinical signs 11-14 days later. Tissues from the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus, meninges, and all levels of the spinal cord were stained for JEV antigen with hyperimmune mouse ascitic fluid and streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase; immunofluorescent staining was also done on frozen sections. Viral antigen was found in all cell layers of the cerebellum, the gray matter of the thalamus and brainstem, and the ventral horn of all levels of the spinal cord. Staining was limited to neurons and their processes. Histopathologic changes were limited to the nervous system and characterized by nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. These results were comparable with those of previous studies done with human autopsy tissues. Intranasal inoculation of rhesus monkeys with JEV was effective in producing clinical disease comparable with natural disease in humans and may serve as a model to evaluate protective efficacy of candidate JEV vaccines.  (+info)

Safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of NYVAC-JEV and ALVAC-JEV recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccines in rhesus monkeys. (8/401)

Two poxvirus-vectored vaccines for Japanese encephalitis (JE), NYVAC-JEV and ALVAC-JEV, were evaluated in rhesus monkeys for safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy. The vaccines were given to four monkeys each on study days 0 and 28 along with saline placebo on day 7. For controls, the licensed BIKEN JE vaccine and a saline placebo were given to other groups of four monkeys on days 0, 7, and 28. No systemic effects were observed. All injection site reactions were mild. All vaccines elicited appreciable JE-specific neutralizing antibody responses. However, a more rapid increase and higher peak level of antibody were seen in the BIKEN group as compared with the NYVAC-JEV and ALVAC-JEV groups. The peak neutralizing antibody level in the NYVAC-JEV group was higher than that of the ALVAC-JEV group. Antibody persisted in all four BIKEN recipients through 273 days of follow-up, whereas, the antibody level decreased to the threshold of detection in two NYVAC-JEV and all four ALVAC-JEV recipients by day 120. On day 273, all monkeys were given a booster dose. A rapid increase in neutralizing antibody was seen in all vaccine recipients by seven days. Two months after the booster dose, all monkeys were challenged intranasally with one 90% effective dose of JE virus. Four recipients of saline, three of ALVAC-JEV, one of NYVAC-JEV, and one of BIKEN experienced encephalitis. This study suggests that the NYVAC-JEV and ALVAC-JEV vaccines are safe and immunogenic in monkeys and that the NYVAC-JEV and BIKEN vaccines are effective in protecting monkeys from encephalitis.  (+info)

Get latest news on acute encephalitis syndrome aes. Read Breaking News, opinion, analysis on acute encephalitis syndrome aes updated and published at Down To Earth.
New Delhi: The government is working on a long term plan to deal with the Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) which has left over 100 children dead in Bihar this year, the Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare said on June 28.. Replying to queries in the Lok Sabha during the Question Hour, Ashwini Kumar Choubey said the government was committed to give benefits of the Ayushmaan Bharat scheme to children dealing with AES.. The Centre and the Bihar government have come under considerable attack over the deaths of children.. The government is working on a long term plan to deal with the Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, he said.. The minister said three high-level medical teams from the Centre were sent to Bihar during the outbreak of the AES.. Union Health and Family Welfare Minister Harsh Vardhan himself examined 100 patients in four hours during his visit to the state, he said.. Also read:Bombay High Court upholds Maratha reservation, but adds 16% not justified. Also watch: UpFront With ...
Union Health Minister J P Nadda assured that the Centre is very serious about preventing the spread of Japanese encephalitis and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES), adding that state governments will be provided with the necessary financial help to contain the disease.
A total of 165 persons have lost their lives in Assam due to JapaneseEncephalitis and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, prompting Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi to call an emergency meeting with health officials on Wednesday.. According to an official release, Gogoi held an emergency meeting to review the health scenario with senior officials in the backdrop of outbreak of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES).. Reviewing the health scenario in the backdrop of growing incidence of JE and AES in the state which has claimed 165 lives so far, Chief Minister Gogoi directed the health authorities to gear up on war-footing to control the diseases from spreading to newer areas, the release said.. While AES accounted for 60 per cent of the cases covering 24 districts this year, JE was responsible for 40 per cent of the cases in mainly lower Assam districts, it said.. Gogoi asked the officials to make a comprehensive action plan to control JE and AES, including setting up of an ICU in ...
According to the Department of Disease Control, the three new cases of Japanese encephalitis are a woman in her 50s in Hukou Township, Hsinchu County, a man in his 50s in the west of Chiayi City and a women in her 30s in Linbian Township, Pingtung County.. 18 infections you can get from mosquitoes. All three are currently hospitalized.. This brings the total Japanese encephalitis cases in Taiwan to 10, including one death. This includes 4 cases in Kaohsiung City (including 1 death), 2 cases in Chiayi City and Pingtung County, 1 in Chiayi County and 1 in Hsinchu County.. Taiwan reports additional local dengue case in Kaohsiung. Domestic Japanese encephalitis vector mosquitoes are mainly three-spotted mosquitoes, ring-shaped mosquitoes and white-headed mosquitoes. Most people have no obvious symptoms after infection with Japanese encephalitis. A few may have headache, fever or aseptic meningitis. Change of consciousness, inability to distinguish between people and time, general weakness, damage to ...
Date Published: March 20, 2015. Publisher: Public Library of Science. Author(s): Anna Lena Lopez, Josephine G. Aldaba, Vito G. Roque, Amado O. Tandoc, Ava Kristy Sy, Fe Esperanza Espino, Maricel DeQuiroz-Castro, Youngmee Jee, Maria Joyce Ducusin, Kimberley K. Fox, Maya Williams. Abstract: BackgroundJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important cause of encephalitis in most of Asia, with high case fatality rates and often significant neurologic sequelae among survivors. The epidemiology of JE in the Philippines is not well defined. To support consideration of JE vaccine for introduction into the national schedule in the Philippines, we conducted a systematic literature review and summarized JE surveillance data from 2011 to 2014.MethodsWe conducted searches on Japanese encephalitis and the Philippines in four databases and one library. Data from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and JE surveillance and from the national reference laboratory from ...
Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is an important public health problem in South East Asia and the Pacific. In Myanmar, the national Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) with the support of WHO and UNICEF is introducing JE vaccine routinely from 2018. Prior to this, a nationwide catch-up vaccination campaign is targeting 14 million children (9 months to 15 years) during November and December 2017 with the support of GAVI funds. This approach is expected to provide high immunity against JE before incorporation of JE vaccines into the national routine immunization schedule. Both campaign and routine programmes will use WHO prequalified (SA 14-14-2) JE vaccine. The goal is to rapidly achieve reductions in morbidity and mortality associated with Japanese Encephalitis. The theme of the campaign is Get all children immunized against Japanese Encephalitis, in all states and regions of the country.. There are two phases of introduction. First, school phase JE vaccination targeting 5-15 years old students ...
With six more deaths reported in Bihars Muzaffarpur district on Saturday, the death toll due to viral infection Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) has reached 83.
Effectiveness of Homeopathic Medicines as Add-on to Institutional Management Protocol for Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in Children: An Open-Label Randomized Placebo-Controlled ...
Japanese Encephalitis is spread by mosquitoes and is the main cause of viral encephalitis in many Asian countries with 68,000 cases occurring every year.
Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: Updated February 6, 2017. Accessed December 7, 2017. Japanese encephalitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: Accessed August 5, 2015. Accessed December 7, 2017. Japanese encephalitis VIS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: Updated January 24, 2014. Accessed December 7, 2017. Mosquito avoidance. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: . Updated November 21, 2016. Accessed December 7, 2017. Vaccine is key to preventing outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis. UNICEF website. Available at: Accessed December 7, 2017. ...
Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis: past, present, and future prospects Huanyu Wang,1,2 Guodong Liang1,21State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control (SKLID), Department of Viral Encephalitis, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing People’s Republic of China; 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of severe viral encephalitis that affects individuals in Asia, western Pacific countries, and northern Australia. Although 67,900 JE cases have been estimated among 24 JE epidemic countries annually, only 10,426 have been reported in 2011. With the establishment of JE surveillance and vaccine use in some countries, the JE incidence rate has decreased; however, serious outbreaks still occur. Understanding JE epidemics and identifying the circulating JE virus genotypes will
Centre for Health Protection Controller Dr Wong Ka-hing: We received the notification of this fourth local case of Japanese encephalitis today. This is a 59-year-old gentleman who has chronic disease. He had the symptoms of fever, headache and vomiting on July 30 and so he attended the medical consultation at Tin Shui Wai Hospital. He was admitted to Pok Oi Hospital. Quite promptly, the attending doctors suspected that he suffered from encephalitis. The samples were tested positive for Japanese encephalitis immunoglobulin M suggesting this is a case of confirmed Japanese encephalitis. Regarding the source of infection, because this patient did not have any travel history during the incubation period, so this is a local case. Because the patient is still unwell, although his condition is stable, so we get most of the information from his wife. His wife is asymptomatic and does not know whether the patient has been bitten by a mosquito. But according to her, the patients local movement during the ...
Acute Encephalitis Syndrome and Japanese Encephalitis continue to wreak havoc 305 lives in the state this year itself. Talking to Assam Times, health department officials said that the vector-borne Acute Encephalitis Syndrome alone has claimed 212 lives. On the other hand, the death toll in the Japanese Encephalitis outbreak has reached 93 this year. There has been sharp rise
Two additional cases reported from Taoyuan City brings the cumulative total to 21 JE cases, primarily in Southern Taiwan.. According to Taiwan CDCs surveillance data, transmission of Japanese encephalitis in Taiwan usually peaks between June and July. During 2010 and 2015, the majority of the cases are reported in central and southern Taiwan and most of them are male (62.7%). People of all ages can become infected. People aged between 30 and 59 are at increased risk for infection.. The vector mosquitoes are most active during dawn and dusk. Pigs act as the amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis. To prevent infection, avoid visiting vector-breeding sites such as pigpens at dawn and dusk when mosquitoes are most active.. LISTEN: Dr Anna Lena Lopez, a pediatric infectious disease specialist and research associate professor at the University of the Philippines in Manila discusses JE and the need for the vaccine. Parents are reminded to make sure their children receive the vaccine on a timely ...
Abstract. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of devastating viral encephalitis, especially in Asia. Although a successful vaccination program led to its near-elimination over three decades in South Korea, the incidence of JE has increased since 2010. The present study investigated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and factors affecting neurological outcomes of reemerging JE. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of laboratory-confirmed JE patients who presented with acute encephalitis syndrome at three tertiary hospitals between 2010 and 2015. A total of 17 patients with JE were identified. Their median age was 51 years, and 10 (58.5%) were men. The most common symptoms and signs were fever (94.1%), altered consciousness (94.1%), and headache (80.2%). Hyporeflexia (47.1%), seizures (35.2%), abnormal brainstem reflex (23.5%), and flaccid weakness (17.6%) were also noted. Brain imaging revealed thalamic lesions in all patients, with the hippocampus, midbrain, basal
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is estimated to result in 3500-50,000 clinical cases every year, with mortality rates of up to 20-50% and a high percentage of neurological sequelae in survivors. Vaccination is the single most important measure in preventing this disease. Inactivated Vero cell culture-derived JE vaccines have not been linked to any fatalities, and few serious adverse events after vaccination have been reported. Here, we report a case of sudden death in which a 10-year-old boy experienced cardiopulmonary arrest 5 min afterreceiving a Japanese encephalitis vaccination. He had been receiving psychotropic drugs for the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders. Postmortem examinations were nonspecific, and no signs of dermatologic or mucosal lesions or an elevation of the serum tryptase level, which are characteristic of anaphylaxis, were observed. A toxicological examination revealed that the blood concentrations of the orally administered psychotropic drugs were within the ...
Background To identify potential environmental drivers of Japanese Encephalitis virus (JE) transmission in Nepal, we conducted an ecological study to determine the spatial association between 2005 Nepal JE incidence, and climate, agricultural, and land-cover variables at district level. Methods District-level data on JE cases were examined using Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) analysis to identify spatial clusters from 2004 to 2008 and 2005 data was used to fit a spatial lag regression model with climate, agriculture and land-cover variables. Results Prior to 2006, there was a single large cluster of JE cases located in the Far-West and Mid-West terai regions of Nepal. After 2005, the distribution of JE cases in Nepal shifted with clusters found in the central hill areas. JE incidence during the 2005 epidemic had a stronger association with May mean monthly temperature and April mean monthly total precipitation compared to mean annual temperature and precipitation. A parsimonious
The authorities in Malkangiri district [Odisha state] are finding it difficult to arrest the outbreak of Japanese encephalitis (JE) and the mystery disease, which the administration is suspecting to be acute encephalitis syndrome (AES), even as droves of children are being rushed to the hospitals and wails of anguish from relatives of victims fill the district headquarters hospital every day.. Two separate expert teams have investigated the mysterious deaths, ministers, secretaries of various departments and specialist doctors have made numerous visits to the tribal-dominated district in the past few weeks but all their promises and attempts have failed in controlling the killer disease.. With 4 deaths on Wednesday [16 Nov 2016], the unofficial toll has risen to 114 in 69 days. Officials have put the JE related toll at 31 and the non-JE [AES] deaths at 67. The deceased died while undergoing treatment at the district headquarters hospital, Malkangiri.. Expressing their helplessness, a senior ...
After 170 deaths from Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in just two months in Bihar, Assam is now on alert for a Japanese Encephalitis outbreak.
From January 1986 to 1988, a total 27, 700 children between 3 months to 5 years old (85.7% of the target poopulation) in Dong Anh Distict, Hanoi, Vietnam, were immunized with JE BIKEN vaccine. The number of 24 JE cases reported from 1986 to 1988 after the vaccination was significantly less than the number of 131 cases reported in the years 1984 and 1985 before the vaccination. After the vaccination, annual number of JE cases was reduced more than 8-fold compared with previous years, and 21 of the 24 of JE cases (87.5%) were found among unvaccinated. Surveillances on swine antibodies and mosquito population in 1988-1989 indicated continued transmission of JE virus in the study area. By the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test, antibody positive swine were found all year round, and the positve rate fluctuated between 10 to 66% (average 43.5%) with gemoetrical mean titer between 11-47. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most abundant mosquito species and its density increased in hot season ...
|b||i|The deaths of children are a direct result of negligence and inaction on the part of the respective state governments of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Union of India in handling the epidemical situation wh|/i||/b|...
This article provides a historical overview of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in India since the first detection of JE virus activity in 1952 until the 2006 introduction of JE vaccine in high-risk states and expansion of vaccination efforts in 2007 and 2008. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in developing countries can gain free access to journal articles.). Author: Dhillon GP, Raina VK. Published: 2008 ...
Free Online Library: Encephalitis surveillance through the Emerging Infections Program, 1997-2010. by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Demographic aspects Diagnosis Prevention Research Health surveys Analysis
Officially, there have been 82 cases of JE and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Kachar, Dibrugarh, Sonitpur, Kamrup and Morigaon.সরকারিভাবে জানা গিয়েছে, জেই এবং তীব্র এনসেফালাইটিস সিন্ড্রোমের (‌এইএস)‌ ৮২টি কেস দেখা গিয়েছে কাছার, ডিব্রুগড়, সোনিতপুর, কামরূপ ও মরিগাঁওতে।
A four-year-old boy was hospitalised last week in Hanoi due to Japanese encephalitis (JE). He was suffering from a high fever and seizures.
JE should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any patient with an acute neurologic infection who recently has been in a JE-endemic country. Health-care providers should assess the itineraries of travelers to JE-endemic countries, provide guidance on personal protective measures to prevent vector-borne diseases, and consider recommending JE vaccine for travelers at increased risk for JE virus infection ...
With five deaths reported due to Japanese Encephalitis and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, the death toll in the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh has touched 280.
At least 129 children have now died of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in the town of Muzaffarpur in the eastern Indian state of Bihar since an outbreak earlier this month, a medical official said on Sunday.
Manohar Paswan and Phulesri Devis three-year-old child is fighting for his life after contracting Acute Encephalitis Syndrome. Last week, they had admitted their only son in the Encephalitis Ward of the Sri Krishna Memorial College and Hospital in Muzaffarpur, Bihar. But his condition has not shown any signs of improvement. | Encephalitis continues its rampage in helpless Bihar
Introduction: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome has heralded the emergence of multiple virulent pathogens, which may result in severe morbidity and mortality. In India, encephalitis is not notified and there has been a dearth of analysis for trends in encephalitis death rates and causation. A downward trend has been observed in encephalitis deaths, due to known causes, which can be largely explained by improvement in diagnostic, treatment, and prevention methods. There is still a very high proportion of encephalitis deaths in developing countries, where the aetiological diagnosis of the pathogen is not established and thus, lies the importance of monitoring encephalitis morbidity and mortality with a view to improve pathogen diagnosis and identify emerging infectious diseases ...
Introduction: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome has heralded the emergence of multiple virulent pathogens, which may result in severe morbidity and mortality. In India, encephalitis is not notified and there has been a dearth of analysis for trends in encephalitis death rates and causation. A downward trend has been observed in encephalitis deaths, due to known causes, which can be largely explained by improvement in diagnostic, treatment, and prevention methods. There is still a very high proportion of encephalitis deaths in developing countries, where the aetiological diagnosis of the pathogen is not established and thus, lies the importance of monitoring encephalitis morbidity and mortality with a view to improve pathogen diagnosis and identify emerging infectious diseases ...
Health and Family Welfare Secretary PK Meherda on Saturday asked all Collectors and Commissioners of municipal corporations in the 13 districts to assess the actual beneficiary load and prepare an action plan. JE vaccination campaign would be carried out in 13 districts, Cuttack, Dhenkanal, Ganjam, Kalahandi, Kendrapada, Khordha, Baleswar, Koraput, Nabarangpur, Puri, Rayagada, Subarnapur and Sundargarh.. Nearly 71.8 lakh children in the age group of one- year to 15 years would be vaccinated with the JE vaccine during the campaign that would continue for nearly three weeks.. ...
The vaccination against JE is not recommended for routine use, but only for individuals living in endemic areas. Though occasional cases have been reported from urban areas in few districts, JE is exclusively a disease of rural areas. Hence, even in endemic areas, the children residing only in rural areas should be targeted for vaccination Government of India has identified around 180 districts to be endemic for JE in India so far JE vaccine is also recommended for travelers to JE endemic areas provided they are expected to stay for a minimum of 4 weeks in rural areas in the JE season.. ...
MUZAFFARPUR: As many as 66 children have died due to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Muzaffarpur district of Bihar, officials said. A total of 55 patients died at Shri Krishna Medical College while 11 of them died in private Kejriwal hospital here. Till now over 130 have been hospitalised in the district. District Magistrate of Muzaffarpur had on Friday told ANI that for students till class eight, schools will remain closed till June 22 and for students in higher standards, classes will be held only till 10.30 am ...
Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan has reached Sri Krishna Medical College and Hospital in Bihars Muzaffarpur where the death toll due to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) has increased to 84.
The toll of children suffering from Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Muzaffarpur rose to 83 on Sunday even as Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan visited the State-run Sri Krishna Medical College and Hospital (SKMCH) in the district and announced several measures to tackle the disease.
This fact sheet provides important information on the SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine manufactured by the Chengdu Institute of Biological Products. Topics include vaccine presentation, dosage, safety, and history of use.. Corporate author(s): Chengdu Institute of Biological Products. Publication date: October 2013. ...
Introduction The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of using TelePrimary Care (TPC) to monitor immunization programmed in a clinic. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccination was selected as an example because its coverage has not been satisfactory when compared to that of other vaccinations, which generally exceed 90%. Methods Data for all children who were eligible for JE vaccination (age range from 9 months to 30 months) who attended Sarikei Health Clinic between 1 January 2007 till 31 June 2008, was extracted from the TPC database and analyzed for completeness and timeliness of JE vaccination. Results The analysis showed that although 1,243 children were eligible to receive their first dose of J vaccine at 9 months of age, only 560 (45%) received it. 15 (3%) received on time, and 545 (97%) received it late (age range from 10 months to 20 months). Out of the 560 who were scheduled to receive their second dose of JE vaccine four weeks after the first, 382 (88%) received it ...
folks,. Keep getting loads of conflicting advice about whether or not to take the JE vaccine. Has anyone had this vacination and in particular the course taken over 14 days? If so did you have any side effects?. We are flying to India on feb 9th and need to decide sharpish if we´re going to have the jab or not!!. We will be in SE Asia during the transmission season but hear the risk of being infected is very low!!. Any advice greatly received!. Andy. ...
Altogether 156 children have died due to outbreak of the Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Bihar since May and 82 others were admitted to various hospitals for treatment, an official said on Friday.
23 July Suraj Anjaana 0 677 4.9 Know all about Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) also known as Chamki fever or Chamki bukhar in Bihar, its cause, tips and tricks for precaution and treatment to save lifes.. India is a big country. Its stands in number 2nd in population and number Read More ...
Many well-meaning liberal and secular political analysts are highly perturbed by sectarian policy decisions of RSS/BJP rulers led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, especially after starting his second inning. They are vocal in red-flagging lynching incidents, policies of the Modi government on Kashmir, the National Register of Citizens (NRC), the demand for Bharat Ratna to Savarkar who submitted 6-7 mercy petitions to the British masters (getting remission of 40 years out of 50 years sentence), and the murder of constitutional norms in Goa, Karnataka and now in Maharashtra ...
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease that is caused by a virus transmitted by mosquitoes. Domestic and feral pigs, some species of birds, and humans are all involved in the transmission cycle of this very serious zoonosis. JE is endemic in some areas of Asia, where the major vector identified is Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Even though this specific mosquito is not present in US, all vectors competent for West Nile virus are potentially competent for JEV too, posing a serious threat for the US. Modeling JE presents major challenges, as all vector-borne zoonoses. Due to the complexities of multiple populations involved, the direct use of a network approach, similar to the one used by our group to model RVF [1], will lead to a large set of equations with many parameters to be estimated. To overcome this problem, the PI proposes to explore novel modeling approaches based on interconnected networks [2]. Interconnected networks are an abstract representation where two or more simple ...
The Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine will now be mandatory for active-duty Airmen who are either permanently stationed or who will be temporarily assigned for more than 30 days to Japan or South Korea.
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AES cases in Bihars litchi-cultivation region were misdiagnosed as Japanese encephalitis (JE) till late 1990s since the symptoms and the seasonal outbreak of the two diseases are similar.
This document contains the case definitions for Japanese encephalitis virus infection which is nationally notifiable within Australia. This definition should be used to determine whether a case should be notified.
PubMedID: 24599148 | Modulation of neuronal proteome profile in response to Japanese encephalitis virus infection. | PloS one | 3/6/2014
Gampaha Deputy Provincial Director of Health Services division reported a large number of Japanese encephalitis cases during 1996 to 1997. Notified cases included unconfirmed and confirmed cases. A study to determine the true disease burden was considered necessary. Proportion of undifferentiated fever cases due to Japanese encephalitis virus varies in different populations and the Sri Lankan situation is not known. The objectives were to determine the proportion of undifferentiated fever cases and encephalitis cases due to Japanese encephalitis virus; and the case fatality rate and frequency of neurological sequelae in Japanese encephalitis, in a tertiary care hospital in Gampaha. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the paediatric and medicine units of the North Colombo Teaching Hospital, Ragama during 1998 to 2000. Ninety three randomly selected patients with a diagnosis of undifferentiated fever from whom paired sera could be collected and 32 patients suspected of ...
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to the human pathogens including yellow fever virus, dengue virus and West Nile virus. There are currently no effective antiviral therapies for all of the flavivirus and only a few highly effective vaccines are licensed for human use. In this paper, the E protein domain III (DIII) of six heterologous flaviviruses (DENV1-4, WNV and JEV) was expressed in Escherichia coli successfully. The proteins were purified after a solubilization and refolding procedure, characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Competitive inhibition showed that all recombinant flavivirus DIII proteins blocked the entry of JEV into BHK-21 cells. Further studies indicated that antibodies induced by the soluble recombinant flavivirus DIII partially protected mice against lethal JEV challenge. These results demonstrated that recombinant flavivirus DIII proteins could inhibit JEV infection competitively, and immunization with proper folding flavivirus
According to CDC Taiwan epidemiology data, Hualien county had 6 confirmed JEV infection patients in 2009 witch was the highest county in Taiwan. Since mass vaccination was arranged since 45 years ago in Taiwan, most of the JEV infection was happened on the elderly, possible due to aging and immune compromised. However, from Mennonite Christian Hospital and CDC records, most of the confirmed JEV patients in Hualien county were aboriginal people. The youngest patient in 2009 is around 30-year-old who lived in the mountain side aboriginal village. Whether aboriginal people are at more risk for JEV infection or Genotype I JEV was appeared in Hualien with more virulent, resistent to vaccine protection is unknown.. In order to understand the risk of JEV infection and environmental (mosquito, swine) surveillance, we had arranged a small cohort study in 2 villages. The 2 villages are located at middle Hualien with direct distance around 20 KM between each other. Both villages had several pig farms and ...
Definisi dari Japanese encephalitis virus - Kata yang anda cari adalah istilah asing di ilmu Kedokteran. Definisi menurut kamus ekabahasa resmi Bahasa Indonesia definisi dari Japanese encephalitis virus adalah sebagai berikut. Definisi Japanese encephalitis virus Menurut Istilah Kedokteran virus ensefalitis Jepang Itulah definisi dari Japanese encephalitis virus, untuk mencari istilah dan definisi yang lain dapat […]
Japanese encephalitis (JE) live attenuated vaccine SA14-14-2 has been in use for more more than 20 years in Asia. JE vaccine SA14-14-2 is licensed in India and has been widely used since 2006. JE vaccines give protection by generating a neutralizing antibody response, but both naturally exposed persons and patients with JE also have T cell responses. Whether JE vaccine SA14-14-2 elicits T cell responses is unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that T cell responses are generated in response to JE SA14-14-2 vaccination. The aim of this study is to characterize T cell responses to JE vaccine SA14-14-2 in healthy people, and to investigate differences in T cell responses between natural exposure, vaccination and disease ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Additional isolations of Japanese encephalitis virus from the Philippines. AU - Ksiazek, Thomas. AU - Trosper, J. H.. AU - Cross, J. H.. AU - Basaca-Sevilla, V.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Japanese encephalitis virus was isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex bitaenorhynchus and Anopheles annularis mosquitoes collected from San Jose, Nueva Ecija, South Central Luzon in the Philippines. This is the second report of the isolation of the virus from mosquitoes in the Philippine Islands.. AB - Japanese encephalitis virus was isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex bitaenorhynchus and Anopheles annularis mosquitoes collected from San Jose, Nueva Ecija, South Central Luzon in the Philippines. This is the second report of the isolation of the virus from mosquitoes in the Philippine Islands.. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - ...
We examined whether live attenuated Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine is effective in preventing West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the Peoples Republic of China. Three groups were recruited into the study: patients with Japanese encephalitis (JE), healthy controls vaccinated with live attenuated 2 SA14-14-vaccine against JE virus (JEV), and unvaccinated healthy controls. Serum samples were collected and screened for IgG antibodies against JEV by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Positive samples were then analyzed for levels of antibodies against JEV and neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) by a plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Although most persons had medium to high levels of JEV-reactive IgG and neutralizing antibodies, only 2 of the 82 unvaccinated control samples were positive for the WNV-reactive antibodies. These findings suggest that previous JEV infection or vaccination did not induce adequate levels of WNV-reactive antibodies in the population studied.
Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Vero Cells:The Involvement of Intracellular Acidic Vesicles in the Early Phase of Viral Infection Was Observed with the Treatment of a Specific Vacuolar Type H^+-ATPase Inhibitor, Bafilomycin A1 ...
During the early days of the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia, the causative agent was thought to be the Japanese encephalitis virus. Pigs are the amplifying hosts and the virus is transmitted to humans by Culex mosquitoes. Despite antimosquito measures and vaccination against Japanese encephalitis, the outbreak could not be controlled and there was a high toll of mortality and morbidity (1).. In Singapore, which imports live pigs from Malaysia, a cluster of cases of presumed Japanese encephalitis occurred among workers at a slaughterhouse. The clinical and epidemiologic features of this outbreak have been described in detail (6, 7).. Although the clinical syndromes of viral encephalitis are not specific for the causative organism (8), the imaging findings for Japanese encephalitis have been well established: the virus affects mainly the thalamus bilaterally, and also the basal ganglia, brain stem, and hippocampus (9). Classically, these lesions are hyperintense on T2-weighted MR ...
Description of disease Japanese encephalitis. Treatment Japanese encephalitis. Symptoms and causes Japanese encephalitis Prophylaxis Japanese encephalitis
Tan, H. C, Tan, S. H, Balachandran, K & Chan, Y. C. (‎1985)‎. The Use of the single radial haemolysis technique in the serological diagnosis of dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus infections / Y. C. Chan ... [‎et al.]‎. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1985 ; 63(‎6)‎ : 1043-1053 ...
Japanese encephalitis vaccines patents report analyzes patents japanese encephalitis vaccines over delivery, preparation, stabilization, and administration.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fragment of Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein produced in Escherichia coli protects mice from virus challenge. AU - Chia, Shwn Chin. AU - Leung, Patrick S. AU - Liao, Chun Peng. AU - Huang, Jyh Hsiung. AU - Lee, Sho Tone. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - A fragment from the N-terminal part (EA) and a fragment from the C-terminal part (EB) of the envelope (E) protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was synthesized in Escherichia coli. These two fragments were overlapping with each other by nine amino acids, however, they were not cross-reacting with each other at the antisera level. Both EA and EB are antigenic by themselves when injected into mice, but when tested against sera from mice, rabbit, swine and human that had been immunized or naturally infected with JEV, EB acted as a better antigen than EA by ELISA assays. EB also proved to be a better immunogen in protection against lethal JEV infection than EA. The protection appears to be correlated with the neutralizing ...
We report here the complete genomic sequence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strain FC792, isolated from aborted fetuses of sows which were unimmunized with JEV vaccines in Guangxi Province, southern China. The complete JEV genome of strain FC792 had the highest nucleotide homology (99.7%) and amino acid identity (99.4%) with the sequence of JEV strain SA14-14-2 (GenBank accession number AF315119). Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain FC792 had the closest phylogenetic relationship to the sequence of strain YUNNAN0901 (GenBank accession number JQ086762). This study will help us understand the molecular pathogenesis and genetic diversity of genotype III Japanese encephalitis virus in pigs.. ...
Here is an overview about a virus spread by mosquitos, the Japanese Encephalitis which allegedly took the lives of 9 Filipino this 2017.. Nowadays, diseases caused by virus-carrying mosquitoes such as dengue and malaria are only some of the most common and fatal diseases not only in the Philippines but also in different countries all around the world.. Japanese encephalitis is a virus spread by mosquitoes and related to dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile Viruses. It is a brain infection caused by mosquito-borne Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), which is most prevalent in East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.. The first case of Japanese encephalitis was recorded in Japan during 1871. The symptoms of JEV such as fever, headache, vomiting, confusion, and difficulty in moving occurs 5 to 15 days after the bitten by an infected mosquito.. JEV is now already in the country and has already infected 133 patients and killed 9 Filipinos since Jan 01 to August 26, 2017. Four deaths were recorded in ...
Tuesday, November 12, 2013. A newly accessible vaccine against Japanese encephalitis (JE) is going to make the protection of more children in developing countries easier. The vaccine, manufactured in China, only needs to be given in one dose, it can be used for infants, and it is less expensive than other Japanese encephalitis vaccines.. Today, WHO has added the vaccine to its list of prequalified medicines, meaning that WHO has given the vaccine its stamp of approval in safety and efficacy terms, and United Nations procuring agencies can now source this vaccine. This is the first Chinese-produced vaccine to be prequalified by WHO.. This is a welcome development both in the fight to protect children in developing countries from JE and in the future availability of vaccines more generally, as China is now producing vaccines up to WHO standards, says WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan. There is a huge potential for vaccine manufacture in China and we hope to see more and more Chinese ...
FRIDAY, July 19, 2019 (HealthDay News) - In the July 19 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, recommendations are presented for use of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine.. Susan L. Hills, M.B.B.S., from the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases at the CDC in Fort Collins, Colorado, and colleagues summarize the epidemiology of JE, describe the JE vaccine that is available in the United States, and provide recommendations for its use.. The researchers note that the mosquito-borne JE virus is the most common vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia. The only JE vaccine that is licensed and available in the United States is the inactivated Vero cell culture-derived JE vaccine, which was licensed for use in persons aged ≥17 years in 2009; in 2013, the licensure was extended to include children aged ≥2 months. Travelers to countries where JE is endemic should be advised to take precautions to avoid ...
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is an important cause of encephalitis in Asia with a case fatality rate of 20%--30% and neurologic or psychiatric sequelae in 30%--50% of survivors (1). Travelers to JE-endemic countries and laboratory personnel who work with infectious JE virus are at potential risk for JE virus infection. In 2010, CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) updated recommendations for prevention of JE. The updated recommendations included information on use of a new inactivated, Vero cell culture--derived JE vaccine (JE-VC [manufactured as Ixiaro]) that was licensed in the United States in 2009. Data on the need for and timing of booster doses with JE-VC were not available when the vaccine was licensed. This report summarizes new data on the persistence of neutralizing antibodies following primary vaccination with JE-VC and the safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of JE-VC. The report also provides updated guidance to ...
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious zoonosis caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) which is a mosquito-borne pathogen of the family Flavivirus. However, the application of several developed laboratory methods for the detection of JEV antigens or antibodies are limited by their requirements of laboratory operations, skilled technicians and special facilities. To develop a method for detecting JEV antigen in swine, human, mosquito and other clinical specimens specifically, conveniently and effectively, an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, repeatability and stability of the developed method were evaluated, and 60 clinical samples were tested in this study. The results demonstrated that the antigen capture ELISA was capable in detecting JEV antigen with high sensitivity and specificity compared with conventional methods. 14 samples showed the positive result with coincidence rate of 70%, and 46 displayed negative
Author Summary Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that causes Japanese encephalitis (JE) with significant morbidity and mortality. Five genotypes (genotype I-V) have been identified based on the nucleotide sequence of viral envelope (E) gene of JEV. To date, the only known strain of genotype V is Muar strain, isolated from patient in Malaya in 1952. Since then, no genotype V JEV has been detected in the world. In this study, the JEV strain, XZ0934, was isolated from mosquito samples collected in China in 2009. The full-length genome sequences of the XZ0934 strain was determined and founded to be the second strain of genotype V JEV based on the phylogenetic analysis using the complete genome and structural gene sequences. This suggests that genotype V JEV is re-emerging after 57 years (1952-2009). Therefore, increased surveillance and more effective diagnosis for cases of JE caused by genotype V JEV are needed.
We have identified and characterized nine antigenic epitopes on the E envelope of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) by using mAb. Passive administration of most of the anti-JEV mAb protected mice from i.v. challenge with 1.5 x 10(3) plaque-forming units of JEV, JaGAr-01 strain. Some mAb, which possess high neutralization activity in vitro, showed high protection, and JEV-specific N mAb 503 was found the most protective. Even an injection of 2.5 micrograms/mouse of mAb 503 protected all mice from JEV infection. Furthermore, an injection of about 200 micrograms of mAb 503 on day 5 postinfection protected 82% of the mice, even when JEV was detected in more than 85% of the infected mouse brains. Synergism of protection was observed with mixtures of several mAb directed against different epitopes. Although in a murine macrophage cell line, all of the mAb groups showed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of JEV infectivity in vitro, and only two flavivirus cross-reactive mAb groups showed ADE of ...
The persistent transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in Taiwan necessitates exploring the risk factors of occurrence of Japanese encephalitis (JE). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of JE in Taiwan. We collected data for cases of JE reported to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) from 2000 to 2014. Meteorological data were obtained from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau. The relationships between weather variability and the incidence of JE in Taiwan were determined via Poisson regression analysis and a case-crossover methodology. During the 15-year study period, a total of 379 cases of JE were reported. The incidence of JE showed significant seasonality, with the majority of cases occurring in summertime (for oscillation, p < 0.001). The number of JE cases started to increase at temperatures of 22 °C (r2 = 0.88, p < 0.001). Similarly, the number of JE cases began to increase at a relative humidity
Fujita, H., Sumiyoshi, H., Mori, C., Manabe, S., Takagi, M. et al. (‎1987)‎. Studies in the development of Japanese encephalitis vaccine: expression of virus envelope glycoprotein V3 (‎E)‎ gene in yeast. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 65 (‎3)‎, 303 - 308. ...
Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
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Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine answers are found in the Johns Hopkins HIV Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Over 55 cases of Japanese Encephalitis have been reported positive from across Arunachal Pradesh and around 35 cases of Japanese Encephalitis have been detected in East Siang district.. This was stated by Epidemologist Dr. Lobsang Jampa during a state level workshop on Integrated Health information Platform organised by state surveillance unit, national health mission and directorate of health service. The official, however, informed that no new cases have been reported in the past two days.. It needs to be mentioned that so far two persons have lost their lives due to Japanese encephalitis in the state.. ...
Japanese Encephalitis - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Japanese Encephalitis - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Summary Global Markets Directs latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Japanese Encephalitis - Market research report and industry analysis - 11262640
By Dr Benedict Michael, NIHR Doctoral Research Fellow, University of Liverpool and Professor Tom Solomon, Chair of Neurological Science, Head of Institute for Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool and reviewed by Katherine Dodd, Specialist Registrar in Neurology. Background. Epidemics of Encephalitis were described in Japan from the 1870s onwards, and Japanese Encephalitis virus was first isolated from a patient who died with the condition in the 1930s. It is a small Flavivirus, named after the original Yellow fever virus (in Latin yellow = flavus). The flaviviruses are relatively new viruses, arising from a common ancestor 10-20,000 years ago and they are rapidly evolving and involving new areas.. Japanese Encephalitis virus is transmitted between small birds by mosquitoes, called Culex mosquitoes. Additionally, when pigs are infected, they can make a lot of the virus and this can then infect a lot of mosquitos. Humans become infected by mosquitoes coincidentally and are not ...
Amino acid position 123 in the E protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) determines viral growth properties and pathogenicity. The majority of JEV strains have a serine residue at this position (E123S); however, JEV with an asparagine residue (E123N) has also been isolated. To compare the growth properties and pathogenicity of E123S and E123N JEV, we produced recombinant JEV with a serine-to-asparagine substitution at position 123 (rJEV-Mie41-ES123N) in the E123S-type strain Mie/41/2002 background. The growth rate of rJEV-Mie41-ES123N was similar to that of Mie/41/2002 in mammalian and mosquito cell lines. Mouse challenge experiments showed that there was only a slight difference in neuroinvasiveness between the parent strain (Mie/41/2002) and rJEV-Mie41-ES123N. Thus, our results indicate that the Ser-to-Asn substitution in the JEV E protein has weak impact on viral growth properties in vitro or on pathogenicity in vivo.
link Japanese Encephalitis Fact Sheet CLINICAL FEATURES Acute encephalitis; can progress to paralysis, seizures, coma and death The majority of infections are subclinical ETIOLOGIC AGENT Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus: flavivirus antigenically related to St. Louis encephalitis virus INCIDENCE Leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia with 30-50,000 cases reported annually Fewer than 1 case/year in…
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a dangerous form of brain inflammation caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus, which is common in Asia and the West Pacific territories. The JE virus is a flavivirus, which brings it into the same family as the dengue virus. The life cycle of the virus is completed in two hosts, the mosquito and another vertebrate, whether man, pig or wading bird. The bites of culex mosquitoes transmit the virus, mainly by C. tritaeniorhynchus.
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotypes in Thailand were studied in pigs and mosquitoes collected near houses of confirmed human JEV cases in 2003-2005. Twelve JEV strains isolated belonged to genotype I, which shows a switch from genotype III incidence that started during the 1980s.
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) consists of five genotypes (GI-V). Phylogenetic characterization of 16 JEV strains isolated from the USSR, Japan and Korea during the 1930-1970s revealed that 15 strains fell into GIII, confirming that GIII was the predominant genotype of JEV in Japan and Korea between 1935 (isolation of the prototype strain; a GIII virus) and the 1990s (when GI supplanted GIII). One of the Korean isolates fell into GII, demonstrating that GII has been circulating for at least 19 years longer than previously thought. Formerly, GII was associated with endemic disease and this genotype had never been isolated north of Southern Thailand. Additionally, the northern border of GIII prevalence was extended from Japan to the USSR.
It is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. Severe rigors mark the onset of this disease in humans. Fever, headache and malaise are other non-specific symptoms of this disease which may last for a period of between 1 and 6 days. Encephalitis manifests with high grade fever, convulsions leading to coma etc. sometimes leading to death.. How is Japanese Encephalitis transmitted? ...
Via The Indian Express, a report datelined Lucknow: Centre cancels mop-up round for JE vaccine, state says process delayed. Excerpt: The month-long mop-up round for Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine, which was slated to start from December 1 in JE-affected districts...
Japanese Encephalitis Virus JEV , FR057 real time PCR kit for detection in different samples: nasal swabs, plasma, serum, stool, nasopharnygeal swabs, respiratory tract samples.
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Harris on japanese encephalitis vaccination: for topic: Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination
Picture of Japanese encephalitis, medical concept, 3D illustration showing brain infection and close-up view of Japanese encephalitis viruses in the brain stock photo, images and stock photography. Image 101756064.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Protection against Japanese encephalitis virus strains representing four genotypes by passive transfer of sera raised against ChimeriVax™-JE experimental vaccine. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
It is important that you receive 3 doses of the vaccine. If there is not enough time for you to get all 3 doses, you may get 2 doses of the vaccine. However, 2 doses of the vaccine will not protect you as well as 3 doses. It is important that you receive all 3 doses of the vaccine at least 10 days before you plan on traveling out of the country. There is a chance of side effects that do not show up right away, and, if they do occur, they may need medical attention. In addition, the 10 days will give your body time to produce antibodies against the Japanese encephalitis virus. Dosing- The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctors orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so. The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time ...
Misra UK, Kalita J (June 2010). "Overview: Japanese encephalitis". Progress in Neurobiology. 91 (2): 108-20. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017). *Saudi Arabian MERS (2018). *Kerala Nipah virus (2018) ...
AN - Japanese B encephalitis. Biological Vectors[edit]. *AP = Aedes aegypti mosquito. Biological Toxins[edit]. Main article: ...
Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017). *Saudi Arabian MERS (2018). *Kerala Nipah virus (2018) ... Arbovirus encephalitis. Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura vesiculovirus. Herpesviral ... Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute ...
Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017). *Saudi Arabian MERS (2018). *Kerala Nipah virus (2018) ...
Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017). *Saudi Arabian MERS (2018). *Kerala Nipah virus (2018) ... 2019 Bihar encephalitis outbreak. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f "Gorakhpur Deaths: Adityanath Government Ignored SOS on ... Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) was a major cause of the deaths: Till 29 August 2017, 175 children had died because of ... During 1978-2017, around 25,000 children have died of encephalitis.[5] As of 3 September 2017, 1,317 children had died in the ...
Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017). *Saudi Arabian MERS (2018). *Kerala Nipah virus (2018) ...
Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017). *MERS in Saudi Arabia (2018). *Kerala Nipah virus (2018) ...
Talk:Japanese encephalitis vaccine. L. *Talk:Levonorgestrel. *Talk:Lidocaine. *Talk:Lithium (medication) ...
"Ixiaro, Japanese-encephalitis vaccine (inactivated, adsorbed)". European Medicines Agency (EMA). 2009-06-05. Retrieved 2017-04- ... Marketed vaccines generated by Valneva include Ixiaro, a vaccine against Japanese encephalitis (approved in Europe, America and ...
Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min (2014-02-01). "Japanese encephalitis". Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 10 (2): 263-279. doi: ... Japanese encephalitis vaccine Measles vaccine Mumps vaccine Measles and rubella (MR) vaccine Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) ... "Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus: A Quest for Better Vaccines against a Virus on the Rise". Vaccines. 8 (3): 451. doi:10.3390/ ... "Novel Vaccine against Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Combines Advantages of DNA Immunization and a Live Attenuated Vaccine". ...
"Immunisation drive against Japanese encephalitis". The Hindu. 26 July 2006. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. ... "Milestones: Japanese encephalitis vaccine". PATH blog. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013 ... with India and other countries in the region to introduce an affordable vaccine to protect against Japanese encephalitis-a ... and pneumonia and to help countries introduce vaccines for childhood illnesses such as rotavirus and Japanese encephalitis. ...
He is internationally known for his studies on Japanese encephalitis. Basu is an elected fellow of all the three major Indian ... The team led by him are involved in research on the pathogenesis of viruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West ... microRNA Japanese encephalitis vaccine India portal Biology portal Medicine portal "Proforma for Nominations" (PDF). Department ... Basu, Anirban; Dutta, Kallol (13 March 2017). "Recent advances in Japanese encephalitis". F1000Research. 6: 259. doi:10.12688/ ...
... is Japanese encephalitis a possible TTI? Pool vs. individual testing. Not known to cause disease, recent studies Donors ...
"Japanese encephalitis spreads, claims first life". Taipei Times. Retrieved 26 July 2019. The three new cases are a man in his ...
Ixiaro by Valneva SE for Japanese encephalitis. Audsley JM, Tannock GA (1 August 2008). "Cell-based influenza vaccines: ...
"Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases. 57 (6): 229-35. PMID 15623946. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013.. ... Lindgren E, Gustafson R (July 2001). "Tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden and climate change". Lancet. 358 (9275): 16-8. doi: ... May 2006). "Serological evidence for tick-borne encephalitis, borreliosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Mongolia". ...
"Experimental transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by Culex fuscocephala". Am J Trop Med Hyg. 21: 482-6. PMID 4340450.. ... It is a vector of Japanese encephalitis virus. "An annotated checklist of mosquitoes of Sri Lanka" (PDF). Man and Biosphere ...
... and control of Japanese B encephalitis; proper approach to investigation of problem (34 min). PMF 5049 - PMF 5050 - PMF 5051 ( ... Arthropod-Borne Virus Encephalitides; Differential diagnostic measures; diagnosis, treatment, ...
The company also produces vaccines for Japanese Encephalitis. In April 2020, the company announced that they have partnered ... "A Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine From India Induces Durable and Cross-protective Immunity Against Temporally and Spatially Wide- ...
The deaths were suspected to have occurred due to Japanese encephalitis. In its interim report, the panel indicated that ... Mohanty, Debabrata (2016-11-19). "Japanese Encephalitis may not have killed Odisha children: Panel". Indian EXPRESS. Acharyya, ... At the end of four years, it was concluded that the disease was not encephalitis as so far believed but a fatal multi-system ... It was first assumed it to be a kind of viral encephalitis. Many national investigating agencies failed to diagnose the entity ...
Japanese encephalitis (JE), Chikungunya, West Nile and Chandipura etc. Ecological studies to understand the natural cycle of ... NIV is also the National Monitoring Centre for Influenza, Japanese encephalitis, Rota, Measles, Hepatitis and Coronavirus. The ... Discovered Chandipura virus involvement in encephalitis outbreaks in children in India. Isolation of several strains of ... Group Diagnostics Group Electron Microscopy Group Entomology Division Hepatitis group Influenza group Japanese Encephalitis ...
A viral infection following Japanese encephalitis virus infection also increased GPR84 expression by 2-4.5% in the mice brain. ... Gupta N, Rao PV (2011). "Transcriptomic profile of host response in Japanese encephalitis virus infection". Virol. J. 8: 92. ...
"Novel japanese encephalitis vaccine and method of manufacturing the same". Google Patents. 12 December 2017. Retrieved 12 ... Kalia, Manjula; Khasa, Renu; Sharma, Manish; Nain, Minu; Vrati, Sudhanshu (1 January 2013). "Japanese Encephalitis Virus ... noncoding region of Japanese encephalitis virus". Journal of Virology. 74 (11): 5108-5115. doi:10.1128/jvi.74.11.5108-5115.2000 ... noncoding region of Japanese encephalitis virus". Journal of Virology. 74 (11): 5108-5115. doi:10.1128/jvi.74.11.5108-5115.2000 ...
Vector borne diseases include dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria. Cambodia has been certified as being polio free ...
The most important projects of Intercell are: Vaccine against Japanese encephalitis (approved in Europe, America and Australia ... Retrieved 2009-03-31.[dead link] "Intercell's Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine EMEA approval for Europe". Intercell. 2009-04-02. ... Retrieved 2009-04-02.[dead link] "Intercell's Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Australian TGA approval". Intercell. 2009-01-23. ... "Intercell's Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine FDA approval". Medical News Today. 2009-03-31. ...
Neonatal and maternal tetanus was already eliminated on 2005 and Japanese encephalitis is in control status. Measles case based ...
"Children's Vaccine Program Receives Grant From Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to Combat Japanese Encephalitis" (Press release ... 27 million to help vaccinate against Japanese encephalitis on December 9, 2003.[105] ...
Pradhan found out that the Japanese‑B encephalitis (JE) sometimes produced selective lesions on the substrata nigra and this ... "Parkinsonism due to predominant involvement of substantia nigra in Japanese encephalitis". Neurology. 53 (8): 1781-6. doi: ... This was ratified by Japanese scientists with the help of an animal model of the disease using rats. His findings led to a new ... two electrophysiological techniques he has invented and his research findings on the neuro diseases of Japanese Encephalitis, ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ...
Kudzu, a Japanese vine species invasive in the southeast United States, growing in Atlanta, Georgia ... 1999). "Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States". Science. ... and invasive edible plants such as Connecticut Japanese knotweed and Autumn olive. [80][81][82][83][84] ...
Arbovirus encephalitis. Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral ... Type 2 has several variants: subtype 2A is found mainly in the Japanese population and Native Americans (excluding Inuit); 2B ... Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing ...
Japanese encephalitis#. *Measles#. *Mumps# *Mumpsvax. *Polio# *Sabin. *Salk. *Rabies#. *Rotavirus#. *Rubella#. *Smallpox * ...
Japanese encephalitis Japanese encephalitis virus pigs, water birds mosquito bite Kyasanur Forest disease Kyasanur Forest ... Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis Eastern equine encephalitis virus, ... Saint Louis encephalitis Saint Louis encephalitis virus birds mosquito bite Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS coronavirus ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, zebras, birds mosquito bite ...
For the Japanese encephalitis virus, blockade of CLEC5A cannot inhibit infection of neurons and astrocytes, however anti-CLEC5A ... The researchers discovered that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) also binds to CLEC5A and contributes to viral pathology.[8] ...
... in Japanese). 41 (1): 35-44. PMID 2655673.. ... Encephalitis *Viral encephalitis. *Herpesviral encephalitis. * ...
Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine. 55 (10): 2505-11. PMID 9360364.. *^ Smith W, Andrewes CH, Laidlaw PP (1933). "A virus ... Encephalitis is a rare but not unheard of, and can occur in the elderly and present as confusion and slurred speech. ... Encephalitis due to the flu is rare but not unheard of. ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Japanese encephalitis *JEV. *Australian encephalitis *MVEV. *KUNV. *Saint Louis encephalitis *SLEV ...
Maverick documentary filmmaker Kazuo Hara criticises the mores and customs of Japanese society in an unsentimental portrait of ... and encephalitis or meningitis.[59] ...
Japanese encephalitis#. *Measles#. *Mumps# *Mumpsvax. *Polio# *Sabin. *Salk. *Rabies#. *Rotavirus#. *Rubella#. *Smallpox * ...
Japanese encephalitis#. *Measles#. *Mumps# *Mumpsvax. *Polio# *Sabin. *Salk. *Rabies#. *Rotavirus#. *Rubella#. *Smallpox * ...
Japanese encephalitis#. *Measles#. *Mumps# *Mumpsvax. *Polio# *Sabin. *Salk. *Rabies#. *Rotavirus#. *Rubella#. *Smallpox * ...
2017 Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis outbreak Japanese encephalitis 17 (as of June 2018[update]) India 2018-present 2018 Nipah ...
Japanese encephalitis#. *Measles#. *Mumps# *Mumpsvax. *Polio# *Sabin. *Salk. *Rabies#. *Rotavirus#. *Rubella#. *Smallpox * ...
During World War II, scientists from the United Kingdom, United States and Japan (Unit 731 of the Imperial Japanese Army) were ... Other complications include encephalitis (1 in 500 patients), which is more common in adults and may cause temporary disability ... most often the result of postvaccinial encephalitis or severe necrosis in the area of vaccination (called progressive vaccinia ...
Japanese encephalitis. Japanese encephalitis virus. pigs, water birds. mosquito bite. Leprosy. Mycobacterium leprae, ... Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Western equine encephalitis. Eastern equine encephalitis virus ... Saint Louis encephalitis. Saint Louis encephalitis virus. birds. mosquito bite. Swine influenza. any strain of the influenza ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus. horses, donkeys, zebras, birds. mosquito bite. ...
"Blocking of the alpha interferon-induced Jak-Stat signaling pathway by Japanese encephalitis virus infection". J. Virol. 78 (17 ...
Japanese encephalitis#. *Measles#. *Mumps# *Mumpsvax. *Polio# *Sabin. *Salk. *Rabies#. *Rotavirus#. *Rubella#. *Smallpox * ...
In 2012, a Japanese gadget project, neurowear, released Necomimi: a headset with motorized cat ears. The headset is a NeuroSky ... Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). *Stroke. *Sleep disorders. It can also: *distinguish epileptic seizures from other ...
Japanese encephalitis virus. Japanese encephalitis. Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Ixiaro, Jespect, Imojev Measles virus. ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus. Tick-borne encephalitis. Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine. FSME-Immun, Encepur, TBE-Moscow, ... "A vaccine candidate for eastern equine encephalitis virus based on IRES-mediated attenuation". Vaccine. 30 (7): 1276-1282. doi ...
This is in contrast to the Japanese experience reported by Sasaki et al., likely reflecting heterogeneity of the disease in ... Encephalitis *Viral encephalitis. *Herpesviral encephalitis. *Limbic encephalitis. *Encephalitis lethargica. *Cavernous sinus ... a correlation between the deletion of genes in a specific genetic region and the development of MSA in a group of Japanese ...
"Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: WHO position paper - February 2015" (PDF). Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 90 (9): 69-87. Feb 27, 2015. ... Paulke-Korinek, M; Kollaritsch, H (2008). "Japanese encephalitis and vaccines: past and future prospects". Wiener klinische ...
Adenovirus · Tick-borne encephalitis · Japanese encephalitis# · Flu# (LAIV, H1N1 (Pandemrix)) · Hepatitis A# · Hepatitis B# · ...
Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever.[14] More than half of the world's population is at risk of these diseases. ...
FIGURE 2. Approximate geographic range of Japanese encephalitis. SOURCE: Fischer M, Griggs A, Staples J. Japanese encephalitis ... A case of Japanese encephalitis. J Infect 1994;28:175--9.. * Buhl M, Lindquist L. Japanese encephalitis in travelers: Review of ... Japanese encephalitis vaccines. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2006;81:331--40.. * CDC. Inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine: ... regarding the prevention of Japanese encephalitis (JE) among travelers (CDC. Inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine: ...
Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).[3] While most ... Japanese encephalitis resource library [2]. *CDC Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance and Immunization - Asia and Western Pacific ... Main article: Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Infection with Japanese encephalitis confers lifelong immunity. There are ...
Japanese encephalitis is a viral brain infection spread through mosquito bites. Its most common in rural areas throughout Asia ... How common is Japanese encephalitis?. Its very rare for travellers visiting risk areas to be affected by Japanese encephalitis ... Preventing Japanese encephalitis. The best way to prevent Japanese encephalitis is to be vaccinated against the infection ... Find out more about how to prevent Japanese encephalitis. Accessing healthcare abroad. Its a good idea to keep a list of ...
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Media in category "Japanese encephalitis". The following 11 files are in this category, out of 11 total. ... Japanese encephalitis virus E gene in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with meningitis.jpg 600 × 640; 30 KB. ... Pages in category "Japanese encephalitis". This category contains only the following page. ... Retrieved from "" ...
Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious infection caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus. ... Japanese encephalitis vaccine is approved for people 2 months of age and older. It is recommended for travelers to Asia who:. * ... Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control ...
Ixiaro - Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine, Inactivated, Adsorbed. ResourcesForYou. *Licensed Biological Products with Supporting ... Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine, Inactivated, Adsorbed * Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine, Inactivated, ...
Ixiaro is a Japanese encephalitis vaccine that contains inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus. It works by stimulating the ... What is the Japanese encephalitis vaccine used for?. *Preventing Japanese encephalitis in adults and children from two months ... Can the Japanese encephalitis vaccine affect other vaccines or medicines?. The Japanese encephalitis vaccine is not known to ... The Japanese encephalitis vaccine contains inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus. It stimulates the immune system to produce ...
... is a dangerous form of brain inflammation caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus, which is common in Asia and the West ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a dangerous form of brain inflammation caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus, which is common ... Encephalitis results from only about 1 in 250 infections. The symptoms of encephalitis include headache, high fever, ... Supportive care is required for encephalitis. Permanent disability in the form of brain or mental instability is found in 30-50 ...
1995)‎. Japanese encephalitis = Encéphalite japonaise. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 70 ...
Japanese Encephalitis News and Research. RSS Japanese encephalitis (previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish ... is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. The Japanese encephalitis virus is a virus from the ... Every year, more than 68,000 people end up with a clinical case of Japanese encephalitis. One in four of these patients will ... yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis, among others. ...
Graščenkov, N. I. (‎1964)‎. Japanese encephalitis in the USSR*. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 30 (‎2)‎, 161 - 172 ...
... and other partners across Asia and beyond to radically increase protection against Japanese encephalitis, a crippling and ... Japanese encephalitis-no longer neglected: A model for other new vaccines No longer neglected? Japanese encephalitis is a model ... Four barriers Nepal overcame to introduce Japanese encephalitis vaccines Japanese encephalitis was a formidable threat in Nepal ... Japanese Encephalitis. How do you scale up a vaccine to protect more than 300 million children? Weve worked for almost two ...
... represents the most significant etiology of arboviral encephalitis worldwide. Japanese encephalitis is a neurologic infection ... Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a flavivirus (single-stranded ribonucleic acid [RNA]), ... Japanese encephalitis is caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a flavivirus, and is closely related to St. Louis ... Japanese encephalitis virus belongs to the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, which is composed of 9 genetically and ...
Table 3. Estimated annual incidence and case frequency of Japanese encephalitis (JE) by incidence group and age stratuma. IG. ... Estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis: a systematic review. Grant L Campbell, Susan L Hills, Marc Fischer, Julie ...
It is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with up to 50,000 cases reported each year. ... Topics: Japanese Encephalitis , Vaccine Recommendations by AOR Guidance on the use of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine AF 0115. ... Topics: Japanese Encephalitis , Vaccine Recommendations by AOR Guidance on the Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine for US Army ... Japanese Encephalitis , Vaccine Recommendations by AOR COMPACFLT Guidance on the Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine for U.S. Navy ...
Travelers to high-risk areas and laboratory workers who could be exposed to Japanese-encephalitis (JE) viruses should receive ... NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Travelers to high-risk areas and laboratory workers who could be exposed to Japanese-encephalitis ( ... Cite this: Some Travelers, Lab Workers Should Get Japanese-Encephalitis Vaccine - Medscape - Jul 24, 2019. ... Louis encephalitis virus (two other viruses closely related to JEV) are circulating in the U.S. The situation will be ...
THE PATHOLOGY OF JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS. A REVIEW.. MIYAKE M.. Abstract. In his review of pathological studies on Japanese ... the Second World War the histopathological findings in Japanese encephalitis resembled those of eastern equine encephalitis but ... encephalitis conducted in Japan over the past 40 years, the author first discusses the findings obtained from post-mortem ... that since the war they have been more like those of western equine encephalitis, although no definitive explanation of this ...
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a disease spread through mosquito bites. ... What can travelers do to prevent Japanese encephalitis?. Travelers can protect themselves against Japanese encephalitis by ... Are moving to an area with Japanese encephalitis to live. *Spend long periods of time, such as a month or more, in areas with ... In places with four seasons, your chances of getting Japanese encephalitis are greatest in the summer and fall. In tropical and ...
Japanese Encephalitis is a viral infection caused by RNA viruses belonging to the Flavivirus genus. It is a zoonosis - an ... Japanese Encephalitis can be fatal in 20% to 30% percent of cases and many survivors continue to have long-term neurologic, ... Solomon T. Japanese Encephalitis. In: McGill, A; Ryan, E; Hill, D; Solomon, T, eds. Hunters Tropical Medicine and Emerging ... Japanese Encephalitis occurs in Southeast Asia. Long-term travellers, persons involved in outdoor recreational activities or on ...
Japanese encephalitis in Nepal. JE and HFRS Bull. 1:5-15, 1986. * Wuryadi S. Japanese encephalitis in Indonesia, JE and HFRS ... Monitoring of the vectors of Japanese encephalitis. Proceeding of the National Conference on Japanese encephalitis. 62-69, 1984 ... Effect of current Japanese encephalitis vaccine on different strains of Japanese encephalitis virus. Vaccine. 5:128-132, 1987. ... Japanese B encephalitis in an American soldier returning from Korea. N Engl J Med 249(13):531-532, 1953. * U.S. Navy Japanese ...
Japanese encephalitis synonyms, Japanese encephalitis pronunciation, Japanese encephalitis translation, English dictionary ... definition of Japanese encephalitis. n. An epidemic encephalitis or encephalomyelitis of Japan, Siberia, and other parts of ... Japanese encephalitis. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Japanese encephalitis. n.. An ... A snapshot of the global therapeutic scenario for Japanese Encephalitis.. Research and Markets: Japanese Encephalitis - ...
Japanese b encephalitis definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. ... An epidemic encephalitis or encephalomyelitis of Japan, Siberia, and other parts of Asia, caused by a virus of the genus ...
An outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh has killed more than 1300 children over the ... Japanese encephalitis outbreak kills 1300 children in India BMJ 2005; 331 :1288 ... Although Japanese encephalitis has progressively expanded into new territories in India over the past decade, government ... Uttar Pradesh has seen a steady increase in the number of cases of Japanese encephalitis in recent years. Public health experts ...
Japanese encephalitis virus strain SA-14. Mutation(s): 0 EC: (UniProt), (UniProt), (UniProt), 2.1. ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is inflammation and swelling of the brain caused by the JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne member of ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is inflammation and swelling of the brain caused by the JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne member of ... Crystal Structure of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Capsid Protein.. Poonsiri, T., Wright, G.S.A., Solomon, T., Antonyuk, S.V. ...
We document the MRI features in seven patients with Japanese encephalitis. MRI was carried out on a 1.5 T system within 10-60 ... MRI in Japanese encephalitis Neuroradiology. 1997 Mar;39(3):180-4. doi: 10.1007/s002340050388. ... We document the MRI features in seven patients with Japanese encephalitis. MRI was carried out on a 1.5 T system within 10-60 ... Bilateral thalamic involvement, especially haemorrhagic, may be considered characteristic of Japanese encephalitis, especially ...
Japanese Encephalitis. [risk]. Risk is presumed to be present in the entire country. Transmission occurs all year. Limited ... Japanese Encephalitis is a viral infection caused by RNA viruses belonging to the Flavivirus genus. It is a zoonosis - an ... Japanese Encephalitis can be fatal in 20% to 30% percent of cases and many survivors continue to have long-term neurologic, ... Solomon T. Japanese Encephalitis. In: McGill, A; Ryan, E; Hill, D; Solomon, T, eds. Hunters Tropical Medicine and Emerging ...
Learn about Japanese encephalitis, its causes, symptoms, risks, treatment and prevention. Also find information on surveillance ... Japanese encephalitis. Learn about Japanese encephalitis, its causes, symptoms, risks, treatment and prevention. Also find ...
NAME: Japanese encephalitis virus SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: JE, JEV, Japanese B encephalitis (JBE), Arbovirus B, Mosquito- ... prototype member of Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex which also contains St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray valley ... ZOONOSIS: Yes, from infected animals via mosquito bites; causes encephalitis in horses, spontaneous abortion and stillbirths in ... borne encephalitis virus CHARACTERISTICS: Single stranded, positive sense RNA, enveloped, 40-50 nm diameter, Family ...
A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Japanese Encephalitis in Mainland China, 1963-1975: A Period without Japanese Encephalitis ... Comparative Spatial Dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in Nepal Colin Robertson, Dhan Kumar Pant ... Japanese Encephalitis in Assam, India: Need to Increase Healthcare Workers Understanding to Improve Health Care Akram Ahmad, ... Seroprevalence of leptospirosis and Japanese encephalitis in swine in ten provinces of Vietnam Hu Suk Lee, To Long Thanh, ...
  • Japanese encephalitis ( JE ) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). (
  • Increased microglial activation following Japanese Encephalitis infection has been found to influence the outcome of viral pathogenesis. (
  • An overall induction of differential expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from different brain regions during a progressive Japanese Encephalitis infection was also observed. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is a viral brain infection that's spread through mosquito bites. (
  • But around 1 in every 250 people who become infected with Japanese encephalitis develop more severe symptoms as the infection spreads to the brain. (
  • You should get immediate medical advice if you have any of the symptoms of Japanese encephalitis and you have recently visited, or are still in, an area where the infection is found. (
  • The best way to prevent Japanese encephalitis is to be vaccinated against the infection before you visit a part of the world where there's a risk of catching it. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious infection caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus. (
  • Others might have symptoms as mild as a fever and headache, or as serious as encephalitis (brain infection). (
  • Japanese encephalitis is a neurologic infection with a broad range of manifestations. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis is a viral infection caused by RNA viruses belonging to the Flavivirus genus. (
  • After human immunodeficiency virus infection, JE may be the leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. (
  • This document contains the case definitions for Japanese encephalitis virus infection which is nationally notifiable within Australia. (
  • Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease following vaccination against human papilloma virus infection and Japanese encephalitis. (
  • Illness ranges from asymptomatic infection (about one in 200 infections is estimated to become clinically apparent) to severe encephalitis with a high mortality and a high rate of permanent neurological sequelae in survivors (approximately 30 per cent). (
  • The incubation period, from infection to developing Japanese encephalitis, is five to 15 days. (
  • Your doctor will decide if you should receive this vaccine, especially if you have a high risk of infection with the Japanese encephalitis virus. (
  • The present invention relates to synthetic catalytic DNA molecules or DNAzymes which specifically cleave the RNA sequences of the Japanese Encephalitis Viral genome and is useful in treating Japanese Encephalitis infection. (
  • Encephalitis is an infection of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord . (
  • JE is a severe disease that causes encephalitis, or infection of the brain, and there is no specific treatment. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne infection that leads to swelling of the brain. (
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus causes the dreadful Japanese encephalitis infection in humans, which is defined as a brain infection. (
  • Although the Japanese encephalitis infection generally shows mild symptoms and can even be asymptomatic, around one out of every 250 infections can cause serious illness, requiring specialized care and treatment (1). (
  • Any traveller to areas where Japanese Encephalitis is endemic (that is: the infection is present in low levels) is at risk. (
  • It is to be noted that Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). (
  • The most effective way to prevent infection from Japanese Encephalitis virus is to prevent mosquito bites. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a potentially fatal arboviral infection prevalent in large parts of Asia, as well as Papua New Guinea and the outer Torres Strait Islands. (
  • With approximately 67,000 cases and up to 20,000 deaths reported each year, Japanese encephalitis is the most frequent and most severe viral encephalitis, and the leading cause of viral neurological infection among children in Asia 1 . (
  • Japanese encephalitis, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection is a severe disease that involves inflammation of the brain. (
  • Japanese encephalitis in South Arcot district, Tamil Nadu: A three year longitudinal study of vector abundance and infection frequency. (
  • Philip Samuel P, Hiriyan J, Gajanana A. Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes and its epidemiological implications. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis is a mosquito-borne infection that strikes 30,000 to 50,000 individuals a year, causing 10,000 to 15,000 deaths (both probably an underestimate due to underreporting and misdiagnosis). (
  • As with all vaccines, the Japanese encephalitis vaccine will not protect 100 per cent of people who have it. (
  • Live attenuated vaccines are available in Japanese Encephalitis endemic countries where they are given as part of the childhood routine immunization schedule. (
  • It was reported yesterday that Sanofi Pasteur, the Sanofi vaccines division, has introduced a Japanese encephalitis vaccine, IMOJEV, in Australia. (
  • Kreidl P , De Mateo S , Rasch Gernot , Desenclos J C , Hemmer R , Thornton L , Tielinen M , Tucker R . Japanese encephalitis in Malaysia and vaccines. (
  • Students from Basic Education Middle school No. 13 line up to receive Japanese encephalitis vaccines in Shan State, Myanmar. (
  • There was widespread criticism of the government in May and June this year for its failure to procure anti-encephalitis vaccines in time. (
  • WASHINGTON, May 3 (Xinhua) -- Current vaccines may fail to protect individuals against an emerging strain of the Japanese encephalitis virus, the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, Chinese researchers said Tuesday. (
  • The Japanese encephalitis vaccines first became available in the 1930s. (
  • Japanese encephalitis vaccines WHO position paper. (
  • The vaccine, manufactured in China, only needs to be given in one dose, it can be used for infants, and it is less expensive than other Japanese encephalitis vaccines. (
  • The panel also concluded that IXIARO, which is derived from a well-established cell line and does not contain stabilizers or preservatives, has a lower risk of vaccine-associated adverse events than older Japanese Encephalitis vaccines. (
  • New Delhi, Aug 23 (IANS) More than 350 cases of Japanese encephalitis and nearly 90 deaths due to the viral disease were reported in Assam this year, the Rajya Sabha was told Tuesday. (
  • There were 351 cases and 89 deaths due to Japanese Encephalitis reported in Assam till Aug 9 in the current year," Minister of State for Health and Family and Welfare Sudip Bandyopadhyay said. (
  • Forty-five people have died till July 3 since the outbreak of Japanese Encephalitis in Assam, the National Health Mission said Thursday. (
  • Assam is undergoing the transmission season for Japanese Encephalitis cases. (
  • The Assam government is ensuring that treatment and diagnostic cost at medical colleges and district hospitals are borne by the state while a certain number of beds there have been reserved for Japanese Encephalitis patients. (
  • While Japanese Encephalitis outbreaks are almost an annual feature in Assam, the state has lost 700 lives to this vector borne disease since 2013. (
  • After 170 deaths from Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in just two months in Bihar, Assam is now on alert for a Japanese Encephalitis outbreak. (
  • Over the past three months, Assam has also seen over 50 deaths due to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome or AES. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis was most prevalent in upper Assam near the border with Myanmar. (
  • This year, over 70 children across Assam have been infected with Japanese Encephalitis virus, while number of infected adult is more than double. (
  • At least 49 deaths have occurred in Assam due to Japanese Encephalitis (JE) so far in 2019, and state health and finance minister Himanta Biswa Sarma on Saturday said that another 190 cases have been reported. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis swept through much of Assam this year unlike in previous years when it was largely confined to Upper Assam. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis has killed 154 people in Assam in 2019, the highest in five years officials said even as they claimed that the outbreak which peaked in July and August was subsiding and only a few fresh cases were reported in September. (
  • A child receives medical treatment of Japan ese encephalitis at a government hospital in Dibrugarh, Assam state of India, July 23, 2014. (
  • Scare in Assam Over Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine ( Guwahati: Healthcare authorities in Ass. (
  • Guwahati: Healthcare authorities in Assam Wednesday warned of an epidemic if parents do not get their children immunized against the fatal Japanese encephalitis//, which claimed 119 lives in the state last year. (
  • Children are vulnerable to the disease and unless parents get their wards immunized against Japanese encephalitis, the situation could be frightening,"Assam Health Minister Himanta Biswa Sarma told IANS. (
  • There are six districts in Assam vulnerable to Japanese encephalitis - all in eastern Assam. (
  • Cases of deadly Japanese encephalitis have risen nearly five-fold in five years in India's north-eastern Assam state which has also seen a recent spurt in JE cases among adults, something exceptional in global context so far. (
  • In 2015, in Assam the number of deaths due to Japanese Encephalitis stood at 135, in 2016 the number came down to 92 and further decreased to 87 in 2017. (
  • As Assam struggles to vaccinate all adults to contain the spread of the deadly Japanese Encephalitis which killed 154 people this year, the highest since 2014, state government said complete adult vaccination may take another year because of a big supply gap. (
  • The Tripura Health Department is taking special measures to prevent the possibility of Japanese Encephalitis spreading along areas bordering Assam. (
  • The North District Health Department circulated special instructions to all the health establishments along the Assam border to undertake massive blood test exercise to see if there is presence of any Japanese Encephalitis. (
  • According to reports, Japanese Encephalitis is playing havoc in various districts of Assam for the last few days and it has already claimed 53 lives in Assam . (
  • Dibrugarh (Assam) [India], July 20 (ANI): As many as 102 people have died till now due to Japanese Encephalitis, Principal of Assam Medical College Hiranya Kumar Goswami said on Saturday. (
  • Till July 2, Japanese Encephalitis had claimed 28 lives and 100 patients were treated in different hospitals in Assam, a government official had said. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is spread through these regions by bites of culicine mosquitoes, most often Culex tritaeniorhynchus . (
  • Out of 580 wild-caught mosquitoes from 124 pools tested for virus using antigen capture ELISA and an insect-bioassay (inoculation into Toxorhynchites splendens larvae and identification by IFA using Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus-specific monoclonal antibody), four flavivirus isolations were made, of which 2 (50%) were identified as JE virus, one each from Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is a viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes in humans causing inflammation of the membranes around the brain," the October 14 warning read. (
  • In 2005, there was an international discussion which concluded that mosquitoes that carry the Japanese encephalitis strain are endemic to the Philippines," Constantino said. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes, causing inflammation of the membrane around the brain, often fatal if not treated soon. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is an arthropod-borne viral encephalitis (an inflammation of the brain caused by a virus spread by mosquitoes). (
  • Japanese B encephalitis (or, Japanese encephalitis) is a viral disease spread by infected mosquitoes. (
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted by the infectious bite of Culex mosquitoes. (
  • As Japanese Encephalitis is transmitted by mosquitoes, the heavy rain and flooding brought in by the arrival of monsoon season have only exacerbated the severity of the outbreak. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is a potentially severe viral disease spread by infected mosquitoes in the agricultural regions of Asia and affects the central nervous system and can cause severe complications and even death. (
  • Mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the 'Culex' variant, carry and transmit the Japanese encephalitis virus in humans (2). (
  • Humans suffering from Japanese encephalitis don't have enough viral load for the mosquitoes to get infected from and the mosquitoes, therefore, transmit the virus by feeding on pigs or water birds instead, resulting in what's known as an 'enzootic' cycle (3). (
  • The best way of protecting yourself from Japanese encephalitis virus, besides the vaccination, is to protect yourself from the carrier of the virus, the mosquitoes themselves. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis Vero Cell vaccine (JE-VC) is an inactivated vaccine product, trade named IXIARO® . (
  • The new Japanese encephalitis (IXIARO) vaccine was launched by Novartis more than three years ago, and in 2013 new guidance was given for its use in children. (
  • What is Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine (SA14-14-2) (Ixiaro)? (
  • The preventive vaccine known as IXIARO is one of the solutions available for protection against Japanese encephalitis virus and is administered in two doses with 28 days between them (7). (
  • ATLANTA, June 24 /PRNewswire/ -- Intercell AG (VSE: ICLL) today announced that the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted to update its previous recommendations and include IXIARO, a new Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine for travelers to countries in Asia where the disease is endemic, as well as Americans living in such high-risk areas. (
  • Intercell's Phase III trials for IXIARO found that the vaccine demonstrated immunogenicity against Japanese Encephalitis and an overall clinical safety profile similar to the control arm, combined with an excellent local tolerability profile. (
  • Although sporadic cases of viral encephalitis had been noted in northern Thailand before 1969, epidemic transmission of JE was first recognized that year, when an outbreak leading to 685 cases occurred in the Chiang Mai valley. (
  • An outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh has killed more than 1300 children over the past four months. (
  • Soldiers wearing protective clothing to contain an outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in Malaysia in 1999. (
  • At least 57 people have died in the last three months from Japanese Encephalitis and 234 positive cases have been reported in the state in this fresh outbreak. (
  • Aussie tourist hotspot Bali has been hit with an outbreak of a dangerous, mosquito-borne brain disease called Japanese encephalitis. (
  • When in an area with a Japanese encephalitis outbreak, try your best to cover as much of your exposed skin as possible. (
  • 1 An outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the Torres Strait Islands and the northern extremity of Cape York in March 1995 2 raised concern that this arbovirus may become established in feral pigs in northern Australia. (
  • An unexpected outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the Chugoku district of Japan, 2002. (
  • JE causes acute encephalitis syndrome, which often takes a toll on survivors, 75 percent of whom suffer long-term disabilities. (
  • The level of preparedness of Uttar Pradesh for the annual epidemic of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) and Japanese Encephalitis (JE) was discussed by Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, J P Nadda and Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister, Akhilesh Yadav, on Friday. (
  • AES- Acute Encephalitis Syndrome and JE are clinically similar neurological manifestation arising from viruses, bacteria, and parasites, fungus, etc. (
  • The clinical characteristics and outcomes in pediatric JE patients hospitalized with acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) are still poorly understood. (
  • The health authorities here said that 4 JE positive cases and 14 Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) cases have been detected in the district. (
  • Etiology of encephalitis syndrome among hospitalized children and adults in Takeo, Cambodia 1999-2000. (
  • Kabilan L, Edwin N, Balashankar S, Meikandan D. Japanese encephalitis among pediatric patients with acute encephalitis syndrome in Tamil Nadu, India. (
  • Japanese encephalitis among hospitalized pediatric and adult patients with acute encephalitis syndrome in Hanoi, Vietnam. (
  • Sarma explained how, for another year "we have to fight JE in a more conservative way through treatment" as he announced that Japanese Encephalitis and Acute Encephalitis cases will also be covered under the state's Atal Amrit Abhiyan, a cashless healthcare scheme which provides up to Rs 2,00,000 for treatment. (
  • During the mumps and Japanese B encephalitis (JBE) epidemics of 1947-1948 there were 46 known cases of encephalitis among the Guamanian civilian population, with 43 survivors of the acute illness, giving a case fatality of 6.5 per cent overall. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates there are around 68,000 cases of Japanese encephalitis worldwide each year. (
  • Although Japanese encephalitis has progressively expanded into new territories in India over the past decade, government figures show that over the past five years the annual number of cases had not exceeded 3000, and annual mortality had always remained below 500. (
  • An indigenous vaccine against Japanese encephalitis was launched on Friday by India as part of a national program to fight the virus. (
  • This year's Japanese Encephalitis season came earlier and deadlier to India than previous years. (
  • China has refused to supply additional doses of the Japanese encephalitis vaccine to India, raising concerns over control of the mosquito-borne disease which intensifies during the rainy season. (
  • India currently procures 66 million doses of JE vaccine from China but has sought an additional 16 million doses to expand the coverage of its ongoing National Programme for Prevention and Control of Japanese Encephalitis. (
  • Intercell AG and its partner Biological E. Ltd. (Hyderabad, India) announced the analysis of Phase II data for its investigational pediatric vaccine against Japanese Encephalitis. (
  • J apanese encephalitis is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with recent epidemics in India, Malaysia and Nepal. (
  • Reuben R, Gajanana A. Japanese encephalitis in India. (
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important cause of encephalitis among children in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India. (
  • Hospital and laboratory based investigations of hospitalized children with central nervous system related symptoms to assess Japanese encephalitis virus etiology in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a flavivirus, and is closely related to St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus, and is closely related to West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. (
  • The company says the new assay can also detect other members of the Japanese Encephalitis virus group, of which West Nile is a member. (
  • De Groot and her colleagues compared the genomes of a Japanese encephalitis virus and a strain of West Nile virus that killed several people in New York in 1999. (
  • JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 genetically and antigenically related viruses, some which are particularly severe in horses, and four known to infect humans including West Nile virus. (
  • The enveloped virus is closely related to the West Nile virus and the St. Louis encephalitis virus. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious arboviral disease caused by a flavivirus closely related to other flaviviruses such as West Nile, Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin (the latter two occur in Australia). (
  • Zika is a member of the Flaviviridae family, which includes medically important pathogens such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. (
  • JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the most common vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia. (
  • Japanese encephalitis virus, a flavivirus (single-stranded ribonucleic acid [RNA]), represents the most significant etiology of arboviral encephalitis worldwide. (
  • An epidemic encephalitis or encephalomyelitis of Japan, Siberia, and other parts of Asia, caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is inflammation and swelling of the brain caused by the JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne member of the Flavivirus family. (
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus comes from the Flavivirus genus, which also includes viruses such as those that cause dengue, yellow fever, and zika. (
  • Japanese encephalitis, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the main cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. (
  • This vaccine is given to prevent Japanese encephalitis only. (
  • What can travelers do to prevent Japanese encephalitis? (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, March 30, a new vaccine to prevent Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). (
  • Je-Vax ( Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Inactivated) is a vaccine used to help prevent Japanese encephalitis virus disease in adults and children who are at least 12 months old. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine can prevent Japanese encephalitis . (
  • How can I prevent Japanese Encephalitis? (
  • BAGUIO CITY - Amid an anti-vaccination hysteria, Congress is expanding the government's immunization program and will soon include a global vaccination campaign against Japanese encephalitis (JE) starting in this city. (
  • Myanmar's first national Japanese encephalitis vaccination campaign will protect over 12.5 million children from the disease. (
  • Assam's health department will launch a state wide adult vaccination campaign in November covering all districts to combat Japanese Encephalitis. (
  • Odisha Govt to launch special vaccination campaign for Japanese Encephalitis in. (
  • Bhubaneswar: The State Government would launch a vaccination campaign from November 27 to combat the dreaded Japanese Encephalitis (JE) that claimed hundreds of lives. (
  • What should I know before having the Japanese encephalitis vaccine? (
  • It's very rare for travellers visiting risk areas to be affected by Japanese encephalitis. (
  • It's estimated less than 1 in a million travellers get Japanese encephalitis in any given year. (
  • It recommended for people who are at high risk of contracting Japanese encephalitis, such as travellers to parts of Asia and the Far East, people living or working in high risk areas and laboratory staff at risk of exposure to the virus. (
  • Sophie is suffering from a severe form of Japanese encephalitis , which is most common in rural areas throughout South East Asia, the Pacific islands and the Far East, but is very rare in travellers. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is spreading across Asia with travellers warned about visiting parts of Indonesia. (
  • A Japanese encephalitis vaccine is available for people aged 12 months and older and is recommended for travellers spending extended one month or more in rural areas of high-risk countries for JE," the NSW Health website states. (
  • In the UK, rare cases of Japanese encephalitis are reported in travellers from abroad. (
  • Japanese encephalitis vaccine: is it being sufficiently used in travellers? (
  • 4 Japanese encephalitis should therefore be considered among unwell travellers returning from endemic areas, including those with undifferentiated fever. (
  • A clinically compatible febrile illness of variable severity associated with neurological symptoms ranging from headache to meningitis or encephalitis. (
  • Japanese encephalitis can cause severe complications, like long-term neurological disability and death. (
  • all survivors of the unknown type of encephalitis had neurological abnormality at the time of follow-up. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis is the leading cause of viral neurological disease and disability in Asia and the most important viral encephalitis in Asia. (
  • A total number of 45 Japanese Encephalitis deaths have been reported till July 3, 2019, in the state," the National Health Mission (NHM) said in a statement. (
  • This report updates the 1993 recommendations by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the prevention of Japanese encephalitis (JE) among travelers (CDC. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Travelers to high-risk areas and laboratory workers who could be exposed to Japanese-encephalitis (JE) viruses should receive the JE vaccine, according to updated recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (
  • It is suggested that persons stay in the clinic for at least 30 minutes after receiving an immunization shot for Japanese encephalitis. (
  • Kampong Chham, Cambodia, October 9, 2009-PATH applauds the Government of Cambodia on today's launch of an immunization program to protect infants against Japanese encephalitis (JE). (
  • PATH's Japanese Encephalitis Project partners with global and regional organizations, ministries of health, research institutions, and universities to improve disease surveillance, accelerate development of an improved vaccine, and integrate JE vaccine into immunization programs in Asia. (
  • Intercell's novel Japanese Encephalitis vaccine is a purified, inactivated vaccine for active immunization of adults against the Japanese Encephalitis virus. (
  • In 2014, the state recorded 165 deaths due to Japanese Encephalitis. (
  • According to Kathmandu radio - encephalitis caused 10 deaths each. (
  • According to Kathmandu radio - encephalitis caused 10 deaths each in the townships of Tikapur and Dhangadi until Friday evening. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most prevalent and significant mosquito borne viral encephalitis of man, occurring with an estimated 30,000 to 50,000 of cases and 15,000 deaths annually [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • It is a disease caused by the mosquito -borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). (
  • Japanese encephalitis (previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economo's A encephalitis) is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. (
  • We've worked for almost two decades with governments, manufacturers, and other partners across Asia and beyond to radically increase protection against Japanese encephalitis, a crippling and incurable disease also known as "brain fever. (
  • In his review of pathological studies on Japanese encephalitis conducted in Japan over the past 40 years, the author first discusses the findings obtained from post-mortem examinations of persons who had died of the disease, and, secondly, summarizes experimental research carried out on monkeys, horses and mice. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne arboviral disease of major public health importance in Asia. (
  • One of these services immunizes children from an encephalitis strain that has no cure and which can be deadly, said Dr. Ruby Constantino, acting director of the Department of Health's Disease Prevention and Control Bureau. (
  • For the prevention and control of the vector-borne disease, including Japanese encephalitis, the Indian government is implementing an integrated National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) under the National Rural Health Mission," the minister added. (
  • In 2017, Myanmar took the first step in protecting its children from Japanese encephalitis (JE), a deadly disease that claims up to 20,000 lives per year globally. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito borne viral disease associated with inflammation of the brain. (
  • The virus causes the development of the disease Japanese encephalitis (JE) in a small proportion of those infected, predominantly affecting children in eastern and southern Asia. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is a serious disease caused by a virus. (
  • The Japanese encephalitis SA14-14-2 vaccine is used to help prevent this disease in adults and adolescents who are at least 17 years old. (
  • Like any vaccine, the Japanese encephalitis SA14-14-2 vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person. (
  • Local health officials worry that the number of encephalitis patients may reach at least 3,500 with a case-fatality rate of 20% while over 70 million children are at risk of the disease. (
  • Japanese B encephalitis is a disease with high mortality and many of those surviving suffer from serious sequelae. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an arthropod borne viral disease. (
  • People traveling to tropical regions, or to places with a high instance of Japanese encephalitis infections need to ensure that they take the appropriate preventive measures to avoid the onset of the disease altogether. (
  • Once infected, there is no known cure for the disease and with the fatality rates being as high as they are, suffering from Japanese encephalitis is not a situation one would want to find themselves into (6). (
  • Japanese encephalitis is a dreadful disease and one must take absolutely every precaution possible to avoid getting infected by it. (
  • These results clearly confirm our straight forward development process and leadership for our Japanese Encephalitis vaccine for children, which are living in endemic areas and are threatened by this terrible disease. (
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is estimated to cause at least 50,000 cases of clinical disease every year, mostly in children younger than 10 years. (
  • Since 16 July 2004, under the ordinance of Hong Kong, Japanese encephalitis has been a notifiable disease. (
  • The responses of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) mosquito vectors to 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) and CO 2 were evaluated using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps at 3 sites in northern Australia. (
  • ACIP made significant changes to their previous Japanese Encephalitis recommendations, last updated in 1993, noting that many more travelers are now visiting areas where the disease is endemic. (
  • In the United States, Japanese encephalitis mostly develops among travelers returning from endemic countries. (
  • However, for most travelers the chance of getting infected with Japanese encephalitis is low. (
  • Travelers can protect themselves against Japanese encephalitis by taking the following steps. (
  • Not recommended for travelers planning short-term travel to urban areas or travel to areas with no clear Japanese encephalitis season. (
  • Recommendations for use of inactivated Vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine in adults and children aged [greater than or equal to] 2 months traveling to JE-endemic areas * * JE vaccine is recommended for travelers who plan to spend a month or longer in endemic areas during the JE virus transmission season. (
  • You can be immunized against Japanese encephalitis, although the risk for travelers who are staying less than 30 days in the regions listed above is low. (
  • It is recommended for travelers who are traveling to areas where instances of Japanese encephalitis exist. (
  • Besides the approval and launch of Intercell's investigational vaccine against Japanese Encephalitis for adult travelers and military personnel in Europe, USA and Australia, the development of a vaccine to prevent children in endemic areas from Japanese Encephalitis, is a major goal. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a dangerous form of brain inflammation caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus, which is common in Asia and the West Pacific territories. (
  • A small percentage of infected persons develop inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), with symptoms including sudden onset of headache, high fever, disorientation, coma, tremors and convulsions. (
  • Encephalitis is the inflammation of the brain, mostly caused by viruses. (
  • But by far, the majority of cases of Japanese encephalitis do not have either brain symptoms or serious consequences. (
  • JE can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), which can be deadly. (
  • People who get encephalitis from JE can have serious complications, including seizures (sudden, unusal movements or behavior), paralysis (not being able to move), brain damage - and even death. (
  • It is the leading cause of viral encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in Asia. (
  • The reason for such widespread concern is that Japanese encephalitis has a high mortality rate, and a risk of permanent brain damage even for those who do recover. (
  • In a previous study, we performed serial brain-to-brain passages of swine Japanese encephalitis virus in mice and sequenced the complete genomes of the F5 and F20 passaged mouse-adapted variants. (
  • Every year, more than 68,000 people end up with a clinical case of Japanese encephalitis. (
  • Centre for Health Protection Controller Dr Wong Ka-hing: We received the notification of this fourth local case of Japanese encephalitis today. (
  • The Centre for Health Protection is investigating a local case of Japanese encephalitis involving a 59-year-old Tin Shui Wai man. (
  • Management parameters affecting the outcome of Japanese encephalitis. (
  • The control of Japanese encephalitis in Hong Kong relies on an accurate surveillance system, vector control, vector avoidance, and vaccination of the at-risk population. (
  • Symptoms of Japanese encephalitis usually appear 5-15 days after the bite from an infected mosquito. (
  • The persistent transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in Taiwan necessitates exploring the risk factors of occurrence of Japanese encephalitis (JE). (
  • To review past and present patterns of occurrence of Japanese encephalitis in Hong Kong and across Asia. (
  • There is a vaccination available for Japanese encephalitis, mainly recommended if you're planning on staying for more than a month in rural areas, as mentioned above. (
  • A vaccine is available for Japanese encephalitis and is administered as three doses over 30 days, at a material cost of over $300. (
  • The vaccine protects against Japanese encephalitis for about two years. (
  • Japanese encephalitis vaccine is a vaccine that protects against Japanese encephalitis. (
  • The vaccine, which is usually only available privately, gives protection against Japanese encephalitis in more than 9 out of 10 people who receive it. (
  • Protection against Japanese encephalitis doesn't occur immediately after having the vaccination, but most people will have protective levels of antibodies a week after completing the two dose course. (
  • The information below refers to products available in the United States that contain japanese encephalitis virus vaccine nakayama. (
  • This vaccine is recommended for people who live in or travel to areas where Japanese encephalitis is known to exist, or where an epidemic has recently occurred. (
  • In the past, Japanese encephalitis has reached epidemic proportions in Japan, South Korea, and some areas in China. (
  • Japanese encephalitis virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) on serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the standard diagnostic test for Japanese encephalitis. (
  • Recurrent summer outbreaks of encephalitis in horses and humans, consistent with JE, had been observed in Japan since the last century. (
  • Vaccine is key to preventing outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis. (
  • Prevention is generally with the Japanese encephalitis vaccine , which is both safe and effective. (
  • Government officials said early and persistent rain through the monsoon season this year flooded rice fields and provided a breeding environment conducive for Culex tritaeniorhynchus , the species of mosquito that carries the Japanese encephalitis virus from pigs and infects humans through bites. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito from the Culex species. (
  • The Japanese encephalitis virus has a complex life cycle involving domestic pigs and a specific type of culex mosquito that lives in rural rice-growing and pig-farming regions. (
  • DEFYING FEAR Several Baguio children, age 5 years old or younger, were the first recipients of a vaccine against the deadly Japanese encephalitis. (
  • Complete nucleotide sequence of the Japanese encephalitis virus genome RNA. (
  • Vrati S, Giri RK, Razdan A, Malik P. Complete nucleotide sequence of an Indian strain of Japanese encephalitis virus: Sequence comparison with other strains and phylogenetic analysis. (
  • only 1 in 250 infections develop into encephalitis. (
  • However, not all human infections cause severe encephalitis. (
  • Encephalitis results from only about 1 in 250 infections. (
  • On the other hand, although diagnostic tests ruled out fungal or bacterial infections, we should still consider the possibil- Encephalitis in South Korea, ity that these viruses infect other uncharacterized organisms. (
  • The encephalitis cannot be distinguished clinically from other central nervous system infections. (
  • The vast majority of infections are asymptomatic: only 1 in 250 infections develop into encephalitis. (
  • When symptoms of encephalitis (such as fever, shivering, and severe headaches) appear suddenly, they are followed by various neuropsychic problems such as stupor, confusion, and vegetative disorders. (
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) targets the central nervous system, clinically manifesting with fever, headache, vomiting, signs of meningeal irritation, and altered consciousness [ 11 ]. (
  • Patients with symptomatic Japanese encephalitis usually present with fever, headache, and confusion. (
  • Lim SI, Kweon CH, Tark DS, Kim SH, Yang DK (2007) Sero-survey on Aino, Akabane, Chuzan, bovine ephemeral fever and Japanese encephalitis virus of cattle and swine in Korea. (
  • 3.IgG seroconversion or a significant increase in antibody level or a fourfold or greater rise in titre of Japanese encephalitis virus-specific IgG proven by neutralisation or another specific test, with no history of recent Japanese encephalitis vaccination. (
  • The diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis was confirmed by a rise in titre of specific IgG in blood, from 80 (8 days after onset of illness) to 1280 (4 weeks after onset). (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of severe viral encephalitis that affects individuals in Asia, western Pacific countries, and northern Australia. (
  • Anyone who has had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of Japanese encephalitis vaccine should not receive additional doses. (
  • In the end, this report introduced 4Million Doses/year Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine project feasibility analysis and investment return analysis, also give related research conclusions and development trend analysis of China Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine industry. (
  • Japanese encephalitis virus belongs to the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, which is composed of 9 genetically and antigenically related viruses of the Flaviviridae family. (
  • What other viruses cause encephalitis? (
  • Three other encephalitis viruses belong to the Alphavirus genus and are also transmitted by mosquito bite. (
  • Like Japanese encephalitis, these viruses often only produce mild general symptoms - similar to mild influenza . (
  • Birds are the common hosts for several of the various encephalitis viruses. (
  • JE virus is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in Asia and the western Pacific. (
  • Comprehensive mapping antigenic epitopes of NS1 protein of Japanese encephalitis virus with monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Detection of antibodies in the blood serum is the most common means of diagnosing Japanese encephalitis. (
  • He tested positive for Japanese encephalitis antibodies. (
  • Krishna VD, Rangappa M, Satchidanandam V (2009) Virus-specific cytolytic antibodies to nonstructural protein 1 of Japanese encephalitis virus effect reduction of virus output from infected cells. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) antibody was immobilized onto the surfaces of carbon nanoparticles through amide bonds formation between amino groups of carbon nanoparticles and carboxylic groups of JEV antibody. (
  • To obtain data on the antibody response to a single subcutaneous vaccination with ChimeriVax™-JE, at three dose levels, in healthy adult volunteers without prior Japanese encephalitis immunity. (
  • Nidaira M, Taira K, Onodera I, Morikawa T, Itokazu K, Kudaka J, Ohno A (2007) Detection of Japanese encephalitis virus antibody in a pig on Yonaguni Island, where all pigs were slaughtered in 1997. (
  • Doctors are referring all patients to NBMCH to get the Japanese encephalitis test done. (
  • We document the MRI features in seven patients with Japanese encephalitis. (
  • Neuroimages of Japanese encephalitis: report of three patients. (
  • The cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) studies of three Japanese encephalitis (JE) patients, 24 to 37 years of age, are reported. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis can be fatal in 20% to 30% percent of cases and many survivors continue to have long-term neurologic, psychiatric, or cognitive problems. (
  • If the annual incidence of herpes encephalitis, probably the most common sporadic viral encephalitis, is estimated at 5 per million, then approximately 25,000 such cases occur worldwide each year (5). (
  • Particularly, from 7th July itself, and they are coming now, till now 83 cases out of 344 have been detected as Japanese encephalitis and other are due to some other causes," said Satpathy. (
  • Uttar Pradesh has seen a steady increase in the number of cases of Japanese encephalitis in recent years. (
  • Indonesia's health ministry says cases of Japanese encephalitis have risen in the country. (
  • There's about 50,000 cases of Japanese encephalitis reported annually. (
  • Constantino listed four regions with a high number of Japanese encephalitis cases: Ilocos region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon and Cordillera. (
  • Diagnostic services for Japanese Encephalitis with Elisa kits have been made available in all district hospitals and government medical college hospitals, awareness programmes intensified and fogging operations stepped up in areas from where Japanese Encephalitis cases have been reported. (
  • New Delhi, Dec 21 (IANS) Voicing concern over rising cases of Japanese Encephalitis, Delhi Health Minister A.K. Walia Wednesday said that pigs being brought to the national capital from outside were found to be carriers of the virus. (
  • More than 20 cases of Japanese encephalitis have been confirmed since the beginning of summer and doctors warn that delayed treatment can lead to complications and after-effects, or may even be fatal. (
  • In 2004, there were five local cases of Japanese encephalitis in Hong Kong. (
  • The high case fatality (33% or higher) and the low sequelae rates reported in the Japanese studies (3 to 14%) contrast with the report of encephalitis cases in this study. (