Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Infections with viruses of the genus HENIPAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A class of amoeboid EUKARYOTES that forms either filiform subpseudopodia or lobopodia. Characteristics include the absence of sorocarps, sporangia, or similar fruiting bodies. Lobosea were formerly members of the phylum Sarcomastigophora, subphylum Sarcodina, under the old five kingdom paradigm.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A neurosurgical procedure that removes or disconnects the epileptogenic CEREBRAL CORTEX of a hemisphere. Hemispherectomy is usually performed for patients with intractable unilateral EPILEPSY due to malformations of cortical development or brain lesions. Depending on the epileptogenic area in the hemisphere, cortical removal can be total or partial.
Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.
Hospital department responsible for the flow of patients and the processing of admissions, discharges, transfers, and also most procedures to be carried out in the event of a patient's death.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
An acute tick-borne arbovirus infection causing meningoencephalomyelitis of sheep.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.

Activated human T cells, B cells, and monocytes produce brain-derived neurotrophic factor in vitro and in inflammatory brain lesions: a neuroprotective role of inflammation? (1/1379)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has potent effects on neuronal survival and plasticity during development and after injury. In the nervous system, neurons are considered the major cellular source of BDNF. We demonstrate here that in addition, activated human T cells, B cells, and monocytes secrete bioactive BDNF in vitro. Notably, in T helper (Th)1- and Th2-type CD4(+) T cell lines specific for myelin autoantigens such as myelin basic protein or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, BDNF production is increased upon antigen stimulation. The BDNF secreted by immune cells is bioactive, as it supports neuronal survival in vitro. Using anti-BDNF monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antiserum, BDNF immunoreactivity is demonstrable in inflammatory infiltrates in the brain of patients with acute disseminated encephalitis and multiple sclerosis. The results raise the possibility that in the nervous system, inflammatory infiltrates have a neuroprotective effect, which may limit the success of nonselective immunotherapies.  (+info)

Serum gelatinase B, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels in multiple sclerosis. A longitudinal clinical and MRI study. (2/1379)

Metalloproteinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. We report longitudinal serum levels of gelatinase B and of the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP), TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, in 21 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Patients had monthly clinical and gadolinium-enhanced MRI follow-up for 10 months. Longitudinal samples in nine healthy controls and cross-sectional samples from 12 patients with inflammatory CNS disease and 15 patients with other neurological diseases were used for comparison. Average serum gelatinase B, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were significantly higher in multiple sclerosis patients and those with other neurological diseases than in healthy controls. In the patients with multiple sclerosis, gelatinase B levels were significantly higher during clinical relapse compared with periods of clinical stability. Multiple sclerosis patients with high mean serum gelatinase B levels had significantly more T1-weighted gadolinium-enhancing MRI lesions than those with mean levels within the control range. TIMP-1 levels were not different during relapse and between relapses. There was a trend for TIMP-2 levels to be lower during relapse compared with non-relapse periods. For similar levels of serum gelatinase B, associated TIMP-1 levels were significantly lower and TIMP-2 levels significantly higher in multiple sclerosis patients compared with the inflammatory CNS control group. We propose that an abnormality in the inhibitory response to metalloproteinases may play an aetiological role in the chronicity of multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after autologous bone marrow transplantation and alpha-interferon immunotherapy. (3/1379)

A patient with a stage IV mantle cell lymphoma (according to the REAL classification) was treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. One year later while on alpha-interferon immunotherapy she suffered from progressive loss of short-term memory and reported difficulties in recognizing objects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a vast ring-enhancing lesion of the left postcentral parietal area. Serial stereotactic biopsies disclosed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy without JC-virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Therapy with subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2) every other day and intrathecal cytarabine once a week was started. After 4 weeks the patient refused further treatment. Nevertheless her condition improved over the next 8 months and MRI scans showed a marked improvement in the lesions.  (+info)

Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase exacerbates chronic cerebral toxoplasmosis in Toxoplasma gondii-susceptible C57BL/6 mice but does not reactivate the latent disease in T. gondii-resistant BALB/c mice. (4/1379)

Infection of C57BL/6 mice with Toxoplasma gondii leads to progressive and ultimately fatal chronic Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE). Genetic deletion or inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) from the beginning of infection increased the number of T. gondii cysts in the brain and markedly reduced the time-to-death in this mouse strain. In the present study, we addressed whether iNOS also contributes to the control of intracerebral parasites in a clinically stable latent infection that develops in T. gondii-resistant BALB/c mice after resolution of the acute phase of TE. iNOS was expressed in the inflammatory cerebral infiltrates of latently infected BALB/c mice, but the number of iNOS+ cells was significantly lower than in the brains of chronically infected T. gondii-susceptible C57BL/6 mice. In BALB/c mice with latent TE (> 30 days of infection), treatment with the iNOS inhibitors L-N6-iminoethyl-lysine or L-nitroarginine-methylester for < or = 40 days did not result in an increase of the intracerebral parasitic load and a reactivation of the disease, despite the presence of iNOS-suppressive inhibitor levels in the brain. However, L-nitroarginine-methylester treatment had remarkably toxic effects and induced a severe wasting syndrome with high mortality. In contrast to BALB/c mice, L-N6-iminoethyl-lysine treatment rapidly exacerbated the already established chronic TE of C57BL/6 mice. Thus, the containment of latent toxoplasms in T. gondii-resistant BALB/c mice is independent of iNOS, whereas the temporary control of intracerebral parasites in T. gondii-susceptible C57BL/6 mice with chronic TE requires iNOS activity.  (+info)

Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in hematologic complete remission. (5/1379)

The authors describe the cases of three patients affected by acute myeloid leukemia, in complete remission, who rapidly developed neurologic symptoms leading to death. Neither clinical characteristics, nor radiological or microbiological procedures, allowed an etiological diagnosis of the neurologic syndrome. Post-mortem examination of the brain showed both macroscopic and microscopic findings compatible with acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. The difficulty in distinguishing this entity from other CNS disease-related complications (e.g. leukemia infiltration, drug toxicity, hemorrhages) should not lead to an underestimation of the true incidence of this complication. We believe that with more attention to the possibility of this complication there would probably be both a greater possibility of collecting clinical informations about the real impact of this dramatic disease and a stronger hope of finding the right treatment for it.  (+info)

Serum antibodies to Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free-living amoeba recently demonstrated to cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. (6/1379)

Free-living amoebae cause three well-defined disease entities: a rapidly fatal primary meningoencephalitis, a chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), and a chronic amoebic keratitis. GAE occurs in immunocompromised persons. Recently, another type of free-living amoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, has been shown to cause GAE. The finding that this amoeba has caused infection in some healthy children has raised the possibility that humans may lack immunity to B. mandrillaris. Human serum was examined for the presence of surface antibodies specific for this amoeba by immunofluorescence. Sera from adults contained titers of 1/64-1/256 of anti-B. mandrillaris antibodies (IgM and IgG classes), which did not cross-react with other amoebae. Cord blood contained very low antibody levels, but levels similar to those in adults were seen in serum of 1- to 5-year-old children.  (+info)

MR line scan diffusion imaging of the brain in children. (7/1379)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging of the self-diffusion of water has become increasingly popular for the early detection of cerebral infarction in adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR line scan diffusion imaging (LSDI) of the brain in children. METHODS: LSDI was performed in four volunteers and 12 patients by using an effective TR/TE of 2736/89.4 and a maximum b value of 450 to 600 s/mm2 applied in the x, y, and z directions. In the volunteers, single-shot echo planar imaging of diffusion (EPID) was also performed. The patients (10 boys and two girls) ranged in age from 2 days to 16 years (average age, 6.6 years). Diagnoses included acute cerebral infarction, seizure disorder, posttraumatic confusion syndrome, complicated migraine, residual astrocytoma, encephalitis, hypoxia without cerebral infarction, cerebral contusion, and conversion disorder. In all patients, routine spin-echo images were also acquired. Trace images and apparent diffusion coefficient maps were produced for each location scanned with LSDI. RESULTS: In the volunteers, LSDI showed less chemical-shift and magnetic-susceptibility artifact and less geometric distortion than did EPID. LSDI was of diagnostic quality in all studies. Diffusion abnormalities were present in five patients. Restricted diffusion was present in the lesions of the three patients with acute cerebral infarction. Mildly increased diffusion was present in the lesions of encephalitis and residual cerebellar astrocytoma. No diffusion abnormalities were seen in the remaining seven children. CONCLUSION: LSDI is feasible in children, provides high-quality diffusion images with less chemical-shift and magnetic-susceptibility artifact and less geometric distortion than does EPID, and complements the routine MR examination.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of the myxosporean associated with parasitic encephalitis of farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Ireland. (8/1379)

During seasonal epizootics of neurologic disease and mass mortality in the summers of 1992, 1993 and 1994 on a sea-farm in Ireland, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts suffered from encephalitis associated with infection by a neurotropic parasite. Based on ultrastructural studies, this neurotropic parasite was identified as an intercellular presporogonic multicellular developmental stage of a histozoic myxosporean, possibly a Myxobolus species. In order to generate sequence data for phylogenetic comparisons to substantiate the present morphological identification of this myxosporean in the absence of detectable sporogony, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot hybridization, dideoxynucleotide chain-termination DNA sequencing, and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used in concert to characterize segments of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Oligonucleotide primers were created from sequences of the SSU rRNA gene of M. cerebralis and were employed in PCR experiments using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of brains from Atlantic salmon smolts in which the myxosporean had been detected by light microscopy. Five segments of the SSU rRNA gene of the myxosporean, ranging in length from 187 to 287 base pairs, were amplified, detected by hybridization with sequence-specific probes, and sequenced. Consensus sequences from these segments were aligned to create a partial sequence of the SSU rRNA gene of the myxosporean. Assessments of sequence identity were made between this partial sequence and sequences of SSU rRNA genes from 7 myxosporeans, including Ceratomyxa shasta, Henneguya doori, M. arcticus, M. cerebralis, M. insidiosus, M. neurobius, and M. squamalis. The partial SSU rRNA gene sequence from the myxosporean had more sequence identity with SSU rRNA gene sequences from neurotropic and myotropic species of Myxobolus than to those from epitheliotropic species of Myxobolus or Henneguya, or the enterotropic species of Ceratomyxa, and was identical to regions of the SSU rRNA gene of M. cerebralis. Digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide DNA probes complementary to multiple segments of the SSU rRNA gene of M. cerebralis hybridized with DNA of the parasite in histologic sections of brain in ISH experiments, demonstrating definitively that the segments of genome amplified were from the organisms identified by histology and ultrastructural analysis. Based on sequence data derived entirely from genetic material of extrasporogonic stages, the SSU rDNA sequence identity discovered in this study supports the hypothesis that the myxosporean associated with encephalitis of farmed Atlantic salmon smolts is a neurotropic species of the genus Myxobolus, with sequences identical to those of M. cerebralis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative evaluation of concomitant structural and functional neuroimages in Rasmussens encephalitis. AU - Fogarasi, A.. AU - Hegyi, Márta. AU - Neuwirth, Magdolna. AU - Halász, P.. AU - Barsi, P.. AU - Farkas, Viktor. AU - Bognár, L.. PY - 2003/10. Y1 - 2003/10. N2 - Background and Purpose. Rasmussens encephalitis (RE) is a rare condition of unknown cause characterized by intractable seizures, progressive hemiparesis, mental impairment, and inflammatory histological findings in the cortex. The primary diagnosis is based on biopsy to confirm the typical clinical, electroencephalography, and brain imaging findings. The main objective of this study was to compare simultaneous structural and functional neuroimages in RE. Methods. Concomitant magnetic resonance imaging and 2-deoxy-2-[ 18F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography data from the authors series of 5 children and 8 patients described in the literature were analyzed and compared. Results. Typical early ...
Rasmussens encephalitis, also known as chronic focal encephalitis (CFE), is a rare inflammatory neurological disease, characterized by frequent and severe seizures, loss of motor skills and speech, hemiparesis (weakness on one side of the body), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and dementia. The illness affects a single cerebral hemisphere and generally occurs in children under the age of 15. The condition mostly affects children, with an average age of 6 years. However, one in ten people with the condition develops it in adulthood. There are two main stages, sometimes preceded by a prodromal stage of a few months. In the acute stage, lasting four to eight months, the inflammation is active and the symptoms become progressively worse. These include weakness of one side of the body (hemiparesis), loss of vision for one side of the visual field (hemianopia), and cognitive difficulties (affecting learning, memory or language, for example). Epileptic seizures are also a major part of the ...
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Brain infections such as meningitis and encephalitis are highly debilitating diseases, and an accurate diagnostic is essential to give patients the best treatment available. For cryptococcal meningitis, clinical trials focus on prevention, for an early diagnosis, and novel ways to use existing treatments or repurpose old drugs.
Today is World Encephalitis Day - the global awareness day for people who have been affected by encephalitis. Founded by The Encephalitis Society in 2014, the day has subsequently helped to raise awareness among millions of people. This year the society is aiming to shine a light on this devastating condition which affects 500,000 people each year by illuminating iconic landmarks, local buildings and homes across the globe. While we are unable to light up our own offices, we are proud to help spread the word about encephalitis.. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. The inflammation is caused either by an infection invading the brain (infectious); or through the immune system attacking the brain in error (post-infectious or autoimmune Encephalitis). Some types of encephalitis are spread by mosquitoes (such as Japanese encephalitis), ticks (such as tick-borne encephalitis) and mammals (such as rabies).. Encephalitis sometimes starts off with flu-like symptoms, such as a high temperature ...
The RE Childrens Project was founded in 2010 to increase awareness regarding Rasmussens Encephalitis (RE) for the primary purpose of supporting scientific research directed towards a cure.
Dr. Glaser offers a unique prospective on neurovirology, having both a veterinary and medical background and she brings this expertise to the California Encephalitis Project (CEP), where she has served as director since its inception in 1998. The CEP was initiated to investigate and characterize etiologic agents and the epidemiologic features of encephalitis. The CEP examines infectious viral groups including herpesviruses, enteroviruses, and arboviruses. Non-viral etiologies such as amoeba, rickettsia and mycoplasma also fall within the CEPs scope of investigation. Testing for infectious agents was coordinated by the Centers for Disease Control and incorporated many other laboratories throughout the world to identify and characterize pathogens. Under the direction of Dr. Glaser, over 6000 cases have been referred to the CEP, and although the etiology of many cases remain unexplained, several important findings regarding encephalitis have emerged. Limitations of molecular testing for ...
World Encephalitis Day is held on February 22 each year and is designed to raise awareness of encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain. The global awareness day was created by The Encephalitis Society, a UK registered charity, and announced in October 2013. The inaugural World Encephalitis Day operated under the tagline, Make Today your First, and highlighted the fact that many people would hear about encephalitis for the first time in a hospital waiting room. Supporters were encouraged to share information on encephalitis to raise awareness globally. One of those supporters was Simon Hattenstone, a survivor of encephalitis and journalist with The Guardian, who wrote: Encephalitis is such a cruel disease because it is often misdiagnosed - even today. And that delay in diagnosis can have fatal consequences. The Society teamed up with the Institute of Infection and Global Health at the University of Liverpool to break a world record for the largest human image of an organ when 687 people ...
Planetarium - Rasmussens Guide: El Dorado (SF) - Welcome to Rasmussen’s Guide, a tool for those wanting more science in their science fiction. It is for GMs runni
1 the world mourned the death of Knut the polar bear, who had stolen the hearts of everyone who had visited the Berlin Zoo or who had followed his high profile career of modeling alongside celebrities like Leonardo DiCaprio. In 2012, Sussanah Calahan released her memoir Brain on Fire: My Month of Madness, which chronicled her struggle with NMDA receptor mediated-encephalitis. It was soon discovered that the same disease that Sussanah Calahan wrote about was the very disease that resulted in the death of Knut the bear. In this blog we will discuss what encephalitis is, and more specifically what NMDA receptor mediated encephalitis is. What is encephalitis?. Very simply put, encephalitis is a sudden onset inflammation of the brain or regions of the brain. While relatively rare, the incidence of the disease varies throughout the world, with approximately 7.4 new cases of acute encephalitis per 100,000 per year in the Western countries. Patients with encephalitis can present with a variety of ...
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis has many causes, but for most patients the cause is unknown. We aimed to establish the cause and identify the clinical differences between causes in patients with encephalitis in England. METHODS: Patients of all ages and with symptoms suggestive of encephalitis were actively recruited for 2 years (staged start between October, 2005, and November, 2006) from 24 hospitals by clinical staff. Systematic laboratory testing included PCR and antibody assays for all commonly recognised causes of infectious encephalitis, investigation for less commonly recognised causes in immunocompromised patients, and testing for travel-related causes if indicated. We also tested for non-infectious causes for acute encephalitis including autoimmunity. A multidisciplinary expert team reviewed clinical presentation and hospital tests and directed further investigations. Patients were followed up for 6 months after discharge from hospital. FINDINGS: We identified 203 patients with encephalitis. Median
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. It is usually caused by a viral infection. Examples of viral infections that can cause encephalitis include herpes simplex virus (the virus that causes cold sores and genital herpes), varicella zoster virus (the chickenpox virus), mumps virus, measles virus and flu viruses. Most cases of encephalitis are caused by the virus directly infecting the brain. However, sometimes encephalitis can develop if your immune system tries to fight off a virus and, at the same time, attacks the nerves in your brain in error. This is known as post-infectious or autoimmune encephalitis. What is the difference between encephalitis and meningitis?. Meningitis is an inflammation of the lining that covers the brain and spinal cord (the meninges). It is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection. Sometimes you can have both encephalitis and meningitis at the same time. This is called meningoencephalitis.. You are also more likely to develop encephalitis if your immune ...
Encephalitis is a devastating condition whose impact upon people should not be underestimated. It robs people of abilities most of us take for granted, it leaves people without their loved ones, and even in those families where the person affected survives the person they once knew can be dramatically changed. Life After Encephalitis provides a unique insight into the experiences of those affected by encephalitis, sharing the rich, perceptive, and often powerful, narratives of survivors and family members. It shows how listening to patient and family narratives can help us to understand how they make sense of what has happened to them, and also help professionals better understand and engage with them in practice. The book will also be useful for considering narratives associated with brain injuries from other causes, for example traumatic brain injury. Life After Encephalitis will appeal to a wide range of professionals working in rehabilitation settings, and also to and survivors of encephalitis,
Pug encephalitis (PDE) is a rare, neurological disease that typically strikes adolescent Pugs under the age of three. While the cause of the disease isnt clear, PDE appears to have a genetic link. - Wag!
Synonyms for Australian Encephalitis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Australian Encephalitis. 2 synonyms for encephalitis: cephalitis, phrenitis. What are synonyms for Australian Encephalitis?
Read latest news and live updates on Encephalitis including breaking news on Encephalitis,Encephalitis photos,Encephalitis videos and many more at
The research project has received continuous NIH funding for 20 years and the latest grant will allow researchers to continue the project for an additional five years. The research proposal received a perfect impact score of 10, ranking in the top one percentile of all grants submitted to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).. We are delighted in receiving such a wonderful score and for the continued support from the NIH, Guilarte said. This research has the potential to open new therapeutic treatments for mitigating brain inflammation, a common mechanism in many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease.. The NIH study section summary of the grant proposal indicated that the proposal was perceived as exciting, highly innovative, extremely significant, with an exceptional investigative team, and outstanding environment.. The protein TSPO is an important marker for brain inflammation. But, the pathway by which it carries out this deleterious effect is not ...
Meningitis and encephalitis are inflammatory diseases of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord and are caused by bacterial or viral...
Symptoms of HHV-6 encephalitis including 13 medical symptoms and signs of HHV-6 encephalitis, alternative diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and correct diagnosis for HHV-6 encephalitis signs or HHV-6 encephalitis symptoms.
It could be the fact that in our work we deal with many people with acquired brain injuries, some with encephalitis, for whom we strive to secure compensation intended to improve quality of life. Yet we realise that it is only a very small proportion of those affected who we can help directly, not every person with encephalitis can bring a claim. Maybe supporting The Encephalitis Society is our way of giving a bit back to those who we cant help but we realise have exactly the same needs as our clients. Perhaps it is a combination of all of the above. Perhaps it doesnt matter why. As long as the end result is improved quality of life of all people affected directly and indirectly by Encephalitis, that in itself is enough ...
Looking for hemorrhagic encephalitis? Find out information about hemorrhagic encephalitis. general term used to describe a diffuse inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, usually of viral origin, often transmitted by mosquitoes, in contrast to... Explanation of hemorrhagic encephalitis
Looking for Acute disseminated encephalitis? Find out information about Acute disseminated encephalitis. general term used to describe a diffuse inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, usually of viral origin, often transmitted by mosquitoes, in contrast to... Explanation of Acute disseminated encephalitis
Another name for Encephalitis is Encephalitis. What is encephalitis? Encephalitis causes inflammation and swelling of the brain and dura, a protective ...
Bolt Burdon Kemps award for Creative & Collaborative Concept. The Society also launched their BrainWalk digital challenge on the day, to raise awareness of the condition. The app, downloaded to your smart phone, records how many steps a user takes each day - with the aim of reaching 52 million steps (the equivalent of walking around the world) by World Encephalitis Day on 22nd February 2019.. I was surprised to learn that nearly 8 out of 10 people still have not heard of encephalitis, so its vital that we do as much as we can to raise awareness of the condition.. Now to (quite literally!) take as many steps as we can to raise awareness of encephalitis in the lead up to World Encephalitis Day… why not join us if you feel up to the challenge!. Im already looking forward to finding some new and exciting ways to raise funds for next years challenge!. Kate OBrien is a solicitor in the Medical Negligence team at Bolt Burdon Kemp. If you or a loved one is concerned about the treatment you have ...
World Encephalitis Day on Monday, 22nd February, is the day when our global community comes together to raise awareness of encephalitis. Around 500,000 people are affected by encephalitis each year and we want them to be able to turn to us if they need any support or information. Please make a life-saving gift to secure our future so we can help those who need our help and continue to raise awareness and fund research into encephalitis.
Browse encephalitis latest news, archival information, encephalitis Updates, Photos, Videos and related kannada news stories published on encephalitis from Vijay Karnataka.
My precious baby girl passed away on 3/31/12, a week after she started showing symptoms. I created a blog in her memory to get the word out about the cause of…
Autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is recently described and there is a lack of detailed reports on the treatment of relapsing or refractory cases and long-term outcomes. Two case reports are presented. Both cases had faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) and received rituximab after relapsing or refractory disease. Both cases achieved sustained clinical remission of up to 15 and 56 months respectively. Rituximab use allowed withdrawal of corticosteroids and was well tolerated. Randomized clinical trials are needed in LGI1 encephalitis and other autoimmune encephalitides.
Encephalitis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, most often due to infections. Encephalitis is most often caused by a viral infection. Many types of viruses may cause it. Encephalitis caused by the herpes simplex virus is the leading cause of more severe cases in all ages, including newborns.
Encephalitis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, most often due to infections. Encephalitis is most often caused by a viral infection. Many types of viruses may cause it. Encephalitis caused by the herpes simplex virus is the leading cause of more severe cases in all ages, including newborns.
The viruses that can cause encephalitis include: Herpes simplex virus (HSV): Both HSV type 1 associated with cold sores and fever blisters around your mouth and HSV type 2 associated with genital herpes can cause encephalitis. Encephalitis caused by HSV type 1 is rare but can result in significan...
Encephalitis (Chamki Fever) has caused severe death issues in Bihar. 110 children died in Bihar recently. Encephalitis is an Inflammation of the brain tissue. It generally occurs because of viral infections. In some rare case it can be caused by bacteria. Two types encephalitis exist: Primary and Secondary.
Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain caused by an infection or through the immune system attacking the brain in error. For more info about Autoimmune Encephalitis or Encephalitis symptoms visit our website.
What does encephalitis mean? encephalitis is defined by the lexicographers at Oxford Dictionaries as Inflammation of the brain, caused by infection or an allergic reaction.
This 1214 word essay is about Encephalitis, Immune system, Rasmussens encephalitis, Glutamate receptor, Bloodbrain barrier, Autoantibody. Read the full essay now!
Encephalitis is a rare brain inflammation caused by a virus. The best way to avoid encephalitis is to prevent the illnesses that may lead to it.
Encephalitis is a rare brain inflammation caused by a virus. The best way to avoid encephalitis is to prevent the illnesses that may lead to it.
A new study by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health found that the measure of brain inflammation in people who were experiencing clinical depression was increased by 30 percent. The findings, published today in JAMA Psychiatry, have important implications for developing new treatments for depression.
In a novel approach to reduce these side effects and heart muscle damage in particular, Professor Rasmussen and his team have developed a small protein molecule (peptide) that greatly increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to radiation, while having a much less pronounced impact on heart cells.. The objective of Professor Rasmussens project is to test if this new peptide can reduce or eliminate the risk of heart failure induced by radiation for cancer treatment, without decreasing the effectiveness of the radiation in treating the cancer.. The teams test tube studies have found that the effectiveness of radiation was increased when the peptide theyve developed was applied to the cancer cells. After successfully testing on cells, the team are now testing the application of the peptide to tumours in mice with the objective of progressing towards human trials. The recent results from animal studies are very promising and reflect what they had discovered in the test tube studies.. Foundation ...
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Ferguson on baby encephalitis: If you are asking about roseola, the illness is contagious to anyone not previously infected. Most kids get this virus in early childhood & are then immune for their lifetime. for topic: Baby Encephalitis
Encephalitis is an uncommon but serious condition in which the brain becomes inflamed (swollen). It can be life-threatening and requires urgent treatment in hospital, (see symptoms of encephalitis below). Anyone can be affected, but the very young and very old are most at risk.
N.C. Communicable Disease Branch page on encephalitis. Includes information on the types and causes of encephalitis and links to additional relevant NC DHHS and CDC information.
Survivors of encephalitis, a rare brain inflammation, suffer a host of lingering, disabling effects that can interfere with learning, memory, concentration and the ability to get back to their previous lives.
Kruse CA, Pardo CA, Hartman AL, …and Mathern GW. Rasmussen encephalitis tissue transfer program. Epilepsia. 2016; 57:1005-1007. doi: 10.1111/epi.13383. Varadkar S, Bien CG, Kruse CA, Jensen F, Bauer J, Pardo CA, Vincent A, Mathern GW, and Cross HJ. Rasmussens encephalitis: present understanding and treatment advances. The Lancet-Neurology, 2014;13:195-205. PMID: 24457189. Bien CG, et al. Rasmussen encephalitis: incidence and course under randomized therapy with tacrolimus or intravenous immunoglobulins. Epilepsia. 2013 Mar;54(3):543-50.. Owens GC, Huynh M, Chang JW, McArthur D, Hickey MJ, Vinters HV, Mathern GW, and Kruse CA. Differential expression of interferon-γ and chemokine genes distinguishes Rasmussen encephalitis from cortical dysplasia and indicates an early Th1 response. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 2013;May 2;10:56. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-10-56. PMID: 23639073.. Bauer J, Vezzani A, Bien CG. Epileptic encephalitis: the role of the innate and adaptive immune system. Brain ...
Herpes simplex encephalitis is a severe viral infection of the central nervous system. Herpes simplex encephalitis may be classified according to origin of disease into two subtypes: oral (HSV-1) and genital (HSV-2). The exact pathogenesis of herpes simplex encephalitis is not fully understood.[1] Herpes simplex encephalitis must be differentiated from other diseases that cause fever, headache, and altered mental status. Physical examination findings for herpes simplex encephalitis are generally unspecific. Herpes simplex encephalitis constitutes a medical emergency. If left untreated, approximately 70% patients with herpes simplex encephalitis progress to mortality.[2] Common complications of herpes simplex encephalitis include meningitis, increased intracranial pressure, and coma. Laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis include increased leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid.[3] Polymerase chain reaction is critical in the diagnosis of herpes simplex ...
Hemispherotomy is the currently preferred surgical treatment option for refractory unihemispheric epilepsies. The incidence of hydrocephalus is greatly reduced in this disconnective procedure when compared with the resective procedure of anatomical hemispherectomy. We describe the occurrence of ipsilateral trapped lateral ventricle months after hemispherotomy for Rasmussens encephalitis. There is enough evidence to suggest that this rare and interesting complication is due to the local inflammatory changes associated with the surgical trauma. ...
A protocol for investigating the association of vaccination and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2018 Jan 01;10:229-237 Authors: Wang H Abstract Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder that can be triggered by virus, H1N1/tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines or by presence of a...
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a distinct disorder characterised by the predictable sequential development of symptoms; prodromal symptoms are initially noted, followed by prominent psychiatric symptoms, seizures, an unresponsive/catatonic state, hypoventilation, and involuntary orofacial-limb movements. This disorder usually affects young women with ovarian teratoma but may also affect women of any age or even men. We report the case of a 32 year old primigravid woman who developed psychosis with associated catatonia and autonomic dysfunction at 8 weeks gestation. Cranial imaging in the form of CT and MRI was normal. EEG showed slow waves and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis was suspected. This was confirmed by the finding of serum anti-NMDA antibodies. Transvaginal Ultrasound and pelvic MRI suggested normal ovaries. She required admission to the High Dependency Unit for several weeks but eventually responded to plasma exchange, steroids, azathioprine, Intravenous immunoglobulin and ...
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a well-defined autoimmune disorder. Hashimotos encephalopathy (HE) is a still controversial entity, lacking definite diagnostic criteria. We described a 14-year-old-girl presenting with a clinical picture consistent with the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis, confirmed by NMDAR antibody testing. Four years earlier, she had presented a similar episode of acute encephalopathy diagnosed as HE. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis and HE share similar clinical features so that the differential diagnosis can be difficult if specific antibodies are not tested. The correct diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis is crucial to plan the appropriate management and follow-up, namely in term of oncological screening, since it can be paraneoplastic in origin. We suggest to re-evaluate the clinical history of all subjects with previous HE diagnosis in order to evaluate the possible diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis and plan the appropriate management of these patients
Rasmussen College is a regionally accredited private college and Public Benefit Corporation that is dedicated to changing lives through high-demand educational programs and public service. Rasmussen College offers certificate and diploma programs through associates and bachelors degrees online and across its 23 Midwest and Florida campuses in a supportive, student-centered and career-focused environment. Since 1900, Rasmussen College has been dedicated to being a primary contributor to the growth and development of the communities it serves. As a Public Benefit Corporation, Rasmussen College is committed to helping change lives through education and making a positive impact on society through public service and a variety of community-based initiatives. For more information about Rasmussen College, please visit This piece of ad content was created by Rasmussen University to support its educational programs. Rasmussen University may not prepare students for all positions ...
Rasmussen College is a regionally accredited private college and Public Benefit Corporation that is dedicated to changing lives through high-demand educational programs and public service. Rasmussen College offers Certificate and Diploma programs through Associates and Bachelors degrees online and across its 24 Midwest and Florida campuses in a supportive, student-centered and career-focused environment. Since 1900, Rasmussen College has been dedicated to being a primary contributor to the growth and development of the communities it serves. As a Benefit Corporation, Rasmussen College is committed to helping change lives through education and making a positive impact on society through public service and a variety of community-based initiatives. For more information about Rasmussen College, please visit This piece of ad content was created by Rasmussen University to support its educational programs. Rasmussen University may not prepare students for all positions featured ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like MRI features. AU - Lekoubou Looti, Alain Zingraff. AU - Viaccoz, A.. AU - Didelot, A.. AU - Anastasi, A.. AU - Marignier, R.. AU - Ducray, F.. AU - Rogemond, V.. AU - Honnorat, J.. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03617.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03617.x. M3 - Letter. C2 - 22182357. AN - SCOPUS:84856031465. VL - 19. JO - European Journal of Neurology. JF - European Journal of Neurology. SN - 1351-5101. IS - 2. ER - ...
Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a devastating but important cause of medically intractable epilepsy in children, first described by Rasmussen et al in 1958 at the Montreal Neurological Institute. Since then, there has been progress in our understanding of the clinical evolution and pathology. However, progress in comprehending the underlying triggers, pathophysiology, and effective early therapies ...
Anti-epileptic drugs are frequently helpful but usually do not entirely control seizures. Recent studies have shown some success with treatments that suppress or modulate the immune system, in particular those that use corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, or tacrolimus. Surgery to control seizures may be recommended, particularly in children where recovery potential is high. Some centers suggest early surgery for RE as a way to treat the seizures and to take advantage of developmental neuroplasticy, where different parts of the brain learn new connections following injury or trauma. Surgical procedures, such as functional hemispherectomy (surgery to remove the part of the hemisphere where the seizures start) and functional hemispherotomy (surgically severing all connections between the right and left halves of the brain), may reduce the frequency of seizures and also improve behavior and cognitive abilities. ...
The clinical and imaging findings are consistent with the late stage of Rasmussen encephalitis, which is a rare disorder of the central nervous system characterized by chronic encephalitis of one hemisphere of the brain. Although the exact cause ...
Investigators at Universities of Barcelona, Pennsylvania, Oviedo, and Valencia, and the Spanish NMDAR Encephalitis Work Group report the clinical features of 20 pediatric patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis seen in a single center in Spain in the last 4 years. Median patient age was 13 years (range, 8 months-18 years); 70% were female. Initial symptoms were neurologic (dyskinesias or seizures) in 12 (60%) and psychiatric in 40%. By one month after disease onset, all had involuntary movements and changes in behavior and speech. All patients received steroids, IV immunoglobulin or plasma exchange, and 7 rituximab or cyclophosphamide. At a median follow-up of 17.5 months, 85% had substantially recovered, 10% had moderate or severe deficits, and 1 had died. Three patients had previous episodes compatible with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and 2 had additional relapses. Ovarian teratoma was identified in 2 patients (10%), 1 at disease onset and the other one-year later. A ...
Pearls Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis can coexist with an overlapping demyelinating syndrome. An atypical presentation of a single autoimmune disorder should prompt investigation for coexistent autoimmune disorders. Discovery of overlap syndromes is important because the management and prognosis may be different. Oysters In autoimmune encephalitis, shorter time from symptom onset to treatment initiation has been associated with better outcome.1 Treatment should not be delayed until the result of autoantibody testing is available. Case report A 31-year-old man developed a subacute onset of headache, left-sided numbness, and anterograde amnesia. In the following 2 weeks, he experienced personality changes, anxiety, paranoid thoughts, 7 kg weight loss, and worsening cognitive changes. He said that he felt as though he was trapped in a time loop, meaning that events seemed to be constantly recurring to him. He denied fever, night sweats, viral prodromal symptoms, or recent vaccinations. He was ...
Background: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently described life-threatening autoimmune disorder associated with a characteristic multi-stage neuropsychiatric syndrome. Although it is known that the majority of patients experience neuropsychological disturbance post-treatment, some aspects of the cognitive profile remain unclear. Methods: This study sought to investigate patterns of cognitive functioning in a sample of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. Seven (6F:1M; mean age, 26.4 years; range, 16-37 years) treated patients completed a comprehensive set of neurocognitive and social functioning measures. Performance was analyzed using normative data (where available), and comparison with matched controls (10F:4M; mean age, 25.8 years; range, 16-38 years). Results: Individual cognitive profiles ranged from within normal limits to extensive dysfunction. Relative to controls, the patient groups performance was affected in the domains of verbal/ visual memory, working ...
Encephalitis with antibodies against N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is recognized as a group of antibody-mediated neuropsychiatric syndromes, which occurs with and without a tumor association. Neoplasm may contribute to the pathogenesis of Anti-NMDAR encephalitis in tumor-positive patients. However, the underlying causes in tumor-negative patients are largely unknown. This is the first report, of which we are aware, of two cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis after the resection of melanocytic nevus. We describe 2 female patients in their 20s confirmed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. They shared two points in common: About several weeks (2 weeks and 5 weeks respectively) before the initial symptom, both of them underwent a resection of melanocytic nevi; the screening tests for an ovarian teratoma and other tumors were all negative. A 25 year-old woman presented with seizure, psychiatric symptoms and behavioral change for 2 weeks. Electroencephalogram indicated electrographic seizures. Anti-NMDAR
Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex; Herpes Simplex Encephalitis; Herpetic Acute Necrotizing Encephalitis; Meningoencephalitis, Herpes Simplex Virus. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Psychosomatics Volume 61, Issue 1, January-February 2020, Pages 64-69 Case Report Delirious Mania as a Neuropsychiatric Presentation in Patients With Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Author links open overlay panel Show more View Abstract © 2019 Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.. ...
Author and former New York Post writer, Susanah Cahalan, was diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. This is an acute inflammation of the brain caused by autoimmunity. This diagnosis may also be considered in a differential diagnosis for HE/SREAT and can share symptoms, such as hallucinations and seizures. Ms. Cahalans vivid description of her hallucinations may ring with familiarity to patients diagnosed with HE/SREAT as well.. This video comes form Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance from their channel, Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance.. ...
In their JNNP paper, Shu et al investigated whether anti-NMDAR encephalitis was associated with any HLA alleles, utilising samples from 61 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and 571 healthy controls from the Chinese Han population.4 In this study, six HLA loci (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HLA -DQA1 and HLA -DQB1) were typed using a PCR sequence-based typing method, while the German study mentioned above imputed HLA alleles from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on a genome-wide SNP chip array.2 Shu et al demonstrated that the HLA-DRB1*16:02 allele was associated with disease susceptibility (allele frequency: 14.75% in cases vs 4.82% in controls; OR 3.42 (95% CI 1.82 to 6.17)) and the association did not depend on the positivity of tumours. Furthermore, the patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis with HLA-DRB1*16:02 tended to respond less efficiently to treatment, suggesting that certain genetic backgrounds may contribute to distinct disease development.. Although replication ...
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe autoimmune condition, which typically affects young females. The long-term clinical consequences and brain morphology changes after anti-NMDAR encephalitis are not well known. We present clinical and neuroimaging follow-up data on a 25-year female patient with typically presenting anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Longitudinal analyses of brain morphology were done using 3 T structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and Freesurfer analysis at the time of diagnosis and after symptomatic remission. The presented case attained good functional recovery after standard immunoglobulin-corticosteroid treatment but elevated serum NMDAR antibody levels persisted. The patient had no symptomatic relapses during a 3-year clinical follow-up. In the baseline brain sMRI scan there were no marked volume changes. However, a follow-up sMRI after 9 months indicated clear volume reductions in frontal cortical regions compared to matched controls with identical
Objective. Our aim was to identify patients with probable anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis among historical medical cases.. Method. A case report published in leading Hungarian-, German- and Italian-language medical journals in the early 1840s was revisited.. Results. In 1830, an 18-year-old, healthy woman suffered epileptic seizures, followed by a 6-day-long state characterized by catalepsy, unresponsiveness, motionless, and light breathing. Her symptoms regularly returned in the following 1.5 years. Meanwhile, a progressively growing huge abdominal tumor appeared. One day, she suddenly started vomiting a large amount of foul-smelling pus mixed with blood, accompanied by bone fragments. Pus mixed blood with some membranous substance was also evacuated through the anus and vagina. After this event, she completely recovered; 1.5 years later, she married and later gave birth to 3 healthy children. The patient remained healthy during the 11-year follow-up.. Conclusions. We suggest that in the ...
By Teresa Conrick In Part 1 of our examination of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis, I presented a late-onset case of autism. Similar cases have been shown to be caused by antibodies against NR1-NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor. There was really...
PubMed journal article: A Case of Severe Anti-N-Methyl D-Aspartate (Anti-NMDA) Receptor Encephalitis with Refractory Autonomic Instability and Elevated Intracranial Pressure. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
When I started working as a Clinical Microbiologist in 2007, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis had not yet been discovered. The diagnostic test, looking for anti-NMDA receptor antibodies, only appeared commercially around 2010.. Now it is the latest fashionable test to perform…. I am getting old.. The whole area of auto-immune encephalitis has progressed rapidly in the last 10 years, and this potentially treatable cause of encephalitis (options include steroids, IV immunoglobulins, plasma exchange and immunomodulators) is now thought to be similar in prevalence to some viral encephalitides.. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis represents the vast majority (approx. 80%) of all cases of autoimmune encephalitis. It usually presents with a short prodromal period followed by a range of symptoms such as auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, behavioural change, decreased level of consciousness, seizures, and autonomic dysfunction. A majority of patients (58%) with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis ...
Chronic Focal Encephalitis (Rasmussens Encephalitis) is a condition characterized by a progressive hemiparesis, cognitive decline (including loss of language skills if the language dominant hemisphere is involved) and epileptic seizures that are typically refractory to medical treatment (Rasmussen). Attempts to control the seizures with anticonvulsants are ineffective and the only effective treatment to date is a hemispherectomy (surgical removal of half of the brain). Children with CFE who undergo cortical resections or hemispherectomies demonstrate an inflammatory histopathology consisting of perivascular lymphocytic cuffing, gliosis, neuronal loss, microglial nodules and later laminar necrosis and spongy degeneration. Rituximab is a genetically engineered, chimeric; murine/human monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen found on the surface of normal and malignant pre-B and mature B cells. It was approved by the FDA in 1997 for the treatment of relapsed or refractory low grade or ...
As part of the reseach group of Hans Lassmann my main research focus is the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases of the nervous system. In this large area of research my special interest is the role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Cytotoxic T cell mediated tissue damage in the nervous system is studied in various human inflammatory diseases. One of these diseases studied is Rasmussen encephalitis, a epileptic disorder of unknown etiology mostly found in children. These pathological studies of Rasmussen encephalitis are performed in close cooperation with Dr. Christian Bien from the department of epileptology in Bonn. Cytotoxic T cell mediated tissue damage furthermore is studied in paraneoplastic encephalitis and virus-induced encephalitis. The study of T cell cytotoxicity in human diseases is complemented by the study of various models of autoimmune or virus induced inflammatory CNS disease. These studies are performed in long-term collaboration with the research groups of Dr. Roland Liblau ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Encefalopatia di rasmussen. T2 - Carafteristiche elettrocliniche. AU - Fusco, L.. PY - 2002/10. Y1 - 2002/10. N2 - Rasmussen encephalopathy is an acquired, progressive disease of childhood, characterized by intractable focal seizures, hemiparesis, contralateral cerebral atrophy. EEG characteristics are: focal slow activity, impoverishment of background, late diffuse epileptiform discharges. MR imaging shows a progressive atrophy of the hemisphere contralateral to the side of partial motor seizures. Clinical and EEG characteristics are precociously suggestive of Rasmussen encephalopathy.. AB - Rasmussen encephalopathy is an acquired, progressive disease of childhood, characterized by intractable focal seizures, hemiparesis, contralateral cerebral atrophy. EEG characteristics are: focal slow activity, impoverishment of background, late diffuse epileptiform discharges. MR imaging shows a progressive atrophy of the hemisphere contralateral to the side of partial motor seizures. ...
A pioneer in decorative heating, Rasmussen leads the way with beautifully crafted gas log sets made from the finest quality refractory ceramic materials. Rasmussen gas log molds are created from select pieces of actual wood. These logs are intricately detailed with a char chamber, creating a realistic look of burning wood. Environmentally safe ceramic coatings are hand applied in a multi-step process to recreate the random complexity of real wood for a surprisingly natural finish. Rigid steel reinforcement ensures a sturdy, long-lasting log set and a carefully designed burner system produces the most realistic wood fire look in decorative appliances. The vent-free see-thru single burner design creates a realistic glowing ember appearance and has a BTU output of 33,000 BTUs. This set features a manual safety pilot valve. Let the Chillbuster Log Set from Rasmussen bring the timeless beauty of a glowing log fire into your home. This Rasmussen Gas Log set includes: Vent-Free Gas Logs, Vent-Free ANSI
Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2012 Sep 20;37(3):89-93. Aoki H, Morita S, Miura N, Tsuji T, Ohnuki Y, Nakagawa Y, Yamamoto I, Takahashi H, Inokuchi S. Source Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan. [email protected] Abstract A previously healthy 21-year-old woman, transported to our…
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Our data suggest that the most important initial investigation is an MRI scan as the presence of a well-defined lesion involving noneloquent cortex such as DNET, or MTS (Cendes et al., 2000; Cukiert et al., 2002). Rasmussens encephalitis or hemimegalencephaly in a child with a clear history of stereotyped seizures may mean that no further investigation for localization of the seizure focus is required. This group of children accounts for the large majority of children who are offered epilepsy surgery. The spectrum of operations carried out is shown in Fig. 1 which is similar to those published by North American groups (Wyllie et al., 1998; Sinclair et al., 2003).. Given that our outcome data (Doring et al., 1999; Cross, 2002; Devlin et al., 2003; Mclellan et al., 2005) are similar to those reported by other units, and that there is excellent concordance (Haut et al., 2002) across epilepsy surgery programs for the decision to offer epilepsy surgery, a change in approach as suggested above is ...
The second most run-of-the-mill protein adapted to in the interest inducing and adaptive untouched return is OVA, which has been extensively occupied as a variety of protein antigen in vivo. My motivation is to demonstrate that the group is expert to operate facts in behalf of at least a ten year while of time while the response time conducive to doings is less than a two seconds thresh- out-moded 20]. Having tenderness of pharynx generic 100 mg clomiphene fast delivery menstrual flow is actually deteriorating. Catching conjunctivitis is surely contagious, so epidemics are common, peculiarly in immature children. The role played by humoral and cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of epilepsy has been more distinctly defined in some syndromes such as Rasmussens encephalitis (RE), where more tidings apropos the immunological reactions involved in the disability approach is convenient (Andrews and McNamara 1996). Women should school themselves cialis 20 mg cheap erectile dysfunction doctor ...
View details of top rasmussen subacute encephalitis hospitals in New Delhi. Get guidance from medical experts to select best rasmussen subacute encephalitis hospital in New Delhi
The brains of people with lentiviral-associated encephalitis contain a good amount of activated and contaminated macrophages. not really in nonencephalitic macaques. At necropsy, macaques with SIVE acquired more contaminated macrophages in peripheral organs, apart from lymph nodes. T NK and cells cells with cytotoxic potential were even more loaded in brains with encephalitis; nevertheless, T-cell and NK-cell infiltration in SIVE and individual immunodeficiency pathogen encephalitis was even more modest than that observed in classical acute herpes simplex virus encephalitis. These findings support the hypothesis that inherent differences in host systemic and CNS monocyte/macrophage viral production are associated with the development of encephalitis. Prior to the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), approximately 25% of human immunodeficiency computer virus (HIV)-infected individuals exhibited the pathological hallmarks of HIV encephalitis (HIVE) at autopsy: microglial nodules, ...
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most common sporadic viral encephalitis in Western countries. Over the last 15 years, human g
In this study, anti-NMDARE cases had a higher prevalence of HSV-1 IgG antibodies than age-matched controls in two separate cohorts. Antibodies to unrelated viruses (CMV and EBV-VCA) were not elevated in anti-NMDARE participants, suggesting that this finding is selective for HSV-1. HSV-1 IgG seroprevalence is greater than 60% by mid-adulthood.6 Therefore, we evaluated the association between HSV-1 infection and anti-NMDARE in children, in which reported HSV-1 IgG seroprevalence is only 26% at age 7 years.7 The rate of positive HSV-1 IgG antibodies detected in our participants with anti-NMDARE is elevated compared with this population statistic and the age-matched control group described here. In this retrospective study, with limited demographic information available, we were unable to control for race or socioeconomic status. However, HSV-1 seropositivity in anti-NMDARE participants was greater than that reported for any demographic group in this age range.7 Prospective studies may better ...
One article on anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis noted that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (AKA NMDA) receptor is, an important protein found on the surface of many nerve cells that allows them to receive signals from other nerve cells. The receptor is found throughout the brain and is involved in the formation of new memories as well as in perception and judgement. In anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis a persons immune system for some reason begins creating antibodies that cap the ends of some neurons, preventing nerve signals from crossing the synapses that normally allow the transmission of signals from neuron to neuron. When that happens, the symptoms of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder can appear ...
The clinical, neuropsychological and neuroradiological features of two patients affected by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis are described. An experimental study for the assessment of naming, recognition and description displayed in one patient a persistent significant impairment in naming living things. The other patient showed a failing semantic memory for the same categories, although a significant impairment emerged only for plants. In both patients, the late neuroradiological sequelae were localised mainly in the inferior and middle gyri of the left temporal lobe and in the left-side insula. In one patient, the right-side insula was also involved. The selective cerebral damage induced by HSV-1 is stressed and a correlation between the neuroradiological and neuropsychological findings is attempted. The stereotyped anatomical and neuropsychological changes lead to the belief that the virus may recognise, within the limbic system, particular cellular strains on the basis of ...
INTRODUCTION: Infectious and immune-mediated encephalitides are important but under-recognised causes of morbidity and mortality in childhood, with a 7% death rate and up to 50% morbidity after prolonged follow-up. There is a theoretical basis for ameliorating the immune response with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), which is supported by empirical evidence of a beneficial response following its use in the treatment of viral and autoimmune encephalitis. In immune-mediated encephalitis, IVIG is often used after a delay (by weeks in some cases), while diagnosis is confirmed. Wider use of IVIG in infectious encephalitis and earlier use in immune-mediated encephalitis could improve outcomes for these conditions. We describe the protocol for the first ever randomised control trial of IVIG treatment for children with all-cause encephalitis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 308 children (6 months to 16 years) with a diagnosis of acute/subacute encephalitis will be recruited in ∼30 UK hospitals and randomised to
Encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with many possible causes and a complex differential diagnosis. Advances in autoimmune encephalitis research in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to these disorders. However, existing criteria for autoimmune encephalitis are too reliant on antibody testing and response to immunotherapy, which might delay the diagnosis. We reviewed the literature and gathered the experience of a team of experts with the aims of developing a practical, syndrome-based diagnostic approach to autoimmune encephalitis and providing guidelines to navigate through the differential diagnosis. Because autoantibody test results and response to therapy are not available at disease onset, we based the initial diagnostic approach on neurological assessment and conventional tests that are accessible to most clinicians. Through logical differential diagnosis, levels of evidence ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: NMDA Encephalitis, Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis, NMDA Receptor Antibody Encephalitis, NMDARE.
CURT HUDSON Bill Rasmussen is standing with a microphone in a cramped law firm lobby on the 13th floor of a Philadelphia office building. On this night in early February, the nattily attired Rasmussen - the man credited with creating ESPN more than three decades ago - is addressing about 150 member
Graduates of Rasmussen College - the names, photos, skill, job, location. Information on the Rasmussen College - contacts, students, faculty, finances.
Individuals with encephalitis are usually hospitalized for treatment. The specific treatment is determined by the cause of the illness. Some viral infections are treatable with medication, and all patients are treated with supportive care until they recover. The patients chance of recovery depends on the specific cause of the illness and the severity of the swelling in the brain and surrounding tissues and fluids. The prognosis for viral encephalitis varies. Some cases are mild and patients recover fully. Other cases are more severe, and permanent damage or death is possible. The most severe phase of viral encephalitis may last for one to two weeks, with fever and neurologic symptoms improving gradually or suddenly. Neurologic symptoms may require many months before full recovery, and patients may require rehabilitative services. ...
Activity:. Bed rest and a 2 to 3 week recovery. You should be as active as your strength and feeling of well-being allow.. Diet:. No special diet. May require intravenous fluids. Medical personnel will monitor fluid and electrolyte levels.. Possible Complications :. Varies depending on the cause of the encephalitis. Usually a very small percentage of patients suffer permanent brain damage that impairs mental or muscle functions.. Prognosis. Mild viral encephalitis is common and may go unnoticed. Severe cases usually require hospitalization. Complications and fatalities from encephalitis are most common in infants and the elderly. People in other age groups usually recover completely. Unless the attack is severe, you can expect full recovery within 2 to 3 weeks.. Other. Nothing Specified. ...
Wayne E. Rasmussen - Physical Therapist at Wayne Rasmussens Practice (Seattle, WA). See hours, read patient reviews and make an appointment online for free 24/7.
Meningitis and encephalitis[edit]. High levels of lactate dehydrogenase in cerebrospinal fluid are often associated with ... encephalitis, acute pancreatitis, HIV and lung or liver disease.[23] ... bacterial meningitis.[34] In the case of viral meningitis, high LDH, in general, indicates the presence of encephalitis and ...
... is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector ( ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... Encephalitis Global Inc. Offering information and support to encephalitis survivors, caregivers and loved ones. ... Similar diseases that are spread by mosquitoes include: Western and Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint ...
Bihar encephalitis outbreak[edit]. Main article: 2019 Bihar encephalitis outbreak. The heat wave is a possible aggravating ... factor in an encephalitis outbreak in Bihar which has killed over 100 children since 1 June.[33][34] ...
Encephalitis. *Respiratory diseases such as pneumonia and acute bronchitis. *Neuropsychiatric symptoms (described as "muttering ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk ...
Encephalitis *Viral encephalitis. *Herpesviral encephalitis. *Limbic encephalitis. *Encephalitis lethargica. *Cavernous sinus ...
Arbovirus encephalitis. Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura vesiculovirus. Herpesviral ... Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk ...
... encephalitis, and meningitis.[3] Rarely, a patient with acquired cortical blindness may have little or no insight that they ...
Encephalitis. *Meningitis. *Unilateral or bilateral hearing loss, observed in up to one third of adults, which becomes ...
Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis, for instance, is part of the group of conditions now regarded as forms of Miller Fisher ... Shahrizaila, N.; Yuki, N. (15 September 2012). "Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis and Fisher syndrome: anti-GQ1b antibody ... described the brainstem encephalitis type in 1951 with Philip Cloake, and made further contributions with another paper in 1957 ... GQ1b antibodies have been linked with Miller Fisher variant GBS and related forms including Bickerstaff encephalitis.[8] The ...
Encephalitis lethargica (Narcolepsy). *Encopresis. *Epilepsy. *Enuresis (not due to a general medical condition) ...
Herpesviral encephalitis and herpesviral meningitis Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare life-threatening condition that ... Herpes Encephalitis at eMedicine *^ van Riel, Debby; Verdijk, Rob; Kuiken, Thijs (January 2015). "The olfactory nerve: a ... The original use was against normally fatal or debilitating illnesses such as adult encephalitis,[92] keratitis,[93] in ... Whitley, R. J.; Soong, S. J.; Linneman, C.; Liu, C.; Pazin, G.; Alford, C. A. (1982-01-15). "Herpes simplex encephalitis. ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk ...
... with glial nodule encephalitis". Acta Neuropathologica. 11 (1): 29-44. doi:10.1007/bf00692793. PMID 5748997.. ... or based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons,[43] vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV)[45][48] or filovirus- ... Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus". Vaccine. 21 (25-26): 4071-4080. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00362-1. ... including encephalitis, confusion, delirium, apathy, and aggression. Hemorrhagic symptoms typically occur late and herald the ...
Arbovirus encephalitis. Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral ... Subacute inclusion body encephalitis, Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Dawson disease, Dawson encephalitis, measles ... Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing ... Fisher DL, Defres S, Solomon T (2015). "Measles-induced encephalitis". QJM. 108. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcu113. PMID 24865261.. CS1 ...
By 1984, the ashram was coming into increasing conflict with local residents and the county commission (Wasco County Court).[19] Sheela attempted to influence the Wasco County Court's November election and capture the two open seats[20][21] by bussing in hundreds of homeless people from within Oregon as well as outside, and registering them as county voters.[13] Later, when that effort failed,[22][23] Sheela conspired, in 1984, to use "bacteria and other methods to make people ill" and prevent them from voting.[24][25] As a result, the salad bars at ten local restaurants were infected with salmonella and about 750 people became ill.[3][20][26][27] On September 13, 1985, Sheela fled to Europe.[15][28] A few days later Rajneesh "accused her of arson, wiretapping, attempted murder, and mass poisonings."[15] He also asserted that Sheela had written the book titled Rajneeshism and published it under his name.[29] Subsequently, Sheela's robes and 5,000 copies of the Book of Rajneeshism were burned in ...
Misra UK, Kalita J (June 2010). "Overview: Japanese encephalitis". Progress in Neurobiology. 91 (2): 108-20. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk ...
Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017). *Saudi Arabian MERS (2018). *Kerala Nipah virus (2018) ...
TD - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. *FX - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. *ZX - Eastern equine encephalitis virus ...
... limbic encephalitis, brainstem encephalitis, opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and ... January 2007). "Paraneoplastic Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Associated with Ovarian Teratoma". Ann. Neurol. ... 2011). "Investigations of Caspr2, an autoantigen of encephalitis and neuromyotonia". Ann. Neurol. 69: 303-311. van Sonderen, A ... "Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis". Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 15 (2): 201-209. doi:10.1007/s11940-013-0221-1 ...
"CDC - Eastern Equine Encephalitis". Retrieved 2015-10-14.. *^ "Nyctanassa violacea (Yellow-crowned Night-heron, ...
Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017). *Saudi Arabian MERS (2018). *Kerala Nipah virus (2018) ...
The book narrates Cahalan's issues with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and the process by which she was diagnosed with this ... form of encephalitis. She wakes up in a hospital with no memory of the events of the previous month, during which time she ... "Brain on Fire: An Interview With Susannah Cahalan on Anti-NMDA Receptor Autoimmune Encephalitis". Psychiatric Times. Archived ...
2019 Bihar encephalitis outbreak. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f "Gorakhpur Deaths: Adityanath Government Ignored SOS on ... Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) was a major cause of the deaths: Till 29 August 2017, 175 children had died because of ... During 1978-2017, around 25,000 children have died of encephalitis.[5] As of 3 September 2017, 1,317 children had died in the ... "Gorakhpur has a history of children's deaths, 25,000 kids have lost lives to encephalitis". India Today.. ...
Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017). *Saudi Arabian MERS (2018). *Kerala Nipah virus (2018) ...
Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis (2017). *MERS in Saudi Arabia (2018). *Kerala Nipah virus (2018) ...
Talk:Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine. *Talk:Trichuriasis. *Talk:Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. *Talk:Typhoid vaccine ...
Encephalitis Global Inc. is a USA 501(c)(3) public charity; annual FACES Encephalitis Conference information available at the ... Encephalitis Global, Inc. Website offering information and support to encephalitis survivors, caregivers and loved ones. ... 主要為病毒性腦炎和節肢動物傳播的病毒性腦炎。受害者通常由昆蟲叮咬或食物與飲料暴露於病毒
BSE, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, mad cow disease
Although encephalitis sounds scary, understanding its causes, symptoms, and treatment can help you feel prepared to deal with ... Can I Prevent Encephalitis?. The best way to prevent encephalitis is to avoid getting infected with the viruses or other germs ... What Is Encephalitis?. Encephalitis (pronounced: in-seh-fuh-LYE-tus) is typically caused by three different groups of viruses: ... Treatment for encephalitis depends on the virus or other germ that caused it. Teens with mild cases of encephalitis can recover ...
The best way to avoid encephalitis is to prevent the illnesses that may lead to it. ... Encephalitis is a rare brain inflammation caused by a virus. ... Fortunately, HSV encephalitis is very rare.. Encephalitis can ... Although several thousand cases of encephalitis (also called acute viral encephalitis or aseptic encephalitis) are reported to ... including West Nile encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and Western Equine encephalitis. Over the last several years in the ...
FIGURE 2. Approximate geographic range of Japanese encephalitis. SOURCE: Fischer M, Griggs A, Staples J. Japanese encephalitis ... Vaccines for Japanese encephalitis. Lancet 1996;348:341.. * Encephalitis on Taiwan. I. Introduction and epidemiology. Am J Trop ... Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the most common vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in ... Japanese encephalitis vaccines. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2006;81:331--40.. * CDC. Inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine: ...
Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).[3] While most ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with up to 70,000 cases reported annually.[25] ... Japanese encephalitis resource library [2]. *CDC Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance and Immunization - Asia and Western Pacific ...
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain, often caused by a viral infection. It can be mild or severe. Read about symptoms, ... Encephalitis (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: What You Need to Know (Centers for Disease ... Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Travelers Health: Japanese Encephalitis (Centers ... Eastern Equine Encephalitis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Encephalitis Lethargica (National Institute of ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. Cause. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the family Flaviviridae. Three subtypes of the ... Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) tends to occur focally even within endemic areas. Currently, the highest incidences of clinical ... Encephalitis developing during this second phase may result in paralysis, permanent sequelae or death. Severity of illness ... causative agent are known: the European (Western), the Far Eastern (spring-and-summer encephalitis) and the Siberian. ...
La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector ( ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... Encephalitis Global Inc. Offering information and support to encephalitis survivors, caregivers and loved ones. ... Similar diseases that are spread by mosquitoes include: Western and Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint ...
Japanese encephalitis is a viral brain infection spread through mosquito bites. Its most common in rural areas throughout Asia ... Preventing Japanese encephalitis. The best way to prevent Japanese encephalitis is to be vaccinated against the infection ... How common is Japanese encephalitis?. Its very rare for travellers visiting risk areas to be affected by Japanese encephalitis ... Find out more about how to prevent Japanese encephalitis. Accessing healthcare abroad. Its a good idea to keep a list of ...
Find out about encephalitis, a rare but serious condition that causes inflammation of the brain. ... Some types of encephalitis are spread by mosquitoes (such as Japanese encephalitis), ticks (such as tick-borne encephalitis) ... Read more about the causes of encephalitis.. Treatments for encephalitis. Encephalitis needs to be treated in a hospital. The ... Read more about the complications of encephalitis.. Preventing encephalitis. Its not always possible to prevent encephalitis, ...
Encephalitis, primary( -. -. Encephalitis, arboviral(https://wwwn. ... Encephalitis 1964. 1994. Encephalitis, postinfectious (or parainfectious)( ... Encephalitis , 1990 Case Definition ( ...
Although encephalitis sounds scary, understanding its causes, symptoms, and treatment can help you feel prepared to deal with ... Encephalitis is also called acute viral encephalitis or aseptic encephalitis.. Who Gets Encephalitis?. Encephalitis (in-seh-fuh ... What Is Encephalitis?. Encephalitis is an inflammation (swelling and irritation) of the brain. In most cases, a virus causes ... Is Encephalitis Contagious?. Brain inflammation itself is not contagious. But the viruses that cause encephalitis can be. Of ...
Encephalitis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, most often due to infections. ... Encephalitis is a rare condition. It occurs more often in the first year of life and decreases with age. The very young and ... Encephalitis is most often caused by a virus. Many types of viruses may cause it. Exposure can occur through:. *Breathing in ... Encephalitis caused by the herpes simplex virus is the leading cause of more severe cases in all ages, including newborns. ...
encephalitis encephalitis. encephalitis ĕnsĕf˝əlī´təs [key], general term used to describe a diffuse inflammation of the brain ... Encephalitis that results as a complication of another systemic infection is known as parainfectious encephalitis and can ... equine encephalitis in its various forms and St. Louis encephalitis. The latter two have appeared in epidemic form in the ... Although no specific treatment can destroy the virus once the disease has become established, many types of encephalitis can be ...
... (RE) is a rare, inflammatory, and possibly immuno-mediated disease that typically affects one hemisphere ... Rasmussen encephalitis Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;111:511-9. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52891-9.00054-3. ... Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare, inflammatory, and possibly immuno-mediated disease that typically affects one hemisphere ...
VACCINATION AND ENCEPHALITIS. Br Med J 1929; 2 doi: (Published 06 July 1929) Cite this ...
Encephalitis lethargica (sleeping sickness) was a mysterious disorder that swept the world in the decade following the First ... Encephalitis lethargica (sleeping sickness) was a mysterious disorder that swept the world in the decade following the First ... Encephalitis lethargica exerted a greater influence on clinical and theoretic neuroscientific thought between the two World ... Despite its brief history, encephalitis lethargica played a major role in a variety medical discussions between the two World ...
Encephalitis is a relatively rare condition that causes inflammation of the brain. Initial symptoms usually include high ... Causes of encephalitis. The type of encephalitis a person has depends on the conditions cause. The different types of ... Post-infectious encephalitis. The encephalitis may also occur as an immune response to an infection that has already subsided. ... Infectious encephalitis. This is a direct result of an infection in the brain, which is usually caused by a virus. ...
Historically, the most frequently identified causes of acute encephalitis have been infectious, though recently... ... Acute encephalitis is a rapidly progressive encephalopathy due to brain inflammation. ... While autoimmune encephalitis can occur in the setting of a tumor, infections such as herpes simplex encephalitis can also ... Venkatesan A., Probasco J.C. (2018) Autoimmune Encephalitis. In: Hasbun R. (eds) Meningitis and Encephalitis. Springer, Cham. * ...
Sanjoy Majumder reports from Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh on why the town is struggling to cope with an outbreak of encephalitis. ... More than 460 people, mostly children, have died after a fresh outbreak of encephalitis in northern India. The BBCs Sanjoy ... But this years strain is not the more common Japanese encephalitis, doctors say, but a virus being blamed on contaminated ... Every day, 30 to 40 children are brought here after having contracted encephalitis. Many of them come from the countryside, ...
... dies of Eastern equine encephalitis at Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston; Shawn Pyatt, 14 mos, remains in serious condition (S) ... 31 (AP)-A 6‐year‐old boy, one of two children stricken with Eastern equine encephalitis, died at Massachusetts eGneral Hospital ... Encephalitis Victim Dies. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Encephalitis in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Primary encephalitis (also called acute viral encephalitis) is caused by a direct viral infection of the spinal cord and brain. ... Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain itself. Encephalitis can be caused by bacterial infection and, most often, viral ... Secondary encephalitis, also known as post-infective encephalitis, a viral infection first occurs elsewhere in your body and ...
Die Epidemische Encephalitis. Authors. * Felix Stern Series Title. Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiete der Neurologie und ...
Ixiaro - Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine, Inactivated, Adsorbed. ResourcesForYou. *Licensed Biological Products with Supporting ...
Recovery from subacute encephalitis.. Br Med J 1968; 3 doi: (Published 21 September 1968 ...
... is a dangerous form of brain inflammation caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus, which is common in Asia and the West ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a dangerous form of brain inflammation caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus, which is common ... Encephalitis results from only about 1 in 250 infections. The symptoms of encephalitis include headache, high fever, ... Supportive care is required for encephalitis. Permanent disability in the form of brain or mental instability is found in 30-50 ...
1936)‎. ENCEPHALITIS LETHARGICA = ENCÉPHALITE LÉTHARGIQUE. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire ...
1995)‎. Japanese encephalitis = Encéphalite japonaise. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 70 ...
... see symptoms of encephalitis below). Anyone can be affected, but the very young and very old are most at risk. ... Encephalitis is an uncommon but serious condition in which the brain becomes inflamed (swollen). It can be life-threatening and ... You cant catch encephalitis from someone else.. Treatments for encephalitis. Encephalitis needs to be treated in a hospital. ... Some types of encephalitis are spread by mosquitoes (such as Japanese encephalitis), ticks (such as tick-borne encephalitis) ...
A public health expert says tick-borne encephalitis is here to stay and calls for improved government planning to deal with ... Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) was detected in a small number of ticks in Thetford Forest in East Anglia, an area on the border ... Results of the research, Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, United Kingdom , were published ahead of print in the journal, Emerging ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus was found for the first time in ticks in the UK. ...
  • Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain . (
  • Other bacterial pathogens, like Mycoplasma and those causing rickettsial disease, cause inflammation of the meninges and consequently encephalitis. (
  • When a person has encephalitis, his or her brain becomes inflamed (inflammation means swelling and irritation). (
  • When encephalitis happens after a common illness like chickenpox, the signs and symptoms of that illness usually come before symptoms of inflammation in the brain. (
  • A brain scan (an MRI or a CT scan) might be done to look for inflammation, and the doctor also might order an electroencephalogram (EEG), a test that records brain waves and can reveal any abnormalities consistent with encephalitis. (
  • From an epidemiologic and pathophysiologic perspective, encephalitis is distinct from meningitis, though on clinical evaluation both can be present, with signs and symptoms of meningeal inflammation. (
  • Encephalitis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, most often due to infections. (
  • encephalitis ĕnsĕf˝əlī´təs [ key ] , general term used to describe a diffuse inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, usually of viral origin, often transmitted by mosquitoes, in contrast to a bacterial infection of the meninges (membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord), known as meningitis . (
  • Encephalitis is a relatively rare condition that causes inflammation of the brain. (
  • Acute encephalitis is a rapidly progressive encephalopathy due to brain inflammation. (
  • Encephalitis , plural encephalitides , from Greek enkephalos ("brain") and itis ("inflammation"), inflammation of the brain . (
  • Symptoms remaining after recovery from the acute phase of brain inflammation vary considerably, depending on the type of encephalitis and on the age and general health of the patient. (
  • Inflammation and swelling of the brain, called encephalitis, is the most dangerous and frequent serious complication. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a dangerous form of brain inflammation caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus, which is common in Asia and the West Pacific territories. (
  • Recent Examples on the Web Other ailments diagnosed included intracerebral hemorrhages, dementia-like symptoms, and inflammation of the brain known as encephalitis . (
  • Autoimmune Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain cells resulting from a condition where the body's immune system targets the healthy tissues of the brain & spinal cord. (
  • Encephalitis is an inflammation (swelling and irritation) of the brain that is usually the result of a viral infection. (
  • Encephalitis is a sudden onset inflammation of the brain. (
  • Finally she found out she had anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, a type of brain inflammation. (
  • Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain that is often caused by a viral infection. (
  • But the infection may progress to inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). (
  • The St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). (
  • Pug Dog Encephalitis (PDE) is a unique form of brain inflammation affecting adolescent and young adult pugs. (
  • A small percentage of infected persons develop inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), with symptoms including sudden onset of headache, high fever, disorientation, coma, tremors and convulsions. (
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is a viral illness that can cause inflammation of the brain. (
  • Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis are life-threatening causes of infection and inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • Encephalitis is an infection of the brain parenchyma causing inflammation within the CNS and is most often the result of a viral infection of brain tissue. (
  • Viral encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain parenchyma caused by virus infection, poses a serious threat to global public health. (
  • The Encephalitis Global offers information and support to survivors of encephalitis, which refers to inflammation of the brain, loved ones and caregivers. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is inflammation and swelling of the brain caused by the JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne member of the Flavivirus family. (
  • Rasmussen encephalitis, sometimes referred to as Rasmussen syndrome, is a rare disorder of the central nervous system characterized by chronic progressive inflammation (encephalitis) of one cerebral hemisphere. (
  • Diagnosing encephalitis is done via a variety of tests: Brain scan, done by MRI, can determine inflammation and differentiate from other possible causes. (
  • Some cases of encephalitis are mild and symptoms only last for a short time. (
  • If you have symptoms of encephalitis, get in touch with your doctor right away. (
  • The worst symptoms of encephalitis generally last up to 1 week, but full recovery may take weeks or longer. (
  • Most people infected by the Japanese encephalitis virus have either no symptoms or mild short-lived symptoms, which are often mistaken for flu . (
  • But around 1 in every 250 people who become infected with Japanese encephalitis develop more severe symptoms as the infection spreads to the brain. (
  • You should get immediate medical advice if you have any of the symptoms of Japanese encephalitis and you have recently visited, or are still in, an area where the infection is found. (
  • Encephalitis sometimes starts off with flu-like symptoms , such as a high temperature and headache , but these don't always occur. (
  • Read more about the symptoms of encephalitis and how encephalitis is diagnosed . (
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Encephalitis? (
  • Because encephalitis can happen during or after common viral illnesses, symptoms of these illnesses can start before encephalitis happens. (
  • Some people may have symptoms of a cold or stomach infection before encephalitis symptoms begin. (
  • Long-term outcomes following autoimmune encephalitis are poorly characterized and persistent neurocognitive symptoms are likely underrecognized. (
  • These symptoms and signs and an examination of the cerebrospinal fluid by a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) can usually establish the presence of encephalitis, but they do not necessarily establish the cause, which often remains unknown. (
  • He developed seizures and other symptoms and was diagnosed as having viral encephalitis. (
  • Less than 1% of infected individuals show symptoms of severe encephalitis (including seizures, altered mental status , and coma ) and die from the disease. (
  • The mortality of JE is about 25% in people with encephalitis symptoms. (
  • It can be life-threatening and requires urgent treatment in hospital, (see symptoms of encephalitis below). (
  • Encephalitis sometimes starts off with flu-like symptoms, such as a high temperature and headache. (
  • The levels of S-100B in blood rose even before the encephalitis gave symptoms. (
  • The researchers believe that these simple blood tests can be key in diagnosing treatment-triggered encephalitis, which today is difficult to diagnose because the symptoms can be misinterpreted as tumor growth, stroke or infection. (
  • Encephalitis may be asymptomatic or present with mild to severe symptoms (such as fever, headache, confusion, seizures, or loss of consciousness) sometimes progressing to coma or death. (
  • Stephani Sutherland, Scientific American , "What We Know So Far about How COVID Affects the Nervous System," 22 Oct. 2020 Symptoms typically appear about four to 10 days after a bite, with severe cases progressing to encephalitis . (
  • Unfortunately for many patients with encephalitis, often doctors haven't seen many cases and don't know the telltale symptoms, and many patients may not find their way the neurologists and other specialists who do. (
  • Other viruses can cause similar symptoms of encephalitis, though usually milder ( Herpesvirus 6 , varicella zoster virus , Epstein-Barr , cytomegalovirus , coxsackievirus , etc. (
  • The most common symptoms of encephalitis are fever, severe headache, and confusion. (
  • In general, symptoms that develop suddenly and are serious from the start usually mean a more severe, life-threatening form of encephalitis. (
  • The following are the most common symptoms of encephalitis. (
  • The symptoms of encephalitis may resemble other problems or medical conditions. (
  • The diagnosis of encephalitis is made after the sudden or gradual onset of specific symptoms and after diagnostic testing. (
  • The symptoms of arbovirus encephalitis may look like other health conditions or problems. (
  • Symptoms range from mild flu-like illness to encephalitis, coma and death. (
  • In the acute setting, it can be difficult to distinguish encephalitis from severe cases of bacterial meningitis, as patients' signs and symptoms may be similar. (
  • If you think you have symptoms of encephalitis, see a doctor right away. (
  • Early on, symptoms of encephalitis may be like those of meningitis . (
  • The children all showed symptoms of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES), senior health official Ashok Kumar Singh told AFP, adding most had suffered a sudden loss of glucose in their blood. (
  • If your child has symptoms of encephalitis, get in touch with your pediatrician right away. (
  • According to health officials, as many as five patients died in BRD Medical College Hospital since last evening, while 68 fresh patients with encephalitis symptoms were admitted. (
  • Symptoms include headaches, high fever, chills and vomiting, and encephalitis can be deadly, causing a swelling of the brain in severe cases, officials said. (
  • Symptoms of the following disorders may be similar to those of Rasmussen encephalitis. (
  • BOSTON, Aug. 31 (AP)-A 6‐year‐old boy, one of two children stricken with Eastern equine encephalitis, died at Massachusetts eGneral Hospital last night. (
  • In Florida, changing climate and a lack of good diagnostic tools make it easier for insect-borne diseases like Eastern Equine Encephalitis to spread. (
  • Strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), Western equine encephalitis (WEE), and Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus can also cause disease in humans. (
  • What is Eastern Equine Encephalitis? (
  • Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but serious disease caused by a virus. (
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that circulates between bird hosts and mosquito populations. (
  • But some insect-borne varieties, such as Eastern equine encephalitis, cause death or disabling effects in between 70 to 90 percent of cases, said Dr. H. Gordon Deen, a neurosurgery professor at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., who reviewed the report's findings for Inspire and Encephalitis Global. (
  • A newly discovered avoidance mechanism illuminates a new target for physicians struggling to quell mosquito-borne viruses like the eastern equine encephalitis virus. (
  • The Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) virus (togavirus family) has long been recognized in the United States, though fewer than 160 cases have been reported in humans in this country in the past 35 years. (
  • How is Eastern Equine Encephalitis treated? (
  • There is no specific cure for Eastern Equine Encephalitis. (
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis cannot be passed from person to person. (
  • Two more mosquito samples from the Manorville area have tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis, a rare but potentially deadly virus, Suffolk County health officials said Thursday. (
  • About 33 percent of people who develop Eastern equine encephalitis die. (
  • Viral encephalitis can occur either as a direct effect of an acute infection, or as one of the sequelae of a latent infection . (
  • The majority of viral cases of encephalitis have an unknown cause, however the most common identifiable cause of viral encephalitis is from herpes simplex infection. (
  • It can be caused by a bacterial infection, such as bacterial meningitis , [12] or may be a complication of a current infectious disease syphilis (secondary encephalitis). (
  • Infection with many different viruses can lead to encephalitis. (
  • Japanese encephalitis ( JE ) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). (
  • Increased microglial activation following Japanese Encephalitis infection has been found to influence the outcome of viral pathogenesis. (
  • An overall induction of differential expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from different brain regions during a progressive Japanese Encephalitis infection was also observed. (
  • Japanese encephalitis is a viral brain infection that's spread through mosquito bites. (
  • The best way to prevent Japanese encephalitis is to be vaccinated against the infection before you visit a part of the world where there's a risk of catching it. (
  • Encephalitis that results as a complication of another systemic infection is known as parainfectious encephalitis and can follow such diseases as measles (rubeola), influenza, and scarlet fever. (
  • The encephalitis may also occur as an immune response to an infection that has already subsided. (
  • Encephalitis can be caused by bacterial infection and, most often, viral infections. (
  • Primary encephalitis (also called acute viral encephalitis) is caused by a direct viral infection of the spinal cord and brain. (
  • Secondary encephalitis, also known as post-infective encephalitis, a viral infection first occurs elsewhere in your body and then travels to your brain. (
  • Encephalitis , an infection of the brain, may be caused by a number of microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, and fungi. (
  • The detective story of the boy's infection and death has heightened the awareness that a virulent La Crosse virus strain is no longer considered to be confined to areas close to Wisconsin and has shown by analysis of viral genomes that only one strain of a relatively rare but virulent strain of La Crosse virus is the usual cause for La Crosse-related encephalitis and deaths. (
  • We identified thirteen cases of suspected encephalitis with HPeV infection between May 2013 and December 2014. (
  • Young age and prematurity appear to be risk factors for encephalitis in HPeV CNS infection. (
  • Most reports of HPeV infection of the CNS have been retrospective series identified through sampling of archived laboratory specimens, without application of clinical case definitions for encephalitis. (
  • Encephalitis is the most severe manifestation of HPeV CNS infection and rigorous case definitions for encephalitis have been published in the past 10 years in studies from California, 28 the United Kingdom, 29 and France, 30 as well as consensus definitions from the Brighton Collaboration 31 and the International Encephalitis Consortium. (
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of cotton rats. (
  • Apoptotic cell death is an important cause of neuronal injury in experimental Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of mice. (
  • And encephalitis can be particularly difficult after it is diagnosed and treated since, after the initial acute illness passes, some patients are left looking normal but suffering from the silent ravages of the infection. (
  • West Nile encephalitis is another viral infection that is transmitted from mosquitoes to people. (
  • Encephalitis can also occur following infection by disease-carrying agents including ticks (Lyme disease), mosquitoes (West Nile virus), and cats (toxoplasmosis). (
  • Encephalitis can also be caused by a bacterial infection. (
  • Encephalitis often follows a viral illness such as an upper respiratory infection, or a gastrointestinal illness, that may cause diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting. (
  • Tick-borne encephalitis is a viral infection of the central nervous system passed on by bites of certain ticks. (
  • The infection is often mild, but it can progress to encephalitis. (
  • General issues related to viral encephalitis, including clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid findings, distinction from postinfectious encephalitis and meningitis, and an approach to the patients with suspected central nervous system infection are discussed separately. (
  • Although infectious disorders are known to cause encephalitis, infection is apparently not the cause of PDE. (
  • It can be caused by a variety of viral pathogens, and infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most treatable cause of encephalitis. (
  • Infection with a virus is the main cause of encephalitis. (
  • She often accepts invitations to speak at conferences around the globe, and was awarded an Honorary Fellowship from the University of Liverpool, thanks to her extensive collaborative work on the research and study of Encephalitis with the Liverpool Institute of Infection and Global Health. (
  • Travelers to many parts of Europe and Asia may be at risk for infection with tickborne encephalitis virus. (
  • These two articles cover all aspects of recent advances in enterovirus-induced encephalitis including the routes of CNS infection, tropism, virulence, immune response, and molecular pathogenesis. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis is a viral infection caused by RNA viruses belonging to the Flavivirus genus. (
  • After human immunodeficiency virus infection, JE may be the leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. (
  • Encephalitis can often be caused by an infection. (
  • Some researchers believe that Rasmussen encephalitis may be triggered by an unidentified infection such as influenza, measles, or cytomegalovirus. (
  • A non-infectious cause includes acute disseminated encephalitis which is demyelinated. (
  • The management of encephalitis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (
  • Historically, the most frequently identified causes of acute encephalitis have been infectious, though recently an increasing number of autoimmune encephalitides have been described. (
  • The clinical presentation, along with neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid studies, are vital in making the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis and in distinguishing it from infectious encephalitis and from other causes of encephalopathy. (
  • Encephalitis is most often caused by an infectious organism, though it is sometimes caused by noninfective agents, including chemicals such as lead , arsenic , and mercury . (
  • Results of the research, Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, United Kingdom , were published ahead of print in the journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases . (
  • [8] While the herpes virus can be spread, encephalitis itself is not infectious. (
  • In the present book, fifteen typical literatures about encephalitis published on international authoritative journals were selected to introduce the worldwide newest progress, which contains reviews or original researches on medical science, encephalitis, infectious diseases, inflammations, epidemiology, ect . (
  • Ari Bitnun and Susan E Richardson, "Childhood Encephalitis in Canada in 2015," Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology , vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 69-72, 2015. (
  • Researchers in the Mayo Clinic Neurological Infectious Disease program conduct ongoing studies of HSV encephalitis and West Nile virus. (
  • Autoimmunity is an increasingly recognized cause of encephalitis with a similar prevalence to that of infectious etiologies. (
  • The causes of encephalitis are numerous, and extensive investigations for infectious agents and other etiologies are often negative. (
  • A classic treatise on one of the worst infectious diseases, sleeping sickness, last week came from the U.S.'s No. 1 encephalitis specialist, Dr. Josephine Bicknell Neal of New York City's Health Department. (
  • Adult patients with encephalitis present with acute onset of fever, headache, confusion, and sometimes seizures. (
  • Yao K, Honarmand S, Espinosa A, Akhyani N, Glaser C, Jacobson S. Detection of human herpesvirus-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with encephalitis. (
  • Contraindication to Pertussis immunization should be observed in patients with encephalitis. (
  • Because encephalitis affects the brain, people with severe cases can sometimes develop problems like seizures, difficulties with muscle coordination, and learning disabilities. (
  • Children with HPeV encephalitis were predominantly young, female infants with seizures and diffusion restriction on MRI. (
  • Adults with encephalitis present with acute onset of fever, headache, confusion, and sometimes seizures. (
  • only 1 in 250 infections develop into encephalitis. (
  • It's not always possible to prevent encephalitis, but some of the infections that cause it can be prevented with vaccinations. (
  • Controlling mosquitoes (a mosquito bite can transmit some viruses) may reduce the chance of some infections that can lead to encephalitis. (
  • While autoimmune encephalitis can occur in the setting of a tumor, infections such as herpes simplex encephalitis can also serve as a trigger. (
  • However, not all human infections cause severe encephalitis. (
  • Encephalitis results from only about 1 in 250 infections. (
  • Encephalitis, which affects an estimated 20,000 Americans a year, most often results from viral and, less frequently, bacterial infections that invade the brain. (
  • Specific efforts include laboratory studies of medications that might block the brain's inflammatory response to certain infections, clinical studies of predictors of outcome for people with HSV encephalitis and newly emerging tick-borne infections. (
  • Several infections that cause encephalitis can be prevented by adopting certain lifestyle measures or through vaccination. (
  • But most people who get these types of infections don't get encephalitis. (
  • Viral encephalitis: familiar infections and emerging pathogens. (
  • Finally, effective therapy has been established for a very limited number of viral infections (eg, acyclovir for herpes simplex encephalitis). (
  • We review current understanding of viral encephalitides with particular reference to emerging viral infections and the availability of existing treatment regimens. (
  • Additional possible viral causes are arboviral flavivirus (St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus), bunyavirus (La Crosse strain), arenavirus (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus), reovirus (Colorado tick virus), and henipavirus infections. (
  • JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the most common vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia. (
  • It is a disease caused by the mosquito -borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). (
  • One of the most common epidemic forms is Japanese encephalitis, which is caused by a mosquito -borne virus and results in acute illness . (
  • Another way to prevent encephalitis is with mosquito control. (
  • Similar to West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis, a mosquito that bites an infected bird can in turn bite a mammal or a person. (
  • For example, West Nile virus can cause encephalitis when a person is bitten by an infected mosquito. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) on Friday confirmed this year's first Japanese encephalitis case, urging people to take precautionary measures against mosquito bites as the disease's peak season approaches. (
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne arboviral disease of major public health importance in Asia. (
  • An epidemic encephalitis or encephalomyelitis of Japan, Siberia, and other parts of Asia, caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus. (
  • However, it is possible to develop a severe case of encephalitis that can be serious and possibly even life threatening. (
  • Severe cases of encephalitis require a hospital stay so the patient can be carefully monitored and medical treatment is close at hand if needed. (
  • For people who have had severe encephalitis that has affected some of the brain's functions, doctors may recommend physical therapy or speech therapy to help with recovery. (
  • Encephalitis caused by the herpes simplex virus is the leading cause of more severe cases in all ages, including newborns. (
  • Permanent brain damage may occur in severe cases of encephalitis. (
  • We show that simple blood tests, several already established as routine tests, can likely be used to see early on which patients are developing severe encephalitis. (
  • His brain metastases shrank sharply from the combination treatment he received, but he also developed such severe encephalitis that he became paralyzed and almost died. (
  • Washington Post , "Make room for 'Big Girl, Small Town'," 2 Dec. 2020 In severe cases, COVID-19 can also lead to encephalitis or stroke. (
  • Serious illness associated with encephalitis is usually severe and relatively sudden, so seek emergency care. (
  • Sophie is suffering from a severe form of Japanese encephalitis , which is most common in rural areas throughout South East Asia, the Pacific islands and the Far East, but is very rare in travellers. (
  • Diagnosis is based on tests used to distinguish encephalitis form other conditions that affect the brain such as meningitis. (
  • A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. (
  • Although anti-NMDA encephalitis is a rare diagnosis, it is commonly misdiagnosed. (
  • Mayo Clinic researchers are working to improve diagnosis and treatment of encephalitis. (
  • The discovery that many of these encephalitis are immune mediated has changed the approach to the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. (
  • Certain abnormal patterns may indicate a diagnosis of encephalitis. (
  • Patients diagnosed with meningitis or encephalitis have a broad differential diagnosis for the specific underlying causes of the inflammatory responses within the CNS. (
  • The aim of the study was to analyze serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in patients with various forms of limbic encephalitis (LE) in order to evaluate whether, and at what time point, MRI findings support the diagnosis of LE. (
  • Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis: diagnosis, optimal management, and challenges. (
  • Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria , fungi , or parasites . (
  • For example, acyclovir, an antiviral drug, can help treat encephalitis caused by the herpes simplex virus. (
  • Antiviral drugs can treat some forms of encephalitis, such as the type caused by the herpes simplex virus. (
  • Herpesviral encephalitis , or herpes simplex encephalitis ( HSE ), is encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus . (
  • About 90% of cases of herpes encephalitis are caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), the same virus that causes cold sores . (
  • The testing takes several days to perform, and patients with suspected Herpes encephalitis should be treated with acyclovir immediately while waiting for test results. (
  • Encephalitis is most often caused by a virus, such as the virus that causes cold sores and genital herpes (herpes simplex), mumps, measles, chickenpox, mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus), influenza, or German measles (rubella). (
  • If the annual incidence of herpes encephalitis, probably the most common sporadic viral encephalitis, is estimated at 5 per million, then approximately 25,000 such cases occur worldwide each year (5). (
  • Despite its regional distribution in Asia, with more than 3 billion people and 60% of the world's population, regional morbidity from JE may exceed worldwide morbidity from herpes encephalitis. (
  • Herpes simplex encephalitis. (
  • Some types of encephalitis are spread by mosquitoes (such as Japanese encephalitis ), ticks (such as tick-borne encephalitis ) and mammals (such as rabies ). (
  • Gorakhpur experiences an outbreak of encephalitis every year, typically after the monsoon season when stagnant water left over after the rains becomes a breeding ground for mosquitoes. (
  • Although very rare in the United States, encephalitis may be spread by infected mosquitoes and ticks. (
  • Encephalitis usually spreads in eastern parts of Uttar Pradesh during and after the June-to-September monsoon season, when pools of stagnant water provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes. (
  • St. Louis encephalitis is a rare disease that is related to the West Nile virus and is transmitted by infected mosquitoes. (
  • Out of 580 wild-caught mosquitoes from 124 pools tested for virus using antigen capture ELISA and an insect-bioassay (inoculation into Toxorhynchites splendens larvae and identification by IFA using Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus-specific monoclonal antibody), four flavivirus isolations were made, of which 2 (50%) were identified as JE virus, one each from Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. (
  • BACKGROUND Neurovirulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes lethal encephalitis in equines and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. (
  • Limbic encephalitis refers to inflammatory disease confined to the limbic system of the brain. (
  • Some cases of limbic encephalitis are of autoimmune origin. (
  • Rituximab treatment for autoimmune limbic encephalitis in an institutional cohort. (
  • This review focuses in several forms of encephalitis that occur in children, and for which an autoimmune etiology has been demonstrated (eg, anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis) or is strongly suspected (eg, Rasmussen encephalitis, limbic encephalitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus). (
  • Autoimmune encephalitis is a type of encephalitis that can result from a number of autoimmune diseases including: Rasmussen encephalitis Systemic lupus erythematosus Behcet's disease Hashimoto's encephalopathy Autoimmune limbic encephalitis Sydenham's chorea PANS or PANDAS Bhalla, D. (
  • Some viruses that cause encephalitis can be treated with medication. (
  • But the viruses that cause encephalitis can be. (
  • It's very rare for travellers visiting risk areas to be affected by Japanese encephalitis. (
  • [16] Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is the most common autoimmune form, and is accompanied by ovarian teratoma in 58 percent of affected women 18-45 years of age. (
  • Treatment and prognostic factors for long-term outcome in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: an observational cohort study. (
  • Johnson N, Henry C, Fessler AJ, Dalmau J. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis causing prolonged nonconvulsive status epilepticus. (
  • Schmitt SE, Pargeon K, Frechette ES, Hirsch LJ, Dalmau J, Friedman D. Extreme delta brush: a unique EEG pattern in adults with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. (
  • Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies. (
  • We are Anti NMDA Receptor Encephalitis! (
  • The Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Foundation, Inc.was established in Canada as a not-for profit-foundation on 26 October 201. (
  • COLUMN Old doc, new disease: Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis Dr Casey Parker reflects on an intriguing presentation that made him ask: What else do I not know? (
  • Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune process, in which antibodies against the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are produced. (
  • Woman's Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Misdiag. (
  • Retrieved on September 16, 2019 from (
  • 2019. What is Encephalitis? . (
  • But because many countries immunize against them, it's rare today for someone to develop encephalitis as a result of these illnesses. (
  • In fact, very few people who are infected with these viruses actually develop encephalitis. (
  • Thanks to immunizations, it's rare today for someone to develop encephalitis from these illnesses. (
  • Of course, getting a virus does not mean that someone will develop encephalitis. (
  • But among people who develop encephalitis, the results are serious. (
  • Fortunately, only a small portion of infected people develop encephalitis. (
  • almost 90% of elderly persons infected with SLEV disease develop encephalitis. (
  • Encephalitis is also called acute viral encephalitis or aseptic encephalitis . (
  • What caused encephalitis lethargica? (
  • Encephalitis lethargica ('sleeping sickness') was a mysterious disorder that swept the world in the decade following the First World War, before disappearing without its cause having been identified. (
  • Despite its brief history, encephalitis lethargica played a major role in a variety medical discussions between the two World Wars, as this epitome of neuropsychiatric disease - attacking both motor and mental functions - appeared just as the separation of neurology and psychiatry had reached a critical point. (
  • Encephalitis lethargica exerted a greater influence on clinical and theoretic neuroscientific thought between the two World Wars than any other single disorder, and had an enduring impact upon neurology and psychiatry. (
  • Individuals can exhibit upper body weakness, muscular pains, and tremors, though the cause of encephalitis lethargica is not currently known. (
  • From 1917 to 1928, an epidemic of encephalitis lethargica occurred worldwide. (
  • Available at: (
  • The presence of a tumor in patients with this form of encephalitis implies that the latter is a paraneoplastic syndrome. (
  • The type of encephalitis a person has depends on the condition's cause. (
  • Depending on the type of encephalitis a patient has, the treatment may be in the form of antiviral drugs, steroid injections or immunosuppressant therapy. (
  • Antibiotics don't work against viruses, so aren't used to treat most forms of encephalitis. (
  • Other viral forms of encephalitis, such as St. Louis encephalitis and La Crosse encephalitis, cause sporadic disease in some areas of the United States. (
  • We've worked for almost two decades with governments, manufacturers, and other partners across Asia and beyond to radically increase protection against Japanese encephalitis, a crippling and incurable disease also known as "brain fever. (
  • When psychosis develops in NMDAR antibody encephalitis it usually has an acute or subacute onset, and antipsychotic treatment may be ineffective and associated with adverse effects. (
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) tends to occur focally even within endemic areas. (
  • Outbreaks of encephalitis occur periodically. (
  • Protection against Japanese encephalitis doesn't occur immediately after having the vaccination, but most people will have protective levels of antibodies a week after completing the two dose course. (
  • In the emergency department (ED), beyond supportive care, viral encephalitides are not treatable, with the exceptions of HSV and VZV encephalitis. (
  • This topic will review the major characteristics of most of the arthropod-borne viral encephalitides. (
  • Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of viral encephalitides. (
  • Powassan encephalitis is a serious illness caused by the Powassan virus. (
  • Due to the ability of the virus to cause encephalitis, it was and still is considered a very serious tick-borne illness. (
  • Any time a child is diagnosed with an illness or disorder that affects the brain and/or spine, like encephalitis, it's natural for a parent to feel somewhat fearful. (
  • Antibody-mediated anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis and Rasmussen encephalitis are examples of autoimmune encephalitis. (
  • Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare, inflammatory, and possibly immuno-mediated disease that typically affects one hemisphere. (
  • The exact cause of Rasmussen encephalitis is not known. (
  • Most researchers now suspect that Rasmussen encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder following histopathologic review of the tissue involved under the microscope. (
  • Rasmussen encephalitis mostly affects children ten years of age and younger. (
  • equine encephalitis in its various forms and St. Louis encephalitis. (
  • There have been outbreaks in recent years in the U.S. of several types of encephalitis, such as West Nile encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. (
  • Who gets St. Louis encephalitis? (
  • How is St. Louis encephalitis spread? (
  • How is St. Louis encephalitis diagnosed? (
  • How can St. Louis encephalitis be prevented? (
  • How can I get more information about St. Louis encephalitis? (
  • If you have concerns about St. Louis encephalitis, contact your healthcare provider. (
  • Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus, and is closely related to West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. (
  • Any of the arthropod-borne viral diseases in their various forms not listed above might be mistaken for Venezuelan equine encephalitis. (
  • Nuclear import and export inhibitors alter capsid protein distribution in mammalian cells and reduce Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus replication. (
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, southern Mexico. (
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in Iquitos, Peru: urban transmission of a sylvatic strain. (
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vaccine candidate (V3526) safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in horses. (
  • Combined alphavirus replicon particle vaccine induces durable and cross-protective immune responses against equine encephalitis viruses. (
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle vaccine protects nonhuman primates from intramuscular and aerosol challenge with ebolavirus. (
  • No samples in Nassau have tested positive for equine encephalitis so far. (
  • To diagnose encephalitis, the doctor may take blood samples and perform a spinal tap (also called a lumbar puncture), a procedure that involves inserting a very thin needle into the lower back to remove some cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. (
  • As with all vaccines, the Japanese encephalitis vaccine will not protect 100 per cent of people who have it. (
  • David Hogberg, Washington Examiner , "The puzzle of COVID-19 on the brain," 21 Jan. 2021 The company announced a program to develop vaccines for the seasonal flu, the Nipah virus (a virus that can cause various conditions, including encephalitis ), and HIV. (
  • India sent thousands of faulty vaccines to impoverished Uttar Pradesh halting a planned immunization drive against an outbreak of Japanese encephalitis, raising chances that hundreds more children could die of the disease this year, health care officials said on Wednesday. (
  • Over 1,000 people have been affected with encephalitis, and we are not sure when the fresh stock of vaccines will arrive," Mishra said. (
  • Although vaccines for many viruses, including measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox have greatly lowered the rate of encephalitis from these diseases, other viruses can cause encephalitis. (
  • Live attenuated vaccines are available in Japanese Encephalitis endemic countries where they are given as part of the childhood routine immunization schedule. (
  • It was reported yesterday that Sanofi Pasteur, the Sanofi vaccines division, has introduced a Japanese encephalitis vaccine, IMOJEV, in Australia. (
  • Advancing knowledge has led to the recognition that some encephalitides can be reliably prevented by vaccination (eg, Japanese encephalitis and rabies). (
  • The disease is the most common cause of viral encephalitis in Asia-Pacific. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates there are around 68,000 cases of Japanese encephalitis worldwide each year. (
  • One in four cases of Japanese encephalitis is fatal. (
  • A vaccine for Japanese encephalitis is currently available in the U.S. through most travelers' clinics. (
  • New Delhi: The health ministry on Friday introduced Jenvac , the country's first indigenously developed vaccine for Japanese encephalitis, that will potentially reduce India's dependence on imports from China to immunize nearly 4 million children annually. (
  • He was reported as a suspected case and transferred to another hospital for further treatment on May 5, with test results on Friday confirming that he was infected with Japanese encephalitis, it said. (
  • The vaccine, which is usually only available privately, gives protection against Japanese encephalitis in more than 9 out of 10 people who receive it. (
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "NMDA Encephalitis. (
  • Blood test Urine analysis Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of the cerebrospinal fluid, to detect the presence of viral DNA which is a sign of viral encephalitis. (
  • Herpesviral Encephalitis can be treated with high-dose intravenous acyclovir , which should be infused 10 mg/kg(adult) over 1 hour to avoid renal failure. (
  • More than 460 people, mostly children, have died after a fresh outbreak of encephalitis in northern India. (
  • It is also recommended where there is a known outbreak of Japanese encephalitis. (
  • In the last week there has been an outbreak of Encephalitis in Guarita in Lempira, Honduras . (
  • Although sporadic cases of viral encephalitis had been noted in northern Thailand before 1969, epidemic transmission of JE was first recognized that year, when an outbreak leading to 685 cases occurred in the Chiang Mai valley. (
  • Ava interviewed many people affected by encephalitis for the book which features several nightmarish accounts of changed personalities, increased violence, and even attempted suicide, alongside tales of hope, love and of lives renewed. (
  • While Japanese encephalitis is the most common encephalitis worldwide, West Nile virus is the most widespread virus. (
  • described expression of Z-DNA-binding protein 1 (ZBP1) restricting virus replication in West Nile virus (WNV)-induced encephalitis. (
  • The company says the new assay can also detect other members of the Japanese Encephalitis virus group, of which West Nile is a member. (
  • De Groot and her colleagues compared the genomes of a Japanese encephalitis virus and a strain of West Nile virus that killed several people in New York in 1999. (
  • Japanese encephalitis has infected more than 10 million children globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). (
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the family Flaviviridae. (
  • Hayasaka D, Aoki K, Morita K. Development of simple and rapid assay to detect viral RNA of tick-borne encephalitis virus by reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification. (
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus was found for the first time in ticks in the UK. (
  • Despite the advance in studying the complex interplay between viruses and infected cells, the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis is largely unknown. (
  • This vaccine is given to prevent Japanese encephalitis only. (
  • Case definitions, diagnostic algorithms, and priorities in encephalitis: consensus statement of the international encephalitis consortium. (
  • Teens with mild cases of encephalitis can recover at home as long as they're watched carefully by a parent or other adult in the household. (