A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.
Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.
An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.
The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).
The susceptibility of the DENTAL ENAMEL to dissolution.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Mechanical removal of a small amount of tooth structure (not more than a few tenths of a millimeter in depth) to eliminate superficial enamel discoloration defects not successfully removed by bleaching techniques. A common abrasive is a mixture of pumice and hydrochloric acid.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.
Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.
Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)
Measurement of tooth characteristics.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
The property of dental enamel to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, mineral ions and other substances. It does not include the penetration of the dental enamel by microorganisms.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processes
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
A clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary conditions characterized by malformed DENTAL ENAMEL, usually involving DENTAL ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA and/or TOOTH HYPOMINERALIZATION.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.
The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.
Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The downward displacement of the cuspal or pointed end of the trileaflet AORTIC VALVE causing misalignment of the cusps. Severe valve distortion can cause leakage and allow the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to aortic regurgitation.
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes. It is differentiated from TOOTH ATTRITION in that this type of wearing away is the result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It differs also from TOOTH EROSION, the progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes not involving bacterial action. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2)
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.
The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.
A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.
Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.
Anomaly of the tooth, found chiefly in upper lateral incisors. It is characterized by invagination of the enamel at the incisal edge.
An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.
Resorption of calcified dental tissue, involving demineralization due to reversal of the cation exchange and lacunar resorption by osteoclasts. There are two types: external (as a result of tooth pathology) and internal (apparently initiated by a peculiar inflammatory hyperplasia of the pulp). (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p676)
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.
A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.
Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)
Selective grinding of occlusal surfaces of the teeth in an effort to eliminate premature contacts and occlusal interferences; to establish optimal masticatory effectiveness, stable occlusal relationships, direction of main occlusal forces, and efficient multidirectional patterns, to improve functional relations and to induce physiologic stimulation of the masticatory system; to eliminate occlusal trauma; to eliminate abnormal muscle tension; to aid in the stabilization of orthodontic results; to treat periodontal and temporomandibular joint problems; and in restorative procedures. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice.
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).
Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.
Transmembrane proteins belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that play an essential role in the normal development of several ectodermally derived organs. Several isoforms of the ectodysplasins exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the MRNA for the protein. The isoforms ectodysplasin A1 and ectodysplasin A2 are considered biologically active and each bind distinct ECTODYSPLASIN RECEPTORS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of ectodysplasin result in ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 1, ANHIDROTIC.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)
Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.
Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.
Devices which provide an artificial temporary wall, or matrix, used in filling a prepared cavity.
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.
The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.
Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.
A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.
A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.
A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.
The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC, TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC, and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC
The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.
The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.
Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Inorganic fluorides of tin. They include both stannic fluoride (tin tetrafluoride) and stannous fluoride (tin difluoride). The latter is used in the prevention of dental caries.
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.
The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures.
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
A sodium fluoride solution, paste or powder, which has been acidulated to pH 3 to 4 and buffered with a phosphate. It is used in the prevention of dental caries.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
Therapeutic closure of spaces caused by the extraction of teeth, the congenital absence of teeth, or the excessive space between teeth.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)
Bicarbonate transporters that move BICARBONATE IONS in exchange of CHLORIDE IONS or SODIUM IONS across membranes. They regulate acid-base HOMEOSTASIS, cell volume and intracellular pH. Members include CHLORIDE-BICARBONATE ANTIPORTERS (SLC4A1, 2, 3, and 9); SODIUM-COUPLED BICARBONATE TRANSPORTERS (SLC4A4 and 5, 7, 8 and 10); and a sodium borate cotransporter (SLC4A11 protein).
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.
A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
Techniques for enhancing and directing cell growth to repopulate specific parts of the PERIODONTIUM that have been damaged by PERIODONTAL DISEASES; TOOTH DISEASES; or TRAUMA, or to correct TOOTH ABNORMALITIES. Repopulation and repair is achieved by guiding the progenitor cells to reproduce in the desired location by blocking contact with surrounding tissue by use of membranes composed of synthetic or natural material that may include growth inducing factors as well.
Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.
Predeciduous teeth present at birth. They may be well formed and normal or may represent hornified epithelial structures without roots. They are found on the gingivae over the crest of the ridge and arise from accessory buds of the dental lamina ahead of the deciduous buds or from buds of the accessory dental lamina. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
The cusps of M1 were sharp and unworn in juveniles, but worn and concave in older animals. The cusp formula of the M2 molar was ... It had a sharply limited band of enamel, and grew continually. The p3 premolar was very small, and adhered entirely to the ... The m1 molar was almost symmetrical, and its cusp formula was 4:4, the size of the cusps decreasing towards the back. The m2 ... The cusp formula shows the arrangement and number of cusps in consecutive rows of a tooth, from the outer to the inner side; ...
They differ from human molars in that the occlusal surface is not covered in enamel; rather, the layers of enamel, dentine, and ... all wrapped in a second outer layer of enamel. Viewed from the side, selenodont teeth form a series of triangular cusps. The ... They are characterized by low crowns, and crescent-shaped cusps when viewed from above (crown view). The term comes from the ... Selenodont teeth are the type of molars and premolars commonly found in ruminant herbivores. ...
The cusps of the molars are arranged biserially and connected medially by longitudinal enamel crests. Its diet in the wild ...
O. macedoniensis's molar enamel cover was fairly thick and had low cusps. The male O. macedoniensis had large canine teeth with ... Based on the heavily pitted surface of the second molar of Ouranopithecus macedoniensis, it is assumed that its diet consisted ...
The premolars were characterized by a simple construction with a single raised enamel cusp. The molars, on the other hand, had ... The low-crowned molars with their typical, clearly formed lophodontic chewing surfaces indicate specialization in relatively ... Furthermore, it possessed only a thin layer of enamel. In the lower jaw, the first incisor, protruding obliquely forward ( ... two transversely positioned enamel ridges (bilophodont) and were reminiscent of those of tapirs. The entire posterior dentition ...
The incisors are broad and flat, while the molars have low, rounded cusps with thick enamel. The most noticeable characteristic ...
The molars were generally bunodont (i.e. with small enamel cusps on the occlusal surface-bearing structure). Between these ... The premolars had only one (lower jaw) or two (in the maxilla) cusps. The first incisor is relatively large and asymmetric and ... bumps were approaches for forming transverse strips on the first two molars and on the rearmost molar, which is typical in ... and three molars (M1-3)). The piece is about 6 inches long, 5 inches wide and just over 3 inches high. In addition, the fossils ...
The teeth surfaces (enamel-dentine junctions) are much simpler and the cusps are sharper. In 2019 a discovery of 16 human ... It consisted of two skull fragments and one separated (lower molar) teeth. The skull fragments were believed to be from the ...
... is a poorly preserved molar-like tooth that largely lacks a recognizable enamel surface and shows many small ... Cusp E is triangular and separated from cusps F and D by valleys, which are bordered internally by crests connecting the cusps ... and the much smaller back fossa is just in front of cusp C. All three are nearly round. Cusp A, the largest cusp, is triangular ... The large front fossa is located between cusps A, B, D, E, and F; the smaller intermediate fossa is between cusps B and D; ...
The molars are brachyodont (low-crowned) and bear distinct cusps. The second molars, although decidedly smaller than the first ... The upper incisors have orange enamel and are opisthodont, with the cutting edge of the tooth inclined backwards. The root of ... but the much smaller third molars are reduced and more distinct from the first molars in morphology. The molars lack accessory ... Each of the upper molars is three-rooted, whereas the lowers have two roots. The molars are quite similar to those of ...
Talonid cusps are slightly differentiated. The first and second lower molars are approximately the same length (M1, average ... A metaconid is lacking, although on some teeth slight thickenings of the enamel are present in this region. ... The report of the occurrence of Purgatorius in the Late Cretaceous was based on an isolated, worn molar found in a channel ... The type specimen of P. unio, a damaged upper molar, is essentially identical to teeth found at the Garbani Locality. Data from ...
They possessed prominent canines and molars with bunodont cusps, bulging dental wreaths, and wrinkled enamel. Their upper ... Their lower molars increased in size as they proceeded to the bottom of the jaw, and the paraconid was small or absent. Some ... molars were usually squared, due to the enlargement and displacement of the metaconule, but there was also a small hypocone and ...
... grinding the food between the molar cusp rows. The structure of the pelvis in the Multituberculata suggests that they gave ... At least two lineages developed hypsodonty, in which tooth enamel extends beyond the gumline: lambdopsalid taeniolabidoideans ... However, more detailed analysis of this genus revealed a smaller number of dental cusps and a retained fifth premolar-a unique ... food held in place by the last upper premolar was sliced by the bladelike lower pre-molars as the dentary moved orthally ( ...
Molars have a hypocingulid, first lower molar compressed with the forlink absent. First incisor with lingual and dorsal enamel ... The third lower premolar of some taxa have a posterobuccal cusp (cusp at the back close to the cheek). The skull is defined by ... The dental area of this taxa can be described as having the molar lophodont and brachyodont with a hypolophid formed by ...
... the molars having low crowns with rounded cusps covered in enamel. The probable course of development of horses from ... Replacement of premolars by molars; and Increases in tooth length, crown height of molars. Fossilized plants found in different ...
... hypsodont molars of Holochilus. The main cusps are located opposite each other and have rounded edges. The enamel folds do not ... the anterior cusp on the first lower molar, the anteroconid, contains a deep pit. Each of the three upper molars has three ... One lower first molar of this form has length 3.28 mm. Because the Bajo San José material does not contain lower first molars, ... The corresponding structure on the lower molars, the mesolophid, is present on the first and second molars in Lundomys, but ...
The rounded upper projections of the back teeth are cusps. The hard white exterior covering of the tooth is the enamel. As the ... 4) Molars, there are twelve molars, in sets of three, at the back of the mouth. They have wide surfaces that help to grind food ... Tooth enamel lends great strength to the tooth structure. The formation of a developing tooth includes the process of dentin ... 3) Premolars (or bicuspids), the four pairs of molars are located next to the cuspids. They crush and tear food. ( ...
His thesis investigating the evolution and development of mammalian molar cusp patterns was supervised by Irma Thesleff and ... He also discovered and coined the term 'secondary enamel knot', previously overlooked signaling centers regulating tooth cusp ... This led to the description of enamel knot as molecular signaling centers in teeth. ...
The molars are relatively small and are brachydont (low-crowned) and bunodont (with the cusps higher than the connecting crests ... The upper incisors have yellowish enamel and are opisthodont, with the cutting edge inclined backwards. ... The upper and lower first molars have small accessory roots, as in many other oryzomyines, and the second and third lower molar ... The back end of the lower incisor root is in a capsular process, a raising of the mandibular bone behind the molars. ...
The molars have two-lobed cusps. The upper incisors are grooved and the enamel on the molars is quickly worn away by chewing ...
... and the 3rd molar 340 mm2 (0.53 sq in). The molars are bunodont, featuring low and rounded cusps. The premolars resemble molars ... where the enamel meets the cementum) of its non-permanent 2nd premolar. In baboons, this stage occurs when the 1st molar is ... In the upper jaw, the 1st molar averages roughly 250 mm2 (0.39 sq in), the 2nd molar 320 mm2 (0.50 sq in), and the 3rd molar ... The tips of the mesial cusps of the 1st molar (on the side closest to the premolar) of KNM-ER 1820 were at about the same level ...
... may have evolved from ancestors that had already lost basic mammalian dental features like tooth enamel and a crown with cusps ... As a result, it is impossible to define Xenarthra as having incisors, canines, premolars, or molars. Since most mammals are ... They have a single set of teeth through their lives; these teeth have no functional enamel, and usually there are few or no ... Several groups of xenarthrans did evolve cheek teeth to chew plants, but since they lacked enamel, patterns of harder and ...
The upper molars were square in shape and equipped with four large conical cusps, surrounded by sturdy precing and ... postcingulation and extraordinarily thickened enamel. One particular species (A. frendi) still possessed protoconule and ... The dental formula was typical of the artiodactyls with three incisors, a canine, four premolars and three molars; the first ...
... and only had a raised enamel cusp on the chewing surface. The molars were characterized by low (brachyodont) tooth crowns and ... The first premolar was around 0.6 cm long, the last molar up to 1.7 cm long. A complete skeleton is not available, but skulls ... The premolars themselves were completely unmolarized, meaning they did not resemble the molars, ... two tapir-like transverse tooth enamel ridges (bilophodont), which could also be inclined in the lower jaw. The length of the ...
The upper molars are triangular teeth bearing several distinct small cusps, particularly on the second upper molar, and with ... The enamel is wrinkled on the flanks of the paracone and metacone and, in the Thai but not the Pakistani specimens, on the ... there is no distinct cusp (a paraconid) at the front of the trigonid on the p4, but this cusp is present in the molars. The ... The p4 and molars have a distinct trigonid (a triangular group of cusps at the front of a tribosphenic tooth) and talonid. The ...
The tooth enamel is slightly wrinkled. The third incisor on the upper and lower jaws are small and vestigial. The molars are ... The upper molars also lack a distinctive cusp (hypocone). Gheerbrant et al. noted these features and some others are shared ... suggested the grouping in this analysis was due to convergent evolution of lophodont molars in both groups and gaps in the ... The selenodont molars and vestigial third incisors are traits shared with paenungulates and proboscideans, respectively. ...
... enamel ridge linking the hypoconid and hypoconulid) that links to the entoconid (inner posterior cusp of a molar). Submyotodon ... This refers to the fact that its molars are similar to those of the mouse-eared bats, e.g. "myotodont" molars. Myotodont molars ...
... with a higher molar crown height and distinctions in cusp morphology in the premolar and first molar. Head and body was about ... Incisors display multiserial enamel. The structure of the Hunter-Schreger bands is very similar to Laonastes. The root of the ...
The molars were not composed of lamellae like those of true elephants, but had cusps, like tapir and pig molars; Anancus ... Stable carbon isotopes from Ethiopian Anancus tooth enamel 3-4 million years ago suggest that it grazed on C4 plants. The jaw ... of Anancus, an extinct elephant Jaw of Anancus arvernensis from Quaternary of Italy Molar of Anancus arvernensis Hautier, ...
The molars are brachyodont (low-crowned) and bear crests and cusps arranged in pairs opposite each other. The front cusp of M1 ... The well-developed upper incisors have orange enamel at their front surfaces and are slightly opisthodont (with their cutting ... is 4.29 mm long and 2.75 mm broad at the first molars. The upper molar row is 4.13 mm long and M1 is 1.19 mm broad. These ... The upper molar row is 4.13 mm long, which makes J. anoblepas the largest known species of Juliomys. Between 1835 and 1849, ...
Apart from the first molars, the incisors are also the first permanent teeth to erupt, following the same order as the primary ...
Maxillary molars have two buccal cusps and two lingual cusps. A fifth cusp that may form on the maxillary first molar is known ... The enamel organ is composed of the outer enamel epithelium, inner enamel epithelium, stellate reticulum and stratum ... There are usually four cusps on maxillary molars, two on the buccal and two palatal. Most times there is also a fifth cusp, ... In deciduous teeth, there is no maxillary third molar. There are usually four cusps on maxillary molars, two buccal and two ...
Enamel of abnormal thickness due to malfunction in enamel matrix formation. Enamel is very thin but hard & translucent, and may ... Differential diagnosis would include dental fluorosis, molar-incisor hypomineralization, chronological disorders of tooth ... Enamel defect due to malfunction of enamel calcification, therefore enamel is of normal thickness but is extremely brittle, ... Winter GB, Brook AH (1975). "Enamel hypoplasia and anomalies of the enamel". Dent Clin North Am. 19 (1): 3-24. PMID 162891.. ...
The upper molars are triangular teeth bearing a number of distinct small cusps, particularly on the second upper molar, and ... The enamel is wrinkled on the flanks of the paracone and metacone and, in the Thai but not the Pakistani specimens, on the ... there is no distinct cusp (a paraconid) at the front of the trigonid on the p4, but this cusp is present in the molars.[23] ... In D. major, this cusp is further to the back than in both D. chimaera and the Sunda colugo, while the two cusps are merged in ...
... s had cusp-shaped teeth, very different from mammoth and elephant teeth (which have a series of enamel plates), well- ... americanum in having a relatively longer and narrower third molar,[7] similar to the description of the defunct genus ... which possessed rows of large conical cusps, indicating that they were dealing with a distinct species. In 1806 the French ... for the nipple-like projections on the crowns of its molars. ...
The molars are relatively small and are brachydont (low-crowned) and bunodont (with the cusps higher than the connecting crests ... The upper incisors have yellowish enamel and are opisthodont, with the cutting edge inclined backwards. ... The upper and lower first molars have small accessory roots, as in many other oryzomyines, and the second and third lower molar ... The incisive foramina, perforations of the palate between the incisors and the molars, are narrow and long and taper towards ...
2mm of white opacity at the tip of the summit of the cusps, of the bicuspids or second molars. ... Enamel fluorosis has a white opaque appearance which is due to the surface of the enamel being hypomineralised.[14] ... Criteria - description of enamel Normal. 0. The enamel represents the usual translucent semivitriform (glass-like) type of ... Enamel defects caused by infection of a primary tooth predecessor. *Dental caries: Fluorosis-resembling enamel defects are ...
Fourth and fifth molars that form behind the third molars are another kind of supernumerary teeth.[10] ... Dens evaginatus/Talon cusp. *Dens invaginatus. *Enamel pearl. *Macrodontia. *Microdontia. *Taurodontism. *Supernumerary roots ... Kokten, G; Balcioglu, H; Buyukertan, M (2003). "Supernumerary fourth and fifth molars: A report of two cases". The journal of ... Molar-type extra teeth are the rarest form. Dental X-rays are often used to diagnose hyperdontia. ...
The premolar teeth, or bicuspids, are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. In humans, there are two ... There is always one large buccal cusp, especially so in the mandibular first premolar. The lower second premolar almost always ... They have properties of both the canines, that lay anterior and molars that lay posterior, and so food can be transferred from ... the canines to the premolars and finally to the molars for grinding, instead of directly from the canines to the molars.[4] ...
The molars had distinct trigonid and talonid cusps (these cusps are lost in basilosaurids), and the upper molars were ... The enamel of the lower premolars is crenulated (has scalloped edges). The fourth premolar is a high triangular shape. Like ... and the third molar. Unlike later archaeoecetes, the molars' roots do not extend to the cheek bones, and the third molar is not ... and no accessory cusps. Later archaeocetes developed accessory cusps.[6]:52-53 ...
The main hominid molar cusp (hypocone) evolved in early primate history, while the cusp of the corresponding primitive lower ... For example, the grey-cheeked mangabey has thick enamel on its teeth, enabling it to open hard fruits and seeds that other ... The Old World species are divided into apes and monkeys depending on the number of cusps on their molars; apes have five, Old ... Kay, R. F. (1975). "The functional adaptations of primate molar teeth". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 43 (2): 195- ...
Its molars were uneven, dull, and bumpy, and used primarily for grinding foliage. The cusps of the molars were slightly ... The most different from Merychippus was Hipparion, mainly in the structure of tooth enamel: in comparison with other Equidae, ... It had wider molars than its predecessors, which are believed to have been used for crunching the hard grasses of the steppes. ... The type of the original omnivorous teeth with short, "bumpy" molars, with which the prime members of the evolutionary line ...
The maxillary incisors, both the central and lateral, are the most likely teeth to have a talon cusp, which is an extra cusp on ... Gender differences in enamel thickness and dentin width are low. Age differences in the gingival-incisal length of maxillary ... Talon cusps range from less than 1% to 6% of the population, and 33% of cases occur on the permanent maxillary central incisor. ... The deciduous maxillary central incisor begins to undergo mineralization 14 weeks in utero, and at birth 5/6ths of the enamel ...
Enamel varies in thickness over the surface of the tooth and is often thickest at the cusp, up to 2.5mm, and thinnest at its ... mandibular first molar, mandibular second molar, and mandibular third molar. Third molars are commonly called "wisdom teeth" ... Accessory cusps are additional cusps on a tooth and may manifest as a Talon cusp, Cusp of Carabelli, or Dens evaginatus. ... Enamel[edit]. Main article: Tooth enamel. Enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body. It is one of ...
... the two families Hylobatidae and Hominidae can be distinguished from Old World monkeys by the number of cusps on their molars; ... "Enamel thickness in the Middle Miocene great apes Anoiapithecus, Pierolapithecus and Dryopithecus". Proceedings of the Royal ... hominoids have five in the "Y-5" molar pattern, whereas Old World monkeys have only four in a bilophodont pattern. ...
These lesions occur in both the dentine and enamel of the tooth. These lesions generally occur around the cervical areas of the ... Dejak, B; Młotkowski, A; Romanowicz, M. "Finite element analysis of stresses in molars during clenching and mastication". ... which is where the enamel and cementum meet on a tooth).[5][6][7][8] If this is kept in mind, it serves as a platform for it to ... These lead to a concentration of stress and flexion at the area where the enamel and cementum meet (CEJ).[2][4] This ...
Class VI Caries affecting cusp tips of molars, premolars, and cuspids.. Materials usedEdit. Main article: Dental restorative ... While enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, it is particularly brittle, and unsupported enamel fractures easily. ... In 2010, researchers reported that they were able to stimulate mineralization of an enamel-like layer of fluorapatite in vivo.[ ... Tooth #3, the upper right first molar, with the beginning of an MO preparation. Looking into the preparation, the white, outer ...
MSX1 commonly results in missing second premolars and third molars, with a small percentage of first molars. PAX9 and TGFA are ... Dens evaginatus/Talon cusp. *Dens invaginatus. *Enamel pearl. *Macrodontia. *Microdontia. *Taurodontism. *Supernumerary roots ... Missing third molars occur in 9-30% of studied populations. In primary dentition the maxilla is more affected, with the ... Excluding the third molars, missing permanent dentition accounts for 3.5-6.5%. Similar trends of missing teeth can be seen in ...
Molars and premolars that have had root canal therapy should be protected with a crown that covers the cusps of the tooth. This ... The endodontist makes an opening through the enamel and dentin tissues of the tooth, usually using a dental drill fitted with a ... Molars and premolars are the primary teeth used in chewing and will almost certainly fracture in the future without cuspal ... On a maxillary molar, there is more than a 50% chance that the tooth has four canals instead of just three, but the fourth ...
They are characterized as clustered, white lesions on the buccal mucosa (opposite the upper 1st & 2nd molars) and are ...
Molar. *First molar. *Second molar. *Third molar. Parts. Crown. *Cusp *Cusp of Carabelli ...
A wisdom tooth or third molar is one of the three molars per quadrant of the human dentition. It is the most posterior of the ... Some problems which may or may not occur with third molars: A Mesio-impacted, partially erupted mandibular third molar, B ... The last teeth to come in man are molars called 'wisdom-teeth', which come at the age of twenty years, in the case of both ... Ghaeminia H (2013). "Coronectomy may be a way of managing impacted third molars (systematic review)". Evid Based Dent. 14 (2): ...
1. Tooth 2. Enamel 3. Dentin 4. Dental pulp ::5. cameral pulp ::6. root pulp :7. Cementum :8. Crown ::9. Cusp ::10. Sulcus :11 ...
Lingual crossbites: the buccal cusps of the lower molars occlude lingually to the lingual cusps of the upper molars. ... Plaque accumulation around the margins of brackets and bands can result in areas of demineralisation of enamel. It is very ... the buccal cusps of the lower premolars or molars occlude buccally to the buccal cusps of the upper premolars or molars. ... the mesio-buccal cusp of the upper first permanent molar occludes in the buccal groove of the lower first permanent molar. ...
It appears as a radiopaque (light area) around a tooth, usually a premolar or molar. There is no sign of inflammation of the ... found anywhere in the jaw, most commonly in the mandibular premolar-molar region. The shape ranges from round to linear streaks ...
... is not divided in two by an enamel bridge. The hypoflexid on the second lower molar, the main valley between the cusps, is very ... The molars are brachydont (low-crowned) and have two rows of main cusps separated by deep valleys and complemented by a network ... The first upper molar is broader than in T. talamancae. As in this species, but unlike in many other rice rats, including H. ... alfaroi, the mesoflexus on the second upper molar, which separates the paracone (one of the main cusps) from the mesoloph (an ...
... the two families Hylobatidae and Hominidae can be distinguished from Old World monkeys by the number of cusps on their molars; ... Alba, D. M.; Fortuny, J.; Moyà-Solà, S. (22 July 2010). "Enamel thickness in the Middle Miocene great apes Anoiapithecus, ... hominoids have five in the "Y-5" molar pattern, whereas Old World monkeys have only four in a bilophodont pattern. Further, in ...
... was recorded by examining the buccal apices of molar tooth cusps. Apices were characterized as sharp, rounded, or ... this kind of dental wearing is as a result of rubbing tooth to tooth and no external forces cause this enamel abrasion.usually ... Differential mesowear in occluding upper and lower molars: Opening mesowear analysis for lower molars and premolars in ... This fact is base of mesowear method sharp: A sharp cusp terminates to a point and has practically no rounded area between the ...
The cusps contain both dentine and enamel, whereas minor projections on the crown, called crenulations, are the result of ... They are: maxillary first molar, maxillary second molar, maxillary third molar, mandibular first molar, mandibular second molar ... In humans, the molar teeth have either four or five cusps. Adult humans have 12 molars, in four groups of three at the back of ... Zalambdodont molars are found in, for example, golden moles and solenodons. Like zalambdodont molars, dilambdodont molars have ...
... is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body,[1] and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is ... 1st Molar Cusps united; occlusal. completely calcified 5.5 months after birth 2nd Molar Cusps united; occlusal. incompletely ... The basic unit of enamel is called an enamel rod.[4] Measuring 4 μm - 8 μm in diameter an enamel rod, formerly called an enamel ... The area around the enamel rod is known as interrod enamel. Interrod enamel has the same composition as enamel rod, however a ...
The cusps of M1 were sharp and unworn in juveniles, but worn and concave in older animals. The cusp formula of the M2 molar was ... It had a sharply limited band of enamel, and grew continually. The p3 premolar was very small, and adhered entirely to the ... The m1 molar was almost symmetrical, and its cusp formula was 4:4, the size of the cusps decreasing towards the back. The m2 ... The cusp formula shows the arrangement and number of cusps in consecutive rows of a tooth, from the outer to the inner side; ...
The cusps of the molars are arranged biserially and connected medially by longitudinal enamel crests. Its diet in the wild ...
... homoplasy and cusp variability at the enamel-dentine junction of hominoid molars. Journal of Anatomy, 231(4), 585-599. DOI ... The morphology of Carabellis cusp at the enamel-dentine junction of Australopithecus and Paranthropus upper molars. American ... cuspal enamel thickness, and lateral wall enamel thick-ness in maxillary premolars and molars of apes and hominins. American ... Contributions of Enamel-Dentine Junction Shape and Enamel Deposition to Primate Molar Crown Complexity. American Journal of ...
Mean cuspal enamel thickness in modern human and Neanderthal mesial molar cusps ... the advanced attrition on the mesiopalatal cusp of the upper first molar and mesiobuccal cusp of the lower first molar suggests ... Developmental stress was mapped in the enamel and dentine of the first molar, registered to hypoplasias on anterior teeth, and ... Crown formation time was determined from the mesiopalatal cusp (protocone) of the right upper first molar according to the ...
1a, b). Worn cusps exhibit bands of brownish dentin lined by enamel ridges (Fig. 1a, b). Sheep molars come into wear while ... Variation in enamel extension rate of mandibular molars. Enamel extension rates (pooled for the three mandibular molars) ... as exhibiting cusp hypsodonty. However, other authors had already noted that sheep molars possess both, elongated cusp portions ... Kierdorf H, Witzel C, Upex B, Dobney K, Kierdorf U. Enamel hypoplasia in molars of sheep and goats, and its relationship to the ...
enamel chord forms during bell stage and corresponds to the cusps of molars ... enamel organ has 3 layers: inner enamel epithelium, stellate reticulum, and outer enamel epithelium ... characterized by the production of enamel and dentin. 1.) amyloblasts differentiate first 2.) odontoblasts differentiate and ... non dividing cells that appear during cap stage and will organize the cusp development ...
premolars and molars had high cusps (bumps) on the grinding surface. *teeth were covered by a thin layer of enamel ... premolars and molars are relatively flat with low, rounded cusps (bumps) on the grinding surface ... molars (back teeth) are small and impacted wisdom teeth often result because there is not enough room for them in the ...
Dentine now thicker than enamel on cusp of fourth cheek tooth (first molar). Dentine of fifth cheek tooth (second molar) ... The enamel portion of the cusp is wider than the dentine. Some wear on third cusp of sixth cheek tooth (third molar). ... Look closely at the fourth cheek tooth (first molar). The cusps are sharp and show little or no wear; enamel (white portion) of ... The third premolar may still have three cusps, or the permanent third premolar may now be in (two cusps). Third molar may still ...
The enamel had been worn away on large areas of anterior cusps and mastigatory primary molar surfaces. Because of the poor ... As the molars had extensive teeth surface losses, stainless steel crowns were the proposed treatment for the primary molars ... the treatment of the right molars was carried out and four stainless steel crowns were cemented on the primary molars. Seven ... A week later a protective oral appliance was designed for covering all the maxillary molars, in order to reduce the bruxism and ...
Cho, S. W., et al. The primary enamel knot determines the position of the first buccal cusp in developing mice molars. ... Representative slice through the molar region. Arrows point to molar tooth germs. (E) High power view of a molar slice. The ... DP = dental papilla lying within the inner enamel epithelium. DF = dental follicle, which runs around the outer enamel ... For molars use a frontal/transverse orientation (see plane of chopping in Figure 1B), while for incisors use a sagittal slice ...
... the molars having low crowns with rounded cusps covered in enamel.. The probable course of development of horses from ... Increases in tooth length, crown height of molars.. A dominant genus from each geological period has been selected to show the ...
Protoconid--Antero-external cusp of the lower molars. Protoloph--Anterior crest of certain upper molars; in the pocket mice it ... Parastyle--The anterior ridge of certain upper molars formed from the cingulum, an enamel ridge at the base of the tooth, as in ... Metacone--The postero-external cusp of the upper molars. Metaconid--Second antero-internal cusp lying just posterior to the ... Entoconid--Postero-internal cusp of the lower molar. Fauna--The animal life characteristic of a region, locality, or geological ...
cusp tips synonyms, cusp tips pronunciation, cusp tips translation, English dictionary definition of cusp tips. cusp n. 1. A ... the buccal cusp tips of the premolars, and the distobuccal cusp tips of the first molars (Fig.. Evaluation of dental arch form ... 1C), perhaps the hardest form of enamel hypoplasia to detect, manifests as an irregular sloping around the cusp tips of teeth. ... buccal cusps of first and second premolars and mesiobuccal cusps of the first permanent molars.. Dental arch dimensions in ...
The upper molars are triangular teeth bearing a number of distinct small cusps, particularly on the second upper molar, and ... The enamel is wrinkled on the flanks of the paracone and metacone and, in the Thai but not the Pakistani specimens, on the ... there is no distinct cusp (a paraconid) at the front of the trigonid on the p4, but this cusp is present in the molars.[23] ... In D. major, this cusp is further to the back than in both D. chimaera and the Sunda colugo, while the two cusps are merged in ...
A single molar is about the size of half a grain of rice. The teeth, however, are distinctive among the various genera of ... Cusps, valleys, ridges and other distinguishing characteristics on the surface of the teeth are identifiable through a ... The teeth, however, are preserved by enamel. Interestingly, small mammal teeth are very diverse in terms of their structure, so ... In a comparison of the molars and premolars from Macrognathomys and Sicista primus, Kimura reported finding 12 shared dental ...
LAMB3 molar teeth have a multitude of cusps versus matched controls. LAMB3 enamel was well mineralized but pitted. The ... with cervical enamel appearing much less severely affected than coronal enamel. This study further defines the variations in ... Two unerupted third molar teeth from individual IV:5 in family 2 were subject to computerized tomography and scanning electron ... junctional epidermolysis bullosa; Laminin; enamel; whole exome sequencing; X-ray computerised tomography; hemidesmosomes. ...
Mastodon teeth look more like a familiar molar. They were enamel covered and had high knobby cusps. They had two in each jaw, ... Molars with pointed cusps, like the mastodon had, were thought to be a sign of meat eating. Some of the published descriptions ... Cuvier thought the cusps of the teeth look breast like. He probably needed to get out more often. Jefferson, with his American ...
1998). In mice the molar cusps sit in parallel and in keeping with this, the secondary enamel knots are induced in parallel ... splitting of the first molar tooth germ led to two molar teeth, with the anterior molar forming two to four cusps, whereas the ... 2007) The primary enamel knot determines the position of the first buccal cusp in developing mice molars. Differentiation 75, ... Molars go on to form tertiary enamel knots, which appear as Slit1-expressing epithelial clusters next to the enamel-free areas ...
A) First molar distobuccal cusp enamel development (time in days), including the birth line 6 days after enamel initiation and ... A) Second molar mesiobuccal cusp development (time in days), including a marked ~2-week developmental defect at 631 days and a ... The yellow box indicates elevated Ba/Ca values that cease 3 months before molar cusp completion. The blue vertical lines ... with twofold sampling at 16.5 and 21.5 mm from the enamel cusp tip. SIMS measurements do not extend to the end of the cervical ...
Serial waves of enamel and dentine form the tooth cusp (Fig. 2). After ankylosis, the teeth are functional and these serial ... This wear exposes serial ridges of enamel between dentin, which we hypothesize act in the same way as the molars of many ... 2E,F). This characteristic tooth-wear pattern is not observed on the sides of tooth cusps (where they pass by teeth from the ... We tracked the movement of a point on a tooth cusp to understand the relationship between whole-body movements of the jaw and ...
The five-cusp and juvenile fissure pattern of its molar teeth, known as the Y-5 arrangement, is typical of hominoids in general ... Its molars had relatively little enamel, suggesting that it ate soft leaves and fruit, an ideal food for a tree-dwelling animal ... Comments: Kenyapithecus teeth and jaws were adapted to feeding on hard objects, as shown by thicker molar enamel, large ... it had a gracile jaw with thinly enameled molars and suspensory forelimbs; Begun (2004) notes that the similarities and ...
The molars are relatively small and are brachydont (low-crowned) and bunodont (with the cusps higher than the connecting crests ... The upper incisors have yellowish enamel and are opisthodont, with the cutting edge inclined backwards. ... The upper and lower first molars have small accessory roots, as in many other oryzomyines, and the second and third lower molar ... The incisive foramina, perforations of the palate between the incisors and the molars, are narrow and long and taper towards ...
Slit1 is specifically expressed in the primary and secondary enamel knots during molar tooth cusp formation. Mech Dev. 2001 Sep ...
... and maxillary first molar (Figure 3h) were inconspicuous, with the exception of a rather deep enamel fissure in the molar. ... Note the prominent supplementary palatal cusp (arrow) and the very short, blunt root (a,b). Biofilm (BF) is present on the ... Maxillary first molar (h-l). The tooth has a normal enamel (E) layer with a deep fissure (F) and short, partially resorbed ... Four permanent teeth (two molars and two central incisors) were present in the maxillary arch and two permanent molars in the ...
... cusps at the corners of molars may snap off, or they may be a total fracture of a tooth. ... I use the traditional kind of night-guard, but the wear on my teeth during the day is very heavy, and the enamel on the back of ... Dentists look for particular patterns of wear, which can involve flaking of the enamel, although in more serious cases the ... 1. Enamel is worn away and softer, orange coloured dentine is exposed ...
Elevated cusps on the molars, like those in H. sapiens, are not as pronounced as they were in earlier hominins. The shape of ... the internal molar enamel looks similar to that of both H. sapiens and H. erectus specimens found in Asia. The premolars ... But the authors report that the overall size of the teeth, as well as the ratio between molar and premolar size, is distinct ... The newly discovered molars are extremely small compared with those of other ancient human relatives. ...
The molars are in the back of the mouth; they have between three and five cusps each, and their function is to crush and grind ... Premolars have two or three cusps on the occlusal surface. bull tooth. Taurodontism.. cracked tooth. A tooth whose enamel and ... Any of the third most-distal molars on each side of both jaws. These four molars may appear as late as the 25th year or may ... There are 12 permanent molars in all, three on each side of both the upper and lower jaw. The hindmost molar in each of these ...
The molars were composed of platelike sections of enamel, dentine, and cement stacked from front to back. The plates created a ... However, the plates of gomphotheres were less numerous than those of living elephants and tended to have rounded cusps on their ... The trilophodont gomphotheres had three plates in the molar teeth, and the tetralophodonts possessed an additional plate, for a ... Gomphotheres are separated into two informal groups based on the structure of their molar teeth. ...
3: A3/B3). In young and sub-adult animals enamel wrinkles are easily visible (Fig. 3: A1). The molar eruption criteria was more ... Upper molar cusp shapes and dentine exposure of Tayassu pecari. A1 - "Sharp" shape; A2 - No dentine exposed; B1 - "Round" shape ... A1/B1 - third upper molar breaking the alveolar bone, first and second upper molar with low wear; A2/ B2 - upper molar with ... Upper molar cusp shapes and dentine exposure of Mazama americana. A1 - "Sharp" shape; A2 - No dentine exposed; B1 - "Round" ...
  • At the edges of teeth where there is no dentin underlying the enamel, the color sometimes has a slightly blue tone. (bionity.com)
  • [7] In permanent teeth, the enamel rods near the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) tilt slightly toward the root of the tooth. (bionity.com)
  • Gnarled enamel is found at the cusps of teeth. (bionity.com)
  • It had very robust incisors, and cheek teeth with multiple cusps (for which multituberculates are named). (wikipedia.org)
  • The front part of these teeth, the trigonid , is broader in D. chimaera than in D. major , which is known only from the second and third lower molars. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper molars are triangular teeth bearing a number of distinct small cusps, particularly on the second upper molar, and with wrinkled enamel . (wikipedia.org)
  • The back teeth or cheek teeth - molars and premolars - are used to chew and grind food. (muleymadness.com)
  • Between the incisors and molars is an open space along the jaw that has no teeth. (muleymadness.com)
  • When the permanent teeth come, all premolars have just two cusps. (muleymadness.com)
  • The fourth, fifth, and sixth cheek teeth are the molars. (muleymadness.com)
  • To get a good look at the cheek teeth (premolars and molars), you need to cut back the lip and cheek skin. (muleymadness.com)
  • Lingual crests of cheek teeth show some wear and cusps are starting to become blunt. (muleymadness.com)
  • Thus, in man there are 8 teeth in each side of the upper and lower jaw when the wisdom teeth or the third molars are through. (ku.edu)
  • Two unerupted third molar teeth from individual IV:5 in family 2 were subject to computerized tomography and scanning electron microscopy. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • LAMB3 molar teeth have a multitude of cusps versus matched controls. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • 300 of at least 520 days) molars, and that the formation of this crown portion occurred largely after the teeth had already reached functional occlusion. (springer.com)
  • Our results allow to establish a quantitative link between an additional investment into molar crown growth of sheep and the extension of the functional period of these teeth. (springer.com)
  • The mouse can therefore tell us much about patterning of teeth (molar vs. incisor), control of tooth number, and the role of stem cells in tooth development. (wiley.com)
  • Cusps, valleys, ridges and other distinguishing characteristics on the surface of the teeth are identifiable through a microscope. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The teeth, however, are preserved by enamel. (bio-medicine.org)
  • But the authors report that the overall size of the teeth, as well as the ratio between molar and premolar size, is distinct from those of other members of the genus Homo . (eupedia.com)
  • The jaws bear long, serrated teeth that are worn during use into flattened tooth cusps. (biologists.org)
  • The jaws of gomphotheres are thought to have been similar to those of modern elephants, in that they were too small to accommodate their massive molar teeth. (britannica.com)
  • Gomphotheres are separated into two informal groups based on the structure of their molar teeth. (britannica.com)
  • The trilophodont gomphotheres had three plates in the molar teeth, and the tetralophodonts possessed an additional plate, for a total of four. (britannica.com)
  • All teeth lack enamel and grow continuously. (zooboise.org)
  • Methods Adult mice have both incisor and molar teeth (Fig 1). (ufl.edu)
  • We are studying developmental genetic differences between incisor and molar teeth in laboratory mice to identify genes that help dictate differences in tooth shape. (ufl.edu)
  • Molars, those large teeth at the back of the mouth used to grind food, are widely used to determine the species of human and other hominoid remains. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Quantitative genetic analyses of dental variation on the pedigreed breeding colony of baboons housed at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in Texas enable us to model statistically how genetic, non-genetic, and covariate effects contribute to the overall population variation in traits such as tooth size, enamel thickness, and extra cusps on teeth. (berkeley.edu)
  • When the child is about 6, the first permanent molar comes in just behind the second molar of the primary teeth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Initial studies were completed on 16 extracted, unerupted third molars with one-half of the teeth exposed to 70 Gy or no radiation followed by 1 or 3 mo PBS storage at 37 C. Half the teeth from each radiation dose/elapsed time group were exposed to cyclic loading simulating 3 years of function. (umich.edu)
  • Recently, the phenotype of mice deficient in Epiprofin/Sp6 (Epfn) has been found to present striking dental abnormalities, including a complete lack of differentiated ameloblasts and consequently no enamel, highly altered molar cusp patterns and the formation of multiple supernumerary teeth. (epfl.ch)
  • The most cratering will be seen on the mandibular first molars because these are the first adult teeth to erupt and the habit is usually well established in early childhood (see image above). (doctorspiller.com)
  • Silver amalgams in posterior teeth are elevated above the enamel surface because the acids in the soda dissolve the enamel around them. (doctorspiller.com)
  • [2] Anatomists noted that the teeth of mammoth and elephants were different from those of the "incognitum", which possessed rows of large conical cusps, indicating that they were dealing with a distinct species. (wikipedia.org)
  • If your wisdom teeth erupt you will have 12 molars in all. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Humans have four types of teeth and this one is specifically a molar. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • They are commonly called this because the molars appear much later than other teeth, typically after childhood. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • The cheek teeth are relatively low crowned, but cusps and accessory cusps add complexity such that wear produces trefoils (Kurtén and Anderson 1980), the lobes of which may be further subdivided (Fig. 1). (utep.edu)
  • The enamel on your teeth is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance in your body. (colgate.com)
  • Enamel plays a very important role in protecting your teeth from decay, so it is important to do everything that you can to prevent your enamel from eroding. (colgate.com)
  • When those substances stick to your teeth and interact with bacteria in your mouth, lactic acid is produced, which can damage your enamel. (colgate.com)
  • Read more about molar teeth, its functionality and how to prevent it from cavity. (colgate.com)
  • Learn more about molar teeth in Colgate oral care center. (colgate.com)
  • Canines - sometimes called cuspids, these teeth are shaped like points (cusps) and are used for tearing and grasping food. (colgate.com)
  • Premolars - these teeth have two pointed cusps on their biting surface and are sometimes referred to as bicuspids. (colgate.com)
  • Molars - used for grinding and chewing food, these teeth have several cusps on the biting surface to help in this process. (colgate.com)
  • This contrasts with the wear pattern on the antimere right lower M1, which has normal dentin exposure at the cusps, and the whitish color contasts with the dentin exposure of the other teeth -- although color may have no value given the uncertainty of photographs and the application of a chemical preservative to the specimen. (johnhawks.net)
  • 2. The lower molars are asymmetrically worn, with much more wear on the lower right teeth than the lower left ones. (johnhawks.net)
  • Accessory roots in maxillary molar teeth: a review and endodontic considerations. (viamedica.pl)
  • These centers then anchor the later development of the tooth crown and, eventually, the cusps of the teeth. (elifesciences.org)
  • Furthermore, cupped cusps were simulated by stepwise preparation of the load-bearing cusps of the model teeth with a spherical diamond bur, and the maximum vertical depth after each preparation step was measured only by IOS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Trios3 (3Shape, Denmark), Carestream CS3600 (Carestream, USA) and an optical profilometer (MicroProf, Fries, Germany) were used to measure the flat areas of the enamel samples, whereas only IOS were used to measure curved surfaces on the load-bearing cupped cusps of the model teeth. (bvsalud.org)
  • Talon cusp is a very rare developmental anomaly, arising as a cusp like elevation on the lingual aspect of maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth, usually projects from the cemento-enamel junction or cingulum. (bvsalud.org)
  • The prevalence of multiple, bilateral talon cusp occurrence is rare, we report a case of Multiple Talon cusps involving all maxillary anterior teeth. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is characterized by cusp‑like projections from the cingulum area, or cemento‑enamel junction of maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth, in both the primary and permanent dentition, usually observed on the lingual surface of the affected tooth. (bvsalud.org)
  • Talon's cusp is an anomalous structure that projects palatally from the cingulum areas of maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fluoride is deposited in the enamel and dentine of the teeth mostly before they erupt. (kehila-kedosha-janina.org)
  • Good teeth remain strong and healthy for many years as long as the enamel on them is not damaged. (kehila-kedosha-janina.org)
  • Plaque will cover up the enamel on your teeth, if you let it, especially near the gum line and between the teeth. (kehila-kedosha-janina.org)
  • An accessory cusp is a developmental alteration to the shape of the teeth and is more commonly found in anterior teeth, and its occurrence in permanent molars is quite rare. (ijdr.in)
  • In the previous studies, it has been shown that individuals with protostylid in deciduous molars were also found to express similar pattern in the succedaneous permanent teeth. (ijdr.in)
  • Teeth were sectioned in different planes - some were subjected to abrasion and others were merely polished for observation of surface enamel. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusions: Buffalo enamel showed prismatic morphology, requiring further tests to corroborate its use as a substitute for human teeth. (bvsalud.org)
  • Wisdom teeth (also called the third molars) are molars that usually erupt from the ages of 17 to 21. (enchantedlearning.com)
  • He adds, 'if for some reason, a temporary filling were placed in LB1's mandibular left first molar, we should be able to see some indication of it in the CT images, but we cannot--all that we can see is a defect that resembles other defects on LB1's teeth where the enamel has worn away and the dentine is exposed. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The most common teeth that break are the lower jaw molars, mostly because of their pointy cusps that grind into the grooves of the upper molars. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The teeth consist of enamel, dentin, pulp and cementum (Fig. 3.1). (pocketdentistry.com)
  • In the cervical region, there is difference in the direction of the enamel rods of deciduous and permanent teeth (Fig. 3.2). (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The cervical enamel rods of deciduous teeth are inclined incisally or occlusally, while in permanent teeth they are inclined apically. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Mastodon teeth have enamel cusps arranged into a series of transverse ridges. (wordpress.com)
  • This paper concentrates on the interesting expression patterns of Hox-8 during initiation and development of the molar and incisor teeth. (biologists.org)
  • Subsequently, in molar teeth, this patch of Hox-8 expressing epithelium becomes incorporated within the buccal aspect of the invaginating dental lamina to form part of the external enamel epithelium of the cap stage tooth germ. (biologists.org)
  • Interestingly, in the conical incisor teeth, the enamel navel, septum and knot are absent, and Hox-8 has a symmetrical expression pattern. (biologists.org)
  • For all the teeth except third molar root formation was completed at stage 6 of CVMI. (ispub.com)
  • At the edges of teeth where there is no dentin underlying the enamel, the color sometimes has a slightly blue or translucent off-white tone, easily observable on the upper incisors . (knowpia.com)
  • The enamel on primary teeth has a more opaque crystalline form and thus appears whiter than on permanent teeth. (knowpia.com)
  • The number of teeth as well as molar cusp patterns can be modified by tinkering with several different signal pathways. (nih.gov)
  • The modulation of some of the signal pathways can rescue the development of vestigial tooth rudiments in the incisor and molar regions resulting in extra premolar-like teeth. (nih.gov)
  • Follistatin, Sprouty, and Sostdc1 are important endogenous inhibitors antagonizing these pathways and they are also involved in regulation of enamel formation, and patterning of teeth in crown and root domains. (nih.gov)
  • The teeth most affected are the maxillary lateral incisors with a prevalence of 0.25-5.1%, frequently bilateral (43%), followed by central, canines, premolars, and molars. (hindawi.com)
  • Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body, [1] and with dentin , cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major tissues which make up the tooth . (bionity.com)
  • Since enamel is semitranslucent, the color of dentin and any restorative dental material underneath the enamel strongly affects the appearance of a tooth. (bionity.com)
  • Dentin, less mineralized and less brittle, 3-4 in hardness, compensates for enamel and is necessary as a support. (bionity.com)
  • Unlike dentin and bone , enamel does not contain collagen . (bionity.com)
  • Enamel rods are found in rows along the tooth, and within each row, the long axis of the enamel rod is generally perpendicular to the underlying dentin. (bionity.com)
  • Understanding enamel orientation is very important in restorative dentistry, because enamel unsupported by underlying dentin is prone to fracture. (bionity.com)
  • AP-2a is localized to the molar epithelium with intense staining at the tips of the cusps (where the enamel and dentin form). (ufl.edu)
  • Underneath the surface enamel and cementum is a substance called dentin , which makes up the main body of the tooth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To understand the mechanism of radiotherapy-induced dental lesions characterized by shear fracture of enamel near the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) that suggests decreased interface stability. (umich.edu)
  • An in vitro model was used to examine the effects of radiotherapy, elapsed time following radiation, and occlusal function on the nano -mechanical properties of enamel and dentin near the DEJ. (umich.edu)
  • After sequential polishing, linear nanoindentation mappings were done on the buccal and lingual surface of each section starting and ending approximately 500 microns from the DEJ in enamel and dentin, respectively. (umich.edu)
  • This preliminary evidence suggests that radiation, in conjunction with elapsed time and occlusal load, has a significant effect on the nano -mechanical properties of enamel and dentin near the DEJ. (umich.edu)
  • This network leads to the progressive determination of tooth shape, and to the differentiation of these tissues into enamel-producing ameloblasts and dentin-producing odontoblasts respectively. (epfl.ch)
  • Dentin - this is the layer of the tooth under the enamel. (colgate.com)
  • If decay makes it through the enamel, it next attacks the dentin - where millions of tiny tubes lead directly to the dental pulp. (colgate.com)
  • dentin - the hard but porous tissue located under both the enamel and cementum of the tooth. (enchantedlearning.com)
  • The term "dens invaginatus" appears to be most appropriate, as it reflects the invagination of the outer portion (enamel) into the inner portion (dentin) with the formation of a pocket or dead space, which generally occurs before crown calcification [ 2 , 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • enamel appears lighter than dentin or pulp since it is denser than both and more radiopaque . (knowpia.com)
  • During tooth formation, biological rhythms manifest in enamel and dentine, creating a permanent record of growth rate and duration. (pnas.org)
  • enamel (white portion) of the lingual crest shows well above the dentine (brown portion). (muleymadness.com)
  • The enamel portion of the cusp is wider than the dentine. (muleymadness.com)
  • Dentine now thicker than enamel on cusp of fourth cheek tooth (first molar). (muleymadness.com)
  • Dentine of fifth cheek tooth (second molar) usually not as wide as enamel. (muleymadness.com)
  • The molars were composed of platelike sections of enamel , dentine, and cement stacked from front to back. (britannica.com)
  • Outline the basic components of the enamel, dentine, and pulp. (netce.com)
  • In cola drink molars, the lingual enamel was totally eroded, and significant erosion of dentine was evident. (niom.no)
  • the light gray inside the bands of enamel is dentine. (utep.edu)
  • The crown of the unworn tooth was covered with enamel, the dentine now showing only where the enamel has been worn away. (utep.edu)
  • Resin based composites offer the advantage of tooth composites in wear resistance and achievement of tissue conservation because retention is mainly by good proximal contour and contacts have also mechanical bonding to dentine and enamel cavity encouraged more clinicians to select them for use in walls. (who.int)
  • Each both enamel and dentine allows modifications to increment was cured for 40 seconds. (who.int)
  • Dentine comes after enamel. (kehila-kedosha-janina.org)
  • Enamel and dentine both contain large amounts of the minerals calcium and phosphorus. (kehila-kedosha-janina.org)
  • If the enamel is cracked or destroyed, the much softer dentine gets exposed. (kehila-kedosha-janina.org)
  • In occlusal view an unworn mastodon tooth is completely covered in enamel, but as the tooth is used the enamel wears away, exposing the softer underlying dentine. (wordpress.com)
  • In rare circumstances enamel fails to form, leaving the underlying dentine exposed on the surface. (knowpia.com)
  • Hallet introduced the term dens invaginatus in order to clarify the point that enamel is located centrally and the dentine peripherally due to the invagination. (hindawi.com)
  • The third lower incisor , lower canine , and third lower premolar at least are pectinate or comblike, bearing longitudinal rows of tines or cusps , an unusual feature of colugos (the first two lower incisors are unknown in Dermotherium ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The fourth lower premolar instead resembles the lower molars. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important characteristic of the first set of premolars is that the third premolar has three crowns or cusps . (muleymadness.com)
  • The third premolar has three cusps. (muleymadness.com)
  • The third premolar may still have three cusps, or the permanent third premolar may now be in (two cusps). (muleymadness.com)
  • premolar (also called bicuspid) - the type of tooth located between the canine and the molars in humans. (enchantedlearning.com)
  • at the cusp of premolar and molar from 2.3 to 3.0 mm. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • first premolar and second molar (except for second premolars in males) corresponded to peak of pubertal growth spurt (stage 3 of CVMI). (ispub.com)
  • [5] Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, ranking a 5 on Mohs hardness scale. (bionity.com)
  • An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). (curehunter.com)
  • It is based on the idea that carbon isotope compositions vary predictably between plant foods [e.g., plants using the C 3 photosynthetic pathway (most dicotyledonous plants including trees, shrubs, forbs, herbs) and those using the C 4 pathway (predominantly tropical grasses and sedges, which are monocotyledonous plants)], and further that dietary carbon remains locked in tooth enamel even after millions of years ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • What is Tooth Enamel? (colgate.com)
  • Have you ever wondered about tooth enamel? (colgate.com)
  • Sugary foods and acidic fruits and beverages are among the most damaging to your tooth enamel. (colgate.com)
  • Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the morphology of tooth enamel from buffalo species Bubalus bubalis as a replacement for human enamel in laboratory studies, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (bvsalud.org)
  • Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body which covers the crown of the tooth. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish. (knowpia.com)
  • The maintenance and repair of human tooth enamel is one of the primary concerns of dentistry . (knowpia.com)
  • [6] Tooth enamel ranks 5 on Mohs hardness scale and has a Young's modulus of 83 GPa. (knowpia.com)
  • years of age - the second fall - the second and third molar have erupted through the gum, though the last cusp of the third molar may still be below the gum line. (muleymadness.com)
  • Third molar may still be erupting through the gum. (muleymadness.com)
  • Some wear on third cusp of sixth cheek tooth (third molar). (muleymadness.com)
  • The second molar showed the highest correlation and the third molar showed the lowest correlation for male and female subjects. (ispub.com)
  • [1] Protostylid is a term referred to differentiate them from general group of paramolar cusp, with its reference to a supernumerary or accessory cusp located on the mesiobuccal surface of lower molars, with its finding first reported by Dahlberg in Eskimos skull. (ijdr.in)
  • Mandibular molars were considerably more eroded than maxillary molars. (niom.no)
  • Mandibular molars are much more heavily affected than maxillary molars because gravity keeps the soda in contact with them. (doctorspiller.com)
  • The aim of the study was to determine whether the presence of two palatal roots (2PR) in permanent maxillary molars (PMMs) could be predicted by observing dental morphological traits during the clinical examination. (viamedica.pl)
  • Clinical and macroscopic study of maxillary molars with two palatal roots. (viamedica.pl)
  • However, the plates of gomphotheres were less numerous than those of living elephants and tended to have rounded cusps on their surfaces rather than the even ridges found in modern elephants. (britannica.com)
  • The highly evolved molars of Stegodon , with multiple enamel ridges, might have allowed it to browse on its preferred foliage in a more efficient way, thus outcompeting Sinomastodon , which preferred the same diet, but had less sophisticated molars consisting of large, blunt, conical cusps. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • The third and fourth ridges show moderate wear, with only the top of the enamel ridges worn away, while the small fifth ridge has very little wear. (wordpress.com)
  • [4] Mary Silcox and colleagues reaffirmed the colugo affinities of Dermotherium in 2005 on the basis of detailed similarities in molar morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • By combining data on wear-related changes in crown morphology from the literature with the reconstructed additional investment into the crown base portion, it was possible to relate this additional investment to a prolongation of the functional periods of the molars ranging from 4 years in the M 1 to 6 years in the M 3 . (springer.com)
  • Now Alejandra Ortiz, a post-doctoral researcher at Arizona State University in Tempe, US, has worked with an international team of researchers to apply an evolutionary developmental biology approach to molar morphology. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Aim: To evaluate the morphology of enamel from species Bubalus bubalis as a replacement for human enamel in laboratory research studies, considering its wider availability in the Amazon region. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results: The SEM micrographs revealed an aprismatic surface enamel as well as prismatic enamel, the latter being similar to human enamel, in both arrangement and morphology. (bvsalud.org)
  • 8.* Molar morphology (Black et al. (palaeo-electronica.org)
  • We investigated the expression patterns of eight developmental regulatory genes in two species of rodents with different molar morphologies (mouse, Mus musculus and sibling vole, Microtus rossiaemeridionalis ). (springer.com)
  • These genes are all known to be associated with developmental regulation in mouse molars. (springer.com)
  • The authors suggest that a single developmental 'program' previously known in other mammals such as seals, called the patterning cascade model (PCM), might be responsible for the variation among hominoid molars. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Because of this they argue that they "have provided a developmental explanation for … long-standing patterns of molar crown configuration observed throughout human evolution. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • These developmental disturbances were occasionally associated with minor localized defects in the enamel surface. (nih.gov)
  • This added developmental variation appears to translate into more variance in the length of the first molar in the DUHi strain ( Figure 1A ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Talon cusp is a relatively rare developmental dental anomaly thought to arise as a result of evagination on the surface of a tooth crown before calcification has occurred. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly resulting from the invaginations of the enamel organ into the dental papilla during the soft tissue stage of development. (omicsonline.org)
  • Identifying metameric variation in extant hominoid and fossil hominid molars. (berkeley.edu)
  • Their first premolars have a sharp fang-like cusp that give the appearance of canines and enable the sloth to inflict a serious wound. (zooboise.org)
  • Calcification stages of the mandibular dentition (canines, first premolars, second premolars, second molars and third molars) were rated according to the system of Demirjian. (ispub.com)
  • Enamel varies in thickness over the surface of the tooth and is often thickest at the cusp , up to 2.5 mm, and thinnest at its border, which is seen clinically as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). (bionity.com)
  • Mandibular first molars were subsequently embedded in Epon, ground transversely, observed again by SEM, and the enamel thickness and tooth height were measured. (niom.no)
  • 2004. Genetics and the evolution of primate enamel thickness: A baboon model. (berkeley.edu)
  • Reduced enamel thickness, typically with normal hardness is classified as hypoplastic AI, whereas reduced hardness, discoloration with normal thickness is termed hypomineralised AI, that incorporates hypocalcified and hypomaturation AI subtypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Initially there is wavy coarse in one-third of enamel thickness adjacent to DEJ, then the coarse becomes more straight in the remaining thickness. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The thickness of enamel varies in different areas of the same tooth and from one type of tooth to another type of tooth. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Thickness of enamel decreases gradually from cusps or incisal edges to cementoenamel junction. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The cusp may or may not contain an extension of the pulp. (bvsalud.org)
  • As the hard tissues are formed, the invaginated enamel organ produces a small tooth within the future pulp chamber. (omicsonline.org)
  • Oral conditions often observed in this pathogenic are a tendency for the delayed eruption of permanent molars, higher percentages of malocclusion and parafunctional habits, including bruxism. (hindawi.com)
  • The more common oral conditions in individuals with CP include higher mean decayed, missing and filled surfaces index, higher plaque index, tendency for delayed eruption of permanent molars, malocclusion [ 4 ], as well as high rates of bruxism [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Molar eruption is correlated with other aspects of life history. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, little is known about ages at tooth eruption in Neanderthals ( 5 ), although the timing of molar eruption is the best indicator to predict development and life history parameters across primates ( 18 - 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, this age is difficult to determine from a fully formed and isolated tooth, particularly without knowledge of the mean root length at first molar eruption in other Neanderthals. (pnas.org)
  • Additional information regarding dental development and age at molar eruption is necessary to clarify Neanderthal life history relative to modern humans. (pnas.org)
  • Scores and variables of molar cusp wear and eruption were defined for each age category within each species. (scielo.org.ar)
  • In modern elephants the 3rd molar doesn't erupt and begin to wear until the animal is about 25-30 years old. (wordpress.com)
  • The mesial enamel wall is broken away, and a whitish, flat, pitted surface characterizes most of the occlusal face, except for the enamel walls and the disto-lingual corner. (johnhawks.net)
  • Intraoral periapical radiograph reveals that the cusp was devoid of any pulpal extensions and appears as a radiopaque area extending from the occlusal surface up to the cementoenamel junction [Figure 3] . (ijdr.in)
  • As the accessory cusp did not cause any functional complications, no occlusal modifications were carried out. (ijdr.in)
  • The depth of the VSC was measured on models by method advocated by Veli et al10 in which horizontal reference plane comprising a line between the central incisors and the distobuccal cusp tips of the mandibular second molars was constructed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To achieve this, we performed a detailed analysis of molar crown growth in known-age Soay sheep repeatedly injected with different fluorochromes. (springer.com)
  • Our study revealed that in sheep molars especially the formation of the crown base portion is prolonged in comparison with other herbivorous artiodactyl species. (springer.com)
  • The crown is covered by enamel , which is related to the epithelial tissue of the skin and is the hardest substance in the human body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Following these conditions, the crown of each tooth was sectioned buccolingually to generate a 2-mm-thick slice centered on the mesiobuccal / mesiolingual cusps. (umich.edu)
  • The visible part of each tooth, the crown, is covered by enamel, the body's hardest material. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Colgate's article provides information on the crown, gum line, root, enamel and other parts of the tooth. (colgate.com)
  • 1. The buccal enamel wall has an unusual, straight-edge discontinuity on the crown, and is raised by ca. 1.5-2 mm above the center of the tooth. (johnhawks.net)
  • Every tooth has a crown with cusps. (kehila-kedosha-janina.org)
  • This article reports a case of talon cusp on permanent mandibular central incisor that too on facial aspect which makes it a rare entity. (bvsalud.org)
  • While Dact2 expression was restricted to the dental epithelium including the enamel knot signaling centers and tooth specific preameloblasts, Dact1 and Dact3 showed developmentally regulated expression in the dental mesenchyme. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Collectively these results suggest that Dact1 and -3 may contribute to early tooth formation by modulation of Wnt signaling pathways in the mesenchyme, including preodontoblasts, whereas Dact2 may play important signal-modulating roles in the adjacent epithelial cells including the enamel knot signaling centers and preameloblasts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Inducible Dkk1 expression after the bud stage causes formation of blunted molar cusps, downregulation of the enamel knot marker p21, and loss of restricted ectodin expression, revealing requirements for Wnt activity in maintaining secondary enamel knots. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • This locus of Hox-8 expression becomes continuous with new sites of Hox-8 expression in the enamel navel, septum, knot and internal enamel epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • The transitory enamel knot, septum and navel were postulated, long ago, to be involved in specifying tooth shape, causing the inflection of the first buccal cusp, but this theory has been largely ignored. (biologists.org)
  • He also noted that the putative filling appeared to be more worn than the surrounding enamel. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The first ridge is almost completely worn away, especially on the labial side where the enamel is completely gone. (wordpress.com)
  • That's what we see in this tooth, in which the first enamel ridge is almost completely worn away while the last enamel ridge has almost no wear at all. (wordpress.com)
  • Dental enamel defects and recurrent aphthous ulcers, which may occur in patients with celiac disease, may be the only manifestation of this disorder. (jcda.ca)
  • Additional symptoms in children include delayed growth and puberty, vomiting and dental enamel defects. (jcda.ca)
  • Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of inherited dental enamel defects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The enamel defects can be quantitative and/or qualitative. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most cratering will be seen on the lingual aspect of the mesiobuccal cusp of the lower first molar. (doctorspiller.com)
  • The development of the tooth will be followed, looking at what controls the shape of the tooth and how signals from the mesenchyme and epithelium interact to lead to formation of a molar or incisor. (wiley.com)
  • The earliest signalling centre in the early budding epithelium has not been reported before, but the latter signalling centres, the primary and the secondary enamel knots, have been studied in mouse. (springer.com)
  • In wild type mice, we have documented the presence of AP-2a protein in the molar epithelium and we are currently examining AP-2 proteins in transgenic mice. (ufl.edu)
  • [2] , [3] The protostylid originates from the outfolding of inner enamel epithelium and focal hyperplasia of peripheral cells of mesenchymal dental papilla, during morphodifferentiation stage of tooth development. (ijdr.in)
  • Kronfeld suggested that dens invaginatus is caused by a focal failure growth of the internal enamel epithelium [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Clinical and radiographic examination of the mother of the twins revealed a talon cusp involving the permanent maxillary right central incisor. (scielo.br)
  • This is the first known report of a talon cusp in OFCD syndrome with a novel mutation in the BCOR gene. (scielo.br)
  • Talon cusp or dens evaginatus is a very rare dental anomaly of unclear etiology and significance. (scielo.br)
  • It was named a talon cusp by Mellor and Ripa (9) due to its resemblance to an eagle's talon. (scielo.br)
  • We performed careful phenotypic analysis in all patients with special emphasis on discordant phenotypes in monozygotic female twins and describe a unique case of a maxillary talon cusp associated with OFCD syndrome. (scielo.br)
  • Any tooth may have a talon cusp but most of the cases involve maxillary lateral incisors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dentists look for particular patterns of wear, which can involve flaking of the enamel, although in more serious cases the 'cusps' at the corners of molars may snap off, or they may be a total fracture of a tooth. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The appearance of species-specific tooth shapes was manifested by the regulatory molecules expressed in the secondary enamel knots at the areas of future cusp tips, whilst the mesenchymal gene expression patterns had a buccal bias without similar species-specific associations. (springer.com)
  • This is because the crowns of molars have cusps, rises and protuberances on the surface in patterns that can serve as a kind of species fingerprint. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Comparison of all known mouse Dact genes, Dact1-3, from the morphological initiation of mandibular first molar development after the onset of the root formation using sectional in situ hybridization showed distinct, complementary and overlapping expression patterns for the studied genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Accessory cusps occurring in permanent mandibular molars are termed as protostylids. (ijdr.in)
  • This case report deals with an uncommon condition of protostylid found as a bulbous accessory cusp on mandibular second molar found in a female patient aged 30 years. (ijdr.in)
  • Mellor and Rippa named it as an accessory cusp. (hindawi.com)
  • The origin of the name is said to be so because this accessory cusp resembles the talon (tail) of an eagle when seen from an occusal aspect [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 3. The alveoli around many of the molars appear eroded, and a small caries appears on the left upper M1, in the region occluding with the lower left M1. (johnhawks.net)
  • Enamel is destroyed by acids, and this is the cause of dental caries. (kehila-kedosha-janina.org)
  • Although enamel can serve lifelong, but it is more susceptible to caries, attrition (physical forces) and fracture due to its structural make up, i.e. mineralized crystalline structure and rigidity. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Kielan-Jaworowska also assigned other specimens to the species: a damaged skull missing lower jaws (ZPAL MgM−I/79, an adult), a skull with partial lower jaws (ZPAL MgM−I/80), and a molar with a fragment of jaw (ZPAL MgM−I/159 from Khulsan, the only specimen not from the Hermiin Tsav I and II localities). (wikipedia.org)
  • D. major from the Late Eocene of Thailand , based on a single fragment of the lower jaw, and D. chimaera from the Late Oligocene of Thailand, known from three fragments of the lower jaw and two isolated upper molars . (wikipedia.org)
  • The two species also differ in the configuration of the inner back corner of the lower molars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dermotherium major is known only from a fragment of the left lower jaw bearing the third lower molar (m3) and a poorly preserved second lower molar (m2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Entoconid--Postero-internal cusp of the lower molar. (ku.edu)
  • Hypoconid--Postero-external cusp of the lower molar. (ku.edu)
  • Erosive lesions were evident in increased succession from sports drink, cola light to cola drink exposed mandibular molars, with the lingual tooth height being approximately 23%, 26%, and 37% lower, respectively, compared to the control. (niom.no)
  • There are 12 permanent molars in all, three on each side of both the upper and lower jaw. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 05) lower across the mappings of enamel as a function of radiation. (umich.edu)
  • Wear on incisors typically progresses beyond the lobes on the first 2 upper and lower incisors at 8 years of age, leaving approximately 5 mm of enamel. (wolfsongalaska.org)
  • The rumor is that LB 1, the near-complete skeleton that serves as the type specimen of Homo floresiensis , may have evidence of dental work on its lower left first molar. (johnhawks.net)
  • But the section appears insufficient to answer the question -- it has rather poor resolution (typical of medical CT scans), and cuts through the lingual cusps of the lower M1, not the buccal (cheek) cusps which appear to have been most affected by the irregularity. (johnhawks.net)
  • Paramolar cusp is supernumerary eminences that occur on the buccal surface of upper and lower permanent or deciduous molars. (ijdr.in)
  • 12. Anteriorly concave lower / anteriorly convex upper molar lophs (Black et al. (palaeo-electronica.org)
  • molars in the lower jaw have 2 roots. (enchantedlearning.com)
  • Maciej Henneberg, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Adelaide in Australia contends on the basis of photographs that LB1 had a filling--and possibly a root canal--in its lower left first molar (technically known as the M1). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Paleoanthropologist John Hawks of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, who was present when Henneberg made his case, notes on his blog that Brown's CT scan 'has rather poor resolution (typical of medical CT scans), and cuts through the lingual cusps of the lower M1, not the buccal (cheek) cusps which appear to have been most affected by the irregularity. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It is most similar to Arretotherium acridens from the middle Arikareean Toledo Bend L. F. from Texas in having a relatively deep and robust jaw, high and sharp cusps on the lower molars, short c-p1 diastema, and absence of a mesiolingual metacristid. (ufl.edu)
  • This tooth is the lower left 3rd molar. (wordpress.com)
  • μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth"), [4] [5] and was assigned by the French naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1817, for the nipple-like projections on the crowns of its molars. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cusps of the molars are arranged biserially and connected medially by longitudinal enamel crests. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molar got its name from the Latin phrase 'dens molaris' which means millstone tooth. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Dens invaginatus occurs as a result of invagination of the enamel organ . (omicsonline.org)
  • This case report illustrates grinding of the talons cusp followed by nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus type II with an immature apex and periapical lesions, in which Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) shows a complete periapical healing with bone formation at the site of the lesions. (hindawi.com)
  • Talons cusp is considered a type of dens evaginatus. (hindawi.com)
  • The architecture of the initially secreted enamel was abnormal, with cervical enamel appearing much less severely affected than coronal enamel. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • The erosive process started at the top of the cusps and subsequently extended in the cervical, mesio-distal, and pulpal direction. (niom.no)
  • In cervical region, direction of enamel rod is incisally/ occlusally in deciduous while in permanent, it is apically. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The team analysed 763 molars from six hominoid genera, both living and extinct, and discovered that most of the diversity of the molar cusp landscape can be explained by the PCM. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Two-thirds of the collected specimens were multituberculates: an extinct order of mammals with rodent-like dentition, named for the numerous cusps (or tubercles) on their molars. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouse has a highly reduced dentition, with one incisor, separated by a diastema region to three molars, in each quadrant. (wiley.com)
  • adult animals have 32, with more 12 molars in the dentition 1,14 . (bvsalud.org)
  • [3] The purpose of this report is to highlight the rare incidental finding of protostylid on the buccal surface of permanent mandibular second molar, its clinical significance, and its implications on forensic odontology. (ijdr.in)
  • On routine dental examination, protostylid condition was found on the buccal surface of mandibular second molar [Figure 1] . (ijdr.in)
  • [6] Once it is mature, enamel is almost totally without the softer organic matter. (knowpia.com)
  • In this paper, an unusual case of DI which clinically presented as a huge talons cusp affecting a mandibular lateral incisor tooth is described. (hindawi.com)
  • PCM postulates that a blueprint for the shape of a mature molar is built from interactions between signalling centres called 'enamel knots' during development. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • An elevated crest comprised of the triangular ridge of the distobuccal cusp and the distal ridge of the mesiolingual cusp. (cram.com)
  • In addition, a single isolated upper molar from the Early Oligocene of Pakistan has been tentatively assigned to D. chimaera . (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, this species is known from two other jaw fragments, one bearing m1 and m2 and the other bearing m2 and m3, and two isolated molars, an upper first and second molar (M1 and M2). (wikipedia.org)
  • It shares several characters with modern anthropoids, but its upper molars lack hypocones. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This often results in the addition of an extra cusp to the front of the upper first molar. (elifesciences.org)
  • This allowed them to test a series of hypotheses about what causes variations in the length of the upper first molar. (elifesciences.org)
  • 22. Posteriorly increasing (upper) molar gradient (modified from Black, 2007 and Black et al. (palaeo-electronica.org)
  • A small mesioangular angle, a long distance from the canine cusp tip to the midline and a short distance from the canine cusp tip to the maxillary dental arch plane, measured with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), were suggested as predictors of a successful outcome, with the distance between the canine cusp tip to the midline being the best predictor. (deepdyve.com)
  • Genetic Integration of Molar Cusp Size Variation in Baboons. (berkeley.edu)
  • When the tissues of the developing tooth are seen under a microscope, different cellular aggregations can be identified, including structures known as the enamel organ , dental lamina , and dental papilla . (bionity.com)
  • Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by abnormal formation of dental enamel, either in isolation or as part of a syndrome. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • In a comparison of the molars and premolars from Macrognathomys and Sicista primus , Kimura reported finding 12 shared dental characteristics. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. (curehunter.com)
  • Statistical genetics of molar cusp patterning in pedigreed baboons: Implications for primate dental development and evolution. (berkeley.edu)
  • Cultured fibroblasts from the youngest sibling demonstrated a total absence of N-acethylgalactosamine-6-sulphate-sulphatase whereas beta-galactocidase activity was normal, thus verifying the diagnosis of MPS-IV A. Dental features such as pointed cusps, spade-shaped incisors, thin enamel and pitted buccal surfaces were observed in all three children. (nih.gov)
  • Enamel cells ultimately determine the properties of dental enamel. (wikiversity.org)
  • Of course, you can also protect your enamel by practicing good oral hygiene habits, like regular brushing with a fluoride toothpaste, flossing, and visiting your dental professional for regular professional cleanings. (colgate.com)
  • Aunque la geminación en dientes primarios se considera como una anomalía no patológica, su presencia puede indicar la presencia de alguna anomalía dental en la dentición permanente. (bvsalud.org)
  • [2] Etiology of such an analogous cusp is usually due to overactivity of dental lamina. (ijdr.in)
  • PURPOSE This study evaluated the wear area of human enamel opposing 2 conventional and 2 low-fusing dental porcelains, as well as abrasive wear, attrition, surface hardness, and fracture toughness for the 4 porcelain substrates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • There are no dental materials or dentists who can color match and hide a cavity in a molar to the degree that would be necessary. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Coronal invaginations usually originate from an anomalous infolding of the enamel organ into the dental papilla. (hindawi.com)
  • The diameter of rods increases from dentinoenamel junction towards the outer surface of enamel in a ratio of 1:2. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Both ameloblasts (the cells which initiate enamel formation) and Tomes' processes affect the crystals' pattern. (bionity.com)
  • elevations which extend in a mesial and distal direction from cusp tips. (cram.com)
  • Towards the incisal edge these become increasingly oblique and are almost vertical at the cusp tips. (pocketdentistry.com)