Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Relating to the size of solids.
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
'Squalene' is a biologically occurring triterpene compound, naturally produced in humans, animals, and plants, that forms an essential part of the lipid-rich membranes in various tissues, including the skin surface and the liver, and has been studied for its potential benefits in skincare, dietary supplements, and vaccine adjuvant systems.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).
The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members contain bruceosides and bruceanols (quassinoids). The astringent seeds have been used to treat dysentery in southeastern Asia.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.

Effects of soybean oil emulsion and eicosapentaenoic acid on stress response and immune function after a severely stressful operation. (1/1196)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of soybean oil emulsion and oral or enteral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on stress response, cytokine production, protein metabolism, and immune function after surgery for esophageal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: It has been reported that safflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA), affects the survival rate of septic animals and decreases the immune function. It has also been reported that the administration of fish oil, in contrast, reduces these stress responses and stress-induced immunosuppression. In humans, the effects of soybean oil emulsion and the administration of EPA on stress response and immune function after surgery have not been established. METHODS: Patients who underwent esophagectomy with thoracotomy were divided into three groups. Seven patients were fed by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with soybean oil emulsion, which accounted for 20% of total calories. Seven patients were given oral or enteral administration of 1.8 g/day EPA, in addition to TPN with soybean oil emulsion. Nine patients served as the control group; these patients received fat-free TPN. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein, concanavalin A (con A)- or phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and stress hormones were measured. RESULTS: The postoperative level of serum IL-6 was significantly higher in the group receiving soybean oil emulsion than in the fat-free group. Oral or enteral supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly reduced the level of serum IL-6 compared with the patients receiving soybean oil emulsion. Con A- or PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation decreased significantly on postoperative day 7 in all groups of patients. The supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly improved the lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity on postoperative day 21 compared with the group receiving soybean oil emulsion. CONCLUSIONS: Soybean oil emulsion amplifies, and the supplementation of EPA reduces, the stress response and stress-induced immunosuppression.  (+info)

Effective method for activity assay of lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum. (2/1196)

A method was devised for activity assay of the lipase [triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolase, EC] excreted from Chromobacterium viscosum into the culture medium; olive oil emulsified with the aid of Adekatol 45-S-8 (a non-ionic detergent, the ethoxylate of linear sec-alcohols having chain lengths of 10--16 carbon atoms) was used as the substrate. This method was specifically effective for Chromobacterium lipase acitvity assay, and was approximately twice as sensitive as the conventional method, in which polyvinyl alcohol is used for the emulsification of the substrate.  (+info)

Leucine metabolism in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with medium-chain compared with long-chain triacylglycerol emulsions. (3/1196)

BACKGROUND: Although medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) may be utilized more efficiently than long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs), their effect on protein metabolism remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of mixed MCT-LCT and pure LCT emulsions on leucine metabolism in preterm infants. DESIGN: Fourteen preterm [gestational age: 30+/-1 wk; birth weight: 1409+/-78 g (x +/- SE)] neonates were randomly assigned to receive, from the first day of life, either a 50:50 MCT-LCT (mixed MCT group; n = 7) or an LCT (LCT group; n = 7) lipid emulsion as part of an isonitrogenous, isoenergetic total parenteral nutrition program. On the fourth day, infants received intravenous feeding providing 3 g lipid, 15 g glucose, and 3 g amino acids kg(-1) x d(-1) and underwent 1) indirect calorimetry and 2) a primed, 2-h infusion of H13CO3Na to assess the recovery of 13C in breath, immediately followed by 3) a 3-h infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. RESULTS: The respiratory quotient tended to be slightly but not significantly higher in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (0.96+/-0.06 compared with 0.93+/-0.03). We did not detect a significant difference between the mixed MCT and LCT groups with regard to release of leucine from protein breakdown (B; 309+/-40 compared with 257+/-46 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and nonoxidative leucine disposal (NOLD; 296+/-36 compared with 285+/-49 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). In contrast, leucine oxidation was greater in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (113+/-10 compared with 67+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.007). Net leucine balance (NOLD - B) was less positive in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (-14+/-9 compared with 28+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Mixed MCTs may not be as effective as LCT-containing emulsions in promoting protein accretion in parenterally fed preterm neonates.  (+info)

The adsorption-induced secondary structure of beta-casein and of distinct parts of its sequence in relation to foam and emulsion properties. (4/1196)

Changes in the secondary structure upon adsorption of beta-casein (betaCN) and of distinct parts of its sequence were investigated by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism in order to find suggested relationships with foam and emulsion-forming and -stabilising properties of the same protein/peptides. A teflon/water interface was used as a model system for foam and emulsion interfaces. The maximum surface loads of beta-casein and its derived peptides were investigated. The main secondary structure element of all samples in solution was the unordered random coil, but upon adsorption ordered structure, especially alpha-helix, was induced. At lower pH more ordered structure was induced, just as at lower ionic strength. Apparently, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups influence the change of secondary structure induced at a hydrophobic interface. The results suggest that the hydrophobic C-terminal half of betaCN accounted for the high maximum surface load on teflon, while the N-terminal half of betaCN seemed to be responsible for the secondary structure induction upon adsorption. A relation between the maximum surface load and the foam-stabilising properties was found, but an influence of the secondary structure properties on the foam and emulsion-forming and -stabilising properties was not observed.  (+info)

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein as a delivery system for photosensitizers: implications for photodynamic therapy of atherosclerosis. (5/1196)

Photodynamic therapy is a promising new strategy in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Photodynamic therapy for vascular diseases may be improved by the specific delivery of photosensitizers to the atherosclerotic lesion. In this study, we studied whether oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) could be used as a specific carrier for photosensitizers, thereby using the scavenger receptor expressed on macrophages as a target. The photosensitizer aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPc) was incorporated into OxLDL, and its photodynamic effects were studied. Macrophages (RAW 264.7) were incubated with various concentrations of OxLDL-AlPc for different periods. After illumination of the cells with red light, cytotoxicity was observed that was dependent on the time of illumination and incubation. Macrophages incubated with OxLDL-AlPc that were not illuminated revealed no cytotoxicity. The uptake of the OxLDL-AlPc complexes was mediated by scavenger receptors expressed on macrophages. In the presence of the polyanion polyinosinic acid, a specific ligand for scavenger receptors, no cytotoxicity could be observed. Serum incubations of the OxLDL-AlPc complexes revealed that these complexes stay intact after incubation. No redistribution of AlPc to other plasma (lipo-) proteins could be detected, and 80-90% of the AlPc remained associated with the OxLDL particle. These results indicate that OxLDL may function as a specific delivery system for photosensitizers to the scavenger receptors expressed on the macrophages in the atherosclerotic lesion, increasing the beneficial effects of photodynamic therapy for cardiovascular diseases.  (+info)

Developmental regulation of expression of the D3 dopamine receptor in rat nucleus accumbens and islands of Calleja. (6/1196)

The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) belongs to the D2 subfamily and is expressed in the rat brain in targets of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Little is known about its normal development and control by dopaminergic innervation. We studied developmental expression of D3R in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAC) and islands of Calleja (ISC). At postnatal day (P) 7, D3 binding sites and mRNA were low in both areas. By P14, D3R and mRNA concentrations were close to adult levels in the ISC, whereas, in the NAC, binding increased until 3 months after birth. Cellular concentrations of D3 mRNA in the ISC increased with age in conjunction with a decrease in the number of D3 positive cells. In the NAC, the number of positive cells increased, whereas cellular levels of expression remained unchanged. Neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesion caused age-dependent changes in D3R expression. D3 binding sites did not change at P7 or P14, but there was a reduction in the number of D3 mRNA positive neurons accompanied by an increase in cellular levels of D3 mRNA at P14, suggesting that changes occurred in a subset of neurons. Up-regulation of D3 binding sites in NAC and ISC occurred 1 month after the lesion (P35) concomitant with a decrease in cellular levels of D3 mRNA and the number of D3 mRNA positive cells. At 3 months (P90) after the lesion, an increase in D3 mRNA occurred with no change in D3 binding sites. D3R shows region-specific dynamics in receptor/mRNA expression during development and is sensitive to loss of dopamine in early postnatal development.  (+info)

Doppler sonographic enhancement of hepatic hemangiomas and hepatocellular carcinomas after perflenapent emulsion: preliminary study. (7/1196)

Ultrasonographic microbubble contrast agents improve Doppler signals by increasing blood backscatter. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with perflenapent (EchoGen), an emulsion of liquid dodecafluoropentane, in the evaluation of 13 patients with focal hepatic lesions (10 hemangiomas and six hepatocellular carcinomas). Perflenapent improved the detection of color Doppler flow signals within the lesions. The hemangiomas showed peripheral nonpulsatile signals and the hepatocellular carcinomas showed more diffuse enhancement with both arterial and venous type signals. This preliminary study suggests that perflenapent administration may aid in the sonographic differentiation of these focal lesions.  (+info)

Hydrolysis of emulsified mixtures of triacylglycerols by pancreatic lipase. (8/1196)

Hydrolysis of the emulsified mixture of short-chain triacylglycerols by porcine pancreatic lipase in the presence of procolipase and micellar sodium taurodeoxycholate has been studied. Increase in the content of tributyrin and trioctanoin in the mixture with triacetin had highly cooperative effects on the formation of the interfacial lipase procolipase complex. Abrupt enhancement of the complex stability was observed in the presence of 0.4-0.6 mol mol-1 of tributyrin or 0.58 mol mol-1 of trioctanoin in the substrate phase. The affinity of lipase towards interfacially bound procolipase for the trioctanoin containing 0.07-0.42 mol mol-1 of triacetin was approximately three times higher than that for pure trioctanoin. The cooperative processes involved in complex formation did not contribute to the affinity of the interfacial lipase/(pro)colipase complex towards substrate molecules and its catalytic activity.  (+info)

An emulsion is a type of stable mixture of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, which are normally unable to mix together uniformly. In an emulsion, one liquid (the dispersed phase) is broken down into small droplets and distributed throughout the other liquid (the continuous phase), creating a stable, cloudy mixture.

In medical terms, emulsions can be used in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. For example, certain medications may be formulated as oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions to improve their absorption, stability, or palatability. Similarly, some skincare products and makeup removers contain emulsifiers that help create stable mixtures of water and oils, allowing for effective cleansing and moisturizing.

Emulsions can also occur naturally in the body, such as in the digestion of fats. The bile salts produced by the liver help to form small droplets of dietary lipids (oil) within the watery environment of the small intestine, allowing for efficient absorption and metabolism of these nutrients.

Fat emulsions for intravenous use are a type of parenteral nutrition solution that contain fat in the form of triglycerides, which are broken down and absorbed into the body to provide a source of energy and essential fatty acids. These emulsions are typically used in patients who are unable to consume food orally or enterally, such as those with gastrointestinal tract disorders, malabsorption syndromes, or severe injuries.

The fat emulsion is usually combined with other nutrients, such as carbohydrates and amino acids, to create a complete parenteral nutrition solution that meets the patient's nutritional needs. The emulsion is administered through a vein using a sterile technique to prevent infection.

Fat emulsions are typically made from soybean oil or a mixture of soybean and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oils. MCTs are more easily absorbed than long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), which are found in soybean oil, and may be used in patients with malabsorption syndromes or other conditions that affect fat absorption.

It is important to monitor patients receiving intravenous fat emulsions for signs of complications such as infection, hyperlipidemia (elevated levels of fats in the blood), and liver function abnormalities.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, oils are typically defined as lipid-based substances that are derived from plants or animals. They are made up of molecules called fatty acids, which can be either saturated or unsaturated. Oils are often used in medical treatments and therapies due to their ability to deliver active ingredients through the skin, as well as their moisturizing and soothing properties. Some oils, such as essential oils, are also used in aromatherapy for their potential therapeutic benefits. However, it's important to note that some oils can be toxic or irritating if ingested or applied to the skin in large amounts, so they should always be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Emulsifying agents, also known as emulsifiers, are substances that help to mix two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, to form a stable emulsion. Emulsifiers work by reducing the surface tension between the two liquids, allowing them to mix together and remain mixed. They are often used in food production, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals to create smooth and consistent products. Examples of emulsifying agents include lecithin, egg yolk, and various synthetic compounds.

Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max). It is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils and is also used in a variety of food and non-food applications.

Medically, soybean oil is sometimes used as a vehicle for administering certain medications, particularly those that are intended to be absorbed through the skin. It is also used as a dietary supplement and has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its ability to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease.

However, it's important to note that soybean oil is high in omega-6 fatty acids, which can contribute to inflammation when consumed in excess. Therefore, it should be used in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Triolein is a type of triglyceride, which is a kind of fat molecule. More specifically, triolein is the triglyceride formed from three molecules of oleic acid, a common monounsaturated fatty acid. It is often used in scientific research and studies involving lipid metabolism, and it can be found in various vegetable oils and animal fats.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fluorocarbons" are not typically associated with medical definitions. Fluorocarbons are chemical compounds that contain carbon atoms bonded to fluorine atoms. They are often used in a variety of applications including refrigerants, fire extinguishing agents, and in the manufacturing of Teflon and other non-stick coatings.

If you have any medical terms or concepts you'd like me to define or explain, please let me know!

Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a medical term used to describe the delivery of nutrients directly into a patient's bloodstream through a vein, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract. It is a specialized medical treatment that is typically used when a patient cannot receive adequate nutrition through enteral feeding, which involves the ingestion and digestion of food through the mouth or a feeding tube.

PN can be used to provide essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes to patients who have conditions that prevent them from absorbing nutrients through their gut, such as severe gastrointestinal tract disorders, malabsorption syndromes, or short bowel syndrome.

PN is administered through a catheter that is inserted into a vein, typically in the chest or arm. The nutrient solution is prepared under sterile conditions and delivered through an infusion pump to ensure accurate and controlled delivery of the solution.

While PN can be a life-saving intervention for some patients, it also carries risks such as infection, inflammation, and organ damage. Therefore, it should only be prescribed and administered by healthcare professionals with specialized training in this area.

Polysorbates are a type of nonionic surfactant (a compound that lowers the surface tension between two substances, such as oil and water) commonly used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. They are derived from sorbitol and reacted with ethylene oxide to create a polyoxyethylene structure. The most common types of polysorbates used in medicine are polysorbate 20, polysorbate 40, and polysorbate 60, which differ in the number of oxyethylene groups in their molecular structure.

Polysorbates are often added to pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, solubilizers, or stabilizers. They help to improve the solubility and stability of drugs that are otherwise insoluble in water, allowing for better absorption and bioavailability. Polysorbates can also prevent the aggregation and precipitation of proteins in injectable formulations.

In addition to their use in pharmaceuticals, polysorbates are also used as emulsifiers in food products such as ice cream, salad dressings, and baked goods. They help to mix oil and water-based ingredients together and prevent them from separating. In cosmetics, polysorbates are used as surfactants, solubilizers, and stabilizers in a variety of personal care products.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to polysorbates, particularly those with sensitivities to sorbitol or other ingredients used in their production. Therefore, it is essential to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of using products containing polysorbates in individuals who may be at risk for adverse reactions.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

Medical Definition of Mineral Oil:

Mineral oil is a commonly used laxative, which is a substance that promotes bowel movements. It is a non-digestible, odorless, and tasteless oil that is derived from petroleum. When taken orally, mineral oil passes through the digestive system without being absorbed, helping to soften stools and relieve constipation by increasing the weight and size of the stool, stimulating the reflexes in the intestines that trigger bowel movements.

Mineral oil is also used topically as a moisturizer and emollient for dry skin conditions such as eczema and dermatitis. It forms a barrier on the skin, preventing moisture loss and protecting the skin from irritants. However, mineral oil should not be used on broken or inflamed skin, as it can trap bacteria and delay healing.

It is important to note that long-term use of mineral oil laxatives can lead to dependence and may interfere with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and K. Therefore, it should be used only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Chylomicrons are a type of lipoprotein that are responsible for carrying dietary lipids, such as triglycerides and cholesterol, from the intestines to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system and bloodstream. They are the largest lipoproteins and are composed of an outer layer of phospholipids, free cholesterol, and apolipoproteins, which surrounds a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. Chylomicrons are produced in the intestinal mucosa after a meal containing fat, and their production is stimulated by the hormone cholecystokinin. Once in the bloodstream, chylomicrons interact with other lipoproteins and enzymes to deliver their lipid cargo to various tissues, including muscle and adipose tissue, where they are used for energy or stored for later use.

Squalene is a organic compound that is a polyunsaturated triterpene. It is a natural component of human skin surface lipids and sebum, where it plays a role in maintaining the integrity and permeability barrier of the stratum corneum. Squalene is also found in various plant and animal tissues, including olive oil, wheat germ oil, and shark liver oil.

In the body, squalene is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and other sterols. It is produced in the liver and transported to other tissues via low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). Squalene has been studied for its potential health benefits due to its antioxidant properties, as well as its ability to modulate immune function and reduce the risk of certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

Medical definitions generally do not include plant oils as a specific term. However, in a biological or biochemical context, plant oils, also known as vegetable oils, are defined as lipid extracts derived from various parts of plants such as seeds, fruits, and leaves. They mainly consist of triglycerides, which are esters of glycerol and three fatty acids. The composition of fatty acids can vary between different plant sources, leading to a range of physical and chemical properties that make plant oils useful for various applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Some common examples of plant oils include olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, and jojoba oil.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

Surfactants, also known as surface-active agents, are amphiphilic compounds that reduce the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid. They contain both hydrophilic (water-soluble) and hydrophobic (water-insoluble) components in their molecular structure. This unique property allows them to interact with and stabilize interfaces, making them useful in various medical and healthcare applications.

In the medical field, surfactants are commonly used in pulmonary medicine, particularly for treating respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. The lungs of premature infants often lack sufficient amounts of natural lung surfactant, which can lead to RDS and other complications. Exogenous surfactants, derived from animal sources or synthetically produced, are administered to replace the missing or dysfunctional lung surfactant, improving lung compliance and gas exchange.

Surfactants also have applications in topical formulations for dermatology, as they can enhance drug penetration into the skin, reduce irritation, and improve the spreadability of creams and ointments. Additionally, they are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance contrast between tissues and improve visualization during procedures such as ultrasound and X-ray examinations.

Blood substitutes, also known as artificial blood or blood surrogates, are fluids that are designed to mimic some of the properties and functions of human blood. They are used as a replacement for blood transfusions in situations where blood is not available or when it is not safe to use. Blood substitutes can be divided into two main categories: oxygen-carrying and non-oxygen-carrying.

Oxygen-carrying blood substitutes contain artificial molecules called hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) that are designed to carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues. These HBOCs can be derived from human or animal hemoglobin, or they can be synthetically produced.

Non-oxygen-carrying blood substitutes, on the other hand, do not contain hemoglobin and are used primarily to restore intravascular volume and maintain blood pressure in cases of hypovolemia (low blood volume) caused by bleeding or dehydration. These products include crystalloids, such as saline solution and lactated Ringer's solution, and colloids, such as albumin and hydroxyethyl starch solutions.

It is important to note that while blood substitutes can be useful in certain situations, they are not a perfect substitute for human blood. They do not provide all of the functions of blood, such as immune defense and clotting, and their use is associated with some risks, including allergic reactions, kidney damage, and increased oxygen free radical production. Therefore, they should only be used when there is no suitable alternative available.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Drug stability refers to the ability of a pharmaceutical drug product to maintain its physical, chemical, and biological properties during storage and use, under specified conditions. A stable drug product retains its desired quality, purity, strength, and performance throughout its shelf life. Factors that can affect drug stability include temperature, humidity, light exposure, and container compatibility. Maintaining drug stability is crucial to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications for patients.

Lecithins are a group of naturally occurring compounds called phospholipids, which are essential components of biological membranes. They are composed of a molecule that contains a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. This unique structure allows lecithins to act as emulsifiers, helping to mix oil-based and water-based substances together.

Lecithins are found in various foods such as egg yolks, soybeans, sunflower seeds, and some other plants. In the medical field, lecithins may be used in dietary supplements or as a component of nutritional support for patients with certain conditions. They have been studied for their potential benefits in improving liver function, supporting brain health, and reducing cholesterol levels; however, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages.

Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) is a medical term used to describe a specialized nutritional support system that is delivered through a vein (intravenously). It provides all the necessary nutrients that a patient needs, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. TPN is typically used when a patient cannot eat or digest food through their gastrointestinal tract for various reasons, such as severe malabsorption, intestinal obstruction, or inflammatory bowel disease. The term "total" indicates that the nutritional support is complete and meets all of the patient's nutritional needs.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

"Brucea" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Simaroubaceae. It includes several species of small trees and shrubs that are native to tropical regions of Africa and Asia. Some species of Brucea have been used in traditional medicine for their antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. The active compounds in these plants include quassinoids, which have been shown to have various biological activities. However, it is important to note that the use of Brucea species in medical treatments should be based on scientific evidence and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Parenteral nutrition solutions are medically formulated preparations that provide nutritional support through routes other than the gastrointestinal tract, usually via intravenous infusion. These solutions typically contain carbohydrates, proteins (or amino acids), lipids, electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements to meet the essential nutritional requirements of patients who cannot receive adequate nutrition through enteral feeding.

The composition of parenteral nutrition solutions varies depending on individual patient needs, but they generally consist of dextrose monohydrate or cornstarch for carbohydrates, crystalline amino acids for proteins, and soybean oil, safflower oil, olive oil, or a combination thereof for lipids. Electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium are added to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance. Vitamins (fat-soluble and water-soluble) and trace elements (e.g., zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, and selenium) are also included in the solution to support various metabolic processes and overall health.

Parenteral nutrition solutions can be tailored to address specific patient conditions or requirements, such as diabetes, renal insufficiency, or hepatic dysfunction. Close monitoring of patients receiving parenteral nutrition is necessary to ensure appropriate nutrient delivery, prevent complications, and achieve optimal clinical outcomes.

Alpha-cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides made up of 6 glucose units joined together in a ring structure through alpha-(1,4) glycosidic bonds. They have a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity, which makes them useful for forming inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic molecules, including drugs, steroids, and fatty acids. This property can enhance the solubility, stability, and bioavailability of these compounds in pharmaceutical applications. Alpha-cyclodextrins are produced from starch by enzymatic conversion using cyclodextrin glucanotransferase.

Castor oil is a colorless or pale yellow vegetable oil that is derived from the seeds of the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis). It has a wide range of uses, including as a laxative, a moisturizer in skin and hair products, and a component in industrial lubricants and biodiesel.

Medically, castor oil is often used as a stimulant laxative to relieve constipation. It works by increasing the movement of the intestines, which helps to promote bowel movements. Castor oil is typically taken orally, and its effects usually begin to be felt within 2-6 hours after ingestion.

It's important to note that castor oil should not be used in large amounts or for prolonged periods of time, as it can lead to electrolyte imbalances and other serious side effects. It is also not recommended for use during pregnancy, as it may stimulate uterine contractions. As with any medication or supplement, it's always best to consult with a healthcare provider before using castor oil.

Excipients are inactive substances that serve as vehicles or mediums for the active ingredients in medications. They make up the bulk of a pharmaceutical formulation and help to stabilize, preserve, and enhance the delivery of the active drug compound. Common examples of excipients include binders, fillers, coatings, disintegrants, flavors, sweeteners, and colors. While excipients are generally considered safe and inert, they can sometimes cause allergic reactions or other adverse effects in certain individuals.

Fish oils are a type of fat or lipid derived from the tissues of oily fish. They are a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These fatty acids have been associated with various health benefits such as reducing inflammation, decreasing the risk of heart disease, improving brain function, and promoting eye health. Fish oils can be consumed through diet or taken as a dietary supplement in the form of capsules or liquid. It is important to note that while fish oils have potential health benefits, they should not replace a balanced diet and medical advice should be sought before starting any supplementation.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

Cosmetics are defined in the medical field as products that are intended to be applied or introduced to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, and altering the appearance. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), cosmetics include skin creams, lotions, makeup, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, shampoos, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product.

It's important to note that the FDA classifies cosmetics and drugs differently. Drugs are defined as products that are intended to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease, and/or affect the structure or function of the body. Some products, such as anti-dandruff shampoos or toothpastes with fluoride, can be considered both a cosmetic and a drug because they have both cleansing and therapeutic properties. These types of products are subject to regulation by both the FDA's Office of Cosmetics and Colors and its Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

Cosmetics must not be adulterated or misbranded, meaning that they must be safe for use under labeled or customary conditions, properly packaged and labeled, and not contain any harmful ingredients. However, the FDA does not have the authority to approve cosmetic products before they go on the market, with the exception of color additives. Manufacturers are responsible for ensuring that their products are safe and properly labeled.

Lipase is an enzyme that is produced by the pancreas and found in the digestive system of most organisms. Its primary function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of fats (triglycerides) into smaller molecules, such as fatty acids and glycerol, which can then be absorbed by the intestines and utilized for energy or stored for later use.

In medical terms, lipase levels in the blood are often measured to diagnose or monitor conditions that affect the pancreas, such as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), pancreatic cancer, or cystic fibrosis. Elevated lipase levels may indicate damage to the pancreas and its ability to produce digestive enzymes.

Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is a synthetic polymer of glycolic acid, which is commonly used in surgical sutures. It is a biodegradable material that degrades in the body through hydrolysis into glycolic acid, which can be metabolized and eliminated from the body. PGA sutures are often used for approximating tissue during surgical procedures due to their strength, handling properties, and predictable rate of absorption. The degradation time of PGA sutures is typically around 60-90 days, depending on factors such as the size and location of the suture.

Viscosity is a physical property of a fluid that describes its resistance to flow. In medical terms, viscosity is often discussed in relation to bodily fluids such as blood or synovial fluid (found in joints). The unit of measurement for viscosity is the poise, although it is more commonly expressed in millipascals-second (mPa.s) in SI units. Highly viscous fluids flow more slowly than less viscous fluids. Changes in the viscosity of bodily fluids can have significant implications for health and disease; for example, increased blood viscosity has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, while decreased synovial fluid viscosity can contribute to joint pain and inflammation in conditions like osteoarthritis.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Alkanes are a group of saturated hydrocarbons, which are characterized by the presence of single bonds between carbon atoms in their molecular structure. The general formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The simplest and shortest alkane is methane (CH4), which contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. As the number of carbon atoms increases, the length and complexity of the alkane chain also increase. For example, ethane (C2H6) contains two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms, while propane (C3H8) contains three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms.

Alkanes are important components of fossil fuels such as natural gas, crude oil, and coal. They are also used as starting materials in the production of various chemicals and materials, including plastics, fertilizers, and pharmaceuticals. In the medical field, alkanes may be used as anesthetics or as solvents for various medical applications.

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids. It is responsible for breaking down triglycerides, which are the main constituent of dietary fats and chylomicrons, into fatty acids and glycerol. These products are then taken up by cells for energy production or storage.

LPL is synthesized in various tissues, including muscle and fat, where it is attached to the inner lining of blood vessels (endothelium). The enzyme is activated when it comes into contact with lipoprotein particles, such as chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), which transport triglycerides in the bloodstream.

Deficiencies or mutations in LPL can lead to various metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia, a condition characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the blood. Conversely, overexpression of LPL has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis due to excessive uptake of fatty acids by macrophages and their conversion into foam cells, which contribute to plaque formation in the arteries.

Apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II) is a type of apolipoprotein, which are proteins that bind to lipids to form lipoprotein complexes. ApoC-II is a component of several lipoproteins, including very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons, which are responsible for the transport of fat molecules, such as triglycerides and cholesterol, in the bloodstream.

ApoC-II plays a crucial role in the activation of lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that breaks down triglycerides in VLDL and chylomicrons into fatty acids, which can then be taken up by cells for energy production or storage. Therefore, ApoC-II deficiency can lead to hypertriglyceridemia, a condition characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the blood.

In addition to its role in lipid metabolism, ApoC-II has been implicated in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the arteries and can lead to serious cardiovascular complications, such as heart attack and stroke.

Liquid crystals (LCs) are not exclusive to the medical field, but they do have important applications in medicine, particularly in the development of display technologies for medical devices. Here is a general definition:

Liquid crystals are a state of matter that possess properties between those of conventional liquids and solid crystals. They can flow like liquids but have molecules oriented in a way that they can reflect light, creating birefringence. This unique property makes them useful in various applications, such as LCDs (liquid crystal displays) found in many electronic devices, including medical equipment.

In the context of medicine, liquid crystals are primarily used in LCD screens for medical devices like monitors, imaging systems, and diagnostic equipment. They enable high-resolution, clear, and adjustable visualization of medical images, which is crucial for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

Poloxamers are a type of triblock copolymer made up of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (poly(propylene oxide)) flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene (poly(ethylene oxide)). They are amphiphilic molecules, meaning they have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.

Poloxamers are often used in the pharmaceutical industry as drug delivery agents, emulsifiers, solubilizers, and stabilizers. They can form micelles in aqueous solutions above their critical micelle concentration (CMC), with the hydrophobic chains oriented toward the interior of the micelle and the hydrophilic chains on the exterior, interacting with the water molecules. This unique property allows poloxamers to solubilize drugs that are otherwise poorly soluble in water, improving their bioavailability.

Poloxamers have been studied for various medical applications, including as drug carriers for chemotherapy, diagnostic agents, and mucoadhesive materials. Some specific poloxamer compounds have been approved by the FDA for use in pharmaceutical formulations, such as Poloxamer 188 and Poloxamer 407.

In a medical context, poloxamers are not typically used as standalone treatments but rather as components of drug delivery systems or formulations.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

Lipolysis is the process by which fat cells (adipocytes) break down stored triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. This process occurs when the body needs to use stored fat as a source of energy, such as during fasting, exercise, or in response to certain hormonal signals. The breakdown products of lipolysis can be used directly by cells for energy production or can be released into the bloodstream and transported to other tissues for use. Lipolysis is regulated by several hormones, including adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone, which act on lipases, enzymes that mediate the breakdown of triglycerides.

Lymph is a colorless, transparent fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune and circulatory systems. It consists of white blood cells called lymphocytes, proteins, lipids, glucose, electrolytes, hormones, and waste products. Lymph plays an essential role in maintaining fluid balance, absorbing fats from the digestive tract, and defending the body against infection by transporting immune cells to various tissues and organs. It is collected from tissues through lymph capillaries and flows through increasingly larger lymphatic vessels, ultimately returning to the bloodstream via the subclavian veins in the chest region.

In a medical context, paraffin is often referred to as "medical-grade paraffin," which is a type of mineral wax that is highly refined and purified for use in various medical applications. It is typically used in the form of paraffin baths for heat therapy, where a part of the body is dipped into a bath of melted paraffin to provide soothing warmth and pain relief. Medical-grade paraffin is colorless, odorless, tasteless, and chemically stable, making it safe for topical use on the skin. It has a high melting point and does not conduct electricity, which also makes it suitable for use in certain types of medical equipment and supplies.

Metabolic clearance rate is a term used in pharmacology to describe the volume of blood or plasma from which a drug is completely removed per unit time by metabolic processes. It is a measure of the body's ability to eliminate a particular substance and is usually expressed in units of volume (e.g., milliliters or liters) per time (e.g., minutes, hours, or days).

The metabolic clearance rate can be calculated by dividing the total amount of drug eliminated by the plasma concentration of the drug and the time over which it was eliminated. It provides important information about the pharmacokinetics of a drug, including its rate of elimination and the potential for drug-drug interactions that may affect metabolism.

It is worth noting that there are different types of clearance rates, such as renal clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the kidneys) or hepatic clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the liver). Metabolic clearance rate specifically refers to the elimination of a drug through metabolic processes, which can occur in various organs throughout the body.

Apolipoprotein C (apoC) is a group of proteins that are associated with lipoproteins, which are complex particles composed of lipids and proteins that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of lipids in the body. There are three main types of apoC proteins: apoC-I, apoC-II, and apoC-III.

ApoC-I is involved in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and has been shown to inhibit the activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which is an enzyme that facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).

ApoC-II is a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in chylomicrons and VLDL, leading to the formation of smaller, denser lipoproteins. A deficiency in apoC-II can lead to hypertriglyceridemia, a condition characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood.

ApoC-III is also involved in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and has been shown to inhibit the activity of lipoprotein lipase and CETP. Elevated levels of apoC-III have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly due to its effects on lipoprotein metabolism.

In summary, apolipoprotein C is a group of proteins that are involved in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and have important roles in the transport and metabolism of lipids in the body.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

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... emulsion stabilizer and biocide are also used in emulsion making. Most modern emulsions are "washed" to remove some of the ... Photographic emulsion is not a true emulsion, but a suspension of solid particles (silver halide) in a fluid (gelatin in ... Some processes do not have emulsions, such as platinum, cyanotype, salted paper, or kallitype. Photographic emulsion is a fine ... Contemporary handcrafted silver gelatin emulsions Working with liquid photographic emulsion in a nutshell "The Big Film ...
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... (MLE) is an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion showing multi-lamellar structure and an original technology ... Multi-Lamellar Emulsion (MLE) is an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion showing multi-lamellar structure and an original technology ... As an O/W emulsion, MLE can be also used as a vehicle (carrier) for topical drugs. The multiple layer of MLE offers ... As an O/W emulsion, MLE can be also used as a vehicle (carrier) for topical drugs. The multiple layer of MLE offers ...
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Emulsions". Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 93 (1): 115-125. Bibcode:1983JCIS...93..115Y. doi:10.1016/0021-9797(83) ...
Emulsions stabilisation; Part 6: Low calorie products; Part 7: New developments. Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry 7 ... Proteins and emulsions; Recent developments, future trends. Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry 11 Date of conference: 2 ... Emulsion stabilisation; Part 5: Current developments. Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry 5 Date of conference: July ... Emulsions and foams; Part 3: Processing; Part 4: Health and nutrition; Part 5: Rheology; Part 6: Interactions; Part 7: ...
Ramsden's research work was mainly on the chemistry of proteins and the theory of emulsions. He was one of the first to ... "Emulsions". Journal of the Chemical Society. 91: 2001-2021. doi:10.1039/CT9079102001. Peters, R. A. (1948). "Obituary Notice: ...
Thomas, A. W. (1920). A review of the literature of emulsions. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 12, 177-81. ... Catalog Co.). Thomas, A. W. (1927). Emulsions. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 22, 171-211. Thomas, A. W ... Thomas, A. W. (1920). Emulsions: theory and practice. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 15, 186-201. Thomas ...
... "emulsion polymerization" does not mean that polymerization occurs in the droplets of a monomer emulsion. Batch emulsion ... IUPAC definition of Emulsion Polymerization Emulsion polymerization: Polymerization whereby monomer(s), initiator, dispersion ... Alkyd emulsion technology uses a reactive surfactant that has double bonds and thus oxidative drying properties like a ... Initially a water in oil emulsion is formed but continued water addition and shear results in inversion and a stable oil in ...
The emulsion on the plate can deteriorate. In addition, the glass plate medium is fragile and prone to cracking if not stored ... The light-sensitive emulsion of silver salts was coated on a glass plate, typically thinner than common window glass. Glass ... Photographic emulsions were originally coated on thin glass plates for imaging with electron microscopes, which provided a more ... Herz, A.J.; Lock, W.O. (May 1966). "Nuclear Emulsions". CERN Courier. 6: 83-87. Dykstra, Michael J.; Reuss, Laura E. (2003). ...
The emulsion will gradually darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical ... The emulsion consists of silver halide grains suspended in a gelatin colloid; in the case of color film, there are three layers ... The film is also distinguished by how it is wound with regard to perforations and base or emulsion side, as well as whether it ... Different emulsions and development processes exist for a variety of image recording possibilities: the two most common of ...
Nuclear Emulsions Group; Relativistic Heavy Ions Group; Instrumentation and Particles Laboratory; Linear Accelerator Laboratory ...
Langevin, D. (2020). Emulsions, microemulsions and foams. Cham. ISBN 9783030556815.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing ... Marquez, R; Forgiarini, AM; Langevin, D; Salager, JL (7 August 2018). "Instability of Emulsions Made with Surfactant-Oil-Water ... She is particularly interested in foams and emulsions and has made significant contributions relating the mechanical properties ... Her books include Light Scattering by Liquid Surfaces and Complementary Techniques (1992) and Emulsions, microemulsions and ...
Some emulsions would never coalesce in normal gravity, while they do under artificial gravity. Segregation of different ... opal is a gel in which water is dispersed in silica crystals Milk - emulsion of liquid butterfat globules dispersed in water ... Roland, I; Piel, G; Delattre, L; Evrard, B (2003). "Systematic characterisation of oil-in-water emulsions for formulation ... Salager, J-L (2000). Françoise Nielloud; Gilberte Marti-Mestres (eds.). Pharmaceutical emulsions and suspensions. CRC press. p ...
Foams and Emulsions: Proc. NATO Advanced Study Inst. on Foams and Emulsions, Emulsions and Cellular Materials, Cargèse, Corsica ...
... emulsions, and compounds; specialty lubricants; and consumer, medical, and semi-conductor products. In most of the cases each ...
These properties are the reason that SSL is an excellent emulsifier for fat-in-water emulsions and can also function as a ... The lactylate stabilizes (i.e. prevents separation of) the oil-in-water emulsion. Another use of lactylates is as whipping ... Nylander, G.; Wang, Z. (2010). "Guidelines for Processing Emulsion-Based Foods". In Hasenhettl, G.L.; Hartel, R.W. (eds.). Food ... These interactions provide stability to an oil/water system resulting in the formation of an emulsion. Therefore, lactylates ...
Chiralt, A. "Food Emulsions" (PDF). Food Engineering. UNESCO, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. 2. Kurtzman, C. P.; Rogers ... Separation of water and oil (instability of the emulsion) is a potential problem with blue cheese dressing. Microbial spoilage ...
Perfluorocarbon emulsions are emulsions containing either bubbles or droplets which have perfluorocarbons inside them. Some of ... The emulsions were injected intravenously and circulated through the bloodstream, and the droplets picked up oxygen when ... Other perfluorocarbon emulsions have been tested as oxygen therapeutics. When perfluorocarbons are exposed to high ... Early perfluorocarbon emulsions for oxygen delivery were developed as blood substitutes. They used large-molecule ...
The collective research of almost 140 artists from 31 countries has been compiled in this book, covering emulsions made by: ... powder and dye emulsions. Most prints were exposed using only the sun. World Anthotype Day was facilitated by a small team at ... Anthotype Emulsions, Volume 2. The collective research from photographers on World Anthotype Day 2023. ByMalin Fabbri ... The collective research of almost 140 artists from 31 countries has been compiled in this book, covering emulsions made by: ...
Fast exposing diazo emulsion formulated for use with solvent-based and UV curing inks in graphic and speciality screen printing ... Diazo emulsion for use with solvent-based and UV curing inks in graphic and speciality screen printing. ... Diazo photopolymer emulsion with a very high solids content for easy production of high build stencils. ... An easy to use diazo emulsion for use with solvent-based and UV curing inks in graphic and speciality screen printing. ...
... Used with BUR and MB roofs, our TremLastic SP emulsion seals the roof surface and enables the application of our ...
When it comes to flavoring, professional bakers almost exclusively use emulsions over ... water-based flavors Use in place of extracts Kosher certified Packaged in glass bottles LorAnn Oils Bakery Emulsions are better ... LorAnn Oils Bakery Emulsions are better than an extract. They are water-based instead of alcohol-based so the flavor wont bake ... Emulsions are ideal for baking and to flavor frosting, but are not appropriate for flavoring chocolate or hard candy due to ...
Stable Emulsions were prepared with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25 % (v/v) water concentration with variable agitation speed ranging ... For NOx reduction in recent developing technologies, diesel water emulsion was found the best approach for the existing engines ... In the present study, performance and emission statistics of a diesel engine using diesel water emulsion operating at different ... Various physico-chemical properties of emulsions were tested for all six samples including diesel. Exhaustive experiments were ...
... Source A typical agricultural chemical spray ... One of these properties of many spray fluids is the inclusion of an oil phase in the form of an emulsion. The effect of oil-in- ... A characteristic dimensionless number for connecting the bulk spray properties and the microscopic emulsion droplet properties ... water emulsions on the spray droplet size distribution has been demonstrated by previous work. However, the mechanisms of this ...
Emulsion Experiments Committee, EmC : EmC Reports, 1961 . 1961-00-00 Description of record group 詳細記錄 - 相似記錄 ... Emulsion Experiments Committee, EmC : EmC Reports, 1962 . 1962-00-00 Description of record group 詳細記錄 - 相似記錄 ... Emulsion Experiments Committee, EmC : EmC Reports, from 1963 to 1966 . From 1963-00-00 to 1966-00-00 Description of record ... 主頁 , Archives , CERN Archives , Experimental Physics , Experiments, Detectors and Committees (SC, Synchro-Cyclotron) , Emulsion ...
Buy great products from our wood emulsion Category online at We supply trade quality DIY and home improvement ... Crown Easyclean Matt Emulsion Paint - Cr?me de la Rose - 2.5L ... CRAFTED by Crown Emulsion Interior Paint - Textured Fawn - 2.5L ... Crown Easyclean Mid Sheen Emulsion Bathroom Paint - Tin Bath Tester Pot - 40ml ... CRAFTED by Crown Flat Matt Emulsion Interior Paint - Craft Fair - 2.5L ...
our luxurious emulsion of shea butter and natural oils is infused with bergamot and sweet magnolia to leave your skin silky ... magnolia firming body emulsion 48.00 // ... our luxurious emulsion of shea butter and natural oils is infused with bergamot and sweet magnolia to leave your skin silky ... our award-winning emulsion formula is infused with a refreshing mix of bergamot and sweet magnolia for a luxurious and ...
Find information on Fat Emulsion (Intralipid, Liposyn III) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, ... "Fat Emulsion." Daviss Drug Guide, 18th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2023. The Washington Manual, ... washingtonmanual/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51294/all/fat_emulsion. Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Fat emulsion. Daviss ... Vallerand, A. H., Sanoski, C. A., & Quiring, C. (2023). Fat emulsion. In Daviss Drug Guide (18th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. ...
Check out exclusive offers on iS Clinical Reparative Moisture Emulsion at Dermstore. Order now and get free samples. ... iS Clinical Reparative Moisture Emulsion (1.7 oz.). A moisturizer that smooths, rehydrates and plumps skin. ... iS Clinical Reparative Moisture Emulsion (1.7 oz.). A moisturizer that smooths, rehydrates and plumps skin. ... iS Clinical Reparative Moisture Emulsion smooths, rehydrates and plumps parched skin with pharmaceutical-grade botanicals, ...
This praline emulsion can be used both hot (as a sauce) and cold. Once cooled in the fridge, it is ideal for the assembly of ... Hazelnut praline emulsion is the equivalent of a classic chocolate ganache. Its possibilities are countless, as this is a very ...
We formulate and produce different ranges of paraffin and wax emulsions as well as synthetic latex emulsions covering a wide ... We produce and market a wide range of waxes, paraffins, and emulsions for applications in various industrial sectors, where we ...
In this hot paper, Marze and Choimet compare the in vitro digestion of emulsions with different formulations using various ... In vitro digestion of emulsions: mechanistic and experimental models. Soft Matter, 2012, 8, 10982. DOI: 10.1039/c2sm26336j. ( ... All the techniques showed that the type of triglyceride is the dominant parameter in explaining the emulsion digestion. ... A popular model food system is an emulsion, a liquid-liquid dispersion. ...
DropSynth 2.0: high-fidelity multiplexed gene synthesis in emulsions. View ORCID ProfileAngus M. Sidore, View ORCID Profile ... DropSynth 2.0: high-fidelity multiplexed gene synthesis in emulsions Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... method which builds gene libraries by compartmentalizing and assembling microarray-derived oligos in vortexed emulsions. By ... offers a variety of Guerlain Super Aqua Emulsion - Rich, all at discount prices. Free shipping in the US with ... super aqua emulsion - rich 50ml/1.6ozsuper aqua emulsion - rich 50ml/1.6oz ...
Scotts Emulsion is written on one of the pillows. At the bottom is La Nichee (The Nest) and Copyright, 1887, by Scott and ... Scotts Emulsion. Description. This card depicts a blonde-haired little girl, dressed in a white lace nightgown with a large ... Scotts Emulsion of Cod Liver Oil with the Hypophosphites of Lime and Soda eradicates diseases of every kind and restores ... Scotts Emulsion. 1887. Advertising Collection. LL02. East Carolina University Digital Collections. https://digital ...
Fire resistant; Hydraulic oils; Metal rolling oil
Localized structures in vibrated emulsions. Claudio Falcón1,2, Jake Bruggeman3, Matteo Pasquali3 and Robert D. Deegan1a ... We report our observations of localized structures in a thin layer of an emulsion subjected to vertical oscillations. We ...
Asphalt & Emulsions. If it is a new construction project or maintenance on an existing site, Graniterock can provide all the ...
High Float Emulsion used for chip seal. Pen range of 90 to 150. A rapid set type of emulsion. ... STYRELF Polymer High Float Emulsion used for chip seal. Rapid setting emulsion, faster embedment, can be used on high volume ... A hard based Cationic Emulsion used primarily for chipsealing, rapid set type of emulsion. ... This emulsion is intended for use in placing a chip seal that will help restore some life to the existing pavement and form a ...
Fat Emulsion) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications ... INTRALIPID® 20% (20% i.v. fat emulsion) (A 20% INTRAVENOUS FAT EMULSION) IS A STERILE, NON-PYROGENIC FAT EMULSION PREPARED FOR ... The lipid emulsion should be - a homogenous liquid with a milky white appearance. If the mixture is not white - or the emulsion ... Number of Patients in Soybean Oil Lipid Emulsion Group. (n=230). Number of Patients in 4-Oil Mixed Lipid Emulsion Comparator ...
Shop Avène Physiolift Day Smoothing Emulsion at Bluemercury. Visibly reduce the appearance of deep wrinkles and furrows for ... PhysioLift DAY Smoothing Emulsion is formulated with a patented combination of Ascofilline to moisturize and replenish collagen ...
Wax Emulsion Market Study by Global Industry Analysts, Inc. ... Wax Emulsion. A Global Strategic Business Report. MCP15590. . ... Global Wax Emulsion Market to Reach $3.8 Billion by 2030. The global market for Wax Emulsion estimated at US$3 Billion in the ... The Wax Emulsion market in the U.S. is estimated at US$806.6 Million in the year 2022. China, the world`s second largest ... Wax Emulsion - Global Key Competitors Percentage Market Share in 2022 (E). Competitive Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/ ...
... By Nathan Gray and Katie Bird 11-Aug-2010. - Last updated on ... "Oil bodies are natural emulsions, so there is no need to chemically mix them. The question is how to get them out and keep them ... The potential for the use of oil bodies - tiny emulsion drops found in seeds and grains - has been seen as a possible ... The new study offers potential for a more natural way to use oil emulsions for industry. But, despite its environmental ...
Learn how Velvesil silicone gels and emulsions can help create beauty products that mask imperfections with a long-lasting, ... Velvesil™ E-Gel PMF Emulsion Velvesil* E-Gel PMF Emulsion delivers soft-focus benefits from aqueous formulations with a ... There is a silky softness offered by Momentives Velvesil silicone gels and emulsions that can be hard to achieve with other ... Velvesil silicone gels and emulsions can help impart a luxurious, velvety feel to a broad range of skin care and makeup ...
  • Cationic Emulsion used primarily for chipsealing, rapid set type of emulsion. (
  • A hard based Cationic Emulsion used primarily for chipsealing, rapid set type of emulsion. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - In patients with dry eye disease (DED), a cyclosporine A cationic emulsion (CsA CE) is well tolerated and effective, a pooled analysis of two clinical trials suggests. (
  • LorAnn's Bakery Emulsion is ideal for flavoring all your homemade baked goods, icings, fondants, and fillings. (
  • Some excellent science has shown that giving IV lipid emulsion can save the life of someone with an accidental overdose of local anesthetic medications, particularly bupivacaine ," he added. (
  • Use of 20% intravenous lipid emulsion can be efficacious in the resuscitation of life-threatening local anesthetic toxicity , especially from bupivacaine, Lavonas indicated. (
  • Photopolymer emulsion for high magnification poster and billboard applications. (
  • Multi-purpose diazo photopolymer emulsion for graphic and industrial printing. (
  • Diazo photopolymer emulsion for high quality graphic applications. (
  • Multi-purpose diazo photopolymer emulsion offering resistance to all graphic, speciality and textile inks. (
  • Universal diazo photopolymer emulsion offering superb resolution and definition. (
  • Diazo photopolymer emulsion designed for high quality printing of UV and solvent based inks. (
  • Diazo photopolymer emulsion with a very high solids content for easy production of high build stencils. (
  • Diazo photopolymer emulsion designed for use with direct projection cameras. (
  • Diazo photopolymer emulsion designed to offer superb coating characteristics with resistance to all ink types. (
  • Diazo photopolymer emulsion with exceptional mechanical and chemical resistance. (
  • Diazo photopolymer emulsion designed to print high quality UV and solvent based inks. (
  • Typically, pure photopolymer emulsions will be most effective at 2-4 screens in the reclaim cycle and diazo/dual-cure emulsions will be most effective at 4-6 screens in the reclaim cycle. (
  • Diazo emulsion for use with solvent-based and UV curing inks in graphic and speciality screen printing. (
  • An easy to use diazo emulsion for use with solvent-based and UV curing inks in graphic and speciality screen printing. (
  • Diazo emulsion for ultra-fine line and halftone reproduction. (
  • By the addition of KOH, chemical activation of the materials is induced during carbonization, producing Pickering-emulsion-templated carbon foams, or carboHIPEs, with tailorable macropore diameters and surface areas almost triple that of those previously reported. (
  • The dynamics of surfactant-stabilized multiphase systems, including oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions and aqueous film forming foams (AFFF), have direct impact on the overall characteristics of shipboard bilge wastewaters and replacement firefighting foams. (
  • The three task areas use a unique combination of microscale measurement platforms with adsorption isotherm and thin film models, to study multiphase destabilization processes at length scales most relevant to the chemically stabilized O/W emulsions and film forming foams found and used shipboard. (
  • The tasks will test the overarching hypothesis that the concentration and interfacial curvature-dependent timescales of soluble surfactant transport are deterministic in destabilization of emulsions and foams, wherein systems containing surfactants with higher interfacial adsorption, lower interfacial advection, and higher interfacial diffusion result in immobile (no slip) interfaces and slower film drainage times. (
  • Intralipid 20% (20% I.V. Fat Emulsion) is made of 20% soybean oil used to provide calories to patients who are getting their nutrition through an injection into the vein. (
  • Our Intralipid 20% (20% I.V. Fat Emulsion) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (
  • It is wellsuited for emulsion polymerization reactions because the aqueous solvent does not interfere with the analyte signal by either contributing to the Raman signal or by masking the analyte signal by self-absorption processes. (
  • Difluprednate ophthalmic comes as an emulsion (liquid) to apply to the eye. (
  • LorAnn Oils Bakery Emulsions are better than an extract. (
  • The potential for the use of oil bodies - tiny emulsion drops found in seeds and grains - has been seen as a possible replacement for chemically extracted oils. (
  • Bilgewater is oily wastewater emulsion found in the lower chamber of ships, contaminated with oils, fuels, grease, and detergents used on-board. (
  • In order to improve the water treatment processes and increase the volume of water that can be discharged, improved fundamental understanding of the role of fuels, oils, and detergent surfactants in shipboard emulsion destabilization is required. (
  • Stable Emulsions were prepared with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25 % (v/v) water concentration with variable agitation speed ranging from 5000-15000 rpm along with two surfactants. (
  • Nanoscale-based emulsions were prepared by employing a spontaneous emulsification technique through self-assembly using varying concentrations of Tween 20 and Tween 80 surfactants. (
  • however, emulsions can be used to flavor candy centers. (
  • Whether you're making a spiced rum cake, a rum flavored ice cream base, a beverage, or any other recipe that calls for the addition of rum flavor, Rum Flavor Emulsion is all you need to add wonderful depth of flavor to your creations. (
  • Nature's Flavors Almond Flavor Emulsion offers a great almond flavor to the products that you create. (
  • Emulsions have a more potent, robust flavor. (
  • A characteristic dimensionless number for connecting the bulk spray properties and the microscopic emulsion droplet properties was defined as the ratio between the emulsion recovery time and the spray atomization time. (
  • Francesca's Smart Emulsion is a washable emulsion paint suitable for use on interior walls and woodwork. (
  • If you have any questions regarding our washable emulsion paint or any other of our paint products, please email us or call us on 020 72287694. (
  • When it comes to flavoring, professional bakers almost exclusively use emulsions over alcohol-based extracts. (
  • iS Clinical Reparative Moisture Emulsion smooths, rehydrates and plumps parched skin with pharmaceutical-grade botanicals, peptides, marine extracts and antioxidants. (
  • Emulsions are water-based, alternatives to extracts. (
  • Used with BUR and MB roofs, our TremLastic SP emulsion seals the roof surface and enables the application of our coating products. (
  • Oil bodies are natural emulsions, so there is no need to chemically mix them. (
  • There is nothing standard about our Chalky Matt Emulsion paints. (
  • Real-time monitoring of emulsion polymerization by Raman spectroscopy has been performed. (
  • Poly(divinylbenzene) was synthesized from the polymerization of the continuous, but minority, phase of a simple high internal phase Pickering emulsion. (
  • The cytotoxicity of the stable oil-based emulsion system was evaluated using MTT assay, colony formation assay, and Annexin V-FITC assay against the thyroid cancer cell line (HTh-7). (
  • This study positions the clove bud-based nanoscale emulsion as a suitable candidate for further in vivo studies and trials as a cancer drug. (
  • In order to increase oxygen delivery to the brains of patients that had reduced blood flow due to acute ischemic stroke, artificial CSF mixed with pre-oxygenated perfluorocarbon emulsion was continuously added into the skull by a ventricular catheter while CSF was continuously removed by a lumbar catheter. (
  • To that end, the project team will work closely with members from other SERDP emulsion and AFFF teams, for consistency in experimental protocols and model systems, and for data sharing and knowledge transfer. (
  • A rapid set type of emulsion. (
  • A High Float polymer rapid set emulsion. (
  • Rapid setting emulsion, faster embedment, can be used on high volume roads. (
  • We're more than just an asphalt emulsion manufacturer and distributor. (
  • Polymer modified chip sealing emulsion for high traffic volume roads, Hard Pen base asphalt. (
  • Emulsified Recycling Asphalt Emulsion used for Cold-in-place recycling. (
  • For NO x reduction in recent developing technologies, diesel water emulsion was found the best approach for the existing engines by researchers. (
  • I am sure you are spot on about the emulsion being put straight on from the tin (we found an empty tin, it was Dulux Soft Sheen, by the way). (
  • British Library EThOS: The design of lubricating oil in water emulsions. (
  • From helping you choose the right product to spraying the emulsion, our experienced team is with you every mile. (
  • See our product list below, and contact us for your next emulsion order. (
  • 1. Apply 935 Emulsion Remover to both sides of a wet screen, quickly scrub each side with a scrub brush to better disperse product and loosen emulsion. (
  • The Bureau, with technical support from ETI, has field-tested a new low-incendive pumpable emulsion-anfo blend product at Union Oil's oil shale project at Parachute Creek, Colorado. (
  • In the present study, performance and emission statistics of a diesel engine using diesel water emulsion operating at different compression ratios from 17:1 to 18:1 was performed. (
  • The effect of oil-in-water emulsions on the spray droplet size distribution has been demonstrated by previous work. (
  • Our emulsions are ideal for high-heat applications that are water-based. (
  • Our sophisticated water-based emulsions add depth to your space without compromising on function, durability, or coverage. (
  • Seal absorbent surfaces with a solution of up to 1part water to 4 parts Francesca's Smart Emulsion. (
  • however, polymer /oil demixing occurs as the temperature drops below the melting temperature of PEO-b-PCL (approximately 55 degrees C). A homogeneous polymer /oil mixture was dispersed in water at 80 degrees C to generate embryonic emulsions , and then the emulsion size was reduced to a nanometer range through microfluidic homogenization. (
  • One of these properties of many spray fluids is the inclusion of an oil phase in the form of an emulsion. (
  • 1. Pour ICC 935 Emulsion Remover into a chemical resistant spray bottle for easy application. (
  • Do not exceed 4-6 screens at a time, as the drying of 935 Emulsion Remover will have the adverse effect. (
  • All the techniques showed that the type of triglyceride is the dominant parameter in explaining the emulsion digestion. (
  • Ideal number of screens in your cycle will be dependent on the type of emulsion used. (
  • The volume of cream formed in an emulsion. (
  • Micro Surface Seal Emulsion for high volume traffic areas. (
  • They used large-molecule perfluorocarbons with boiling points higher than body temperature which were formed into liquid emulsion droplets. (
  • A popular model food system is an emulsion, a liquid-liquid dispersion. (
  • 2023. (
  • Emulsion that can be used for all mixing application, warm or cold. (
  • A pre-sensitised photostencil emulsion designed for direct-to-screen stencil systems. (
  • Compatible with both direct/indirect emulsions and capillary film. (
  • Various physico-chemical properties of emulsions were tested for all six samples including diesel. (
  • The oil-based emulsion system was also tested for its antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus . (
  • This effort, in close collaboration with Department of Defense laboratories, will provide new mechanistic-level understanding of factors that govern emulsion and foam destabilization, through new measurements and models of surfactant transport to, at, and along the fluid-fluid interfaces. (
  • Pre-sensitised projection emulsion for poster & PoP applications. (
  • Emulsion used for cold recycle and for some cold mix applications. (
  • ICC 935 Emulsion Remover is ready to use, fast acting and capable of removing difficult emulsion systems for total reclaim. (
  • The new study offers potential for a more natural way to use oil emulsions for industry. (