Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Relating to the size of solids.
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).
The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members contain bruceosides and bruceanols (quassinoids). The astringent seeds have been used to treat dysentery in southeastern Asia.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
The study of crime and criminals with special reference to the personality factors and social conditions leading toward, or away from crime.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.

Effects of soybean oil emulsion and eicosapentaenoic acid on stress response and immune function after a severely stressful operation. (1/1196)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of soybean oil emulsion and oral or enteral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on stress response, cytokine production, protein metabolism, and immune function after surgery for esophageal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: It has been reported that safflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA), affects the survival rate of septic animals and decreases the immune function. It has also been reported that the administration of fish oil, in contrast, reduces these stress responses and stress-induced immunosuppression. In humans, the effects of soybean oil emulsion and the administration of EPA on stress response and immune function after surgery have not been established. METHODS: Patients who underwent esophagectomy with thoracotomy were divided into three groups. Seven patients were fed by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with soybean oil emulsion, which accounted for 20% of total calories. Seven patients were given oral or enteral administration of 1.8 g/day EPA, in addition to TPN with soybean oil emulsion. Nine patients served as the control group; these patients received fat-free TPN. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein, concanavalin A (con A)- or phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and stress hormones were measured. RESULTS: The postoperative level of serum IL-6 was significantly higher in the group receiving soybean oil emulsion than in the fat-free group. Oral or enteral supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly reduced the level of serum IL-6 compared with the patients receiving soybean oil emulsion. Con A- or PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation decreased significantly on postoperative day 7 in all groups of patients. The supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly improved the lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity on postoperative day 21 compared with the group receiving soybean oil emulsion. CONCLUSIONS: Soybean oil emulsion amplifies, and the supplementation of EPA reduces, the stress response and stress-induced immunosuppression.  (+info)

Effective method for activity assay of lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum. (2/1196)

A method was devised for activity assay of the lipase [triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolase, EC] excreted from Chromobacterium viscosum into the culture medium; olive oil emulsified with the aid of Adekatol 45-S-8 (a non-ionic detergent, the ethoxylate of linear sec-alcohols having chain lengths of 10--16 carbon atoms) was used as the substrate. This method was specifically effective for Chromobacterium lipase acitvity assay, and was approximately twice as sensitive as the conventional method, in which polyvinyl alcohol is used for the emulsification of the substrate.  (+info)

Leucine metabolism in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with medium-chain compared with long-chain triacylglycerol emulsions. (3/1196)

BACKGROUND: Although medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) may be utilized more efficiently than long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs), their effect on protein metabolism remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of mixed MCT-LCT and pure LCT emulsions on leucine metabolism in preterm infants. DESIGN: Fourteen preterm [gestational age: 30+/-1 wk; birth weight: 1409+/-78 g (x +/- SE)] neonates were randomly assigned to receive, from the first day of life, either a 50:50 MCT-LCT (mixed MCT group; n = 7) or an LCT (LCT group; n = 7) lipid emulsion as part of an isonitrogenous, isoenergetic total parenteral nutrition program. On the fourth day, infants received intravenous feeding providing 3 g lipid, 15 g glucose, and 3 g amino acids kg(-1) x d(-1) and underwent 1) indirect calorimetry and 2) a primed, 2-h infusion of H13CO3Na to assess the recovery of 13C in breath, immediately followed by 3) a 3-h infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. RESULTS: The respiratory quotient tended to be slightly but not significantly higher in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (0.96+/-0.06 compared with 0.93+/-0.03). We did not detect a significant difference between the mixed MCT and LCT groups with regard to release of leucine from protein breakdown (B; 309+/-40 compared with 257+/-46 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and nonoxidative leucine disposal (NOLD; 296+/-36 compared with 285+/-49 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). In contrast, leucine oxidation was greater in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (113+/-10 compared with 67+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.007). Net leucine balance (NOLD - B) was less positive in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (-14+/-9 compared with 28+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Mixed MCTs may not be as effective as LCT-containing emulsions in promoting protein accretion in parenterally fed preterm neonates.  (+info)

The adsorption-induced secondary structure of beta-casein and of distinct parts of its sequence in relation to foam and emulsion properties. (4/1196)

Changes in the secondary structure upon adsorption of beta-casein (betaCN) and of distinct parts of its sequence were investigated by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism in order to find suggested relationships with foam and emulsion-forming and -stabilising properties of the same protein/peptides. A teflon/water interface was used as a model system for foam and emulsion interfaces. The maximum surface loads of beta-casein and its derived peptides were investigated. The main secondary structure element of all samples in solution was the unordered random coil, but upon adsorption ordered structure, especially alpha-helix, was induced. At lower pH more ordered structure was induced, just as at lower ionic strength. Apparently, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups influence the change of secondary structure induced at a hydrophobic interface. The results suggest that the hydrophobic C-terminal half of betaCN accounted for the high maximum surface load on teflon, while the N-terminal half of betaCN seemed to be responsible for the secondary structure induction upon adsorption. A relation between the maximum surface load and the foam-stabilising properties was found, but an influence of the secondary structure properties on the foam and emulsion-forming and -stabilising properties was not observed.  (+info)

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein as a delivery system for photosensitizers: implications for photodynamic therapy of atherosclerosis. (5/1196)

Photodynamic therapy is a promising new strategy in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Photodynamic therapy for vascular diseases may be improved by the specific delivery of photosensitizers to the atherosclerotic lesion. In this study, we studied whether oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) could be used as a specific carrier for photosensitizers, thereby using the scavenger receptor expressed on macrophages as a target. The photosensitizer aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPc) was incorporated into OxLDL, and its photodynamic effects were studied. Macrophages (RAW 264.7) were incubated with various concentrations of OxLDL-AlPc for different periods. After illumination of the cells with red light, cytotoxicity was observed that was dependent on the time of illumination and incubation. Macrophages incubated with OxLDL-AlPc that were not illuminated revealed no cytotoxicity. The uptake of the OxLDL-AlPc complexes was mediated by scavenger receptors expressed on macrophages. In the presence of the polyanion polyinosinic acid, a specific ligand for scavenger receptors, no cytotoxicity could be observed. Serum incubations of the OxLDL-AlPc complexes revealed that these complexes stay intact after incubation. No redistribution of AlPc to other plasma (lipo-) proteins could be detected, and 80-90% of the AlPc remained associated with the OxLDL particle. These results indicate that OxLDL may function as a specific delivery system for photosensitizers to the scavenger receptors expressed on the macrophages in the atherosclerotic lesion, increasing the beneficial effects of photodynamic therapy for cardiovascular diseases.  (+info)

Developmental regulation of expression of the D3 dopamine receptor in rat nucleus accumbens and islands of Calleja. (6/1196)

The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) belongs to the D2 subfamily and is expressed in the rat brain in targets of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Little is known about its normal development and control by dopaminergic innervation. We studied developmental expression of D3R in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAC) and islands of Calleja (ISC). At postnatal day (P) 7, D3 binding sites and mRNA were low in both areas. By P14, D3R and mRNA concentrations were close to adult levels in the ISC, whereas, in the NAC, binding increased until 3 months after birth. Cellular concentrations of D3 mRNA in the ISC increased with age in conjunction with a decrease in the number of D3 positive cells. In the NAC, the number of positive cells increased, whereas cellular levels of expression remained unchanged. Neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesion caused age-dependent changes in D3R expression. D3 binding sites did not change at P7 or P14, but there was a reduction in the number of D3 mRNA positive neurons accompanied by an increase in cellular levels of D3 mRNA at P14, suggesting that changes occurred in a subset of neurons. Up-regulation of D3 binding sites in NAC and ISC occurred 1 month after the lesion (P35) concomitant with a decrease in cellular levels of D3 mRNA and the number of D3 mRNA positive cells. At 3 months (P90) after the lesion, an increase in D3 mRNA occurred with no change in D3 binding sites. D3R shows region-specific dynamics in receptor/mRNA expression during development and is sensitive to loss of dopamine in early postnatal development.  (+info)

Doppler sonographic enhancement of hepatic hemangiomas and hepatocellular carcinomas after perflenapent emulsion: preliminary study. (7/1196)

Ultrasonographic microbubble contrast agents improve Doppler signals by increasing blood backscatter. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with perflenapent (EchoGen), an emulsion of liquid dodecafluoropentane, in the evaluation of 13 patients with focal hepatic lesions (10 hemangiomas and six hepatocellular carcinomas). Perflenapent improved the detection of color Doppler flow signals within the lesions. The hemangiomas showed peripheral nonpulsatile signals and the hepatocellular carcinomas showed more diffuse enhancement with both arterial and venous type signals. This preliminary study suggests that perflenapent administration may aid in the sonographic differentiation of these focal lesions.  (+info)

Hydrolysis of emulsified mixtures of triacylglycerols by pancreatic lipase. (8/1196)

Hydrolysis of the emulsified mixture of short-chain triacylglycerols by porcine pancreatic lipase in the presence of procolipase and micellar sodium taurodeoxycholate has been studied. Increase in the content of tributyrin and trioctanoin in the mixture with triacetin had highly cooperative effects on the formation of the interfacial lipase procolipase complex. Abrupt enhancement of the complex stability was observed in the presence of 0.4-0.6 mol mol-1 of tributyrin or 0.58 mol mol-1 of trioctanoin in the substrate phase. The affinity of lipase towards interfacially bound procolipase for the trioctanoin containing 0.07-0.42 mol mol-1 of triacetin was approximately three times higher than that for pure trioctanoin. The cooperative processes involved in complex formation did not contribute to the affinity of the interfacial lipase/(pro)colipase complex towards substrate molecules and its catalytic activity.  (+info)

Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs) originated as an oral lipid-based drug delivery system with the sole purpose of improving delivery of highly lipophilic drugs. However, the revolutionary drug delivery possibilities presented by these uniquely simplified systems in terms of muco-adhesiveness and zeta-potential changing capacity lead the way forward to ground-breaking research. Contrarily, SEDDSs destined for topical/transdermal drug delivery have received limited attention. Therefore, this review is focused at utilising principles, established during development of oral SEDDSs, and tailoring them to fit evaluation strategies for an optimised topical/transdermal drug delivery vehicle. This includes a detailed discussion of how the authentic pseudo-ternary phase diagram is employed to predict phase behaviour to find the self-emulsification region most suitable for formulating topical/transdermal SEDDSs. Additionally, special attention is given to the manner of characterising oral SEDDSs
Emulsions are colloidal dispersions formed by two immiscible liquids.1 The dispersed phase of an emulsion appears as droplets of a certain size distribution immersed in the continuous phase of another liquid. The properties of emulsions-appearance, rheology, and physical stability-may follow those of the constituents or show completely new material behavior based on the spatial distribution and interactions of polymers, particles, and droplets.2 The most abundantly used emulsions are those consisting of oil and an aqueous phase, that is, oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions.1 They are used in the chemical industry, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food, the latter of which can be viewed as a complex form of soft matter.2 Food emulsions include creams, spreads, dressings, and beverages. Thus, emulsions are versatile systems with wide industrial applications and multiple functions. Owing to the immiscible nature of the dispersed and the continuous phases, emulsions are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stability of water-in-oil emulsions in simple shear flow 2. The efforts of additives on the orthokinetic coalescence efficiency. AU - Mousa, H.. AU - van de Ven, T. G.M.. PY - 1991/11/26. Y1 - 1991/11/26. N2 - The effect of electrolytes, solid particles, interfacial tension and shear rate on the orthokinetic coalescence efficiency of aqueous emulsion droplets suspended in oil was investigated. It was found that, for a given shear rate, lowering the interfacial tension lowers the coalescence efficiency. The effect of electrolytes is mainly to lower the interfacial tension of the water/oil interface, electrostatic forces playing a minor role. AlCl3 is more effective in lowering the interfacial tension than KCl, resulting in more stable emulsions in the presence of AlCl3. This trend is opposite to that in oil/water emulsions. The emulsions were found to be most stable at intermediate shear rates. At low and high shear rates the emulsion stability is a minimum. The dependence of the ...
There is provided a water-in-oil (w/o) micro emulsion which readily converts to an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion by the addition of aqueous fluid to the w/o microemulsion, whereby an water-soluble biologically-active material in the aqueous phase is released for absorption by the body. The w/o microemulsion contains a preferred high purity short chain monoglyceride surfactant. The w/o microemulsion is particularly useful for storing proteins and the like for ling periods of time at room temperature and above until they are ready for use, at which time the addition of aqueous fluid converts the microemulsion to an o/w emulsion and release the protein.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A model for the combustion of oil/water emulsion droplets. AU - Law, C. K.. N1 - Funding Information: This research was partially funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NSF-RANN AER 75-09538. 11 is a pleasure to acknowledge the many stimulating discussions with F. L. Dryer of Princeton University. Copyright: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1977/10/1. Y1 - 1977/10/1. N2 - The vaporization and combustion characteristics of an oil/water emulsion droplet are investigated by analyzing the multicomponent heat and mass transport processes in the gas phase and the gasification of an immiscible liquid mixture at the gas-liquid interface. Results substantiate and quantify the potential reductions in soot and NOx formation through water emulsification, and demonstrate that the embedded water micro-droplets can indeed be heated to the limit of superheat such that fragmentation of the emulsion droplet due to the internal pressure build-up can be ...
Chitosan (CS) microparticles with and without cross-linking were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method without any surfactants. Aqueous CS solution and ethyl ace- tate were used as water and oil phases, respectively. Genipin was used as a cross-linker. Influ- ences of genipin ratios and cross-linking times on CS microparticle characteristics were investigated. Non-cross-linked and cross-linked CS microparticles were spherical in shape and rough in surface. Microparticle matrices showed porous structures. Surface roughness, mean par- ticle sizes and bulk density of CS microparticles increased and their dissolutions in acetic acid solution decreased when genipin ratio and cross- linking time increased.
Purpose: Dry eye disease is a complex, multifactorial pathology characterized by corneal epithelium lesions and inflammation. The severity of these assaults is often correlated to the severity of the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cationic emulsion of cyclosporine (CsA) in a mouse model that mimics severe dry eye.. Methods: Eight to 12-week-old female C57BL6 mice with tail patches of scopolamine (replaced every other days) were housed in controlled environment chambers (CEC) to induce dry eye. At day three, following dry eye confirmation by corneal fluorescein staining (CFS, score 0-15) and phenol red thread (PRT) lacrimation test, the mice (n=10/gp) were either treated 3 times a day in both eyes with: drug-free cationic emulsion, a 0.1% CsA-loaded cationic emulsion, and 1% methylprednisolone (positive control), or left untreated. Aqueous tear production, CFS score, Goblet cell density in the conjunctiva and CD11b+ count in flat mounted cornea were ...
2,994,669 Patented Aug. 1, 1961 2,994,660 WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION DRILLING FLUID William A. Reddie and Robert N. Grifliu, Houston, Tex., assignors to Magnet Cove Barium Corporation, Houston, Texas, a corporation No Drawing. Filed May 27, 1957, Ser. No. 661,615 26 Claims. (Cl. 2528.5) This invention relates to water-in-oil (invert) type emulsion well fluids useful in various well operations including the drilling, completing or working over of wells. In one of its aspects, it relates to compositions and methods wherein invert emulsion Well fluids have certain properties thereof controlled by using a polybasic fatty acid polymer, preferably in combination with a polyamine or a polyamino alcohol. In another aspect it relates to compositions and methods for forming invert emulsions having very high tolerance towards clay solids and other contaminants. Invert emulsion systems have been developed for use in oil well operations and the advantages derived from their use are well known; see, for example, ...
Purpose: The aim of this project was to develop a colloidal dosage form for the oral delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid in combination with the aid of artificial neural network (ANN) data modeling.. Methods: Data from the 20 pseudoternary phase triangles containing miglyol 812 as the oil component and a mixture of surfactants or a surfactant/cosurfactant blend were used to train, test, and validate the ANN model. The weight ratios of individual components were correlated with the observed phase behavior using radial basis function (RBF) network architecture. The criterion for judging the best model was the percentage success of the model prediction.. Results: The best model successfully predicted the microemulsion region as well as the coarse emulsion region but failed to predict the multiphase liquid crystalline phase for cosurfactant-free systems indicating the difference in microemulsion behavior on dilution with water.. Conclusions: A novel microemulsion formulation capable of delivering ...
295879012 - EP 0973484 A1 20000126 - OIL-IN-WATER EMULSIONS FOR RECONSTITUTING LAMELLARITY OF THE LIPID STRUCTURE OF DAMAGED SKIN - [origin: DE19713793A1] Oil-in-water emulsions with lamellar, liquid crystal phases contain a cosmetic oil or fat component, a hydrophile emulsifier and a lipophile co-emulsifier which is a lipid of the formula R 1 -O-R 2 , in which R 1 stands for a primary, linear alkyl group, alkenyl group or acyl group with 20 to 30 C-atoms and R 2 stands for hydrogen or a hydroxyalkyl group, a hydroxyalkoxyalkyl group or a polyhydroxyalkyl group. Behenyl alcohol is preferably used as a lipophile co-emulsifier. The emulsions enhance the lamellarity and the degree of order of the epidermal lipid structures of the skin.[origin: DE19713793A1] Oil-in-water emulsions with lamellar, liquid crystal phases contain a cosmetic oil or fat component, a hydrophile emulsifier and a lipophile co-emulsifier which is a lipid of the formula R 1 -O-R 2 , in which R 1 stands for a primary, linear alkyl
Clopidogrel, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, selectively inhibits the binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet receptor and the subsequent ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Oral bioavailability of clopidogrel is very low (less than 50%), due to its poor water solubility. The aim of this investigation was to design and develop a microemulsion formulation of clopidogrel for enhancing its solubility, and hence its oral bioavailability. For this purpose, initially, solubility of clopidogrel was determined in various vehicles. Next, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the microemulsion existing zone. Solubility study was also performed for optimization of formulation. The optimized microemulsion formulation was characterized for its transparency, droplet size, zeta potential, viscosity, conductivity, % assay, and phase separation study. Particle size and zeta potential of the optimized
The potential of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)-dependent aldolases to catalyze stereoselective aldol additions is, in many instances, limited by the solubility of the acceptor aldehyde in aqueous/co-solvent mixtures. Herein, we demonstrate the efficiency of emulsion systems as reaction media for the class I fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (RAMA) and class II recombinant rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase from E. coli (RhuA)-catalyzed aldol addition between DHAP and N-benzyloxycarbonyl (N-Cbz) aminoaldehydes. The use of emulsions improved the RAMA-catalyzed aldol conversions by three to tenfold relative to those in conventional DMF/water mixtures. RhuA was more reactive than RAMA towards the N-Cbz aminoaldehydes regardless of the reaction medium. With (S)- or (R)-Cbz-alaninal, RAMA exhibited preference for the R enantiomer, while RhuA had no enantiomeric discrimination. The linear N-Cbz aminopolyols thus obtained were submitted to catalytic intramolecular reductive amination to afford the ...
In a previous work, we showed the extension of the microemulsion area towards highly or fully water dilutable systems by adding a short chain alc. as cosolvent, like ethanol, to the system water/sodium oleate/citronellol/limonene. It was possible to convert an anti-percolative system to a percolative one by making the interfacial film more flexible. The question arises if this is a general concept. For this reason, we investigated pseudo-ternary systems water/surfactant/cosurfactant/ethanol/oil with different cosurfactants (1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, dodecanol, Guerbet alcs.) and fatty acid Me ester-rapeseed biodiesel as oil phase. Sodium oleate was used as surfactant. Ethanol was added as cosolvent to enhance the film flexibility and so to increase the microemulsion area. With increasing hydrophobicity of the cosurfactants and the oil and without further addn. of ethanol, only very restricted single phase areas were obtained. However, with a certain amt. of ethanol, sodium oleate, and 1-heptanol a ...
The fabrication of soft nanocomposite clay armored polymer latexes is described. Laponite clay XLS is used as stabilizer in the Pickering emulsion polymerization of a variety of monomer mixtures, that is, methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate, styrene and n-butyl acrylate, and styrene and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. Overall solids contents of the hybrid latexes in complete absence of coagulation of up to 24 wt % are reported under batch conditions. Key mechanistic aspects of the Pickering emulsion polymerization process are discussed. The use of monomers that have high water solubility and are prone to hydrolyze under basic conditions, for example methyl methacrylate, should be restricted. The use of small amounts of methacrylic acid as auxiliary monomer promotes clay adhesion to the surface of the particles in the Pickering emulsion (co)polymerization of hydrophobic monomers. Detailed kinetic studies at both 60 and 80 °C of the Pickering emulsion copolymerization of styrene and n-butyl ...
The Dow Chemical Co. has announced that it is exploring divestiture options for its Clear Lake Operations acrylic acid and esters and UCAR Emulsion Systems specialty latex business in North
Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The ...
Emulsion polymerizations of vinyl acetate (VAc) were performed by fully or partially replacing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with renewable materials as protective colloids or by adding renewable materials, as additives or fillers, to the emulsions during or after polymerization. The purpose of the study was to increase the amount of renewable materials in the emulsion.. A total of 19 emulsions were synthesized. Different recipes were used for the synthesis. The following renewable materials were studied; hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) with different molecular weights, starch and proteins. HEC and starch were used as protective colloids. Proteins were used as additives or fillers. Cross-linking agent A and Cross-linking agent B were used as cross-linking agents. A total of 26 formulations were pressed, either cold or hot.. The synthesized emulsions were evaluated with respect to pH, solids content, viscosity, minimum film formation temperature (MFFT), glass transition temperature (Tg), particle size ...
The application of crossflow ceramic microfiltration (CFCMF) to the removal of emulsified oil from a simple analogue of raw produced water (PW) arising from oil exploration has been studied. Outcomes relate to surfactant-stabilised oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions both as a discrete emulsion and in combination with a colloidal suspension of particulate solids (bentonite). The impact on both fouling during the filtration cycle and residual fouling of the ZrO2-TiO2 membrane, following aggressive caustic-acid chemical cleaning applied between six sequential 30-min filtration runs, was investigated. Results showed the addition of suspended solids to the o/w emulsion to be extremely deleterious to sustaining both the permeability and selectivity of the membrane. The addition of 1500 mg·L−1 of bentonite to a 10 vol.% emulsion resulted in a permeability decrease of 3.5-5 times over that recorded for the emulsion, and 8-36 times lower than that of the bentonite suspension. Oil passage through the ...
Abstract PURPOSE. The generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation are associated with tissue injury following ischemic insult; therefore, the use of antioxidants appears rational in the improvement of kidney diseases therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and its active constituent, crocin, on oxidative stress following renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. METHODS. The cellular redox status (thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and total thiol levels) and antioxidant power (using ferric reducing/antioxidant power test) were assessed in control and ischemic groups. The left kidney was exposed to warm ischemia for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 90 min. The macerated aqueous extract of saffron (with doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, i.p.) and crocin (with doses of 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) were administrated prior to induction of ischemia. Normal saline (10 ml/kg, i.p.) was injected to ...
Mayonnaise, besides ketchup or mustard, is one of the most popular sauces in the world. It is prepared by stirring oil in egg yolk. Depending on the formulation, various amounts of egg yolk as well as salt, pepper, vinegar or lemon juice are added. From a chemical point of view, mayonnaise is an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, containing at least 65 % of oil from plant origin. To obtain a stable emulsion, the surface tension needs to be lowered, which is achieved by lecithin in the egg yolk. Due to its hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value, lecithin favors water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. With such high oil content, one would expect that after mixing the ingredients, a W/O emulsion is created. In fact, the oil is added drop by drop, preventing phase reversal, and in the end, an O/W emulsion is created, which gives mayonnaise its creaminess and consistency. Consumers like to enjoy a creamy, particle-free and smooth mouth feel, but at the same time the product should be inexpensive. Healthy ...
Emulsions contain both a dispersed and a continuous phase, with the boundary between the phases called the interface[4]. Emulsions tend to have a cloudy appearance because the many phase interfaces scatter light as it passes through the emulsion. Emulsions appear white when all light is scattered equally. If the emulsion is dilute enough, higher-frequency (low-wavelength) light will be scattered more, and the emulsion will appear bluer - this is called the Tyndall effect.[citation needed]If the emulsion is concentrated enough, the color will be distorted toward comparatively longer wavelengths, and will appear more yellow. This phenomenon is easily observable when comparing skimmed milk, which contains little fat, to cream, which contains a much higher concentration of milk fat. One example would be a mixture of water and oil.[citation needed] Two special classes of emulsions - microemulsions and nanoemulsions, with droplet sizes below 100 nm - appear translucent.[5] This property is due to ...
0027] According to the invention, the emulsion of phase A and phase B can be of the oil-in-water emulsion type or of the water-in-oil emulsion (W/O) type. Accordingly, the substance to be encapsulated can be a hydrophilic or a hydrophobic substance. In the case of the embodiment of a hydrophilic substance to be encapsulated, a water-in-oil emulsion is produced. In the case of the embodiment of a hydrophobic substance to be encapsulated, an oil-in-water emulsion (O/W) is produced. In one or more embodiments, the method according to the invention is used for encapsulating hydrophobic substances. The emulsion type can be adjusted via the selection of the interface-active substance. Furthermore, the emulsion type can be adjusted via the quantitative ratio of continuous phase to disperse phase ...
An emulsion is a metastable suspension of droplets of one fluid within another fluid, with the two fluids being immiscible. Emulsion droplets are stabilized against coalescence upon contact by a range of surfactants; typically, surfactants are ionic, imparting stability due to electrostatic repulsions at the droplet interfaces. For low volume fractions, a Brownian emulsion is liquid-like; as the volume fraction of droplets increases, the viscosity of the emulsion may diverge (at the colloidal glass transition, volume fraction ~ 58%), similar to a hard-sphere suspension. However, while a disordered hard-sphere suspension can only be packed up to a maximum volume fraction of 64% (random close packing), a disordered emulsion can be packed past random close packing, due to the deformability of the emulsion droplets. When the droplets first begin to touch (at random close packing), the system jams: it becomes solid-like, and develops an elastic modulus. A good deal of work in the past decade has ...
The Effect of Interfacial Viscosity on the Kinetics of Formation of Silver Nanoparticles Using Water-in-Oil Microemulsions as Nanoreactors - Volume 704 - D.O. Shah, R.P. Bagwe, B.S. Parmar
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of serum on the stability and the transfection activity of the cationic lipid emulsion with various oils. AU - Kim, Young Jin. AU - Kim, Tae Woo. AU - Chung, Hesson. AU - Kwon, Ick Chan. AU - Sung, Ha Chin. AU - Jeong, Seo Young. PY - 2003/2/18. Y1 - 2003/2/18. N2 - The emulsions with various oils such as linseed oil, soybean oil and squalene were prepared to obtain the relationship between the stability and the transfection activity of the emulsions. 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) was used as a single cationic lipid emulsifier. The droplet sizes and size distributions of DOTAP emulsions were dependent on oils which had different interfacial tensions. The droplet sizes followed the order of squalene emulsionsoybean oil emulsion,linseed oil emulsion,DOTAP liposome. The squalene emulsion showed the least cytotoxicity with or without serum. For in vivo gene transfer, the squalene emulsion also had the most potent transfection activity in the ...
An emulsion is a mixture of two liquids that are typically immiscible (dont blend) that forms a two phase system. One of the two liquids is dispersed in the mixture, forming the dispersed phase. The other liquid contains the dispersion and is known as the continuous phase. An example of two immiscible liquids would be water and oil. In general an emulsion will be unstable since the dispersed phase will try to decrease its surface tension by grouping with other dispersed droplets until the liquids separate again. However, a stable emulsion can be formed by the addition of emulsifiers, such as surfactants that distribute themselves around the interface between the two liquids, creating a stable system. Emulsions are generally regarded as a special class of colloids where both the continuous and dispersed mediums are liquid. However, this distinction is not rigid with some people such as Witten specifying the term colloid only for a mixture of solids and liquids. ...
Benefits of emulsions. An emulsion refers to a mixture of at least two liquids that normally do not mix well together. Â Some people also refer to the mixture as a colloid but strictly speaking, when the initial dispersed phase and the next continuous phase both result into a liquid form, the object involved is called an emulsion. Â Making emulsions has a variety of applications in many industries and can provide the following benefits:. 1. Wide use in the food industry. Vinaigrette, mayonnaise, and milk are just few of the many food items that are actually created by means of emulsion. Â In the case of vinaigrette, vegetable oil is mixed with vinegar. Â Mayonnaise meanwhile contains oil and water while milk has milk fat and water. Â All these emulsion liquids are made stable through a substance called an emulsifier. Emulsifiers act as kinetic stabilizers of the liquid mixture involved.. 2. Medicinal use. Various beauty products and topical creams are also created from emulsions making ...
Important insights into the role of interfacial composition and structure in controlling the digestion of oil-water emulsions have been gained in the last decade. The driving interest relies on: i) the necessity of controlling the digestion of lipids to decrease or delay fat intake to address the obesity crisis existing worldwide and ii) assuring the bioaccessibility of bioactive emulsified lipids or hydrophobic bioactive compounds. This article mainly reviews the relationship between the composition and structure of protein and polysaccharides stabilized emulsions and their susceptibility to in vitro lipolysis. The analysis concentrates on emulsions where (1) proteins or (2) polysaccharides are used as single emulsifiers, (3) emulsions stabilized by protein-polysaccharide conjugates, (4) protein-polysaccharide multilayer emulsions where the primary emulsion is formed by a protein, (5) protein-polysaccharide emulsions where proteins are the main emulsifiers and the polysaccharides perform as ...
Reduction of sodium chloride in food products has been reported to lower consumers acceptance. In this research, the physical characteristics and sensory property of an oil in water emulsion containing sodium chloride, as well as its application in corn soup were studied. The main objectives of this this research were to evaluate salt reduction that could be achieved through emulsion and to obtain a stable emulsion with most applicable viscosity for corn soup. In research stage I, three different oil concentrations (23, 28, and 33%) with constant salt and stabilizers concentration were applied into the emulsions. The result showed that emulsion with 33% oil was significantly more viscous than the others, whilst emulsion with 23% oil was found to be less salty than the others (α=0.05). Emulsion with 28% oil content was chosen for research stage II due to appropriate saltiness and viscosity. In research stage II, different types and concentrations of thickening agent (1 and 2% tapioca; 0.1 and ...
LorAnn Coconut Bakery Emulsion comes in a 4 oz. bottle. Coconut baking emulsion is a taste of the tropics. Use our Coconut Emulsion in any recipe calling for coconut extract and get more flavorful results! 1tsp. extract = 1 tsp. emulsion The Professionals' Choice When it comes to flavoring, professional bakers almost exclusively use emulsions over extracts. Why? Because emulsions have a more potent, robust flavor, that won't bake out when exposed to heat. They are also alcohol free. LorAnn's emulsions are characterized by a rich, long lasting taste that is bursting with aroma and flavor. An excellent choice for flavoring all of your homemade baked goods, including cookies, cakes, sweet breads and pastries, as well as frostings, glazes, fondants, fillings, cream centers and other confectionery items ...
Skin care compositions comprising an oil-in-water emulsion base containing retinoids and possessing good physical and chemical stability. More particularly, said skin care compositions contain (a) an emulsifier system selected from the group consisting of: (i) a mixture of glyceryl stearate and polyethylene glycol 100 stearate; (ii) cetearyl alcohol and cetearyl glucoside; (iii) a mixture of a polyethylene glycol ethers of stearyl alcohol; and (iv) a mixture of sorbitan stearate and polysorbate 60; (b) a co-emulsifier selected from the group consisting of cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol and mixtures thereof; (c) an oil phase present in the amount of from about 5 to about 20 percent by weight of the total emulsion composition which contains (i) a light, dry absorbable oil and (ii) substantive, emollient oils or waxes, wherein the light, dry absorbable oil and the substantive oil or wax are present in a ratio of from about 1:3 for about 10:1.
Emulsions, microemulsions, and foams. Emulsions, microemulsions and foams (part I) Emulsions, microemulsions and foams (part II) Emulsions, microemulsions and foams (part III) Emulsions, microemulsions and foams (part IV) Emulsions, microemulsions and foams (part V) Froth flotation; Interfacial reactions. Interfacial reactions (part I).
The invention relates to emulsions comprising two non-aqueous, immiscible liquids, (L1) and (L2), whereby the liquid (L1), which is either the continuous or dispersed phase of the emulsion, is a silicone. The emulsion is further stabilized by at least one graft or block co-polymer of which one fraction is soluble in the dispersed phase the other in the continuous phase, the fraction soluble in the continuous phase being greater than the fraction soluble in the dispersed phase. The invention further relates to dispersions of said emulsions in an aqueous or organic phase and use of said emulsions and dispersions in the field of cosmetic and/or dermatological formulations
Photographic emulsion is a light-sensitive colloid used in film-based photography. Most commonly, in silver-gelatin photography, it consists of silver halide crystals dispersed in gelatin. The emulsion is usually coated onto a substrate of glass, films (of cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate or polyester), paper, or fabric. Photographic emulsion is not a true emulsion, but a suspension of solid particles (silver halide) in a fluid (gelatin in solution). However, the word emulsion is customarily used in a photographic context. Gelatin or gum arabic layers sensitized with dichromate used in the dichromated colloid processes carbon and gum bichromate are sometimes called emulsions. Some processes do not have emulsions, such as platinum, cyanotype, salted paper, or kallitype. Photographic emulsion is a fine suspension of insoluble light-sensitive crystals in a colloid sol, usually consisting of gelatin. The light-sensitive component is one or a mixture of silver halides: silver bromide, chloride ...
Latex emulsions are disclosed which can be used in the formation of coating compositions that are not water sensitive, have good blush resistance and retortability. In some embodiments, the coating compositions are used to coat substrates such as cans and packaging materials for the storage of food and beverages. Coating compositions of the invention may be prepared by polymerizing at least one ethylenically unsaturated monomer component, a stabilizer comprising a strong acid and an initiator in a carrier to form an emulsion, polymerizing the emulsion with at least one different ethylenically unsaturated monomer component to prepare the composite latex emulsion, and reacting the composite latex emulsion with a neutralizer to form the coating composition. Methods of coating substrates with the coating compositions, and substrates coated with the coating compositions are also disclosed.
When it comes to flavoring, professional bakers almost exclusively use emulsions over alcohol-based extracts. The flavors are more robust and wont bake-out when exposed to heat. Use bakery emulsions just like you would a baking extract. 1 teaspoon bakery emulsion = 1 teaspoon extract What is a baking emulsion? A baking emulsion is a flavor suspended in a base containing mostly water. In contrast, baking extracts are flavors suspended in a base containing mostly alcohol. Our Bakery Emulsions are not compromised by the flavor of alcohol and dont bake-out when exposed to heat like an extract flavor. Use anywhere you would a baking extract - in cakes, cookies, cheesecakes, frostings and more.
The present invention generally provides a method for producing an exfoliated nanocomposite. The method involves charging to water, as the continuous phase, monomers, polymerizable surfactant, and water-soluble initiator. The monomers are allowed to polymerize under agitation to form an emulsion of polymers, and the polymerizable surfactant is bound to the polymers so formed, with an ionic end of the polymerizable surfactant extending from the polymers to provide surface charges. Thereafter, a suspension of nanofillers in water is charged to the emulsion. The nanofillers are oppositely charged from the ionic end of the polymerizable surfactant such that they electrostatically bind to the polymers within the emulsion. The water is subsequently decanted to produce a nanocomposite with an exfoliated structure.
The initial objective of this work was to evaluate and introduce fabrication techniques based on W/0/W double emulsion and 0/W single emulsion systems with solvent evaporation for the incorporation of a surrogate macromolecule (BSA) into microspheres and microcapsules fabricated using P(HB-HV}, PEA and their blends. Biodegradation, expressed as changes in the gross and ultrastructural morphology of BSA loaded microparticulates with time was monitored using SEM concomitant with BSA release. Spherical microparticulates were successfully fabricated using both the W/0/W and 0/W emulsion systems. Both microspheres and microcapsules released BSA over a period of 24 to 26 days. BSA release from P(HB-HV)20% PCL 11 microcapsules increased steadily with time, while BSA release from all other microparticulates was characterised by an initial lag phase followed by exponential release lasting 6-11 days. Microcapsules were found to biodegrade more rapidly than microspheres fabricated from the same polymer. ...
Emulsions are a way to keep ingredients in your recipes in the same state as you use them, but can be messy.. Emulsification involves mixing liquid ingredients in a container, then using a whisk to separate the ingredients into their separate, homogenous parts.. The result is a smooth, thick sauce.. Some emulsifiers include coconut oil, vegetable oil, palm oil, and olive oil.. You may also want to try some homemade emulsifying liquids.. Emulsion tips Emulsifying recipes often include a thickening agent called a gelatin, which can make a thicker sauce.. If you have trouble getting a thicker emulsion in the recipe, add an emulsifier like lemon juice or coconut oil to your emulsion.. Another tip is to add a little bit of salt to your sauce.. Salt helps to hold the ingredients together.. Emulching with a bowl, spoon, or utensil is also an option, but its usually best to use a spoon.. Emoluments are a common way to get the consistency of a thicker sauces, but they also can cause problems if theyre ...
This invention is directed to a microemulsion system comprising a first phase including a low-polarity fluid material which is a gas at standard temperature and pressure, and which has a cloud-point density. It also includes a second phase including a polar fluid, typically water, a monomer, preferably a monomer soluble in the polar fluid, and a microemulsion promoter for facilitating the formation of micelles including the monomer in the system. In the subject process, micelles including the monomer are formed in the first phase. A polymerization initiator is introduced into the micelles in the microemulsion system. The monomer is then polymerized in the micelles, preferably in the core of the micelle, to produce a polymeric material having a relatively high molecular weight.
The first algorithm for Emulsion Stability Simulations (ESS) was presented at the V Conferencia Iberoamericana sobre Equilibrio de Fases y Diseño de Procesos [Luis, J.; García-Sucre, M.; Urbina-Villalba, G. Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Emulsion Stability In: Equifase 99. Libro de Actas, 1st Ed., Tojo J., Arce, A., Eds.; Solucions: Vigo, Spain, 1999; Volume 2, pp. 364-369]. The former version of the program consisted on a minor modification of the Brownian Dynamics algorithm to account for the coalescence of drops. The present version of the program contains elaborate routines for time-dependent surfactant adsorption, average diffusion constants, and Ostwald ripening.
A new rotating membrane emulsification system using a stainless steel membrane with 100 μm laser drilled pores was used to produce oil/water emulsions consisting of 2 wt% Tween 20 as emulsifier, paraffin wax as dispersed oil phase and 0.01-0.25 wt% Carbomer (Carbopol ETD 2050) as stabilizer. The membrane tube, 1 cm in diameter, was rotated inside a stationary glass cylinder, diameter of 3 cm, at a constant speed in the range 50-1500 rpm. The oil phase was introduced inside the membrane tube and permeated through the porous wall moving radially into the continuous phase in the form of individual droplets. Increasing the membrane rotational speed increased the wall shear stress which resulted in a smaller average droplet diameter being produced. For a constant rotational speed, the average droplet diameter increased as the stabilizer content in the continuous phase was lowered. The optimal conditions for producing uniform emulsion droplets were a Carbomer content of 0.1-0.25 wt% and a membrane ...
Stable emulsions of highly fluorinated organic compounds for use as oxygen transport agents, artificial bloods or red blood cell substitutes and as contrast agents for biological imaging. The emulsions comprise a highly fluorinated organic compound, an oil that is not substantially surface active and not significantly soluble in water, a surfactant and water.
The technology and science of emulsion polymerization are described clearly and succinctly in this review from two authors who are at the forefront of latex research and development. The text is referenced extensively to permit further reading on this subject.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Emulsion Polymerization. AU - Aerdts, A.M.. AU - Herk, van, A.M.. AU - Klumperman, B.. AU - Kurja, J.. AU - German, A.L.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - No abstract.. AB - No abstract.. M3 - Chapter. SN - 3-527-29449-X. T3 - Materials science and technology : a comprehensive treatment. SP - 269. EP - 317. BT - Synthesis of Polymers. A2 - Schluter, A. Dieter. PB - Wiley-VCH Verlag. CY - Weinheim. ER - ...
The technology and science of emulsion polymerization are described clearly and succinctly in this review from two authors who are at the forefront of latex research and development. The text is referenced extensively to permit further reading on this subject.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Comparison of chemical and enzymatic emulsion polymerization of styrene. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
An amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion is prepared which contains a copolymer of (1) a nonionic vinyl monomer and (2) an amphoteric vinyl monomer or a terpolymer of (1) a nonionic vinyl monomer, (2) an anionic vinyl monomer and (3) a cationic vinyl monomer in the aqueous phase, a hydrocarbon oil for the oil phase, a water-in-oil emulsifying agent and an inverting surfactant. An example of a copolymer is a copolymer of (1) a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide and (2) an amphoteric vinyl monomer such as a reaction product of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and monochloroacetic acid. An example of a terpolymer is a terpolymer of (1) a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide, (2) an anionic vinyl monomer such as sodium acrylate and (3) a cationic vinyl monomer such as a triethyl ammonium ethyl methacrylate methosulfate salt. The emulsion is useful in papermaking, treatment of sewage and industrial wastes, drilling muds and secondary and
Parenteral Nutrition: A Deep Dive into Injectable Lipid Emulsions and the Use of Alternative Lipid Emulsion Formulations in the Adult and Pediatric Population CE# 0761-9999-20-196-L01-P&T ...
Acrylics was the leading product segment for emulsion polymer, which accounted for over 35% share of the entire market in 2104. Acrylics are the most widely used emulsion polymers in the processing of acrylic emulsion paints and coatings, adhesives, and paper and paperboard. Vinyl acetate emulsion is also expected to witness strong demand from vinyl acetate-ethylene (VAE) copolymers for adhesives and coatings applications. Moreover, in terms of volume, this is one of the fastest growing product segments. Styrene-butadiene latex is another growing segment held the second largest share in the global emulsion polymers market owing to its increasing usage in adhesives, textiles & non-woven and the paper and paperboard coatings industry.. On the basis of application, the emulsion polymer market has been classified into paints & coatings, paper & paperboard, adhesives, textiles & non-woven, others (leather, etc.). Paints and coatings was the largest application market for Emulsion polymer in 2014. ...
... are emulsions containing either bubbles or droplets which have perfluorocarbons inside them. Some of ... The emulsions were injected intravenously and circulated through the bloodstream, and the droplets picked up oxygen when ... Other perfluorocarbon emulsions have been tested as oxygen therapeutics. When perfluorocarbons are exposed to high ... Early perfluorocarbon emulsions for oxygen delivery were developed as blood substitutes. They used large-molecule ...
Whether an emulsion of oil and water turns into a "water-in-oil" emulsion or an "oil-in-water" emulsion depends on the volume ... Multiple emulsions are also possible, including a "water-in-oil-in-water" emulsion and an "oil-in-water-in-oil" emulsion. ... Emulsion dispersion Emulsified fuel Homogenizer Liquid whistle Miniemulsion Pickering emulsion Rheology Water-in-water emulsion ... an unstable emulsion results Water-in-oil emulsions are less common in food, but still exist: Butter - an emulsion of water in ...
... "emulsion polymerization" does not mean that polymerization occurs in the droplets of a monomer emulsion. Batch emulsion ... The name "emulsion polymerization" is a misnomer that arises from a historical misconception. Rather than occurring in emulsion ... Emulsion polymerization is a type of radical polymerization that usually starts with an emulsion incorporating water, monomer, ... The most common type of emulsion polymerization is an oil-in-water emulsion, in which droplets of monomer (the oil) are ...
Typically, the emulsions are either water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions, but other more complex systems such as water-in- ... A Pickering emulsion is an emulsion that is stabilized by solid particles (for example colloidal silica) which adsorb onto the ... The most common type of Pickering emulsions are oil-in-water emulsions due to the hydrophilicity of most organic particles. One ... Pickering emulsions were named after S.U. Pickering, who described the phenomenon in 1907, although the effect was first ...
Thus, they can be classified as oil-in-water emulsion. Meat emulsion is not a true emulsion since the two phases involved are ... Meat emulsion is a two-phase system, with the dispersed phase consisting of either solid or liquid fat particles and the ... Knipe, C. Lynn (1987). "Meat Emulsions , Meat Science Extension". Retrieved 2018-04-08. Owusu-Apenten, R.K. ( ... Common examples of meat emulsions include bologna, frankfurters, sausages, and meatloaf. The continuous phase mainly consists ...
An emulsion dispersion is thermoplastics or elastomers suspended in a liquid state by means of emulsifiers. Emulsions are ... "Effect of the droplet size of an emulsion dispersion phase in nucleate boiling and emulsion boiling crisis". International ... Emulsion dispersion is not about reactor blends for which one polymer is polymerized from its monomer in the presence of the ... In emulsion dispersion system the preparation of well-fined polymers droplets may be acquired by the use of water as dispersing ...
Synthetic wax based emulsions are often used in food packaging. Wax emulsions based on beeswax, carnauba wax and paraffin wax ... These wax emulsions can be formulated to deliver some of the same properties that petroleum-based wax emulsions deliver, but ... hence the name wax emulsion. In praxis, wax dispersion is used for solvent based systems. A wide range of emulsions based on ... Wax emulsions are stable mixtures of one or more waxes in water. Waxes and water are normally immiscible but can be brought ...
... is a fertilizer emulsion that is produced from the fluid remains of fish processed for fish oil and fish meal ... In addition to having a typical N-P-K analysis of 5-2-2, fish emulsion adds micronutrients. Fish emulsion, applied as a liquid ... After the oils and fish meal are removed from the slurry, the slurry is officially a fish emulsion. Most emulsions are then ... Since fish emulsion is naturally derived, it is considered an organic fertilizer appropriate for use in organic horticulture. ...
The emulsion test is a method to determine the presence of lipids using wet chemistry. The procedure is for the sample to be ... it falls out of the solution to give a cloudy white emulsion. Rothery, Mark. "Techniques: Biochemical Tests". Mark Rothery's ...
... emulsion stabilizer and biocide are also used in emulsion making. Most modern emulsions are "washed" to remove some of the ... Photographic emulsion is not a true emulsion, but a suspension of solid particles (silver halide) in a fluid (gelatin in ... Some processes do not have emulsions, such as platinum, cyanotype, salted paper, or kallitype. Photographic emulsion is a fine ... Contemporary handcrafted silver gelatin emulsions Working with liquid photographic emulsion in a nutshell "The Big Film ...
... or fat emulsion refers to an emulsion of lipid for human intravenous use, especially catering critically-ill ... The possibility of lipid emulsions as an alternative drug delivery medium is under works. Intravenous lipid emulsions have been ... The emulsion is used as a component of intravenous nutrition for people who are unable to get nutrition via an oral diet. These ... It is often referred to by the brand name of the most commonly used version, Intralipid, which is an emulsion of soy bean oil, ...
... was a patent medicine manufactured in New Zealand. The emulsion, which had a strong fishy smell owing to its ... An ice cream based on the flavour of Lane's Emulsion was launched in 2014. Bruce, D., "Tonic's recipe nectar of goodness", ... "Victorian Heritage Celebrations and the story of Lane's Emulsion , Culture Waitaki". Retrieved 1 ...
The nuclear emulsion plate is a modified form of photographic plate, coated with a thicker photographic emulsion of gelatine ... to thicken the emulsion on its commercial plates, and she experimented with other emulsion parameters - grain size, latent ... Emulsions", Nature 159 (1947), 301-2 Nuclear Emulsion Evidence for Parity Nonconservation in the Decay Chain π + → μ + → e + π ... Nuclear emulsions by Ilford'). Powell's group first calibrated the new 'nuclear-research' emulsions using the University of ...
... (MLE) is an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion showing multi-lamellar structure and an original technology ... Multi-Lamellar Emulsion (MLE) is an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion showing multi-lamellar structure and an original technology ... As an O/W emulsion, MLE can be also used as a vehicle (carrier) for topical drugs. The multiple layer of MLE offers ... As an O/W emulsion, MLE can be also used as a vehicle (carrier) for topical drugs. The multiple layer of MLE offers ...
This w/w emulsion also represents a new class of polymer dispersed liquid crystals(PDLC). Traditionally known PDLC consists of ... This w/w emulsion was generated when the different water-solvated molecular functional groups get segregated in an aqueous ... As such, ionic polymer when mixed with DSCG does not form w/w emulsion, but gives rise to a homogeneous solution or a ... 3). As water solvated droplets in a w/w emulsion, DSCG molecules would align in a preferred direction on the surface of the ...
Oil in water emulsions are currently used as safe solvents for vaccines. It is important that these emulsion are stable and ... Although they are attracted to oil, and an oil-in-water emulsion forms, the emulsion will not stay stable for long and will ... When there is less interfacial tension between the polyelectrolyte particles and the emulsions in question, emulsions are less ... stabilizing the emulsion. In addition to surfactants, nanoparticles can also help stabilize the emulsion by also providing a ...
Emulsions stabilisation; Part 6: Low calorie products; Part 7: New developments. Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry 7 ... Proteins and emulsions; Recent developments, future trends. Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry 11 Date of conference: 2 ... Emulsion stabilisation; Part 5: Current developments. Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry 5 Date of conference: July ... Emulsions and foams; Part 3: Processing; Part 4: Health and nutrition; Part 5: Rheology; Part 6: Interactions; Part 7: ...
Ramsden's research work was mainly on the chemistry of proteins and the theory of emulsions. He was one of the first to ... "Emulsions". Journal of the Chemical Society. 91: 2001-2021. doi:10.1039/CT9079102001. Peters, R. A. (1948). "Obituary Notice: ...
Thomas, A. W. (1920). A review of the literature of emulsions. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 12, 177-81. ... Catalog Co.). Thomas, A. W. (1927). Emulsions. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 22, 171-211. Thomas, A. W ... Thomas, A. W. (1920). Emulsions: theory and practice. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 15, 186-201. Thomas ...
... "emulsion polymerization" does not mean that polymerization occurs in the droplets of a monomer emulsion. Batch emulsion ... Alkyd emulsion technology uses a reactive surfactant that has double bonds and thus oxidative drying properties like a ... Initially a water in oil emulsion is formed but continued water addition and shear results in inversion and a stable oil in ... A latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer in water. Synthetic lattices are usually made by polymerizing a monomer ...
The emulsion on the plate can deteriorate. In addition, the glass plate medium is fragile and prone to cracking if not stored ... The light-sensitive emulsion of silver salts was coated on a glass plate, typically thinner than common window glass. Glass ... Photographic emulsions were originally coated on thin glass plates for imaging with electron microscopes, which provided a more ... Herz, A.J.; Lock, W.O. (May 1966). "Nuclear Emulsions". CERN Courier. 6: 83-87. Dykstra, Michael J.; Reuss, Laura E. (2003). ...
Cartwright, Angela (2011). Mixed Emulsions. United States: Quarry Books. ISBN 9781616735159. Channing, William Francis (1852). ...
The emulsion will gradually darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical ... The emulsion consists of silver halide grains suspended in a gelatin colloid; in the case of color film, there are three layers ... The film is also distinguished by how it is wound with regard to perforations and base or emulsion side, as well as whether it ... Different emulsions and development processes exist for a variety of image recording possibilities: the two most common of ...
However, some emulsions would never coalesce in normal gravity, while they do under artificial gravity. Moreover, segregation ... Roland, I; Piel, G; Delattre, L; Evrard, B (2003). "Systematic characterisation of oil-in-water emulsions for formulation ... Salager, J-L (2000). Françoise Nielloud; Gilberte Marti-Mestres (eds.). Pharmaceutical emulsions and suspensions. CRC press. p ... emulsion of liquid butterfat globules dispersed in water Hydrocolloids describe certain chemicals (mostly polysaccharides and ...
Foams and Emulsions: Proc. NATO Advanced Study Inst. on Foams and Emulsions, Emulsions and Cellular Materials, Cargèse, Corsica ...
... emulsions, and compounds; specialty lubricants; and consumer, medical, and semi-conductor products. In most of the cases each ...
These properties are the reason that SSL is an excellent emulsifier for fat-in-water emulsions and can also function as a ... The lactylate stabilizes (i.e. prevents separation of) the oil-in-water emulsion. Another use of lactylates is as whipping ... Nylander, G.; Wang, Z. (2010). "Guidelines for Processing Emulsion-Based Foods". In Hasenhettl, G.L.; Hartel, R.W. (eds.). Food ... These interactions provide stability to an oil/water system resulting in the formation of an emulsion. Therefore, lactylates ...
Chiralt, A. "Food Emulsions" (PDF). Food Engineering. UNESCO, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. 2. Kurtzman, C. P.; Rogers ... Separation of water and oil (instability of the emulsion) is a potential problem with blue cheese dressing. Microbial spoilage ...
... when the emulsion is created by the reduction in size of droplets in an existing emulsion. Homogenization is achieved by a ... into an emulsion (Mixture of two or more liquids that are generally immiscible). Sometimes two types of homogenization are ... "Lipid-Based Emulsions and Emulsifiers". In Akoh, Casimir C.; Min, David B. (eds.). Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition, and ... distinguished: primary homogenization, when the emulsion is created directly from separate liquids; and secondary ...
The silver halide crystals in the film emulsion are flatter and more tabular (hence T-Grain). In panchromatic emulsions, the ... However, it took until roughly 1970 for emulsion engineers to be able to make emulsions that consisted mainly of tabular ... Tabular grain emulsion solves the first part of this problem. Tabular crystals tend to lie along the film's surface when coated ... "KODAK T-Grain Emulsions" (PDF). Publication No. H-1: EASTMAN Professional Motion Picture Films. Eastman Kodak. pp. 23-27. ...
Buy White 2.5 Ltr Emulsion Paints at Pay your way. PayPal accepted online. Apple Pay accepted in store. 30 day ... Dulux EasyCare Soft Sheen Pure Brilliant White Emulsion Bathroom Paint 2.5Ltr (. 42729. ). ... Dulux EasyCare Soft Sheen Pure Brilliant White Emulsion Bathroom Paint 2.5Ltr (. 42729. ). ... Dulux Easycare Matt Pure Brilliant White Emulsion Kitchen Paint 2.5Ltr (. 84926. ). ...
Because emulsions are among the most intriguing and important (and overlooked!) of culinary concepts. They play a key role not ... The Food Lab Video Series: Emulsions. What do vinaigrettes, mayonnaise, and pasta sauce have in common? Each relies on the ...
The use of emulsion layering of emulsion surfaces could offer industry with a new approach to focused release of food compounds ... Formulation of emulsions using monoglyceride structures could aid flavor release in emulsions that contain lower levels of fat ... Innovative emulsions containing up to 60 per cent water may reduce the fat content of chocolate and offer low-fat formulations ... Oil-in-water emulsions formulated to improve their stability in the harsh acidic conditions of the stomach may promote a ...
Highly concentrated emulsions wont bake out of cakes, cookies & more. Shop now! (4 fl oz) ... Banana Split Emulsion. Brand: Fleur De Flavor FLD-1003 Units: 4 oz Use this professional strength flavoring in place of extract ... For baking one teaspoon of emulsion equals to one teaspoon of extract. Use slightly less in recipes that do not call for baking ...
These "one-pot" emulsions are ready to use, unlike the two-part emulsions. Higher solid content for better reproduction of fine ... State-of-the-art products, including inks & emulsions, for graphic, industrial and textile printers.. * Prepress - Emulsions: ... A Selection of Mesh Preps Formulated to Optimize the Adhesion of Emulsion to Mesh and Prolong Stencil Life. ... Diazo-Photopolymer Emulsions. We offer screen printing prepress supplies so you can produce high quality images faster and more ...
... emulsion business. The transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2014. ... "In line with our recent announcement we have evaluated all strategic options for the AKD emulsion business and found an ... This acquisition of the AKD emulsion business is one part in implementing our strategy and will further strengthen our ... emulsion business. The transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2014. ...
... emulsions enable paint formulators to meet durability and performance requirements in conventional and low-VOC interior and ...
141030 HYDROQUINONE 8% emulsion. Out of scope - Out of scope for RxNorm and will not receive RxNorm normal forms. Out of scope ... 141030 HYDROQUINONE 8% emulsion. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ... 141030 HYDROQUINONE 8% emulsion. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, they will ...
... fat emulsion intravenous, Fat emulsions, Intravenous, FAT EMULSION, INTRAVENOUS, Fat emulsion for injection, Fat emulsion for ... Intravenous Fat Emulsions, Intravenous Lipid Emulsions, Lipid Emulsions, Intravenous, fat emulsion, intravenous, fat emulsions ... Emulsions, Intravenous Fat, Emulsions, Intravenous Lipid, Fat Emulsions, Intravenous, ... Intralipid, Clintec brand of soybean oil, phospholipid emulsion, intralipid. Sources Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical ...
Intravenous Lipid Emulsions (ILE) Video Series. The ASPEN PN Safety Committee has developed a new video series highlighting ... Lipid Injectable Emulsion Survey With Gap Analysis. Nutr Clin Pract. October 2017;32(5):694-702 ... best practices for dosing, preparing and administering intravenous lipid emulsions (ILE). Designed for clinicians who provide ...
Upon intravenous administration of the perflenapent emulsion, this agent increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, ... An oil-in-water nano-emulsion composed of the perfluorocarbon perflenapent, that has oxygen-carrying capacity, can be used as a ... Perflenapent Emulsion. Known as: DDFP LIquid Emulsion, Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion An oil-in-water nano-emulsion composed of ... Dodecafluoropentane emulsion decreases infarct volume in a rabbit ischemic stroke model.. *W. Culp, S. Woods, +7 authors. P. ...
Mining Publication: Factors Affecting Fumes Production of an Emulsion and ANFO/Emulsion Blends. Keywords: Anfo Blasting ... The research reported here extends the earlier work to include an emulsion blasting agent and ANFO/emulsion blends. Explosive ... Various mixtures of ANFO and emulsion were detonated in 4-inch schedule 80 steel pipe (outer diameter 4.50 in (11.43 cm), inner ...
Emulsion is a light sensitive chemical that allows... ... the screen Printing using a silkscreen with photo emulsion is a ... The entire screen should be covered in emulsion. Then use the sharp edge of the trough, not to apply more emulsion, but to ... This is partly a factor dependent on the specific emulsion used, so YMMV. Some emulsions require UV light to harden, which is ... The purpose of the emulsion is to block ink, preventing it from going through the mesh. Photosensitive emulsion hardens when ...
We use cookies to ensure the correct functioning of this website, provide the best possible service to you, enhance your user experience, and optimize our website. Find out more about how we use cookies and how you can change your settings.. ...
Historical photographic methods in use today - that means LEARNING to mix emulsions and coat paper by hand. Getting INSPIRED by ...
Stability and Behavior of Omega-3 Food Emulsions. $0.00. María Soledad Álvarez Cerimedo and María Lidia Herrera. University of ... This book to investigates the effect of oil-to-protein ratio, sugar concentration on the stability of emulsions formulated with ... regarding some of these applications it is very interesting to study its behavior in emulsion systems. ... Stability and Behavior of Omega-3 Food Emulsions. ... Fish Oil Emulsions Stability. Effect of Trehalose Addition on ...
Photographic emulsions, although @[email protected] systems, are not emulsions in the sense of this nomenclature.. Source: PAC ... An emulsion is denoted by the symbol O/W if the continuous phase is an aqueous solution and by W/O if the continuous phase is ... an organic liquid (an oil). More complicated emulsions such as O/W/O (i.e. oil droplets contained within aqueous droplets ...
... made by Holley, for as low as $152.95. Free shipping when your order includes this part. ... This kit contains a selection of emulsion bleeds that can be used for tuning the 0-80507-1, 0-80507-2, and the Ultra Series ...
Buy from a wide range of emulsion adhesives online. ... Top Emulsion Adhesives Price List. Expected Price. VAE Emulsion ... Find emulsion adhesives manufacturers, suppliers, dealers & latest prices from top companies in India. ... Silk Glamor Luxury Emulsion Berger Paint Silk Glamor is a high-end interior emulsion that is designed to give your walls a ... IIRL- butyl elastomer emulsion is an anionic emulsion of butyl rubber which offers broad latitude in formulating waterborne ...
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... - May 08, 2019 - Michelman ... New ProHere E 00017 Dispersions and Emulsions Offer Lubricity and Corrosion Resistance. Michelman May 08, 2019 ... Michelman has introduced the newest addition to its line of ProHere® waterborne polymer dispersions and emulsions for use in ... waterborne polymer dispersions and emulsions for use in metal coatings. Formulated for use in sealers for fasteners and window ...
The Hydrating Infused Emulsion is a water-based formula that fights inner dryness for skin that feels soft, supple and looks ... Layer this weightless emulsion under your La Mer moisturiser to optimise hydration. ...
iS Clinical Reparative Moisture Emulsion (1.7 oz.)fromDermstore US. Read genuine and unbiased product reviews from our ... iS Clinical Reparative Moisture Emulsion (1.7 oz.). Customer Reviews iS Clinical Reparative Moisture Emulsion (1.7 oz.) ... iS Clinical Reparative Moisture Emulsion (1.7 oz.) Customer Reviews. USD 105.0 $105.00 ...
US-1766112-A chemical patent summary.
Photography - Edge-marked roll film - Identification of the emulsion side
Fish Oil Triglycerides Injectable Emulsion) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, ... Injectable Emulsion. 5 g/50 mL and 10 g/100 mL (0.1 g/mL) sterile, white, homogenous emulsion in a 50-mL and 100-mL single-dose ... Omegaven (fish oil triglycerides) injectable emulsion, 5 g/50 mL and 10 g/100 mL (0.1 g/mL) is a white, homogenous, sterile ... Separation of the emulsion can be visibly identified by a yellowish streaking or the accumulation of yellowish droplets in the ...
Emulsions of water-soluble ingredients could provide the mouth-feel of fat using low-caloric substitutes ... Water-water emulsions have certain characteristics that make them suitable for use as substitutes for oil-water emulsions. ... Water-water emulsions have certain characteristics that make them suitable for use as substitutes for oil-water emulsions. ... Oil-free emulsions for low-fat foods. Emulsified oil, in products such as mayonnaise, sauces and margarine, owe their specific ...
An emulsion is an homogenous mixture of two liquid substances that are not miscible, like water and oil. Mix process is ... The Water Plant Emulsion (WPE) process is based on specific manufacturing protocol that enables to obtain an extremely fine and ... The homogenous mixture of all active ingredients: The WPE protocol produces a fine emulsion in which the active substances are ... AR2is laboratory has developed an original process for aqueous emulsions manufacturing. It consists of a specific protocol ...
Here, the authors show that synthetic protein fibrils added to an emulsion can control the division of droplets and that this ... that artificial networks of protein nanofibrils can induce controlled deformation and division of all-aqueous emulsion droplets ... W/w emulsion droplets were generated by using an all-aqueous electrospray setup27. The emulsion phase was charged positively (~ ... we demonstrate that the addition of protein nanofibrils to all-aqueous emulsions can induce the division of the w/w emulsion ...
  • Perfluorocarbon emulsions are emulsions containing either bubbles or droplets which have perfluorocarbons inside them. (
  • They used large-molecule perfluorocarbons with boiling points higher than body temperature which were formed into liquid emulsion droplets. (
  • The emulsions were injected intravenously and circulated through the bloodstream, and the droplets picked up oxygen when passing through the lungs and offloaded oxygen when passing through the capillaries in other tissues. (
  • More complicated emulsions such as O/W/O (i.e. oil droplets contained within aqueous droplets dispersed in a continuous oil phase) are also possible. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that artificial networks of protein nanofibrils can induce controlled deformation and division of all-aqueous emulsion droplets with budding-like morphologies. (
  • In this paper, we demonstrate that the addition of protein nanofibrils to all-aqueous emulsions can induce the division of the w/w emulsion droplets and that the concentration of fibrils controls the division regimes of budding droplets. (
  • Then, the cells are ablated and transported within seconds to microliter-scale emulsion-based droplets for qRT-PCR-based mRNA expression analysis. (
  • It is observed that in the emulsions stabilised by surfactants, oil droplets joined together and resulted in emulsion destabilisation. (
  • On the other hand, in particle-stabilised emulsions adsorption of the particles around oil droplets creates a rigid barrier around them and prevents the droplets joining together. (
  • The size of oil droplets in aerated oil-in-water emulsions is shown to be the determining factor for their stability. (
  • Our emulsion stabilisers prevent the formed oil droplets in metalworking fluids from coalescing. (
  • Most latexes start out as simple emulsions in which droplets of the substance are added to water. (
  • After intravenous administration, the droplets of this emulsion are taken up by the reticuloendothelial system and then slowly broken down. (
  • Interior, high opacity matt emulsion which gives excellent coverage and application. (
  • Designers Guilds helmatta väggfärg Perfect Matt Emulsion är en premiumfärg i 184 vackra nyanser som täcker upp till 15 kvm/liter och strykning och har ett glanstal på 2%, jämfört med färgfackhandelns standardfärg som täcker 6-8 kvm och har 7% glans. (
  • Perfect Matt Emulsion säljs i burkar om 1 liter , 2,5 liter , och 5 liter samt i 100 ml provburkar . (
  • Wilko Kitchen Matt Emulsion Paint 2.5L is perfect for kitchens, where everyday grease and moisture can be a problem. (
  • Item No.: TR- Zn01 The zinc stearate liquid is called zinc stearate emulsion. (
  • What is Zinc Stearate Emulsion Used For? (
  • Global zinc stearate emulsion market trend 2025-2028 What is Zinc Stearate Emulsion Used For? (
  • A mixture of carrageenan and whey protein isolate could provide improved emulsion stability, and the potential for pH sensitive controlled release of ingredients and flavours, according to new research. (
  • The stability of emulsion formulations may be enhanced by including sugar beet pectin in addition to whey protein, with potential for encapsulation of value-added ingredients, says a new study. (
  • This book to investigates the effect of oil-to-protein ratio, sugar concentration on the stability of emulsions formulated with concentrated fish oil as fat phase. (
  • The separation of emulsified oil from bilge waters poses a unique challenge due to the inherent complexity and stability of these oil/water emulsion systems. (
  • This task will yield fundamental knowledge about the effect of additives present in bilgewater on the generation and stability of these complex emulsions. (
  • In Task 2, static emulsion stability tests found the non-monotonic relations for emulsion destabilization times with both oil and surfactant concentration. (
  • The results from Task 1 provide a new understanding of the effects of water/oil/surfactant ratios on time-dependent properties that impact emulsion formation, stability, and worsening. (
  • The objective of this study was to develop a new lipid emulsion containing 13 fat- and water-soluble vitamins for injection (13V-LE) that were simultaneously dissolved in one bottle and to evaluate the stability of and anaphylactoid reactions to 13V-LE. (
  • The results obtained show that surface roughness increases the emulsion stability of decane-water systems (to almost twice), but only up to a certain point, where extremely rough particles produced less stable emulsions presumably due to a Cassie-Baxter wetting regime. (
  • The objectives of this thesis are to enhance the understanding of edible solid particle behaviour at oil-water and at air-water interfaces, and how their adsorption at these interfaces affects the emulsion and foam stability. (
  • It is shown how aeration of palm kernel oil-in-water emulsions in the presence of surface modified calcium carbonate particles provides long-term stability to aerated emulsions. (
  • Palm kernel oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by calcium carbonate particles or by sodium stearoyl lactylate are then compared in terms of their stability towards coalescence. (
  • It is shown that the oil type, surfactant concentration and the oil volume fraction affect the stability of the emulsions and aerated emulsions prepared. (
  • Many of these solutions convey added benefits such as emulsion stability, texturizing or moisture retention. (
  • SweetRight RSGS is useful in ice creams with low levels of sugar as it provides emulsion stability, as well as freeze and thaw characteristics needed to maintain the structure and texture of frozen treats," explains Sarah Diedrich, marketing director of sweetening solutions and fibers at ADM. (
  • To produce food emulsions with improved sensory qualities, better knowledge of the effects of emulsifiers and stabilisers on the flavour and texture of emulsions is needed, says research. (
  • The ASPEN PN Safety Committee has developed a new video series highlighting best practices for dosing, preparing and administering intravenous lipid emulsions (ILE). (
  • In the oil and gas industry, the existence of petroleum emulsions is adequately widespread. (
  • To make the system even more complex these petroleum emulsions may also con- tain solids and gases which bring about difficulty in the transportation of crude oil and its products due to its water content and high viscosity property, thus these emulations have to be broken down and remade into new emulations to make them suitable for transportation in pipelines to a refinery over a distance (usually long distances). (
  • The most common use of perfluorocarbon emulsions is as ultrasound contrast agents. (
  • Other perfluorocarbon emulsions have been tested as oxygen therapeutics. (
  • Early perfluorocarbon emulsions for oxygen delivery were developed as blood substitutes. (
  • Among the various perfluorocarbon emulsions that have been developed are the molecules perfluorooctyl bromide (perflubron), perfluorodecyl bromide, and perfluorodichlorooctane. (
  • Formulation of emulsions using monoglyceride structures could aid flavor release in emulsions that contain lower levels of fat, suggest researchers. (
  • A formulation for preparing Emulsion Base to be Individualized. (
  • All Verified silicone emulsion formulation suppliers & silicone emulsion formulation manufacturers have passed our Business License Check, they can provide quality silicone emulsion formulation products. (
  • emulsions BLUESIL™ SUPERSOFT C910 It is the basic raw material of amino silicone emulsion or micro- emulsion formulation , especially used as softener and lubricant for textiles. (
  • Description Stokoderm Aqua is a skin protection cream with innovative formulation concept: thanks to the multiple emulsion system ( W/O/W emulsion . (
  • The 13V-LE formulation is a suitable intravenous lipid emulsion without anaphylactoid reactions. (
  • Reducing Emissions Using Diesel Emulsion Fuel (Withdrawn) Information and links to documents about the regulation to control emissions using diesel-emulsion-fuel formulation in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria ozone nonattainment area. (
  • This rule required the use of a low-emission diesel-fuel formulation-diesel emulsion-in both on-road and off-road vehicles. (
  • However, there are a variety of non-traditional soil stabilization/modification additives available from the commercial sector such as polymer emulsions, acids, lignin derivatives, enzymes, tree resin emulsions, and silicates. (
  • The US Army research effort has been narrowed from evaluating a wide number of soil stabilization/modification additives [1] to a focus on additives with particle binding properties (cements, polymer emulsions, etc. (
  • The most notable example is dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe, formerly EchoGen, now NanO2). (
  • Dodecafluoropentane emulsion decreases infarct volume in a rabbit ischemic stroke model. (
  • Dissolution of thrombotic arterial occlusion by high intensity, low frequency ultrasound and dodecafluoropentane emulsion: an in vitro and in vivo study. (
  • Peripheral intravenous myocardial contrast echocardiography using a 2% dodecafluoropentane emulsion: identification of myocardial risk area and infarct size in the canine model of ischemia. (
  • Michelman has introduced the newest addition to its line of ProHere® waterborne polymer dispersions and emulsions for use in metal coatings. (
  • Stabilization of soils using polymer emulsion is a straightforward process in that the liquid is simply diluted to the proper amount. (
  • Polymer emulsions are a class of materials in which the polymer is generally manufactured in the emulsion state. (
  • Latex is a complex, but stable, emulsion consisting of polymer microparticles contained in an aqueous medium. (
  • The paper industry uses many different types of synthetic emulsion polymers: Carboxylated styrene-butadiene latex, styrene acrylic copolymers, acrylic polymer emulsions, and vinyl acetate containing emulsions are all used at various stages of papermaking and paper coating. (
  • In partnership with an engineer graduated from the French Centralian High School, AR2i's laboratory has developed an original process for aqueous emulsions manufacturing. (
  • It consists of a specific protocol that transforms a basis formula, like essential oil or vegetable oil, compositions of perfumes, food or cosmetic formulas, into an aqueous emulsion with no alcoholic component. (
  • The Water Plant Emulsion (WPE) process is based on specific manufacturing protocol that enables to obtain an extremely fine and aqueous emulsion with exceptional properties, thanks to the 100% vegetable emulsifier. (
  • Modified rice bran wax emulsion to improve the surface properties of care products, polishes, and aqueous coating systems. (
  • Silicon Dioxide Introduction: For water based systems of all types, Silica Anti Corrosive Pigment is the recommended product - with excellent anticorrosion performance in styrene acrylic and acrylic emulsions as well as in water based alkyds and epoxy systems. (
  • Emulsion Silicon Wafer Cleaning Liquid Efficient Chemical Consumption By optimally selecting and formulating such agents as surfactants, penetrants and solvents, we have developed a technology of forming stable micro- emulsions in water. (
  • The resulting emulsions ( [email protected] ) release oxygen at least one order of magnitude slower than emulsions prepared with other common surfactants. (
  • As waxes are immiscible in water, they are brought together by use of surfactants to stabilize them and form an emulsion. (
  • Printing using a silkscreen with photo emulsion is a technique used for accuracy and consistency, and it allows you to mass-produce. (
  • Saatigraf HSX Blue photo-emulsion is specifically developed to enable manufacture of high quality stencils to print functional materials used during fabrication of electronic devices. (
  • Stabilization of soils to improve strength and durability properties often relies on cement, lime, fly ash, and asphalt emulsion. (
  • Sandy soils are problematic for stabilization and often require cement and/or asphalt emulsion to provide cohesion for the soil. (
  • By swapping fat particles for water or air, manufacturers have achieved up to 20% fat reductions in chocolate and cheese - but the technology can be applied to almost any water-in-fat suspensions, according to emulsion experts Micropore. (
  • Interior emulsion pain as the water vanishes the pitch particles intertwine framing a solid sturdy paint. (
  • The homogenous mixture of all active ingredients: The WPE protocol produces a fine emulsion in which the active substances are separated equitably into very small particles, and are distributed regularly in the product. (
  • Construction Adhesives/Emulsions By Arofine Polymers Pvt. (
  • Adhesive Emulsion By Aslv Polymers Pvt. (
  • 3. Good compatibility with organic polymers and resins, especially acrylic emulsion . (
  • DALLAS - Celanese Emulsion Polymers, a leader in the production of water-based vinyl emulsions, has signed an LOI with Boysan to be its distributor in Turkey. (
  • For masking tape and many other applications, emulsion polymers are used for saturation to increase strength and water or chemical resistance. (
  • Europe is estimated to show significant growth attributed to high demand for wax emulsions from paints and coatings industries. (
  • Emulsions represent a huge commercial industry, ranging in applications from food and cosmetics to paints and road construction [2]. (
  • Like emulsions in general, latex- the most recurring images of which is the latex glove-is present in all types of common products, from paints and balloons to floor polishes. (
  • We have in store for our clients a wide range of Construction Adhesives/Emulsions for Vinyl Flooring Industry. (
  • As of July 1, 2010, Boysan began distributing Celanese's broad range of emulsion technologies into the coatings, construction and adhesives industries. (
  • The volatile international political situations will continue to affect the markets and prices of many commodities like the Calcium stearate emulsion. (
  • We provides high quality Calcium stearate emulsion with reasonable price. (
  • In order to feedback to old customers, the company is still in full operations to provide Calcium stearate emulsion with competitive price. (
  • Chemical Calcium stearate emulsion, feel free to contact us. (
  • US President recently decided to invoke a Cold War-era defense law to encourage domestic Calcium stearate emulsion. (
  • In view of this, the price of the Calcium stearate emulsion may continue to rise in the future. (
  • Pectin extracted from by-products of processing of vegetables like butternut and beetroot show promise for stabilizing emulsions and could offer interesting new ingredients for emulsion-based foods. (
  • State-of-the-art products, including inks & emulsions, for graphic, industrial and textile printers. (
  • The use of this oil permits food manufacturers to ensure a controlled content of omega-3, EPA, DPA and DHA fatty acids, in the final products and supplies vitamin E. Thus, regarding some of these applications it is very interesting to study its behavior in emulsion systems. (
  • Emulsions are widely used across various industries in the present day such as food industry to manufacture day to day products such as milk, cheese, mayonnaise etc. (
  • Natural wax emulsions are used for many technical and non-technical applications like for printing inks, lacquer, leathers, textiles, cosmetic and personal care products. (
  • Additionally, the use of natural wax emulsions for organic ingredients in the cosmetic products may foster the product demand during the forecast timeframe. (
  • Some of the components of crude oil have the ability to form films at oil surfaces, while others are surface active, thus stable and unstable emulsions of different types may exist and vary greatly among different oils. (
  • The relevance of this research work is validated as it proffers a solution to the transportation of heavy oil and emulsions from all over the world possessing the non-Newtonian flow behavior, which results in serious problems related to its transportation. (
  • However, there are still many unsolved questions related to the pipeline transport behavior of these emulsions. (
  • In laboratory demonstrations, several emulsions based on sunflower and soybean oil were stabilised with different biopolymers. (
  • Consideration should be given for a bolus dose of intralipid emulsion. (
  • Omegaven (fish oil triglycerides) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, white, homogenous emulsion for intravenous infusion as a supply of calories in patients with PNAC. (
  • An emulsion is an homogenous mixture of two liquid substances that are not miscible, like water and oil. (
  • Historical photographic methods in use today - that means LEARNING to mix emulsions and coat paper by hand. (
  • Photographic emulsions, although @ [email protected] systems, are not emulsions in the sense of this nomenclature. (
  • Choose from a large selection of black-and-white and colour chemicals for all applications from film and paper development and retouching to fine printing processes and photographic emulsion. (
  • Water-water emulsions have certain characteristics that make them suitable for use as substitutes for oil-water emulsions. (
  • Silicone Coated APP For Acrylic Emulsion Back Coating Used For Car Carpet And Set Cover Characteristics : 1. (
  • EZScreen Standard Emulsion Stencils are typically used for fabric such as t-shirts, sweatshirts, tote bags and other porous surfaces like ceramic, wood, cardboard, and paper. (
  • EZScreen HiDef Emulsion Stencils are intended for artwork with small details, fine lines, or halftones. (
  • SAATIgraf emulsions can produce high-resolution screen printing stencils, which need fewer retouches. (
  • The high solids content and the medium viscosity of SAATIgraf emulsions produce stencils with low Rez value and excellent printing definition on any fabric. (
  • Factors Affecting Fumes Production of an Emulsion and ANFO/E! (
  • An extension of previous ANFO fumes production research that includes an emulsion blasting agent. (
  • Emulsions of water-soluble ingredients offer the possibility to simulate the experience of fat with low-caloric substitutes. (
  • Emulsions of water-soluble ingredients could provide the mouth-feel of fat using low-caloric substitutes. (
  • Also, W/O emulsions are the optimal base for oil-soluble active ingredients (e.g. certain sunscreens). (
  • After applying Radiance Lotion, smooth Emulsion over face and neck in a gentle, upward motion to envelop skin in a cushioned barrier. (
  • This cleansing emulsion does the heavy lifting for makeup removal without oils and feels like a silky lotion whisking away every last bit of mascara and foundation. (
  • IIRL- butyl elastomer emulsion is an anionic emulsion of butyl rubber which offers broad latitude in formulating waterborne coatings. (
  • Emulsions are difficult to transport in the oil and gas industry due to its water content and high viscosity property, thus a need arises to break these emulsions down into lighter emulsions that would make it a lot more suitable for transportation. (
  • Borregaard offers unique bio-based emulsion stabilisers for metalworking fluids and Extreme Pressure (EP) or Anti-wear (AW) additivation for lubricating greases. (
  • Inside its double cartridge packaging lies the perfect blend of moisture and oil in an emulsion texture without a greasy or heavy feel. (
  • The research reported here extends the earlier work to include an emulsion blasting agent and ANFO/emulsion blends. (
  • Various mixtures of ANFO and emulsion were detonated in 4-inch schedule 80 steel pipe (outer diameter 4.50 in (11.43 cm), inner diameter 3.83 in (9.72 cm)) and 4-inch galvanized sheet metal pipe (outer diameter 4.0 in (10.16 cm), inner diameter 3.97 in (10.08 cm)) to evaluate the effect of confinement. (
  • Study of toxic fumes produced by the detonation of ANFO/emulsion blends. (
  • Layer this weightless emulsion under your La Mer moisturiser to optimise hydration. (
  • Clarins Plant Gold Oil-Emulsion is a daily moisturiser for all skin types that uses 100% natural origin oils to make your skin glow. (
  • Our firm has expanded the present capacity of over 30000 MT/year of silicone fluids, emulsions and formulations . (
  • Add the organic mixture consisting of trizol and chloroform directly to a cell lysate and mix thoroughly to generate a biphasic emulsion. (
  • Another optimal means of transporting crude oil emulsion includes de-emulsification which has positive effect on the flow rate of emulsion but involves series of laboratory experiment to determine the suitability of de- emulsifier to achieve this. (
  • Changes in type or fat content of emulsion can have a significant impact on the structural properties and sensory properties of foods, according to researchers from Unilever R&D and the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC). (
  • In order to increase oxygen delivery to the brains of patients that had reduced blood flow due to acute ischemic stroke, artificial CSF mixed with pre-oxygenated perfluorocarbon emulsion was continuously added into the skull by a ventricular catheter while CSF was continuously removed by a lumbar catheter. (
  • This initiates a process known as 'emulsion polymerization' in which the final product can be called latex. (
  • A lesser consideration, but still an important one, is the climactic conditions in which the latex emulsion will be created and handled. (
  • Still, examples where emulsions have been successfully created, ranging from common milk to cutting fluids used in metal working, can be found everywhere. (
  • Solid waste from the processing of olives could provide a source of natural emulsifiers fit for use in neutral and acidic oil-in-water emulsions, say researchers. (
  • The inclusion of a gelling agent and electrolyte in double emulsions could be used to control the release behaviour of incorporated compounds, offering promise for the use of Water-Oil-Water emulsions in food applications, say researchers. (
  • The Hydrating Infused Emulsion is a water-based formula that fights inner dryness for skin that feels soft, supple and looks radiant. (
  • Emulsion is a system containing two immiscible liquids such as water and oil. (
  • The objective of this work was to enhance the "fundamental knowledge base" of the "generation, stabilization and worsening" of shipboard oil/water emulsions in the presence of complex, yet tunable, hydrodynamic fields with varied chemical conditions. (
  • Comprehensive scientific analysis of shipboard emulsions is needed to facilitate appropriate water treatment necessary for proper disposal. (
  • It is hypothesized here that by studying the oil-in-water system on length and time scales relevant to shipboard chemical composition and treatment processes, new insights into dynamics of shipboard emulsions is possible, which will ultimately aid in developing more efficient processing techniques for their separation. (
  • pH-Responsive nanoparticles that dissolve upon a mild pH increase are synthesized by a nanoprecipitation method and are used as stabilizers for a double water-in-oil-in-water Pickering emulsion. (
  • Additionally, in an octanol-water system, surface roughness was shown to affect the type of emulsion generated. (
  • An emulsion of asphalt binder and water that contains a small amount of an emulsifying agent. (
  • The progress in preparation of model whipping cream emulsions and aerated emulsions was then continued by preparation of palm kernel oil-in-water emulsions. (
  • Finally, preparation of oil-in-water emulsions and aerated oil-in-water emulsions containing non-crystallisable oils are investigated. (
  • Water-in-oil emulsions are made with more oil-soluble emulsifiers (HLB 4 - 6). (
  • Biocompatible oil-in-water (o/w) micro-emulsions can be prospective drug delivery vehicles for their capability to solubilize lipophilic (oil soluble) drugs in the dispersed oil. (
  • The combinations peppermint oil/iPrOH/water, IPM/iPrOH/water and 1:1 (v/v) peppermint oil + IPM/iPrOH/water were found to form fair proportion of single-phase surfactant-less micro-emulsion. (
  • Finally, the preliminary results with in situ injection in TC flows enables further advanced studies of the dynamics of emulsion formation and destabilization in flow. (
  • 015\\012\\015\\012\\015\\012We are one of the leading suppliers of Screen Emulsion Adhesive to our\\015\\012wide range of valuable clients. (
  • High Quality Emulsion Adhesive By J. N. Arora & Co. (P) Ltd. (
  • We are among the prominent names in the industry, engaged in distributing and supplying of High Quality Emulsion Adhesive in Delhi, Delhi, India. (
  • Adhesive And Emulsion Plasticizers By Payal Polyplast Pvt. (
  • Our firm is deeply involved in Manufacturer & Supplier of Adhesive and Emulsion Plasticizers in Daman, Daman and Diu, India. (
  • Offered Adhesive Emulsion is extensively used in automobile, textile and many other industries for bonding various parts with each other. (
  • Effects of CD36 Genotype on Oral Perception of Oleic Acid Supplemented Safflower Oil Emulsions in Two Ethnic Groups: A Preliminary Study. (
  • Emulsions are used widely across various industries in the present day. (
  • Stabilization of soils using asphalt emulsions has been widely applied and is often employed with recycling equipment to perform "cold-mix" recycling to rehabilitate deteriorated pavements. (
  • The accessibility to the synthetic wax emulsions is likely to hamper the market for natural wax emulsion. (
  • Palsgaard has aquired the remaining 50 per cent share of Emulsion Holland and its South African subsidiary as it looks to leverage new technologies for chocolate emulsifiers in the future. (