Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Emergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Emergency Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients admitted to the emergency department.Channel Islands: A group of four British islands and several islets in the English Channel off the coast of France. They are known to have been occupied prehistorically. They were a part of Normandy in 933 but were united to the British crown at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066. Guernsey and Jersey originated noted breeds of cattle. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p242)Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Colectomy: Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Herniorrhaphy: Surgical procedures undertaken to repair abnormal openings through which tissue or parts of organs can protrude or are already protruding.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Preoperative Period: The period before a surgical operation.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Laryngoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the larynx.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Emergency Services, Psychiatric: Organized services to provide immediate psychiatric care to patients with acute psychological disturbances.Diverticulitis, Colonic: Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Thoracic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Thoracic Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.Surgery, Plastic: The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Emergency Medical Technicians: Paramedical personnel trained to provide basic emergency care and life support under the supervision of physicians and/or nurses. These services may be carried out at the site of the emergency, in the ambulance, or in a health care institution.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart or blood vessels.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Blood Transfusion, Autologous: Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.EnglandTomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Atracurium: A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.Obstetric Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the pregnant woman for conditions associated with pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium. It does not include surgery of the newborn infant.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems: The use of communication systems, such as telecommunication, to transmit emergency information to appropriate providers of health services.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Aortic Rupture: The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Diverticulum, Colon: A pouch or sac opening from the COLON.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Triage: The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Appointments and Schedules: The different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, waiting times, waiting lists for hospitals, walk-in clinics, etc.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).United StatesSuture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Great BritainCardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Ambulances: A vehicle equipped for transporting patients in need of emergency care.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Pulmonary Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the lung.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Specialties, Surgical: Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.Surgical Equipment: Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.Colorectal Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and abnormalities of the COLON; RECTUM; and ANAL CANAL.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Oral Surgical Procedures, Preprosthetic: Surgery necessary for a denture to rest on a firm base, free from marked osseous protuberances or undercuts, and devoid of interfering muscle attachments, excess mucoperiosteum, hyperplasias, and fibrous or papillary growths.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Ultrasonic Surgical Procedures: The use of HIGH-ENERGY SHOCK WAVES, in the frequency range of 20-60 kHz, to cut through or remove tissue. The tissue fragmentation by ultrasonic surgical instruments is caused by mechanical effects not heat as with HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND ABLATION.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Evidence-Based Emergency Medicine: A way of providing emergency medical care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise in EMERGENCY MEDICINE. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Video-Assisted Surgery: Endoscopic surgical procedures performed with visualization via video transmission. When real-time video is combined interactively with prior CT scans or MRI images, this is called image-guided surgery (see SURGERY, COMPUTER-ASSISTED).Orthognathic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed to repair or correct the skeletal anomalies of the jaw and its associated dental and facial structures (e.g. CLEFT PALATE).Emergency Responders: Personnel trained to provide the initial services, care, and support in EMERGENCIES or DISASTERS.Transportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Operative Time: The duration of a surgical procedure in hours and minutes.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Perioperative Period: The time periods immediately before, during and following a surgical operation.
  • Patients presenting with ACS (Acute Coronary Syndrome) in the emergency department will be screened for clinical eligibility and asked to sign informed consent to the study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Other surgical specialties have studied the negative relationship between late surgical start times and clinical outcome. (eurekalert.org)
  • Arden M. Morris, MD, MPH is professor and vice chair of clinical research in the Department of Surgery, director of the Stanford-Surgery Policy, Improvement Research and Education (S-SPIRE) Center, and core faculty in the Stanford Department of Health Research and Policy. (stanford.edu)
  • Instead, students discuss and perform clinical and surgical procedures as a means to study anatomy. (harvard.edu)
  • Implementing a process redesign to streamline clinical pathways for elective surgery, with a focus on the patient journey from referral to discharge, and establishing a separate, dedicated elective surgery facility. (mja.com.au)
  • The clinical process redesign resulted in a sustained downward trend in the number of elective surgery patients waiting longer than national recommended maximum waiting times. (mja.com.au)
  • Introduction Accurate surgical risk prediction is paramount in clinical shared decision making. (bmj.com)
  • Cefotaxime sodium has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. (drugs.com)
  • In addition to his current role as Professor of Medical Education at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Dr. Leitman has also served as a Professor of Clinical Surgery at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University in New York City. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Leitman is also a fellow of the American College of Surgeons, and a member of the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery, American Board of Surgery and American Society of Clinical Oncology. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2018-09-01 00:00:00 Abstract Introduction The current evolution of surgical practices is increasingly trending toward hyper-specialization. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, demographic comparisons across start time groups revealed that the average age of the patient population varied across the surgical day with older people earlier in the day, and younger people later in the day. (psychcentral.com)
  • The findings also found that a patient's odds of having a surgical complication increased significantly between 9:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m. even after accounting for whether the case was an emergency versus elective procedure or if the patient had co-morbid conditions. (psychcentral.com)
  • i.e., a very thin patient shows up that there is no fecal analysis done ever) and from time to time directed towards a non surgical treatment. (vin.com)
  • Patient stabilization must always pave the way to a surgical procedure whenever possible. (vin.com)
  • Doing a surgical procedure and leave a patient in an equal or worst condition has no justification. (vin.com)
  • Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The would seem to be true with their wound care, as incidence has apparently levelled in the USA and wound care has always been the main domain in Western Europe and the mortality from these surgical nursing, facilitated by the closer nurse infections has decreased as highly active antiretroviral patient relationship. (who.int)
  • The analysis demonstrated that a patient's odds of having a surgical complication increased significantly between 9 pm and 7 am even after accounting for whether the case was an emergency versus elective procedure or if the patient had co-morbid conditions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Computerised patient records provided the consultant's identity (A-D), the patient's triage status and the exact endourological procedure performed. (omicsonline.org)
  • Our aim was to investigate the relationship between retrospective and contemporary PROMs in England (inevitably, in elective conditions) and to explore the influence on the relationship of two patient characteristics (age, socio-economic status) and the length of time between the two data collection points. (springer.com)
  • interbody device market, which is estimated to be more than $1.2B, and extends its entire AMS portfolio to a global patient audience with significant market share in anteriorly placed TLIF implants.1 Furthermore, the system is designed to work seamlessly with the Company's MAS(R) TLIF and MAS Midline access systems allowing customization options to specific surgical techniques. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1 Unplanned emergency surgery competes with scheduled elective surgery, and, when resources are limited, elective procedures are cancelled, 2 which disrupts patient flow and may compromise patient safety. (mja.com.au)
  • With a focus on the patient journey from initial referral to discharge, the redesigned surgical care model was streamlined, standardised, and protocol-led ( Box 1 ). (mja.com.au)
  • One of the positive effects of the patient in applicants for general surgical training programs. (who.int)
  • Many trusts are currently struggling to reduce four hour trolley waits (the time from the decision to admit (DTA) to leaving A&E). A recent survey conducted by the BMA and the British Association for Accident and Emergency Medicine 2 suggests that official figures give an over-optimistic picture of the current pressures in A&E departments, and long patient waits are still common. (bmj.com)
  • In some cases, a patient might benefit more from a coronary bypass surgery than from angioplasty. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Aggressive surgical interventions must be pneumonia, cryptosporidium, cytomegalovirus undertaken with caution (7, 8). (who.int)
  • Les données sur l'acte chirurgical, le choix des antibiotiques et leur administration ont été collectées pour toutes les interventions chirurgicales réalisées chez des patients hospitalisés pendant 15 jours en mars 2010. (who.int)
  • Interventions Standard care or the use of a wound edge protection device during surgery. (bmj.com)
  • Surgical interventions are more common in people with sickle cell disease, and occur at much younger ages than in the general population. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Also, there remain a significant number of patients who underwent surgery prior to the development of current standard medical therapies who continue to have issues related to their original operation. (uptodate.com)
  • Although surgical procedures can be safe and cellular immunity allows the development of effective therapeutic modalities, the benefits of malignancies (Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma) and resolution of symptoms must be balanced against this opportunistic infections including Pneumocystis carinii risk. (who.int)
  • Although ambulatory surgeries represent a substantial portion of surgical health care, there is a lack of information on adverse events, including health care -associated infections. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Our findings suggest that earlier access to a clinician or member of the surgical team (e.g., telephone check-in prior to 2 weeks) may help identify and treat these infections early and reduce overall morbidity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • He previously held the position of Chairman of the Department of Surgery at Mount Sinai Beth Israel in New York City. (wikipedia.org)
  • Main outcome measures Arterial thrombosis (myocardial infarction or stroke) and venous thrombosis (deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) in the 30 days after surgery. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Audits of surgical prophylaxis are expected to detect different errors in different institutions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conclusions A large, multicentre randomised controlled trial of PVB versus TEB is feasible as it is possible to randomise and follow up participants with high fidelity. (bmj.com)
  • The removal of excess skin, biopsies and the correction of long bone fractures may all be considered minor surgical operations. (news-medical.net)
  • Femoral neck fractures in the elderly make up a large proportion of Orthopaedic surgical admissions each year. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Femoral neck fractures in the elderly make up a large proportion of Orthopaedic surgical admissions each year and the numbers worldwide are expected to reach 6.26 million cases a year by 2050 [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In June 2009 the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidance Network (SIGN), published a national guideline for the management of hip fractures in elderly patients and recommended that surgery should not be delayed in patients receiving anti-platelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel or dipyridamole) [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three categories of variables have proven to be reliable predictors of SSI risk: (1) those that estimate the intrinsic degree of microbial contamination of the surgical site, (2) those that measure the duration of an operation, and (3) those that serve as markers for host susceptibility. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • When determining the surgical risk, the benefits of a certain surgical procedure must be weighed against the potential of creating damage. (vin.com)
  • Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The only major considerations are with risk of bleeding with elective (non-emergency) surgery, and for people using medication for clotting. (readynutrition.com)
  • Background: The elderly population often presents an increased surgical risk. (sages.org)
  • Emergency procedures for PEH are associated with an increased risk of serious adverse events or fatality. (sages.org)
  • Evidence suggests that radiation exposure, from diagnostic and interventional procedures is placing patients at a small but significant increased risk of malignancy. (omicsonline.org)
  • However, this subanalysis found consistent results for Eliquis versus warfarin in reducing the risk of stroke, regardless of blood pressure control. (businesswire.com)
  • Eliquis was consistent in reducing the risk of stroke or systemic embolism versus warfarin in patients with and without poor blood pressure control during the trial (p for interaction = 0.97). (businesswire.com)
  • In this subanalysis, the effect of Eliquis in reducing the risk of stroke and systemic embolism versus warfarin was consistent with the main results of the ARISTOTLE trial. (businesswire.com)
  • Further, the effect of Eliquis in reducing the risk of stroke and systemic embolism versus warfarin was also consistent with the results of the ARISTOTLE trial in previously published subanalyses of other comorbidities, including congestive heart failure, advanced age, renal impairment and prior stroke. (businesswire.com)
  • Emergency surgery in the elderly carries disproportionately high risk as patients tend to present later, are often harder to diagnose, and have poorer functional reserve. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Routine testing on the basis of age alone may not be indicated, especially for low-risk procedures. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The Combined Assessment of Risk Encountered in Surgery (CARES) surgical risk calculator, consisting of nine variables, was constructed. (bmj.com)
  • For procedures with low haemorrhagic risk, a therapeutic window of 48 hours (last administration 24 hours before surgery, restart 24 hours after) is proposed. (em-consulte.com)
  • For procedures with medium or high haemorrhagic risk, we suggest stopping DOAs 5 days before surgery to ensure complete elimination in all patients. (em-consulte.com)
  • In an emergency, the procedure should be postponed for as long as possible (minimum 1-2 half-lives) and non-specific antihaemorrhagic agents, such as recombinant human activated factor VIIa or prothrombin complex concentrates should not be given for prophylactic reversal due to their uncertain benefit-risk. (em-consulte.com)
  • Specifically 14 patients (24%) who received sodium chloride (SC) and 17 patients (27%) who received SB were observed to develop AKI post-surgery, resulting in a relative risk of AKI of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-2.1, chi-square p -value = 0.68) for patients receiving SB compared to those who received SC. (frontiersin.org)
  • Patients presenting for cardiovascular surgery were found to be at increased risk for AKI. (frontiersin.org)
  • Operating on patients with clopidogrel poses a challenge because of the risk of bleeding and the difficulty deciding the optimal timing of surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The goal in other high-risk areas is to provide continuous blood pressure monitoring during high-risk procedures such as emergency caesareans. (lidco.com)
  • The need for a specific risk score system for infective endocarditis (IE) surgery has been previously claimed. (hindawi.com)
  • One aim of the present study was to verify whether disease-specific determinants of mortality risk following native valve IE surgery could be detected from a review of our experience. (hindawi.com)
  • Design Prospective cohort study using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database of the American College of Surgeons (ACS-NSQIP). (bmj.com)
  • It rests at the moment on initial general surgical training associated with specific military training for surgeons before their deployment has set up in 2007 by the French Military Health Service Academy (Ecole du Val-de-Grâce) Paris. (deepdyve.com)
  • At Cleveland Clinic Akron General, representatives from the departments of surgery, anesthesia, pharmacy and nursing met to discuss the goals of ERAS and the resources at their disposal. (medindia.net)
  • The prevention of AKI in this setting is clinically and economically an important goal for CV surgery and anesthesia programs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bolus phenylephrine reduced maternal CO and decreased CO when compared with ephedrine during elective spinal anesthesia for Cesarean delivery. (lidco.com)
  • Anesthesia - medication administered for the relief of pain and sensation during surgery. (nyhq.org)