Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
Cell-surface molecules that exhibit lineage-restricted patterns of expression during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. The antigens are useful markers in the identification of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Cells used in COCULTURE TECHNIQUES which support the growth of the other cells in the culture. Feeder cells provide auxillary substances including attachment substrates, nutrients, or other factors that are needed for growth in culture.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subclass are expressed in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and may play a role in vasculogenesis.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The cluster of cells inside a blastocyst. These cells give rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper. They are pluripotent EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS capable of yielding many but not all cell types in a developing organism.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The creation of embryos specifically for research purposes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A malignant neoplasm consisting of elements of teratoma with those of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or both. It occurs most often in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Bipotential angio-hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to both HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS and ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The process by which a person or group of persons comes to be regarded or treated as lacking in human qualities.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
Signaling ligands that act in opposition to NODAL PROTEIN. During vertebrate development they regulate the degree of left-right asymmetry by controlling the spatiotemporal influence of NODAL PROTEIN.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex that catalyzes the METHYLATION of chromosomal HISTONE H3. It works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 1 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.

Isolation and characterization of the murine Nanog gene promoter. (1/5687)

Nanog protein is expressed in the interior cells of compacted morulae and maintained till epiblasts but downregulated by implantation stage. It is also expressed in embryonic stem cells, embryonic carcinoma cells and embryonic germ cells but disappeared in differentiated ES cells. In this study, we have isolated, sequenced, and performed the first characterization of the Nanog promoter. The transcription start sites were mapped by primer extension analysis. Two promoter regions were found upstream the transcription start sites and the expression of major Nanog promoter/reporter gene construct is abolished in differentiated F9 EC cells as compared to the undifferentiated counterpart. We also showed that a putative octamer motif (ATGCAAAA) is necessary for the major promoter activity. Gel shift and supershift assays showed that Oct-1, Oct-4 and Oct-6 protein selectively bind to the octamer motif.  (+info)

Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from the Chinese population. (2/5687)

Six human embryonic stem cell lines were established from surplus blastocysts. The cell lines expressed alkaline phosphatase and molecules typical of primate embryonic stem cells, including Oct-4, Nanog, TDGF1, Sox2, EBAF, Thy-1, FGF4, Rex-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Five of the six lines formed embryoid bodies that expressed markers of a variety of cell types; four of them formed teratomas with tissue types representative of all three embryonic germ layers. These human embryonic stem cells are capable of producing clones of undifferentiated morphology, and one of them was propagated to become a subline. Human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population should facilitate stem cell research and may be valuable in studies of population genetics and ecology.  (+info)

Derivation of multipotent mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells. (3/5687)

BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells provide access to the earliest stages of human development and may serve as a source of specialized cells for regenerative medicine. Thus, it becomes crucial to develop protocols for the directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into tissue-restricted precursors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we present culture conditions for the derivation of unlimited numbers of pure mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells and demonstrate multilineage differentiation into fat, cartilage, bone, and skeletal muscle cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings will help to elucidate the mechanism of mesoderm specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation and provide a platform to efficiently generate specialized human mesenchymal cell types for future clinical applications.  (+info)

Identification and isolation of embryonic stem cells in reproductive endocrinology: theoretical protocols for conservation of human embryos derived from in vitro fertilization. (4/5687)

BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent cells obtained from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts derived from in vitro culture associated with reproductive endocrinology therapy. Human ESCs are regarded as highly significant since they retain the capacity to differentiate into any of approximately 200 unique cell types. Human ESC research is controversial because to acquire such cells, the ICM of human blastocysts must be manipulated in a way that renders embryos nonviable and unsuitable for transfer in utero. Techniques to yield competent ESCs with conservation of source blastocysts would satisfy many objections against ESC research, but at present such approaches remain largely untested. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We contrast experimental culture of single blastomeres obtained by 1) non-destructive biopsy of embryos destined for transfer, and 2) isolation of karyotypically normal blastomeres from disaggregated ("dead") embryos considered unsuitable for transfer, and evaluate these approaches with regard to production of ESCs. Pluripotency was confirmed by morphological criteria and by quantification of divergent homeodomain proteins specific to undifferentiated cell development. Following ESC isolation and identification, assessment was conducted according to a novel ESC grading system, also proposed here. CONCLUSION: The role of reproductive endocrinology in ESC research remains paramount. In this report, we hypothesize new and expand on existing strategies having the potential to enhance human ESC isolation, identification and in vitro maintenance.  (+info)

LIF and BMP signaling generate separate and discrete types of GFAP-expressing cells. (5/5687)

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling both promote the differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive cells. This study compares the cellular and molecular characteristics, and the potentiality, of GFAP(+) cells generated by these different signaling pathways. Treatment of cultured embryonic subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitor cells with LIF generates GFAP(+) cells that have a bipolar/tripolar morphology, remain in cell cycle, contain progenitor cell markers and demonstrate self-renewal with enhanced neurogenesis - characteristics that are typical of adult SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ) stem cells/astrocytes. By contrast, BMP-induced GFAP(+) cells are stellate, exit the cell cycle, and lack progenitor traits and self-renewal--characteristics that are typical of astrocytes in the non-neurogenic adult cortex. In vivo, transgenic overexpression of BMP4 increases the number of GFAP(+) astrocytes but depletes the GFAP(+) progenitor cell pool, whereas transgenic inhibition of BMP signaling increases the size of the GFAP(+) progenitor cell pool but reduces the overall numbers of astrocytes. We conclude that LIF and BMP signaling generate different astrocytic cell types, and propose that these cells are, respectively, adult progenitor cells and mature astrocytes.  (+info)

Embryonic stem cells cultured in biodegradable scaffold repair infarcted myocardium in mice. (6/5687)

Our previous findings demonstrated that directly injecting embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into ischemic region of the heart improved cardiac function in animals with experimental myocardial infarction (MI). Tissue engineering with stem cells may provide tissue creation and repair. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of grafting of ESC-seeded biodegradable patch on infarcted heart. MI in mice was induced by ligation of the left coronary artery. Mouse ESCs were seeded on polyglycolic-acid (PGA) material patches. Three days after culture, an ESC-seeded patch was transplanted on the surface of ischemic and peri-ischemic myocardium. Eight weeks after MI operation and patch transplantation, hemodynamics and cardiac function were evaluated in four (sham-operated, MI, MI + cell-free patch, and MI + ESC-patch) groups of mice. The blood pressure and left ventricular function were significantly reduced in the MI animals. Compared with MI alone and MI + cell-free patch groups, the animals received MI + ESC-seeded patches significantly improved blood pressure and ventricular function. The survival rate of the MI mice grafted with MI + ESC-seeded patches was markedly higher than that in MI alone or MI + cell-free patch animals. GFP-positive tissue was detected in infarcted area with grafting of ESC-seeded patch, which suggests the survivors of ESCs and possible myocardial regeneration. Our data demonstrate that grafting of ESC-seeded bioabsorbable patch can repair infarcted myocardium and improve cardiac function in MI mice. This novel approach of combining stem cells and biodegradable materials may provide a therapeutic modality for repairing injured heart.  (+info)

Neural induction promotes large-scale chromatin reorganisation of the Mash1 locus. (7/5687)

Determining how genes are epigenetically regulated to ensure their correct spatial and temporal expression during development is key to our understanding of cell lineage commitment. Here we examined epigenetic changes at an important proneural regulator gene Mash1 (Ascl1), as embryonic stem (ES) cells commit to the neural lineage. In ES cells where the Mash1 gene is transcriptionally repressed, the locus replicated late in S phase and was preferentially positioned at the nuclear periphery with other late-replicating genes (Neurod, Sprr2a). This peripheral location was coupled with low levels of histone H3K9 acetylation at the Mash1 promoter and enhanced H3K27 methylation but surprisingly location was not affected by removal of the Ezh2/Eed HMTase complex or several other chromatin-silencing candidates (G9a, SuV39h-1, Dnmt-1, Dnmt-3a and Dnmt-3b). Upon neural induction however, Mash1 transcription was upregulated (>100-fold), switched its time of replication from late to early in S phase and relocated towards the interior of the nucleus. This spatial repositioning was selective for neural commitment because Mash1 was peripheral in ES-derived mesoderm and other non-neural cell types. A bidirectional analysis of replication timing across a 2 Mb region flanking the Mash1 locus showed that chromatin changes were focused at Mash1. These results suggest that Mash1 is regulated by changes in chromatin structure and location and implicate the nuclear periphery as an important environment for maintaining the undifferentiated state of ES cells.  (+info)

Transcriptional profiling of reporter genes used for molecular imaging of embryonic stem cell transplantation. (8/5687)

Stem cell therapy offers exciting promise for treatment of ischemic heart disease. Recent advances in molecular imaging techniques now allow investigators to monitor cell fate noninvasively and repetitively. Here we examine the effects of a triple-fusion reporter gene on embryonic stem (ES) cell transcriptional profiles. Murine ES cells were stably transfected with a self-inactivating lentiviral vector carrying a triple-fusion (TF) construct consisting of fluorescence, bioluminescence, and positron emission tomography (PET) reporter genes. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis allowed isolation of stably transfected populations. Microarray studies comparing gene expression in nontransduced control ES cells vs. stably transduced ES cells expressing triple fusion (ES-TF) revealed some increases in transcriptional variability. Annotation analysis showed that ES-TF cells downregulated cell cycling, cell death, and protein and nucleic acid metabolism genes while upregulating homeostatic and anti-apoptosis genes. Despite these transcriptional changes, expression of the TF reporter gene had no significant effects on ES cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation capability. Importantly, transplantation studies in murine myocardium demonstrated the feasibility of tracking ES-TF cells in living subjects using bioluminescence and PET imaging. Taken together, this is the first study to analyze in detail the effects of reporter genes on molecular imaging of ES cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Non-cell autonomous cues for enhanced functionality of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes via maturation of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial K ATP channels. AU - Keung, Wendy. AU - Ren, Lihuan. AU - Sen Li, Li. AU - Wong, Andy On Tik. AU - Chopra, Anant. AU - Kong, Chi Wing. AU - Tomaselli, Gordon F.. AU - Chen, Christopher S.. AU - Li, Ronald A.. PY - 2016/9/28. Y1 - 2016/9/28. N2 - Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a potential unlimited ex vivo source of ventricular (V) cardiomyocytes (CMs), but hESC-VCMs and their engineered tissues display immature traits. In adult VCMs, sarcolemmal (sarc) and mitochondrial (mito) ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP) channels play crucial roles in excitability and cardioprotection. In this study, we aim to investigate the biological roles and use of sarcK ATP and mitoK ATP in hESC-VCM. We showed that SarcI K, ATP in single hESC-VCMs was dormant under baseline conditions, but became markedly activated by cyanide (CN) or the known ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transplantation of expanded bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs) improves left ventricular function and remodelling after myocardial infarction. AU - Zuba-Surma, Ewa K.. AU - Guo, Yiru. AU - Taher, Hisham. AU - Sanganalmath, Santosh K.. AU - Hunt, Greg. AU - Vincent, Robert J.. AU - Kucia, Magda. AU - Abdel-Latif, Ahmed. AU - Tang, Xian Liang. AU - Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.. AU - Dawn, Buddhadeb. AU - Bolli, Roberto. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Adult bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs) exhibit a Sca-1+/Lin-/CD45- phenotype and can differentiate into various cell types, including cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. We have previously reported that transplantation of a small number (1 × 106) of freshly isolated, non-expanded VSEL-SCs into infarcted mouse hearts resulted in improved left ventricular (LV) function and anatomy. Clinical translation, however, will require large numbers of cells. Because the frequency of ...
Movahednia, Mohammad Mehdi Ehdi, Kidwai, Fahad Karim Arim, Zou, Yu, Tong, Huei Jinn, Liu, Xiaochen, Islam, Intekhab, Toh, Wei Seong, Raghunath, Michael, Cao, Tong (2015). Differential effects of the extracellular microenvironment on human embryonic stem cell differentiation into keratinocytes and their subsequent replicative life span. Tissue Engineering - Part A 21 (42223) : 1432-1443. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.tea. ...
0010] Other researchers have also generated RBCs from ESCs; however, these methods either used non-human/non-primate stem cells or used an embryoid body-dependent method (i.e. no direct differentiation). These methods, however, produced a mixture of erythroid and myeloid cells. See Carotta S, et al., Directed differentiation and mass cultivation of pure erythroid progenitors from mouse embryonic stem cells, Blood 104:1873-1880 (2004); Chadwick K, et al., Cytokines and BMP-4 promote hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells, Blood 102:906-915 (2003); Kaufman D, et al., Hematopoietic colony-forming cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:10716-10721 (2001); Ng, E, et al., Forced aggregation of defined numbers of human embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies fosters robust, reproducible hematopoietic differentiation, Blood 106:1601-1603 (2005); and Zambidis E, et al., Hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells ...
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT CLEARANCES FOR RECEIPT OF INTERNATIONAL SHIPMENT OF HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS Release Date: November 16, 2001 NOTICE: NOT-OD-02-013 National Institutes of Health Many of the sources of human embryonic stem cells are located in countries other than the United States. For investigators wishing to conduct federal research using human embryonic stem cells, permission may be required for their importation. Several U.S. federal government agencies have policies in place for the importation of biological specimens. This document explains them and provides agency contacts and additional information. Some countries may have additional requirements for exportation, but NIH does not know of specific cases at the present time. Therefore, this issue is not addressed in this document. The primary concern about importation of human embryonic stem cells pertains to their potential infectious properties, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) i.e., mad cow disease. All of the sources ...
Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-CMs) can improve the contractility of injured hearts. We hypothesized that mesodermal cardiovascular progenitors (hESC-CVPs), capable of generating vascular cells in addition to cardiomyocytes, would provide superior repair by contributing to multiple components of myocardium. We performed a head-to-head comparison of hESC-CMs and hESC-CVPs and compared these with the most commonly used clinical cell type, human bone marrow mononuclear cells (hBM-MNCs). In a nude rat model of myocardial infarction, hESC-CMs and hESC-CVPs generated comparable grafts. Both similarly improved systolic function and ventricular dilation. Furthermore, only rare human vessels formed from hESC-CVPs. hBM-MNCs attenuated ventricular dilation and enhanced host vascularization without engrafting long-term or improving contractility. Thus, hESC-CMs and CVPs show similar efficacy for cardiac repair, and both are more efficient than hBM-MNCs. However, hESC-CVPs do ...
Title: Alternative Strategies for the Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines and the Role of Dead Embryos. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Svetlana Gavrilov, Virginia E. Papaioannou and Donald W. Landry. Affiliation:Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Collage of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY, 10032, USA.. Keywords:Arrested human embryos, ES cell derivation, alternative approaches, human embryonic stem cells, hESC. Abstract: The therapeutic potential for human embryonic stem cells (hESC) drives intense public and scientific interest. However, the classical approach for derivation of hESC entails the destruction of human embryos. Controversial ethical issues and correspondingly restrictive federal policies in many countries have prompted the development of alternative approaches for the isolation of hESC. Here, several different strategies are discussed with a focus on the harvesting of live hESC from dead embryos. ...
Human embryonic stemcells (hESCs) can serve as a potentially limitless source of cells that may enable regeneration of diseased tissue and organs. Here we investigate the use of human embryonic stemcell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in promoting recovery from cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury in a mouse model. Using microarrays, we have described the hESC-CM transcriptome within the spectrum of changes that occur between undifferentiated hESCs and fetal heart cells. The hESC-CMs expressed cardiomyocyte genes at levels similar to those found in 20-week fetal heart cells, making this population a good source of potential replacement cells in vivo. Echocardiographic studies showed significant improvement in heart function by 8 weeks after transplantation. Finally, we demonstrate long-term engraftment of hESC-CMs by using molecular imaging to track cellular localization, survival, and proliferation in vivo. Taken together, global gene expression profiling of hESC differentiation enables a ...
QUESTION: I know there have been recent successes with adult stem cell research but why do you say we should eliminate all embryonic stem cell research just because it hasnt been as effective? Im reading articles that say embryonic stem cells hold more potential than adult stem cells so it seems logical to pursue both types of research.. ANSWER: CLR does not consider the lack of success as the reason to reject embryonic stem cell research. In fact, we dont categorically reject all embryonic stem cell research. In our efforts to follow the guidelines in Gods Word we work to defend the lives of all people regardless of age, perceived quality, or status. Therefore we reject any procedure that intentionally destroys human life. Since the current process of harvesting embryonic stem cells involves the killing of embryos we must condemn the process.. Research groups continue to pursue methods of harvesting embryonic stem cells without destroying human lives. If effective harvesting methods are ...
In spite of serious cardiotoxicity side-effects, doxorubicin is frequently used for treatment of several types of cancers. Isolated human adult cardiomyocytes could be the best model for assessing drug-induced cardiotoxicity, while harvesting mature cardiomyocytes is restricted by some limitations such as biopsy size, cell numbers, viability, proliferative capacity and their disability to be passaged as a cell line. In the present study, human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes applied as a model for evaluation of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. In this process, cardiogenic differentiated hESCs spheroids were exposed to different concentrations of doxorubicin for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The viability of spheroids as well as their morphology was assessed as important criterion of cardiotoxicity. Findings of the study showed that the viability of spheroids was significantly reduced at doses of 3 and 30 µM (P|0.05). Moreover, cell morphology was changed in the presence of same doses. Overall
A purified preparation of primate embryonic stem cells is disclosed. This preparation is characterized by the following cell surface markers: SSEA-1 (−); SSEA-4 (+); TRA-1-60 (+); TRA-1-81 (+); and alkaline phosphatase (+). In a particularly advantageous embodiment, the cells of the preparation are human embryonic stem cells, have normal karyotypes, and continue to proliferate in an undifferentiated state after continuous culture for eleven months. The embryonic stem cell lines also retain the ability, throughout the culture, to form trophoblast and to differentiate into all tissues derived from all three embryonic germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm). A method for isolating a primate embryonic stem cell line is also disclosed.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) derived from the inner cell mass of pre-implantation human blastocysts have two unique properties-indefinite self-renewal in culture and pluripotency, or the ability to differentiate into tissues from all three embryonic germ layers. As a result, hESC are a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine applications and have enormous potential in modeling human embryonic development. To realize this potential, a deeper understanding of the basic biology of hESC, especially of the genes that regulate self-renewal and differentiation, will be necessary. ❧ The focus of our study is on Oct4, a POU domain transcription factor and critical regulator of pluripotency whose levels are precisely controlled in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). In contrast to the single murine Oct4 isoform, which is better understood and more widely studied, three alternatively spliced isoforms exist in humans-OCT4A, OCT4B, and OCT4B1. Studies of human OCT4 are further confounded by ...
Embryonic Stem Cell Marker Antibody Panels from R&D Systems,R&D Systems adds two new Stem Cell Antibody Panels to its expanding line of stem cell products. The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Marker Antibody Panel (Catalog # SC008) contains the antibodies against: alkaline phosphatase, Nanog, Oct-3/4, SSEA-1 and SSEA-4. The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Marker Antibo,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The mitochondrion is emerging as a key organelle in stem cell biology, acting as a regulator of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation. In this study we sought to understand the effect of mitochondrial complex III inhibition during neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. When exposed to antimycin A, a specific complex III inhibitor, embryonic stem cells failed to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons, maintaining high Oct4 levels even when subjected to a specific differentiation protocol. Mitochondrial inhibition affected distinct populations of cells present in culture, inducing cell loss in differentiated cells, but not inducing apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells. A reduction in overall proliferation rate was observed, corresponding to a slight arrest in S phase. Moreover, antimycin A treatment induced a consistent increase in HIF-1α protein levels. The present work demonstrates that mitochondrial metabolism is critical for neuronal differentiation and emphasizes that
We have found an element in the cell that controls pluripotency, that is the ability of the human embryonic stem cell to differentiate or become almost any cell in the body, said senior author Kenneth S. Kosik, professor in the Department of Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Biology. Kosik is also co-director and Harriman Chair in Neuroscience Research of UCSBs Neuroscience Research Institute. The beauty and elegance of stem cells is that they have these dual properties, said Kosik. On the one hand, they can proliferate -- they can divide and renew. On the other hand, they can also transform themselves into any tissue in the body, any type of cell in the body. The research team includes James Thomson, who provided an important proof to the research effort. Thomson, an adjunct professor at UCSB, is considered the father of human embryonic stem cell biology. Thomson pioneered work in the isolation and culture of non-human primate and human embryonic stem cells. These cells provide ...
From: Scott Gilbert , [email protected],Subject: HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS: A PRIMER. I teach embryology to undergraduate poets, musicians, and languagemajors, so my friends and family assume that I can tell them whats going o=nabout stem cells. So here is my list of Frequently Asked Questions, alongwith my answers.. The Science =20What are embryonic stem cells?. When the fertilized human egg divides, it forms two groups of cells. By theten-cell stage, there are outside cells and inside cells. The outside cell=sbecome the fetal part of the placenta. These cells will attach to theuterus. The inner cells are those cells that are going to become the embryo=,itself. Each of these inner cells can become any type of cell in the body.In fact, before day 14, this group of inner cells can split in half, andeach half will develop into a whole embryo. This is how identical twins areformed. These inner cells have this ability to form any type of the 220cell types of the body, and this capacity is ...
Scientists produce functioning neurons from human embryonic stem cells Neurons will be used to create models of neurological diseases. Thursday, 09 August 2007 Scientists with the Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Medicine at UCLA were able to produce from human embryonic stem cells a highly pure, large quantity of functioning neurons that will allow them to create models of and study diseases such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, prefrontal dementia and schizophrenia. Researchers previously had been able to produce neurons - the impulse-conducting cells in the brain and spinal cord - from human embryonic stem cells. However, the percentage of neurons in the cell culture was not high and the neurons were difficult to isolate from the other cells. UCLAs Yi Sun, an associate professor of psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Thomas Südhof at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center were able to produce 70 to 80 percent of neurons in cell ...
Scientists have found that the DNA of human embryonic stem cells is chemically modified in a characteristic, predictable pattern. This pattern distinguishes human embryonic stem cells from normal adult cells and cell lines, including cancer cells. The study, which appears online today in Genome Research, should help researchers understand how epigenetic factors contribute to self-renewal and developmental pluripotence, unique characteristics of human embryonic stem cells that may one day allow them to be used for therapeutic cloning.
Peppiatt CM, Collins TJ, Mackenzie L et al. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) antagonises inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release, inhibits calcium pumps and has a use-dependent and slowly reversible action on store-operated calcium entry channels. Cell Calcium 2003; 34:97-108 ...
This protocol describes for the first time, a detailed method to generate vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) from its three developmental contributers: neuroectoderm, paraxial mesoderm and lateral plate mesoderm progenitor cells, all of which can be derived from human embryonic stem cells. The derived SMCs display contractile ability upon stimulation and have been shown to support vessel formation when transplanted in-vivo. The developmental origin-specific SMC subtypes, enable the study of unique features of the derived SMC subtypes, such as extracellular matrix degradation ...
This protocol describes the generation of a mixed progenitor population from human embryonic stem cells and further isolation of renal cells.. ...
Posted on behalf of Corie Lok.. Two clinical trials testing retinal cells derived from human embryonic stem cells report positive preliminary results today. A paper published today in The Lancet says that the cells appear to be safe four months after being injected into the eyes of two blind patients and describes visual improvements in the patients.. This isnt the first trial of therapies based on human embryonic stem cells, nor does it provide the first data on these therapies in humans. It does, however, provide the first - albeit early - data from the only ongoing clinical trial of such a treatment. One trial involves patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, whereas the other is focused a juvenile form of degenerative blindness called Stargardts macular dystrophy. Neither condition is treatable.. The results reported today are from the first patient from each of the two trials, both of which will eventually enrol a ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from developing mouse blastocysts in vitro that maintain long‐term self renewal and the capacity to give rise to all cell types in the adult body (including some extraembryonic cell types) when subjected to the appropriate conditions
Because video data are complex and are comprised of many images, mining information from video material is difficult to do without the aid of computer software. Video bioinformatics is a powerful quantitative approach for extracting spatio-temporal data from video images using computer software to perform dating mining and analysis. In this article, we introduce a video bioinformatics method for quantifying the growth of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by analyzing time-lapse videos collected in a Nikon BioStation CT incubator equipped with a camera for video imaging. In our experiments, hESC colonies that were attached to Matrigel were filmed for 48 hours in the BioStation CT. To determine the rate of growth of these colonies, recipes were developed using CL-Quant software which enables users to extract various types of data from video images. To accurately evaluate colony growth, three recipes were created. The first segmented the image into the colony and background, the second enhanced the ...
Sept. 14, 1999: The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation establishes WiCell as a clearinghouse to distribute stem cells and foster research.. -- Aug. 9, 2001: President Bush announces his decision to limit federal funding for embryonic stem cell research to cell lines in existence at that point in time.. -- Sept. 4, 2001: A team of Wisconsin scientists led by Dan Kaufman announces it has coaxed stem cells to become blood cells.. -- Nov. 30, 2001: Neural progenitor cells, stem cells that have migrated part way down the developmental pathway to becoming specific types of brain cells, are created and implanted in mice where the cells further develop into functioning neurons. The work was conducted in the laboratory of UW-Madison stem cell scientist Su-Chun Zhang at the Waisman Center.. -- Feb. 10, 2003: Wisconsin scientists James Thomson and Thomas Zwaka report the ability to manipulate genes in human stem cells, a technique critical to studying gene function and creating cells to mimic disease in ...
A Thanksgiving present from the European Union!The Enlarged Board of Appeal of the European Patent Office (EPO) did not take the day off. Early on November 27, the EPO announced that they would not allow the development of human embryonic stem cells to be patented as filed by WARF in 1996, since that technique depended…
Effects of hydrodynamic culture on embryonic stem cell differentiation: cardiogenic modulation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Stem cells from adults can be coaxed into becoming more specified tissues and used effectively for specific treatments. Stem cells from embryos, however, involve the destruction of a human life and have not yet offered any useful treatments. Nevertheless, the FDA has approved embryonic stem cell use in the worlds first clinical trial of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based therapy in man.1. The news comes as the latest chapter in a long series of events. When President George W. Bush introduced a policy in August 2001 that prevented federal funding for stem cell research involving embryos, guidelines regarding the use of embryonic stem cells had already been established in labs and remained on the table.. After taking office, President Barack Obama reversed the Bush decision on March 10, 2009.2 This was an anticipated fulfillment of a campaign promise, but what came as a surprise was that this announcement to proceed with embryonic stem cells provided no limits or restrictions on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene expression patterns of Royan human embryonic stem cells correlate with their propensity and culture systems. AU - Rassouli, Hassan. AU - Khalaj, Mona. AU - Hassani, Seyedeh-Nafiseh. AU - Nemati, Shiva. AU - Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini. AU - Baharvand, Hossein. N1 - Copyright the Author(s). Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Objective: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to give rise to all types of cells in the human body when appropriately induced to differentiate. Stem cells can differentiate spontaneously into the three-germ layer derivatives by embryoid bodies (EBs) formation. However, the two-dimensional (2D) adherent culture of hESCs under defined conditions is commonly used for directed differentiation toward a specific type of mature cells. In this study, we aimed to determine the ...
Since President Obama repealed research restrictions on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in 2009, hESC research has expanded significantly. Before the repeal there were 20 hESC-endorsed lines available for government research funding, now there are 128.. While government funding has been more accessible, investors have still been leery of investing in stem cell companies that use hESCs. There is still a great deal of concern regarding the political environment for this kind of research and many are concerned that if President Obama does not get reelected in 2012 that government funding will again be drastically reduced and that many hESC companies will not be able to survive the cuts. Although the increase in hESC lines available for government funded research has given a boost to the industry, other non-embryonic stem cell work is still funded at a significantly higher rate. According to a recent article in Bloomberg titled Embryonic Stem-Cell Approvals Rise, the National Institutes of ...
Embryonic stem cells are obtained from early-stage embryos - a group of cells that forms when a womans egg is fertilized with a mans sperm in an in vitro fertilization clinic. Because human embryonic stem cells are extracted from human embryos, several questions and issues have been raised about the ethics of embryonic stem cell research.. The National Institutes of Health created guidelines for human stem cell research in 2009. The guidelines define embryonic stem cells and how they may be used in research, and include recommendations for the donation of embryonic stem cells. Also, the guidelines state embryonic stem cells from embryos created by in vitro fertilization can be used only when the embryo is no longer needed.. The embryos being used in embryonic stem cell research come from eggs that were fertilized at in vitro fertilization clinics but never implanted in a womans uterus. The stem cells are donated with informed consent from donors. The stem cells can live and grow in special ...
Primary stem cell-derived endothelial cells can be used for a variety of purposes (e.g., assays of cell-cell adhesion, migration, vascular tube formation, angiogenesis assays and many other applications) Standard biochemical procedures can be performed using endothelial cell cultures include RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, or immunofluorescent staining or flow cytometry, et al.. Primary stem cell-derived endothelial cells from Cell Biologics are distributed for research purposes only. Our products are not authorized for human use. Transfer or resale of any Cell Biologics cells or products from the purchaser to other markets, organizations, or individuals is prohibited by Cell Biologics without the express written consent of the company. Cell Biologics Terms and Conditions must be accepted before submitting an order.. Question 9: How much does isolation of stem cell-derived endothelial cells cost? ...
Over 70% of diffuse intrinsic pediatric gliomas, an aggressive brainstem tumor, harbor heterozygous mutations that create a K27M amino acid substitution (methionine replaces lysine 27) in the tail of histone H3.3. The role of the H3.3K27M mutation in tumorigenesis is not fully understood. Here, we use a human embryonic stem cell system to model this tumor. We show that H3.3K27M expression synergizes with p53 loss and PDGFRA activation in neural progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, resulting in neoplastic transformation. Genome-wide analyses indicate a resetting of the transformed precursors to a developmentally more primitive stem cell state, with evidence of major modifications of histone marks at several master regulator genes. Drug screening assays identified a compound targeting the protein menin as an inhibitor of tumor cell growth in vitro and in mice.
Purpose: A potential application of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is the generation of corneal epithelial (CEpi) and endothelial (CEndo) cells to be used for corneal disease treatment. In this study, we designed a new method to induce hESC differentiating to CEpi and CEndo like cells for cornea substitute construction.. Methods: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) were cultured in a transwell coculture system with differentiated human corneal stromal cells to differentiate into periocular mesenchymal precursor (POMPs). Next, the CEndo-like cells expressed N-cadherin/vimention were derived from POMPs with lens epithelial cell-conditioned medium, and isolated by Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To obtain CEpi-like cells, the hESCs were cultured in the limbal stem cells conditioned medium for directional differentiation. The epithelial markers were detected by immunocytochemistry. And then, the induced CEpi and CEndo like cells were cultured on the acellular porcine cornea matrix ...
Hubei Key Lab of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, formerly known as the Life Sciences Institute, was founded in 1997. In 2006 the construction project of Hubei Key Lab of Embryonic Stem Cell Research was approved. In November 2009 the Lab was formally accepted with honors, making it the only provincial key Lab in the field of stem cell in Hubei Province. The Lab covers an area of over 1000 square meters. It has the first-class Lab facilities for cell culture and molecular biology, with its equipment worth more than 10,000,000 Yuan. Major technology platforms include human, mouse embryonic stem cell culture technology and system construction technology, somatic cell cloning (nuclear transplant) technology, mRNA synthesis, gene recombination technology, and a variety of adult stem cell isolation and proliferation and clinical transplantation technologies. Currently the Lab is undertaking two National Natural Science Foundation Programs, 3551 Optics Valley Talent Program in Wuhan Donghu Development ...
Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression that occur in cells without alterations to DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications are critical components of eukaryotic gene regulation and chromatin organization. Different epigenetic mechanisms, including the post-translational modifications of DNA-associated histone proteins play a role in the activation or repression of genes. ❧ One of my research goals was to define the epigenetic signature of cultured human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and to determine how their epigenomes change during lineage commitment. Pluripotent hESCs are capable of self-renewal and have the capacity to differentiate into any lineage of the embryo. However, hESCs grown in culture are heterogeneous in nature, consisting of a mixture of pluripotent to differentiated cells, making investigation of pluripotent hESCs difficult. Therefore precise definition of pluripotent cells present in culture is critical in order to use these cells for future stem cell based ...
Im going to venture in here and throw in my two cents in hopes that you wrote this piece in earnest, not realizing the scientific implications of your accusations and postulations. However, I must say, first and foremost, for the integrity of this piece and any others youve written on human embryonic stem cells, you are not a scientist. As such, it is not only unfair for you to make assumptions, but whats worse is that you are actually distributing your opinion as fact. Describing human embryonic stem cell research as the killing of young human beings for spare parts is not only inaccurate, but entirely untrue. It is because of people like yourself that human embryonic stem cells have become synomous with the idea of scientists growing a baby matrix-style and carving it up into little pieces, throwing away the rest. This is NOT what human embryonic stem cell research is in ANY sense.. I agree that there may well be ethical issues in terms of the ways that eggs (oocytes) and embryos are ...
Background and Aims: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells and thus provide a promising cell source for clinical applications of regenerative medicine. Currently hESCs are cultured on fibroblast feeder cell layers, which provide necessary cell-cell interactions for the attachment and soluble factors enabling the undifferentiated growth of hESCs. However, culturing of feeder cells is expensive and laborious. In addition, xeno-products, used in feeder cell and hESC cultures could transmit animal pathogens to hESCs, and cause rejections when transplanted to patients. Therefore there is a need to develop xeno- and feeder cell-free culturing methods for hESCs. The first aim of this research project was to set up and compare two commercial xeno-products containing feeder cell-free culturing methods for hESCs. The second aim was to optimize a novel, defined, serum- and xeno-free Reges medium, developed in Regea, into feeder cell-free conditions ...
France looked set on Thursday to maintain its curbs on human embryonic stem cell research after the conservative government fought off a parliamentary bid to liberalize the country
After years of animal trials, the first human has been injected with cells from human embryonic stem cells, according to Geron Corporation, the company which is sponsoring the controversial study. This is the first human embryonic stem cell trial in the world, Geron CEO Dr.
After years of animal trials, the first human has been injected with cells from human embryonic stem cells, according to Geron Corporation, the company which is sponsoring the controversial study. This is the first human embryonic stem cell trial in the world, Geron CEO Dr.
Embryonic stem cells are primitive cells derived from a blastocyst, or early stage embryo. These cells have not yet formed into adult stem cells.Embryonic stem cells are referred to as being pluripotent, meaning they have the capacity to become any cell in the human body. Because of this, and their ability to replicate indefinitely, embryonic stem cells can be employed as
ANN ARBOR, Mich. - The University of Michigans first human embryonic stem cell line will be placed on the U.S. National Institutes of Healths registry, making the cells available for federally-funded research. It is the first of the stem cell lines derived at the University of Michigan to be placed on the registry.. The line, known as UM4-6, is a genetically normal line, derived in October 2010 from a cluster of about 30 cells removed from a donated five-day-old embryo roughly the size of the period at the end of this sentence. That embryo was created for reproduction but was no longer needed for that purpose and was therefore about to be discarded.. This is significant, because acceptance of these cells on the registry demonstrates our attention to details of proper oversight, consenting, and following of NIH guidelines established in 2009, says Gary Smith, Ph.D., who derived the line and also is co-director of the U-M Consortium for Stem Cell Therapies, part of the A. Alfred Taubman ...
Oct4 is one of the master pluripotency genes that controls differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We generated HES2 and HES3 hESC lines stably transduced with lentivirus carrying Oct4 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) that display 80-90% reduction of Oct4 expression. Analysis of pluripotency marker expression shows that these Oct4 shRNA-transduced hESCs display normal wild-type expression levels of the pluripotency marker CD9 but an absence of GCTM2 expression. These hESC-derived adipocyte precursor cells display a characteristic morphology and can be propagated and cryopreserved as a standard stem cell line. Interestingly, Oct4 shRNA-transduced hESCs display a remarkably high lineage-specific spontaneous differentiation toward adipocytes. After two weeks of spontaneous differentiation under feeder-free conditions, 60-70% of cells display a mature adipocyte morphology as well as the expression of multiple adipocyte-specific mRNAs as assessed by RT-PCR. The upregulation of trophoblast, ...
The role of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in maintaining undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) was investigated using a targeted phosphoproteomics approach to specifically profile tyrosine phosphorylation events following FGF-2 stimulation. A cumulative total number of 735 unique tyrosine phosphorylation sites on 430 proteins were identified, by far the largest inventory to date for hESC. Early signaling events in FGF-2 stimulated hESC were quantitatively monitored using stable isotope dimethyl labeling, resulting in temporal tyrosine phosphorylation profiles of 316 unique phosphotyrosine peptides originating from 188 proteins. Apart from the rapid activation of all four FGF receptors, trans-activation of several other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) was observed as well as induced tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream proteins such as PI3-K, MAPK and several Src family members. Both PI3-K and MAPK have been linked to hESC maintenance through FGF-2 mediated signaling. The ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold vast promise in science and medicine because of their potential to replicate indefinitely and their capability to differentiate to any cell type found in the adult. Many environmental cues, including soluble factors and intercellular signals, affect hESC differentiation and self-renewal decisions. By integrating a variety of carefully synthesized materials, engineers at the University of Wisconsin have developed a culture system that precisely regulates the size and shape of hESC colonies by confining them to three-dimensional microwells, while providing desired soluble and immobilized chemical factors. By measuring growth and differentiation rates of hESC colonies of different sizes, the UW-MRSEC has identified an optimum self-renewing colony size of 100-200 um diameter; smaller colonies grow slowly, while larger colonies exhibit undesired spontaneous differentiation. Results of this study illustrate the importance of regulating intercellular interactions ...
Despite the enthusiasm for bioengineering of functional renal tissues for transplantation, many obstacles remain before the potential of this technology can be realized in a clinical setting. Viable tissue engineering strategies for the kidney require identification of the necessary cell populations, efficient scaffolds, and the 3D culture conditions to develop and support the unique architecture and physiological function of this vital organ. Our studies have previously demonstrated that decellularized sections of rhesus monkey kidneys of all age groups provide a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) with sufficient structural properties with spatial and organizational influences on human embryonic stem cell (hESC) migration and differentiation. To further explore the use of decellularized natural kidney scaffolds for renal tissue engineering, pluripotent hESC were seeded in whole- or on sections of kidney ECM and cell migration and phenotype compared with the established differentiation assays for hESC.
Geron stops human embryonic stem cell tests Geron Corp., the company that started the first U.S.-approved trial of human embryonic stem cells, fell the most in more than 11 years after research costs and regulatory complexities caused it to end the program. The first trial testing Gerons embryonic stem-cell therapy in spinal-cord injury patients began in April. In October, it reported that none of the four patients in the trial had experienced negative reactions to the therapy, consisting of 2 million cells injected into their spines at the damaged site.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differentiation and Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes. AU - Basma, Hesham E. AU - Soto-Gutiérrez, Alejandro. AU - Yannam, Govardhana Rao. AU - Liu, Liping. AU - Ito, Ryotaro. AU - Yamamoto, Toshiyuki. AU - Ellis, Ewa. AU - Carson, Steven D. AU - Sato, Shintaro. AU - Chen, Yong. AU - Muirhead, David. AU - Navarro-Álvarez, Nalu. AU - Wong, Ronald J.. AU - Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta. AU - Platt, Jeffrey L.. AU - Mercer, David F. AU - Miller, John D.. AU - Strom, Stephen C.. AU - Kobayashi, Naoya. AU - Fox, Ira J.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Background & Aims: The ability to obtain unlimited numbers of human hepatocytes would improve the development of cell-based therapies for liver diseases, facilitate the study of liver biology, and improve the early stages of drug discovery. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, potentially can differentiate into any cell type, and therefore could be developed as a source of human hepatocytes. Methods: To generate ...
Cell therapies to repair the failing heart could offer great clinical benefit but few studies directly comparing efficacy between cell types have been performed. Here we sought to compare the cardiac repair efficacy of three promising human cell types: bone marrow mononuclear cells (hBMMNC), human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CM) and hESC-derived cardiovascular progenitors (hESC-CVP).. Methods/Results: Myocardial infarction (MI) was performed in athymic nude rats by 60 min ischemia then reperfusion. Baseline echocardiography was performed 4 days after MI before transplantation with 10x10^6 cells into the central infarct region and border zones. Rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: hESC-CVP n=10, hESC-CM n=11, hBMMNC n=11 and non-cardiac cells (control) derived from human ESCs (hNC) n=13. Flow cytometry revealed 77% of hESC-CVP cells were KDR+/PDGFRα+ whilst 69% of hES-CM cells were cardiac troponin-T+. At 4d after MI there was no significant difference in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterozygous embryonic stem cell lines derived from nonhuman primate parthenotes. AU - Dighe, Vikas. AU - Clepper, Lisa. AU - Pedersen, Darlene. AU - Byrne, James. AU - Ferguson, Betsy. AU - Gokhale, Sumita. AU - Penedo, Cecilia. AU - Wolf, Don. AU - Mitalipov, Shoukhrat. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - Monoparental parthenotes represent a potential source of histocompatible stem cells that should be isogenic with the oocyte donor and therefore suitable for use in cell or tissue replacement therapy. We generated five rhesus monkey parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PESC) lines with stable, diploid female karyotypes that were morphologically indistinguishable from biparental controls, expressed key pluripotent markers, and generated cell derivatives representative of all three germ layers following in vivo and in vitro differentiation. Interestingly, high levels of heterozygosity were observed at the majority of loci that were polymorphic in the oocyte donors. Some PESC lines ...
Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are promising candidates to regenerate myocardium as a treatment for heart disease. However, this application is limited because of the inability to prospectively identify a pure population of cardiovascular progenitors (CVPs) that is devoid of residual, undifferentiated cells capable of teratoma formation. Furthermore, the potential of hESC-derived cardiovascular lineage cells to functionally couple to human myocardium remains unknown. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypotheses that (i) CVPs derived from hESCs can be isolated based on a set of distinct surface markers and (ii) they can functionally integrate into the human fetal heart. We screened a large panel of monoclonal antibodies to prospectively identify early cardiovascular precursors that emerge from differentiating hESCs based on the expression of surface markers. We discovered four surface markers that highly enrich for CVPs: receptor tyrosine kinase-like ...
Stem cell Q & A. The scientific community had reason to celebrate when President Barack Obama signed an executive order on March 9 removing the previous administrations restrictions on human embryonic stem cell research. The order lifted the ban on federal funding for research using embryonic stem cell lines created after August 9, 2001, fulfilling one of Obamas campaign promises.. Investigators at the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Regenerative Medicine are excited by the possibilities presented by the change, hoping it will foster scientific collaboration, new funding and advances in this burgeoning field.. Human embryonic stem cells have the ability to develop into any tissue in the body. Researchers hope to someday use this capability to repair damage to organs and tissue caused by injury and chronic illness.. In the following interview, David Scadden, MD, director of the Center of Regenerative Medicine and codirector of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, explains what this ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can proliferate extensively in culture and give rise to progeny of the three germ layers. Several reports suggested that mouse and hESCs may attenuate immune responses. In this study, we focused on the mechanism by which hESCs inhibit T cell responses. Using coculture experiments, we demonstrate that hESCs inhibit cytokine secretion and T cell proliferation in response to potent T cell activators. Furthermore, we show that hESCs downmodulate the TCR-associated CD3-ζ chain. These effects are maintained when hESCs are replaced by their conditioned media and can be restored by the addition of l-arginine to hESC-conditioned media or by treatment of hESCs with a specific arginase inhibitor. Moreover, we show arginase-I expression and activity in hESCs. We further demonstrate that mouse ESCs (mESCs) similarly inhibit T cell activation via arginase I, suggesting an evolutionary conserved mechanism of T cell suppression by ESCs. In addition, we demonstrate that ...
Pluripotent stem cells are known to display distinct metabolic phenotypes than their somatic counterparts. While accumulating studies are focused on the roles of glucose and amino acid metabolism in facilitating pluripotency, little is known regarding the role of lipid metabolism in regulation of stem cell activities. Here, we show that fatty acid (FA) synthesis activation is critical for stem cell pluripotency. Our initial observations demonstrated enhanced lipogenesis in pluripotent cells and during cellular reprogramming. Further analysis indicated that de novo FA synthesis controls cellular reprogramming and embryonic stem cell pluripotency through mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, we found that de novo FA synthesis regulated by the lipogenic enzyme ACC1 leads to the enhanced mitochondrial fission via (i) consumption of AcCoA which affects acetylation‐mediated FIS1 ubiquitin-proteasome degradation and (ii) generation of lipid products that drive the mitochondrial dynamic equilibrium ...
Our previous study demonstrated the direct involvement of the HIF-1α subunit in the promotion of cardiac differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We report the use of cobalt chloride to induce HIF-1α stabilization in human ESCs to promote cardiac differentiation. Treatment of undifferentiated hES2 human ESCs with 50μM cobalt chloride markedly increased protein levels of the HIF-1α subunit, and was associated with increased expression of early cardiac specific transcription factors and cardiotrophic factors including NK2.5, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cardiotrophin-1. When pretreated cells were subjected to cardiac differentiation, a notable increase in the occurrence of beating embryoid bodies and sarcomeric actinin-positive cells was observed, along with increased expression of the cardiac-specific markers, MHC-A, MHC-B, and MLC2V. Electrophysiological study revealed increased atrial-and nodal-like cells in the cobalt chloride-pretreated group. Confocal calcium ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have large nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratios and nucleic acid spectral bands are prominent in their characteristic Raman signatures. Under normal conditions, the major variations in these signatures are due to changes in glycogen content, but how these signatures vary in response to different external conditions is largely unknown. In this study we investigated the influences of temperature variations on hESC Raman signatures. At 32 °C, compared to the 37 °C control condition, cell proliferation rates were markedly reduced and glycogen Raman band intensities were elevated. In addition, at both temperatures, an inverse relationship between cell proliferation rates (i.e., onset of exponential growth phase vs. end of exponential phase) and glycogen Raman band intensities was observed. This relationship suggested a role for glycogen in the energy metabolism of hESC self-renewal. Protein and lipid spectral variations were small and co-varied with those of nucleic acids, ...
It is impossible to discuss human embryonic stem cell (HECS) research without also discussing the debate about the ethicality of the research. Many different individual arguments comprise a single, larger debate: Is it ethical to destroy human embryos to alleviate the pain and suffering of existing human lives? The debate polarizes the issue of stem-cell research as a whole, although it applies only to embryonic stem-cell research. Stem-cell research using cells from umbilical cords or adult somatic stem-cells, which are not as useful for research, are not subject to the same controversy. The effects of this debate are readily evident; because of the controversial nature, many religious organizations refuse to acknowledge the benefits of research using embryonic stem-cells, politicians refuse to support research efforts, and federal funding is in a constant state of limbo. But while the argument against embryonic stem-cell research seems at first glance strongly founded, further investigation ...
Insulin resistance leads to a number of metabolic and cellular abnormalities including endothelial dysfunction that increase the risk of vascular disease. Although it has been particularly challenging to study the genetic determinants that predispose to abnormal function of the endothelium in insulin-resistant states, the possibility of deriving endothelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells generated from individuals with detailed clinical phenotyping, including accurate measurements of insulin resistance accompanied by multilevel omic data (eg, genetic and genomic characterization), has opened new avenues to study this relationship. Unfortunately, several technical barriers have hampered these efforts. In the present review, we summarize the current status of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells for modeling endothelial dysfunction associated with insulin resistance and discuss the challenges to overcoming these limitations. ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Multiresolution identification of germ layer components in teratomas derived from human and nonhuman primate embryonic stem cells. AU - Chebira, Amina. AU - Ozolek, John A.. AU - Castro, Carlos A.. AU - Jenkinson, William G.. AU - Gore, Mukta. AU - Bhagavatula, Ramamurthy. AU - Khaimovich, Irina. AU - Ormon, Shauna E.. AU - Navara, Christopher S.. AU - Sukhwani, Meena. AU - Orwig, Kyle E.. AU - Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi. AU - Schatten, Gerald. AU - Rohde, Gustavo K.. AU - Kovacevic, Jelena. PY - 2008/9/10. Y1 - 2008/9/10. N2 - We propose a system for identification of germ layer components in teratomas derived from human and nonhuman primate embryonic stem cells. Tissue regeneration and repair, drug testing and discovery, the cure of genetic and developmental syndromes all may rest on the understanding of the biology and behavior of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Within the field of stem cell biology, an ES cell is not considered an ES cell until it can produce a teratoma tumor (the gold ...
The mechanisms by which human embryonic stem cells (hESC) differentiate to endodermal lineage have not been extensively studied. Mathematical models can aid in the identification of mechanistic information. In this work we use a population-based modeling approach to understand the mechanism of endoderm induction in hESC, performed experimentally with exposure to Activin A and Activin A supplemented with growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)). The differentiating cell population is analyzed daily for cellular growth, cell death, and expression of the endoderm proteins Sox17 and CXCR4. The stochastic model starts with a population of undifferentiated cells, wherefrom it evolves in time by assigning each cell a propensity to proliferate, die and differentiate using certain user defined rules. Twelve alternate mechanisms which might describe the observed dynamics were simulated, and an ensemble parameter estimation was performed on each ...
Abstract Human stem cell research is a new field with much promise, but progress towards a clinical setting has been complicated by scientific and ethical challenges. The most heated discussion over stem cell research has focused on the source of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Different views on the moral status of the human embryo have plagued all aspects of the debate (and decision-making). In 2006, a way of de-differentiating somatic cells to a pluripotent state was realised. The advent of these induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) appeared to circumvent concerns over embryo destruction, and hence iPSCs have been touted as an ethical way forward. However, for the foreseeable future, scientific investigations involving iPSCs are likely to drive further embryo destruction. As a result, iPSC research is complicit in embryo destruction and is inextricably locked in to the moral status debate. I argue that a new approach is needed to deal with the serious uncertainties and indeterminate ...
Introduction. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Summary 3. What are stem cells? 3.1 Adult stem cells 3.2 Core blood stem cells 3.3 Embryonic stem cells 4. Potentially of embryonic stem cells 5. UK Stem Cell bank. 6. Controversial Issues 7. Bibliography 1. Introduction This is a report on stem cells and the stem cell bank The aim of this report to overview stem cell research, including stem cell banks and pitched at general readers of non scientific background. 2 Summary This report consists of brief information on what stem cells are and their sources, the UK Stem Cell Bank and the controversy surrounding embryonic stem cell research. The main point of this report is the potential for treatment of illness using embryonic stem cells. 3. What are Stem Cells? Stem cells are unspecialized (cells of no particular function) that reproduce themselves continually and under the right conditions develop from simple to more complex cells which are specialized to perform particular functions, this is termed cell ...
Pluripotency and the capability for self-renewal are essential characteristics of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which hold great potential as a cellular source for tissue replacement. Short cell cycle (15-16 h) compared to somatic cells is another property of hESCs. Efficient synchronization of hESCs at different cell cycle stages is important to elucidate the mechanistic link between cell cycle regulation and cell fate decision. This protocol describes how to establish synchronization of hESCs at different cell cycle stages.
The man who discovered induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has received the 2012 Nobel Prize for medicine. Dr. Shinya Yamanaka, a researcher from Kyoto University, developed a new process in 2006 that used four genes to reprogram skin cells in mice to behave like embryonic stem cells, which are pluripotent and thus capable of developing into any cell of the human body. In November 2007, Yamanaka and his team were able to create human iPSCs.. Yamanaka and the co-recipient, John B. Gurdon, received the prize owing to their discovery that mature, specialised cells can be reprogrammed to become immature cells capable of developing into all tissues of the body, according to a press release from the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet. By reprogramming human cells, scientists have created new opportunities to study diseases and develop methods for diagnosis and therapy.. The discovery means that embryonic stem cell research, which has just begun to undergo human clinical trials in Europe, ...
As with cultures of mouse ES cells, human ES cells begin to differentiate if they are removed from feeder layers and grown in suspension culture on a non-adherent surface. The human ES cells form embryoid bodies which, in the early stages, may be simple or cystic and filled with fluid. Although human embryoid bodies vary in their cellular content, many include cells that look like neurons and heart muscle cells [14, 25, 26].. After the human embryoid bodies form, they can be dissociated and replated in monolayer cultures which are then exposed to specific growth factors that influence further cell differentiation. Some growth factors induce cell types that would normally be derived from ectoderm in the embryo; these include retinoic acid, epidermal growth factor (EGF), bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Other growth factors, such as activin-A and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1) trigger the differentiation of mesodermally derived cells. Two ...
A team of researchers from Scotland has used a novel 3D printing technique to arrange human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for the very first time.
Enzymatically degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels for the 3D culture and release of human embryonic stem cell derived pancreatic precursor cell aggregates Journal Article ...
Since the successful isolation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the past decades, massive investigations have been conducted to dissect the pluripotency network that governs the ability of these cells to differentiate into all cell types. Beside the core Oct4-Sox2-Nanog circuitry, accumulating regulators, including transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers, microRNA and signaling molecules have also been found to play important roles in preserving pluripotency. Among the various regulations that orchestrate the cellular pluripotency program, transcriptional regulation is situated in the central position and appears to be dominant over other regulatory controls. In this review, we would like to summarize the recent advancements in the accumulating findings of new transcription factors that play a critical role in controlling both pluripotency network and ESC identity.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Parthenogenesis-derived multipotent stem cells adapted for tissue engineering applications. AU - Koh, Chester J.. AU - Delo, Dawn M.. AU - Lee, Jang Won. AU - Siddiqui, M. Minhaj. AU - Lanza, Robert P.. AU - Soker, Shay. AU - Yoo, James J.. AU - Atala, Anthony. PY - 2009/2/1. Y1 - 2009/2/1. N2 - Embryonic stem cells are envisioned as a viable source of pluripotent cells for use in regenerative medicine applications when donor tissue is not available. However, most current harvest techniques for embryonic stem cells require the destruction of embryos, which has led to significant political and ethical limitations on their usage. Parthenogenesis, the process by which an egg can develop into an embryo in the absence of sperm, may be a potential source of embryonic stem cells that may avoid some of the political and ethical concerns surrounding embryonic stem cells. Here we provide the technical aspects of embryonic stem cell isolation and expansion from the parthenogenetic ...
When I was doing the chapter 5 guided reading, I spent most of my time reading about stem cells. I wanted to know more about what they are able to do and the controversy in using embryonic stem cells. The main characteristics of stem cells, that you most likely know, are as follows: they can renew themselves and they can differentiate. These two characteristics are what most scientists agree on. There are also two different types of stem cells used for research. They are adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells. Adult stem cells are more likely to be rejected than embryonic stem cells, so embryonic stem cells seem better to research with. This is where the controversy comes in. When taking these cells from an embryo, scientists are killing the human child it would have been developed into. So far, these embryonic stem cells come from unwanted embryos. Politicians are trying to make this type of research illegal because they think it kills human life. Im not saying whether this is right or ...
Researchers have identified the gene which controls the critical self-renewal function of stem cells. Both adult and embryonic stem cells are able to repeatedly renew themselves, which allows them to be grown up in large numbers in the laboratory before being differentiated into specific tissue types. Although both types of stem cell - adult and embryonic - are able to do this, embryonic stem cells are able to differentiate into a broader range of cell types than adult stem cells. A team of scientists led by Boris Reizis of Columbia University Medical Center in New York, working on mouse cells, found that the gene Zfx controls self-renewal in both embryonic stem cells and in haematopoietic stem cells - adult blood precursor cells. The researchers published their findings in the journal Cell.. Other genes have previously been found that promote self renewal in embryonic cells - Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 - but Zfx is the first to control the same function in both adult and embryonic stem cells. Reizis ...
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease line made from a never-frozen donated embryo.. The University of Michigans second human embryonic stem cell line has just been placed on the U.S. National Institutes of Healths registry, making the cells available for federally-funded research. It is the second of the stem cell lines derived at U-M to be placed on the registry.. The line, known as UM11-1PGD, was derived from a cluster of about 30 cells removed from a donated five-day-old embryo roughly the size of the period at the end of this sentence. That embryo was created for reproductive purposes, tested and found to be affected with a genetic disorder, deemed not suitable for implantation, and would therefore have otherwise been discarded when it was donated in 2011.. It carries the gene defect responsible for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a hereditary neurological disorder characterized by a slowly progressive degeneration of the muscles in the foot, lower leg and hand. CMT, as it is known, is one of the most ...
The ethically fraught field of embryonic stem cell research received much attention in late 2007 when induced pluripotent cells stem cells (iPSCs) were derived from somatic cells manipulated with the Yamanaka factors- Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc. These genes, which are highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, induce pluripotency and embryonic stem cell-like characteristics in human and mouse cells when overexpressed. Such cells hold promise for the field of regenerative medicine, and they dodge the controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells, since iPSCs can be derived from somatic cells, not embryos. Furthermore, they have demonstrated therapeutic benefit similar to that of embryonic stem cells. However, iPSCs are not free from drawbacks, and use could be limited in humans if viral transgenes are used in the induction process. This is especially true for oncogenes c-Myc and KLF4; reactivation of these in the host genome can lead to tumor formation. This has led researchers to examine the ...
Researchers first grew human embryonic stem cells in the lab in 1998, and policy on stem cells and human-animal chimeras followed two years later.. In August 2000, under President Bill Clinton, the NIH published a final rule that prohibited funding [r]esearch in which human pluripotent stem cells are combined with an animal embryo, along with providing the first guidelines for the kind of stem cell research that the agency would fund.. Since scientists hadnt yet developed induced pluripotent stem cells, this rule only applied to embryonic stem cells.. On Aug. 9, 2001, President George W. Bush limited the scope of stem cell research that could be federally funded to experiments using embryonic stem cell lines that had been derived prior to that day, among other limitations.. In November 2001, his administration also revoked the 2000 rule. But an NIH spokesperson told us, The policy that was in place under President Bush did not address human-animal chimeras specifically, and therefore did not ...
A concern raised some time ago is to determine whether the iPS cells produced from adult somatic cells have the specific characteristics of embryonic stem cells. If so, iPS cells could advantageously replace embryonic stem cells for experimental and clinical purposes, without the ethical difficu ...
Regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important functional role either in physiological or pathological conditions. The plasminogen activation (PA) system, comprising the uPA and tPA proteases and their inhibitor PAI-1, is one of the main suppliers of extracellular proteolytic activity contributing to tissue remodeling. Although its function in development is well documented, its precise role in mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation in vitro is unknown. We found that the PA system components are expressed at very low levels in undifferentiated ESCs and that upon differentiation uPA activity is detected mainly transiently, whereas tPA activity and PAI-1 protein are maximum in well differentiated cells. Adipocyte formation by ESCs is inhibited by amiloride treatment, a specific uPA inhibitor. Likewise, ESCs expressing ectopic PAI-1 under the control of an inducible expression system display reduced adipogenic capacities after induction of the gene. Furthermore, the adipogenic
Recently, a handful of intergenic long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to compete with mRNAs for binding to miRNAs and to contribute to development and disease. Beyond these reports, little is yet known of the extent and functional consequences of miRNA-mediated regulation of mRNA levels by lncRNAs. To gain further insight into lncRNA-mRNA miRNA-mediated crosstalk, we reanalyzed transcriptome-wide changes induced by the targeted knockdown of over 100 lncRNA transcripts in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We predicted that, on average, almost one-fifth of the transcript level changes induced by lncRNAs are dependent on miRNAs that are highly abundant in mESCs. We validated these findings experimentally by temporally profiling transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression following the loss of miRNA biogenesis in mESCs. Following the depletion of miRNAs, we found that |50% of lncRNAs and their miRNA-dependent mRNA targets were up-regulated coordinately, consistent with their interaction being
This unit describes a protocol for the isolation of cells from murine embryonic stem cells with hematopoietic stem cell activity, defined by the ability to reconstitute, long term, multiple lineages of the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice. The protocol subjects hematopoietic progenitors specified in differentiating embryoid bodies to ectopic HoxB4 expression (delivered via retroviral infection), followed by coculture and expansion on OP9 stromal cells in the presence of hematopoietic cytokines for 10 days. The protocol results in the generation of hundreds of millions of cells that can rescue mice from lethal irradiation. Although little is known about the phenotype and frequency of the actual hematopoietic stem cell-like cell within the population of cells generated by this protocol, the protocol establishes a system in which these cells can be further studied and the results ultimately translated to the human system. McKinney-Freeman, Shannon L.; Naveiras, Olaia; Daley, George Q.
The current epidemic of obesity has caused a surge of interest in the study of adipose tissue formation. While major progress has been made in defining the molecular networks that control adipocyte terminal differentiation, the early steps of adipocyte development and the embryonic origin of this lineage remain largely unknown. Here we performed genome-wide analysis of gene expression during adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We then pursued comprehensive bioinformatic analyses, including de novo functional annotation and curation of the generated data within the context of biological pathways, to uncover novel biological functions associated with the early steps of adipocyte development. By combining in-depth gene regulation studies and in silico analysis of transcription factor binding site enrichment, we also provide insights into the transcriptional networks that might govern these early steps. This study supports several biological findings: firstly, adipocyte development in mouse
Rat ES cells were derived using 3I medium from E4.5 blastocysts. Rat embryonic fibroblast cells were derived form E14.5 embryos. To analyze the mechanism under the selfrenewal of rat ES cells, microarrays were used for the genome wide analysis of gene expressoin profiles in rat ES cells. Rat embryonic fibroblast cells and mouse ES cells were tested at same time as control. Our results from clustering analysis demonstrated that the gene expression profile of rat ES cells resembles mouse ES cells, but not REFs. Keyword: 3I medium; rat embryonic stem cells; mouse ES cells; rat embryonic fibroblast cells Rat ES cells were cultured in 3I medium; rat embryonic fibroblast cells were derived and cultured GMEM/10% FBS; mouse ES cells (C57/BL6)were cultured in GMEM/10% FBS added LIF and feeder cells were removed before RNA extraction. Three replicates each.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene conversion during vector insertion in embryonic stem cells. AU - Hasty, Edward P. AU - Rivera-pérez, Jaime. AU - Bradley, Allan. PY - 1995/6/11. Y1 - 1995/6/11. N2 - Recombination of an insertion vector Into Its chromosomal homologue is a conservative event in that both the chromosomal and the vector sequences are preserved. However, gene conversion may accompany homologous recombination of an Insertion vector. To examine gene conversion in more detail we have determined the targeting frequencies and the structure of the recomblnant alleles generated with a series of vectors which target the hprt gene in embryonic stem cells. We demonstrate that gene conversion of the introduced mutation does not significantly limit homologous recombination and that gene conversion occurs without a sequence specific bias for five different mutations. The frequency of the loss of a vector mutation and the gain of a chromosomal sequence is Inversely proportional to the distance between the ...
1. Volarevic V, Ljujic B, Stojkovic P. et al. Human stem cell research and regenerative medicine: present and future. Br Med Bull. 2011;99:155-168 2. Volarevic V, Erceg S, Bhattacharya SS. et al. Stem cell-based therapy for spinal cord injury. Cell Transplant. 2013;22:1309-1323 3. Turner L, Knoepfler P. Selling Stem Cells in the USA: Assessing the Direct-to-Consumer Industry. Cell Stem Cell. 2016;19:154-157 4. Smith AG. Embryo-derived stem cells: of mice and men. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2001;17:435-462 5. Zhang X, Stojkovic P, Przyborski S. et al. Derivation of human embryonic stem cells from developing and arrested embryos. Stem Cells. 2006;24:2669-2676 6. Thomson JA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Shapiro SS. et al. Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science. 1998;28:1145114-1145117 7. Reubinoff BE, Pera MF, Fong CY. et al. Embryonic stem cell lines from human blastocysts: somatic differentiation in vitro. Nat Biotechnol. 2000;18:399-404 8. De Trizio E, Brennan CS. The business of ...
The complete relationship of embryonic stem cells (ESC) to cells in the mouse embryo remains controversial. advancement and is dropped after implantation. The regularity of deriving clonal ESC lines shows that all E4.5 epiblast cells may become ESC. We further display that ICM cells from early blastocysts can improvement to ERK-independence if given a particular laminin substrate. These results suggest that development from the epiblast coincides with competence for ERK-independent self-renewal and consequent propagation as ESC lines. Launch Mammalian preimplantation advancement establishes the founding cell people from the foetus and specifies two extraembryonic lineages. In mouse at throughout the 16-cell stage the external cells acquire trophectoderm identification; the inside cells form inner cell mass (ICM) which eventually segregates into primitive endoderm (PrE) and preimplantation epiblast. Epiblast cells exhibit pluripotency factors such as for example Oct4 Sox2 and Nanog1-5 whereas PrE ...
By Stuart P. Atkinson Current protocols for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) to clinically relevant cell types are woefully inefficient with many millions or tens of millions of ESC used for each differentiation, only to yield small proportions of the desired cell type. This entails large scale culture and amplification of ESC, often over a large period of
Those of us who are opposed to the use of embryonic stem cells for research are routinely accused of being hard-hearted toward those whose maladies can be addressed with stem cell research. Of course, this is not the case. We fully support adult stem cell research, but even if adult stem cells prove problematic in some cases I would still not support embryonic stem cell research when the embryo must be destroyed to obtain them.. When we think about saving lives we must count the cost. Is relieving the symptoms of disease worth the cost of the lives of the weakest and most defenseless members of society? Treating embryos with careless disregard will lead to further abuses down the road.. One of the problems with embryonic stem cells was the possibility of immune rejection. To avoid this, many want to clone the affected individual and use the embryonic stem cells from the clone. But this treats the human embryo as a thing, a clump of cells. The basis of this ethic is strictly the end justifies ...
ImStem Biotechnology has successfully treated an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS) using human embryonic stem cells (hESC) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), called hES-MSCs (…). Now researchers from ImStem, in collaboration with University of Connecticut Health Center (UCHC) and Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.(OTCBB:ACTC), have developed a novel therapy to treat MS with hES-MSCs.. They found that hES-MSCs are more effective in treating animal model of MS than MSCs from bone marrow of adult human donors (BM-MSC). This work is published in the June 5th 2014 online edition of Stem Cell Reports, the official journal of International Society for Stem Cell Research.. The beauty of the new hES-MSCs is their consistently high efficacy in MS model. This is a big surprise when we found that most BM-MSC lines show poor or no efficacy.. Additionally, BM-MSCs but not hES-MSCs express high level of IL-6, a proinflammatory cytokine can worsen the disease. This definitely adds more advantages to ...
With the introduction of just four factors researchers have successfu...The cells--which the researchers designate induced pluripotent stem c... Human embryonic stem cells might be used to treat a host of diseases...Those problems could be circumvented if pluripotent cells could be obt... We have demonstrated that pluripotent stem cells can be directly gene...,With,few,factors,,adult,cells,take,on,character,of,embryonic,stem,cells,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
The research, carried out by Dr Emmajayne Kingham at the University of Southampton in collaboration with the University of Glasgow and published in the journal Small, cultured human embryonic stem cells on to the surface of plastic materials and assessed their ability to change.. Scientists were able to use the nanotopographical patterns on the biomedical plastic to manipulate human embryonic stem cells towards bone cells. This was done without any chemical enhancement.. The materials, including the biomedical implantable material polycarbonate plastic, which is a versatile plastic used in things from bullet proof windows to CDs, offer an accessible and cheaper way of culturing human embryonic stem cells and presents new opportunities for future medical research in this area.. Professor Richard Oreffo, who led the University of Southampton team, explains: To generate bone cells for regenerative medicine and further medical research remains a significant challenge. However we have found that by ...
What are Stem Cells?. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the potential to become specialized types of cells. Stem cells can be categorized as embryonic stem cells or adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are derived from a human fetus; there are many ethical concerns with embryonic stem cells, and these are not used in our practice.. Stem Cells are the seeds that grow into new muscle, tendon, ligament, cartilage and bone. These primitive cells are stored in our bodies in several places but they are very rich and easily accessible in bone marrow. In the case of PRP-Therapy, a few local stem cells can be triggered to help rebuild damaged tissue and more may trickle in over time. When Stem cells are actively harvested from bone marrow, concentrated in a centrifuge and mixed with a PRP injection, the results can be much more profound. This is because many thousands more cells are directly introduced to the injured area which can result in much faster and more extensive repair.. ...
Experiments on pigs have shown that secretion from human embryonic stem cells can minimize heart injury by reducing tissue death by 60 per cent, say researchers.
0080]Stem cells may be stem cells recently obtained from a donor, and in certain preferred embodiments, the stem cells are autologous stem cells. Stem cells may also be from an established stem cell line that is propagated in vitro. Suitable stem cells include embryonic stems and adult stem cells, whether totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent or of lesser developmental capacity. Stem cells are preferably derived from mammals, such as rodents (e.g. mouse or rat), primates (e.g. monkeys, chimpanzees or humans), pigs, and ruminants (e.g. cows, sheep and goats). Examples of mouse embryonic stem cells include: the JM1 ES cell line described in M. Qiu et al., Genes Dev 9, 2523 (1995), and the ROSA line described in G. Friedrich, P. Soriano, Genes Dev 5, 1513 (1991), and mouse ES cells described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,190,910. Many other mouse ES lines are available from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, Me.). Examples of human embryonic stem cells include those available through the following suppliers: ...
"Embryonic Stem Cell". Archived from the original on 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2008-01-01. Frisch M, Melchinger AE (2005). " ... In gene knockout experiments in particular, where the knockout is performed on easily cultured stem cell lines, but is required ... with the percentage of genetic material from the original stem cells reduced to a minimum (in the order of 0.01%). Due to the ... but also the minimum percentage of genetic material from the original stem cell line. A consomic strain is an inbred strain ...
Houbaviy, HB; Murray MF; Sharp PA (2003). "Embryonic stem cell-specific MicroRNAs". Dev Cell. 5 (2): 351-358. doi:10.1016/S1534 ... It has been shown that miR-130a is expressed in the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell compartment but not in mature blood ... 2006). "Downregulation of miR-122 in the rodent and human hepatocellular carcinomas". J. Cell. Biochem. 99 (3): 671-8. doi: ... Mature microRNAs are processed from the precursor stem-loop by the Dicer enzyme. In this case, the mature sequence is excised ...
Houbaviy HB, Murray MF, Sharp PA (August 2003). "Embryonic stem cell-specific MicroRNAs". Developmental Cell. 5 (2): 351-8. doi ... miRNA libraries constructed from cloning and sequencing short RNAs derived from cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells have ... Once nutritional conditions becomes favorable, the expression of mir-235 is downregulated by IIS pathway, and stem cells leave ... These totipotent cells represent the earliest stages of mammalian development (they are derived from the inner cells of the ...
Houbaviy HB, Murray MF, Sharp PA (August 2003). "Embryonic stem cell-specific MicroRNAs". Developmental Cell. 5 (2): 351-8. doi ... "Ethanol-induced expression of ET-1 and ET-BR in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and human endothelial cells involves hypoxia ... was evaluated by transfecting cervical cancer cells (SiHa and ME-180) with anti-miR-199a oligonucleotides and the cell ... Dostie J, Mourelatos Z, Yang M, Sharma A, Dreyfuss G (February 2003). "Numerous microRNPs in neuronal cells containing novel ...
Houbaviy HB, Murray MF, Sharp PA (Aug 2003). "Embryonic stem cell-specific MicroRNAs". Developmental Cell. 5 (2): 351-8. doi: ... The presence of miR-34 products has also been confirmed in embryonic stem cells. miR-34 has been shown to be maternally ... The precursor miRNA stem-loop is processed in the cytoplasm of the cell, with the predominant miR-34 mature sequence excised ... p53-deficient human gastric cancer cells, restoration of functional miR-34 inhibits cell growth and induces chemosensitization ...
Houbaviy, HB; Murray MF; Sharp PA (2003). "Embryonic stem cell-specific MicroRNAs". Dev Cell. 5 (2): 351-358. doi:10.1016/S1534 ... increased during the induction of endothelial cell differentiation in embryonic stem cells (tested on murine) or induce ... B-cell lymphomas * Cell lines * Cerebellum * Purkinje cells * HeLa cells Finally they have tissues-specific miRNA expression. ... 2012). "Role of the MicroRNA-17-92 Cluster in the Endothelial Differentiation of Stem Cells". Journal of Vascular Research. 49 ...
"Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved June 24, 2007. Works of John Wesley, vol. XVI, ... It supports research on stem cells retrieved from umbilical cords and adult stem cells, stating that there are "few moral ...
doi: 10.1093/cb/cbn006 Tuffs, A. (2001). Germany debates embryonic stem cell research. BMJ Publishing Group, 8, 323. Taylor, R ... The Protestant leadership in Germany is divided on the issue of stem cell research, however those opposing liberalising laws ... The Case of Stem Cell Research. Christian Bioethics, 14(1), 95-107. ... contributing to the debate around bioethics and stem cell research. ...
As embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass at the blastocyst stage, removing them from the inner cell mass ... Removal of LIF pushes stem cells toward differentiation, however genetic manipulation of embryonic stem cells allows for LIF ... Martello G, Smith A (2014). "The nature of embryonic stem cells". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 30: 647-75. ... LIF is often added to stem cell culture media as an alternative to feeder cell culture, due to the limitation that feeder cells ...
Capito supports embryonic stem cell research. In 2001, Capito voted for a bill to ban the cloning of human embryos. In May 2005 ... Also in 2007, Capito again voted in favor of funding stem-cell research. She also voted in favor of research using stem cells ... to repeal restrictions on embryonic stem-cell research funding. Capito also voted in 2006 to attempt to override President ...
"Stem Cells in Limbo". Time. Archived from the original on May 2, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2008. "Bush Vetoes Embryonic Stem ... Bush has said he supports adult stem cell research and has supported federal legislation that finances adult stem cell research ... However, Bush did not support embryonic stem cell research. On August 9, 2001, Bush signed an executive order lifting the ban ... "President Discusses Stem Cell Research". Office of the President. Archived from the original on May 6, 2013. "NIH's Role in ...
Reid supported embryonic stem cell research. Regarding same-sex marriage, Reid initially believed that "marriage should be ... Reid, Harry M. "George Bush Vetos Stem Cell Research". giveemhellharry.com. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. ...
ES cells and ES cells. The combination of embryonic stem cell and diploid embryo is a common technique used for the making of ... If embryonic stem cells are to be used for gene targeting to make a chimera, the following procedure is common: a construct for ... Ledermann, B (2000). "Embryonic Stem Cell and Gene Targeting". Experimental Physiology. 85 (6): 603-613. doi:10.1017/ ... These kinds of chimeras can be made through either aggregation of stem cells and the diploid embryo or injection of the stem ...
... limits to embryonic stem cell research; constitutional marriage protection amendments; access to birth control and emergency ...
"House passes embryonic stem cell bill". CNN. 2005-05-25. Retrieved 2010-05-01. "President Bush Delivers Remarks On U.S. Space ... President Bush supported adult stem cell research and umbilical cord blood stem cell research. However, Bush opposed any new ... embryonic stem cell research, and had limited the federal funding of existing research. Federal funding for embryonic stem cell ... While Bush claimed that more than 60 embryonic stem cell lines already existed from privately funded research, scientists in ...
He opposes embryonic stem cell research. He opposes human cloning. Rogers has a "D" rating from NORML for his voting history ...
... the Stem Cell and Policy Award from the Genetics Policy Institute (2005); Pioneer in Embryonic Stem Cell Research (2006) ... use of human and primate stem cells to determine the potential of stem cell-based medical therapies and better understand cell ... Schatten G, Smith J, Navara C, Park JH, Pedersen R (June 2005). "Culture of human embryonic stem cells". Nature Methods. 2 (6 ... With Roger Pedersen (Cambridge, UK), Schatten established "Frontiers in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research", an NIH-sponsored ...
She supports embryonic stem-cell research. She was given a 50% rating from NARAL Pro-Choice America and a 67% rating from ...
Allen ND, Plagge A, Kelsey G (2000). "Directed Mutagenesis in Embryonic Stem Cells". In Jackson IJ, Abbott CM (eds.). Mouse ... When using the Tet system in cell culture, it is important to confirm that each batch of fetal bovine serum is tested to ... The two most commonly used inducible expression systems for research of eukaryote cell biology are named Tet-Off and Tet-On. ... Also, since the 19bp tet-o sequence is naturally absent from mammalian cells, pleiotropy is thought to be minimized compared to ...
"X Chromosome Inactivation and Embryonic Stem Cells", The Cell Biology of Stem Cells, Springer US, 695, pp. 132-154, doi:10.1007 ... "X Chromosome Inactivation and Embryonic Stem Cells". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology the Cell Biology of Stem ... XCI is initiated very early during female embryonic development or upon differentiation of female embryonic stem (ES) cells and ... to eight-cell stage and is maintained in the developing extra-embryonic tissues of the embryo, including the fetal placenta. ...
Hu Q, Rosenfeld MG (2012). "Epigenetic regulation of human embryonic stem cells". Frontiers in Genetics. 3: 238. doi:10.3389/ ... Cell division is essential for an organism to grow, but, when a cell divides, it must replicate the DNA in its genome so that ... Within eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. Before typical cell division, these ... to fit the small available volumes of the cell. In eukaryotes, DNA is located in the cell nucleus, with small amounts in ...
He opposes the funding of research that uses embryonic stem cells. Johnson has said he disagrees with it morally and that ... Ramde, Dinesh (October 2, 2010). "Johnson opposes funding for embryonic stem cells". The Herald Times Reporter. Manitowoc, WI. ...
Embryonic stem cells incorporate the altered gene, which replaces the already present functional copy. These stem cells are ... In animals it is necessary to ensure that the inserted DNA is present in the embryonic stem cells. Bacteria consist of a single ... Suter DM, Dubois-Dauphin M, Krause KH (July 2006). "Genetic engineering of embryonic stem cells" (PDF). Swiss Medical Weekly. ... Cloning and stem cell research, although not considered genetic engineering, are closely related and genetic engineering can be ...
"A method to recapitulate early embryonic spatial patterning in human embryonic stem cells". Nature Methods. 11 (8): 847-854. ... Cell Stem Cell. 3 (5): 508-518. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2008.09.013. PMC 2683270. PMID 18983966. Baillie-Johnson, Peter; Brink, ... The term Gastruloid has been expanded to include self-organised human embryonic stem cell arrangements on patterned (micro ... Gastruloids are three dimensional aggregates of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that, under appropriate culture conditions, develop ...
"USCCB on embryonic stem cell research" (PDF). Retrieved July 6, 2017. Code of Canon Law, canon 1314 Code of Canon Law, canon ... The Church considers the destruction of any embryo to be equivalent to abortion, and thus opposes embryonic stem cell research ... Newport, Frank (March 30, 2009). "Catholics Similar to Mainstream on Abortion, Stem Cells". Gallup. The same poll reported ... assisted suicide and stem-cell research." The incoming Obama administration proposed to rescind this rule. Attempts have been ...
"X Chromosome Inactivation and Embryonic Stem Cells". In Meshorer E, Plath K (eds.). The Cell Biology of Stem Cells. Landes ... deficient cells and normal cells, depending on whether the inactivated X chromosome (in the nucleus of the red cell's precursor ... imprinted X-inactivation is reversed in the cells of the inner cell mass (which give rise to the embryo), and in these cells ... In these modified stem cells, the Xist-mediated gene silencing seems to reverse some of the defects associated with Down ...
... some members actively oppose the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research beyond the original lines because it involves ... while arguing for applying research money into adult stem cell or amniotic stem cell research. The stem cell issue has garnered ... moderate Republicans and the politics of embryonic stem cell research". The Sociological Review: 623-637. Woodruff, Betsy (2015 ... Stem Cell Information]]. Stemcells.nih.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-15. GOP OKs platform barring abortions, gay marriage retrieved ...
She also opposes embryonic stem cell research. In 2018, Handel received a 0% score from NARAL Pro-Choice America for her voting ...
doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.12.026 Germain, N., Banda, E., & Grabel, L. (2010). Embryonic Stem Cell Neurogenesis and Neural ... An Intrinsic mechanism of corticogenesis from embryonic stem cells. Nature, 455:351-357.. ... Sonic hedgehog signaling coordinates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells by regulating cell ... in both human and mouse embryos have been accomplished with a three dimensional culture using embryonic stem cells (ESC). ...
Another method is Embryonic Stem Cell-Mediated Gene Transfer. The gene is transfected into embryonic stem cells and then they ... There are many ways to directly introduce DNA into animal cells in vitro. Often these cells are stem cells that are used for ... For animals, the gene is typically inserted into embryonic stem cells, while in plants it can be inserted into any tissue that ... In animals it is necessary to ensure that the inserted DNA is present in the embryonic stem cells. Offspring can be screened ...
The book covers the derivation of human stem cell lines, the obtaining of cells from human stem cell banks, the culturing and ... Human Embryonic Stem Cells: The Practical Handbook contains the first centralised collection of methods used in human embryonic ... Stem Cell Institute have compiled and edited the definite handbook for the exciting new field of human embryonic stem cell ... will help many to navigate the uncharted waters of human embryonic stem cell biology. BRITISH SOCIETY FOR CELL BIOLOGY ... the ...
Embryonic stem cell research oversight.. All embryonic stem cell work was preapproved by the University of Washington Embryonic ... Histone deacetylase inhibition elicits an evolutionarily conserved self-renewal program in embryonic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell ... Teratomas derived from embryonic stem cells as models for embryonic development, disease, and tumorigenesis. Embryonic Stem ... 2013) Tuning of β-catenin activity is required to stabilize self-renewal of rat embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells 31(10):2104- ...
Derivation of embryonic stem cell lines.. Abbondanzo SJ1, Gadi I, Stewart CL. ... Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Roche Research Center, Nutley, New Jersey 07110.. ...
... scientists from Brigham and Womens Hospital have discovered a way to change mature adult stem cells back to a pluripotent ... How safe are human embryonic stem cell transplants? Although the potential therapeutic uses of human embryonic stem cells have ... However, unlike human embryonic stem cells that are able to grow into any type of mature cell, adult cells can only grow into ... Stem cell research has raised ethical concerns in the past, as extracting human embryonic stem cells from a 4- or 5-day-old ...
In this case, researchers at Advanced Cell Technology turned embryonic stem cells into retinal pigment epithelial cells. ... Human embryonic stem cells can theoretically be turned into any type of cell in the body and might one day be used to treat ... One safety concern in using embryonic stem cells is that if any of the cells get into the body, they could form tumors. The ... Sue Freeman said her vision improved in a meaningful way after the treatment, which used embryonic stem cells. Credit Monica ...
Potentiality of embryonic stem cells: an ethical problem even with alternative stem cell sources. ... These results define R278.5 cells as an embryonic stem cell line, to our knowledge, the first to be derived from any primate ... Factors from Human Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Fibroblast-like Cells Promote Topology-dependent Hepatic Differentiation in ... Pancreatic Precursors and Differentiated Islet Cell Types From Murine Embryonic Stem Cells: An In Vitro Model to Study Islet ...
Purchase Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells, Volume 365 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121822682, ... including mouse embryonic stem cells, mouse embryonic germ cells, monkey and human embryonic stem cells, and gene discovery. ... Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells, Volume 365 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... This volume covers all aspects of embryonic stem cell differentiation, ...
... non-embryonic source for stem cells, as well brain, liver, and bone cell types as well. The cells, found in amniotic fluid, can ... Why do we need an "alternative" to embryonic stem cells anyway? Embryonic stem cells work perfectly well, and are usually ... No opponent of embryonic stem cell research opposes the use of non-embryonic stem cells; most of us are happy to point to the ... In fact, embryonic stem cells cause monster tumors.. The argument usually goes that scientists _hope_ embryonic stem cells will ...
... researchers have isolated 11 new lines of stem cells that exactly match the patients own DNA. ... By priming embryonic cells with genetic material from people with problems that stem cells may one day treat, ... These cells slow an immune response. Derailing them could help fight tumors By Esther Landhuis. July 10, 2020. ...
The Ethics of Funding Embryonic Stem Cell Research: A Catholic Viewpoint The Ethics and Politics of Small Sacrifices in Stem ... Embryonic stem cells, which have the potential to save many lives, must be recovered from aborted fetuses or live embryos. ... obtaining stem cells from embryos necessarily kills them, thus raising difficult questions about the use of embryonic human ... It argues that stem cell research with spare embryos produced during infertility treatment, or even embryos created ...
... the cells of the preparation are human embryonic stem cells, have normal karyotypes, and continue to proliferate in an ... The embryonic stem cell lines also retain the ability, throughout the culture, to form trophoblast and to differentiate into ... A method for isolating a primate embryonic stem cell line is also disclosed. ... This preparation is characterized by the following cell surface markers: SSEA-1 (−); SSEA-4 (+); TRA-1-60 (+); TRA-1-81 (+); ...
Research on stem embryonic stem cells We live in a world where genetic sciences have gone beyond laws, and past the imagination ... Embryonic stem cells research is the most debated type of stem cell research. The moral standings of embryonic stem cell ... Embryonic Stem Cell Research Essay. 710 Words 3 Pages Research on stem embryonic stem cells. We live in a world where genetic ... The Debate Of Embryonic Stem Cell Research. 1292 Words , 6 Pages * Embryonic Stem Cell Research: To Be or Not To Be? Essay. ...
Many people believe that embryonic stem cell research could produce major medical breakthroughs. Others believe that it ... And your scoring is again unfair on this - Cameron says he supports stem cell research, but that it should be adult stem cells ... there are already some reports which suggest that embryonic stem cell research may not be required in the future and stem cells ... Embryonic stem cell research?. I do hope youre going to publish the results of asking the candidates some questions that the ...
In addition, stem cells exhibit properties of cells that undergo EMT. Strikingly, both normal and cancer stem cells can be ... Embryonic Pathway Delivers Stem Cell Traits. 19.05.2008. Cells that undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) show ... "This suggests cancer stem cells are using pre-existing normal stem cell machinery to propagate their own self-renewal and ... In embryonic development, the EMT process breaks up cell-cell adhesion in the epithelial layer, and converts epithelial cells ...
UCSF researchers have for the first time developed a method to precisely control embryonic stem cell differentiation with beams ... UCSF researchers control embryonic stem cells with light Study reveals stem cells molecular timing mechanism ... During embryonic development, stem cells perform an elaborately timed dance as they transform from their neutral, ... UCSF researchers control embryonic stem cells with light. University of California - San Francisco ...
Jeanne Loring, a stem-cell biologist at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, who is also planning stem-cell ... Trials of Embryonic Stem Cells to Launch in China. Studies to treat vision loss and Parkinsons disease are the first to ... This will mark the start of the first clinical trial in China using human embryonic stem (ES) cells, and the first one ... The 2015 regulations state that hospitals planning to carry out stem-cell clinical work must use government-certified ES-cell ...
The treatment involves replacing a layer of degenerated cells with new ones created from embryonic stem cells. It was pioneered ... If the Left wants to lie about the wonders of embryonic stem cells, they would be wise to select a less complex and miraculous ... The only thing that has happened with embryonic stem cell research is that people have developed cancer. ... This is probably the first time embryonic stem cells have ever worked for something ...
... scientists have found a simple way to reprogram mature animal cells back into an embryonic-like state that allows them to ... In experiments that could open a new era in stem cell biology, ... Scientists hail breakthrough in embryonic-like stem cells. ... LONDON (Reuters) - In experiments that could open a new era in stem cell biology, scientists have found a simple way to ... reprogram mature animal cells back into an embryonic-like state that allows them to generate many types of tissue. The research ...
Embryonic stem cell research differs from other kinds of stem cell research, which use adult stem cells extracted from a donor. ... Embryonic stem cells can become all cell types of the body because they are pluripotent. Adult stem cells are thought to be ... Human embryonic and adult stem cells each have advantages and disadvantages regarding potential use for cell-based regenerative ... Read: TET1 Protein Creates Embryonic Cells. Scientists and stem cell research supporters were shocked by the ruling. "This ...
Technical and financial hurdles add to ethical and safety concerns over embryonic stems cells while adult stem cells are ... First human embryonic stem cell bank in the UK. The first human embryonic stem (hES) cell bank was officially opened in the UK ... There are two main kinds of stem cells: embryonic stem cells isolated from the inner cell mass of an early embryo, which are ... No Case for Embryonic Stem Cells Research. Technical and financial hurdles add to ethical and safety concerns over embryonic ...
... political debates rage about expanding federal funding for embryonic stem cell research. Current policy only allows federal ... Legislation currently being discussed would allow funding for research on new stem cell lines derived from surplus embryos from ... monies to be used for research on 21 stem cell lines that existed before 2001. ... Keywords: embryonic stem cells , stem cell lines , stem cell education , stem cells ...
Directed differentiation of dendritic cells from mouse embryonic stem cells.. Fairchild PJ1, Brook FA, Gardner RL, Graça L, ... Protocols for the genetic manipulation of embryonic stem (ES) cells are, by contrast, well established [5], as is their ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are uniquely capable of presenting antigen to naive T cells, either eliciting immunity [1] or ensuring ... from mouse ES cells, of long-term cultures of immature DCs that share many characteristics with macrophages, but acquire, upon ...
Arguments that adult stem cell research or non embryonic methods deriving plutipotent stem cells should be pursued instead of ... IPSCs are not ready for human trials-tumors like ES cells, dont you know. There are no embryonic stem cell trials ongoing- ... including those that resemble embryonic stem cells, which in theory can turn into any type of cell in the body - from a simple ... What Happened to (Our Only Hope) Embryonic Stem Cell Research? By Wesley J. Smith * About Wesley J. Smith ...
These cells are cultured on a prolonged and stable basis in the presence of exogenously supplied fibroblast growth factor and ... Disclosed herein are methods for culturing primate embryonic stem cells. ... Preferably the primate embryonic stem cells that are cultured using this method are human embryonic stem cells that are true ES ... In one aspect the invention provides a method of culturing primate embryonic stem cells. One cultures the stem cells in a ...
... the embryonic stem cell gene Nanog kicked into action dormant cellular processes that are key to preventing weak bones, clogged ... functioning stem cells, stem cells no longer functioning due to Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS), and stem cells ... noting that the embryonic stem cell gene worked in three different models of aging: cells isolated from aged donors, cells aged ... Embryonic gene Nanog reverses aging in adult stem cells The discovery may lead to treatments for atherosclerosis, osteoporosis ...
Guidelines for the Conduct of Embryonic Stem Cell Research . So, how far do the ISSCR Guidelines allow embryonic stem cell ... If the media told the TRUTH about the incredible breakthroughs in ADULT stem cell research, the embryonic stem cell debate ... Stice s neural cell kits created from human embryonic stem cell lines last up to six months. We ve never tested to see how far ... Stices neural cell kits created from human embryonic stem cell lines last up to six months. "Weve never tested to see how far ...
Interestingly, other epithelial cell fates are not affected, allowing the production of K5/K18-positive epithelial cells. ... using an in vitro ES cell model that mimics the early embryonic steps of epidermal development. We show that the ΔNp63 isoform ... a morphogen required to commit differentiating ES cells from a neuroectodermal to an ectodermal cell fate. ΔNp63 gene ... but is necessary for the commitment of ES cells into K5/K14-positive squamous stratified epithelial cells. ...
Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been proposed as a potential donor- ... Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent a potential source of megakaryocytes and platelets for ... Embryonic stem cells as sources of donor-independent platelets. Matthew C. Canver,1 Daniel E. Bauer,1,2,3 and Stuart H. Orkin1, ... Differences between human and mouse embryonic stem cells. Dev Biol. 2004;269(2):360-380.. View this article via: PubMed ...
First Embryonic Stem Cells From Rats »Medicine »Stem »USC »Ying »autoimmune diseases »biomedical research »embryonic stem cell ... Further reports about: , Cell , Embryonic , First Embryonic Stem Cells From Rats , Medicine , Stem , USC , Ying , autoimmune ... Embryonic stem cells are derived from a group of cells called the inner cell mass in a very early stage embryo. ES cells ... embryonic stem cell , high blood pressure , human diseases , medical research , specific gene , stem cells ...
... by Denny Burk, posted Wednesday, August 09, 2006 (13 years ago) ... www.bpnews.net/23767/firstperson-is-embryonic-stemcell-research-murder ... By and large, people are turning a blind eye to these unborn, embryonic humans. But Tony Snow has given those of us who care ... They will argue that the need for medical advances outweighs the right of these embryonic humans not to be killed. Anyone who ...
  • A paper in this week's Cell describes how a team in Oregon finally achieved what many scientists have expected--and many others have dreaded: they derived embryonic stem cells from human embryos that they created in the lab themselves. (forbes.com)
  • Shoukhrat Mitalipov and his team at Oregon Health and Science University were able to generate the embryos through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), otherwise known as cloning . (forbes.com)
  • Further evidence of their robustness was confirmed when Mitalipov's team was able to differentiate the embryonic stem cells from the cloned embryos into contracting heart cells. (forbes.com)
  • These stem cells do not require the use of human embryos for their derivation, and they can be generated from any cell in the adult body. (forbes.com)
  • If patient-specific stem cells made from SCNT embryos turn out to be healthier and more robust than the 'standard' iPSCs, there could be a significant demand for SCNT-derived stem cells. (forbes.com)
  • In 1981, researchers managed to culture stem cells from mouse embryos. (nature.com)
  • Three years later, using donated embryos that had gone unused in fertility treatments, Thomson struck again, creating the world's first human ES-cell line 6 . (nature.com)
  • Researchers also discussed plans to derive stem cells from embryos made by a process called somatic-cell nuclear transfer - the same method used to create cloned animals such as Dolly the sheep - in which the nucleus from an adult donor cell is transferred into a human egg that has had its nucleus removed. (nature.com)
  • But the field has been controversial because the creation of the stem cells usually entails the destruction of human embryos. (nytimes.com)
  • That someone figured out that embryos aren't humans on a Slashdot discussion is of no concern to faith-based folks like George W. Amniotic stem cells can't become a baby, so no one cares. (slashdot.org)
  • If we agree not to harvest embryos for stem cells because they are human, then they must be human when considering an abortion. (slashdot.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells, which have the potential to save many lives, must be recovered from aborted fetuses or live embryos. (jhu.edu)
  • Although tissue from aborted fetuses can be used without moral complicity in the underlying abortion, obtaining stem cells from embryos necessarily kills them, thus raising difficult questions about the use of embryonic human material to save others. (jhu.edu)
  • It argues that stem cell research with spare embryos produced during infertility treatment, or even embryos created specifically for research or therapeutic purposes, is ethically acceptable and should receive federal funding. (jhu.edu)
  • Mouse ES cells are undifferentiated, pluripotent cells derived in vitro from preimplantation embryos (Evans, at al. (google.es)
  • Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50-150 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolating the embryoblast, or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, a process which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage have the same moral considerations as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), derived from the blastocyst stage of early mammalian embryos, are distinguished by their ability to differentiate into any embryonic cell type and by their ability to self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • This will mark the start of the first clinical trial in China using human embryonic stem (ES) cells, and the first one worldwide aimed at treating Parkinson's disease using ES cells from fertilized embryos. (scientificamerican.com)
  • participants there received stem cells from parthenogenetic embryos-unfertilized eggs that are triggered in the lab to start embryonic development. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Newser) - Last week's breakthrough in stem-cell research-the creation of cells from skin rather than embryos-is a tremendous scientific advance, writes Michael Kinsley in Time magazine. (newser.com)
  • Those who cry foul over the use of human blastocysts for stem-cell research are ignoring the fact that the in-vitro fertilization clinics they often support would discard those same embryos, explains Kinsley, a Parkinson's sufferer. (newser.com)
  • On Monday, US federal district judge Royce C. Lamberth ruled that President Obama's 2009 executive order that expanded embryonic stem cell research violated the Dickey-Wicker Amendment on federal money being used for any "research in which a human embryo or embryos are destroyed, discarded or knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Research involving embryonic stem cells is usually conducted with four to five day old embryos created from in-vitro fertilization and ultimately discarded from fertility clinics. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The first executive branch move to block federal funding for the creation of embryos for stem cell research came in 1994 under President Bill Clinton. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Under Obama's order, the administration allowed financing of research into any embryonic stem cell lines that either were allowed by the Bush administration or had been created using embryos discarded after fertilization procedures and in which donors had given clear consent for the embryos to be used for research purposes. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Although the administration claims the rules abided by the Dickey-Wicker Amendment because the federal money would only be used once the stem cells were created and would not finance the process to destroy embryos, Judge Lamberth disagreed. (emaxhealth.com)
  • There are two ways of creating hES cells depending on the source of human embryos, which are destroyed in the process. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The second, much more controversial, is embryos created by somatic cell nuclear transplant (SCNT), which gave rise to Dolly the cloned sheep. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Researchers reported in Nature on November 22, 2007, that they successfully isolated 2 embryonic stem cell lines from cloned embryos made using cells from the skin of an adult rhesus macaque. (nih.gov)
  • Primate (e.g. monkey and human) pluripotent embryonic stem cells have been derived from preimplantation embryos. (google.com)
  • Remember those quaint old days when biotechnologists told us that all they wanted to effectuate embryonic stem cell research (ESCR) was merely access to leftover in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos that were going to be tossed out anyway? (freerepublic.com)
  • Indeed, not only did the NAS give its imprimatur to using leftover embryos in embryonic stem cell research, but also supported creating embryos solely for the purpose of experimentation using both in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning methods. (freerepublic.com)
  • A lo-o-o-ong way: Like the NAS, the ISSCR explicitly endorsed creating new human embryos --both natural and cloned for destruction and use in stem-cell research. (freerepublic.com)
  • Indeed, to date there have been no credible reports of more than rudimentary human embryos being created through this technique and none that were able to be developed to the point that embryonic stem cells could be derived. (freerepublic.com)
  • If MYC is turned off in mice, embryonic stem cells and early embryos enter a reversible biochemical state of dormancy. (dkfz.de)
  • But it is an important step in research because it does not require the use of embryos in creating the type of stem cell capable of transforming into any other type of cell in the body. (bloggernews.net)
  • It acknowledges that embryonic stem cell research is controversial because it destroys embryos. (cbc-network.org)
  • He calls adult stem cells the "true gold standard of regenerative medicine," while nearly two decades of media hype and the infusion of billions of research dollars on stem cells culled from human embryos have produced exactly zero published reports of validated success in a single patient. (ncregister.com)
  • The Virginia-based Charlotte Lozier Institute has been trying to raise awareness about the successes of adult stem-cell therapies, against a mainstream media that seems to ignore them while championing more research on embryos. (ncregister.com)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from blastocyst-stage embryos and are thought to be functionally equivalent to the inner cell mass, which lacks the ability to produce all extraembryonic tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Here we identify a rare transient cell population within mouse ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell cultures that expresses high levels of transcripts found in two-cell (2C) embryos in which the blastomeres are totipotent. (nih.gov)
  • The derivation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells currently requires the destruction of ex utero embryos. (nih.gov)
  • The ability to create new stem cell lines and therapies without destroying embryos would address the ethical concerns of many, and allow the generation of matched tissue for children and siblings born from transferred PGD embryos. (nih.gov)
  • Embryonic stem cell research, which some scientists predict will lead to treatments for devastating diseases, is the focus of a divisive national debate over whether human embryos from the moment of creation through the eighth week of growth should be protected as individual lives. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Louisiana is the only state to ban research on stem cells from embryos left over from in vitro fertilization. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The judgment, by U.S. District Judge Royce Lamberth, upheld President Barack Obama's March 2009 Executive Order allowing the use of federal funds to study human embryonic stem cells already derived by the destruction of embryos and those that would be derived in the future. (ucsf.edu)
  • The 2001 order reflected Bush's recognition of the value of embryonic stem cell research, but also his moral opposition to the destruction of embryos. (ucsf.edu)
  • The lawsuit filed by plaintiffs James L. Sherley and Theresa Deisher claimed that, by funding human embryonic stem cell research, the NIH violated the 1996 Dickey-Wicker Amendment, which prohibits the use of federal funds for work that destroys embryos. (ucsf.edu)
  • The embryo that is the source of embryonic stem cells comes from the surplus embryos from in vitro fertilisation. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • With iPS cells there are no concerns over the destruction of human embryos. (singularityhub.com)
  • By not relying on human embryonic stem cells (hESC), Okano and his team sidestep a contentious debate over the use of destroyed embryos. (singularityhub.com)
  • As a result, the Vatican opposes embryonic stem cell research because embryos are destroyed in the process. (mdtmag.com)
  • Stem cells from embryos, however, involve the destruction of a human life and have not yet offered any useful treatments. (icr.org)
  • When President George W. Bush introduced a policy in August 2001 that prevented federal funding for stem cell research involving embryos, guidelines regarding the use of embryonic stem cells had already been established in labs and remained on the table. (icr.org)
  • But last month U.S. District Court Judge Royce Lamberth issued a preliminary injunction in which he stated that the research violated a 1996 law banning the use of taxpayer money to derive stem cells from embryos. (phys.org)
  • The cells are derived from excess embryos created during in vitro fertilization therapies that would eventually be discarded. (phys.org)
  • Opponents say the research is another form of abortion because human embryos must be destroyed to obtain the stem cells. (phys.org)
  • As a result of that law, government policy has been to work with stem cells after private money is used to cull them from embryos. (phys.org)
  • IVF has also opened what many regard as a Pandora 's Box of genetic engineering, cloning, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (screening out of embryos), embryonic stem cell harvesting, research on three parent babies and animal-human hybrids. (onemoresoul.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells have been at the center of funding controversies because the research involves destroying the embryos, which some have argued is akin to abortion. (goldsea.com)
  • From its inception, however, it has raised ethical concerns based not on the use of stem cells themselves but on objections to the source of the cells-specifically, the destruction of preimplantation human embryos. (aappublications.org)
  • Research is ongoing to identify novel and more efficient methods of obtaining stem cells from human embryos, and it is anticipated that this area will continue to evolve. (aappublications.org)
  • The act of reprogramming cells to make them as capable as ones from embryos apparently can result in aberrant cells that age and die abnormally, suggesting there is a long way to go to prove such cells are really like embryonic stem cells and can find use in therapies. (scientificamerican.com)
  • You hear all this dialogue in the media and scientific community about how iPS cells are just the same as embryonic stem cells, how they can solve the whole controversy by removing the need for embryos,' says stem cell scientist Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Mass. 'There's a lot of excitement about iPS cells, but no one wants to hear about the problems. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A September poll of medical professionals showed that while 66% favor the use of stem cells taken from embryos, a majority (55%) recognize the ethical concerns with that approach. (catholicculture.org)
  • Research on human embryonic stem cells has been mired in controversy and political attacks over fears about destroying human embryos to harvest stem cells-even though ACT and other firms have found ways to produce stem cells without harming embryos. (xconomy.com)
  • Hearing of efforts to combat proposed legislation that would permit couples to donate leftover embryos for stem-cell research, the Smith's offered their participation as a couple able to personalize the issue for the public. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Embryonic stem cell research and treatment has been debated by the Roman Catholic Church, which values unborn embryos as human life. (chron.com)
  • There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic ones, harvested from embryos, and adult or iPS cells, which are taken from skin or blood and reprogrammed back into stem cells. (lfpress.com)
  • Stem cells derived from human embryos, it was claimed, provided the best hope for relief of human suffering. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • The three proposed solutions to this incompatibility problem (generating large banks of stem cell lines, cloning human embryos to provide a source of cells that perfectly match the patient, or genetically engineering stem cells to reduce immune rejection) were either socially, scientifically, or morally problematic (or all three). (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • Once we were able to clone human embryos, those embryos would provide patient-specific stem cell repair kits for anyone requiring cell-replacement therapies. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • The researchers, at Oregon Health and Science University, took skin cells from a baby with a genetic disease and fused them with donated human eggs to create human embryos that were genetically identical to the 8-month-old. (nytimes.com)
  • They then extracted stem cells from those embryos. (nytimes.com)
  • Nonetheless, the fact that the scientists were able to get cloned human embryos to survive long enough for stem cell extraction is likely to be seen as a step on the way to human reproductive cloning. (nytimes.com)
  • Human embryonic cells are now mainly derived from embryos created by fertilization in fertility clinics. (nytimes.com)
  • Still, the demand for therapeutic cloning may be less now than it was a decade ago because scientists can now use adult skin cells to create a stem cell very similar to embryonic cells, but without the need for embryos. (nytimes.com)
  • The induced cells also sidestep the ethical issues of embryonic stem cells, which are often created by destroying embryos. (nytimes.com)
  • Combining nephron progenitor cells and ureteric buds from pluripotent stem cells, with interstitial progenitor cells from a mouse embryos results in the formation of kidney higher-order structures. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although human embryonic stem cells can be isolated from aborted fetuses and/or embryos produced by in vitro fertilization techniques on an as-needed basis, alternate sources, such as cultured embryonic stem cell lines, are preferred both for ethical and economic reasons. (google.es)
  • This position was reinforced by President George W. Bush, who, in August 2001, strengthened the ban on federal funding by barring federal funds for research on all but a few existing embryonic stem cell lines. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The thorough and timely volume summarizes the methods that may be used to differentiate these cells along the desired lineage of choice, be it osteoblasts, osteoclasts, or chondrocytes, and consequentially also offers analysis tools for the characterization of resulting cells and evaluation of differentiation effectiveness. (springer.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells have the ability to remain undifferentiated and proliferate indefinitely in vitro while maintaining the potential to differentiate into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. (pnas.org)
  • R278.5 cells remain undifferentiated when grown on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers but differentiate or die in the absence of fibroblasts, despite the presence of recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor. (pnas.org)
  • R278.5 cells allowed to differentiate in vitro secrete bioactive chorionic gonadotropin into the medium, express chorionic gonadotropin alpha- and beta-subunit mRNAs, and express alpha-fetoprotein mRNA, indicating trophoblast and endoderm differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • When injected into severe combined immunodeficient mice, R278.5 cells consistently differentiate into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. (pnas.org)
  • Once an embryo is a few days old, the stem cells start to differentiate into particular tissue types, and pluripotency is forever lost. (redorbit.com)
  • These proteins were known to play essential roles in maintaining stem cell identity--if they are disabled, the stem cell immediately begins to differentiate and is thus no longer a stem cell. (redorbit.com)
  • The embryonic stem cell lines also retain the ability, throughout the culture, to form trophoblast and to differentiate into all tissues derived from all three embryonic germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm). (google.es)
  • b) culturing the primate embryonic stem cells so that they differentiate into derivatives of endoderm. (google.es)
  • If LIF is removed, mouse ES cells differentiate. (google.es)
  • Mouse ES cells cultured in non-attaching conditions aggregate and differentiate into simple embryoid bodies, with an outer layer of endoderm and an inner core of primitive ectoderm. (google.es)
  • Mani knew that during embryonic development, FOXC2 expression is restricted to mesoderm and mesoderm-derived cells when they are in an undifferentiated state, and its expression disappears once these cells differentiate. (innovations-report.com)
  • Some cells in the resulting mammospheres showed, in turn, stem cell markers, indicating they could differentiate into two kinds of mammary cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, meaning they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • When provided with the appropriate signals, ESCs initially form precursor cells that in subsequently differentiate into the desired cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • The question is how does the cell decide when to differentiate? (eurekalert.org)
  • The most common method of inducing embryonic stem cells to differentiate is to introduce growth factors or change the chemical composition of the surface on which they grow. (bioedonline.org)
  • This cell-to-cell interaction, when combined with the introduction of specific growth factors ( in vitro ), can induce cells to differentiate along a specific pathway. (bioedonline.org)
  • 7 . The method of claim 2 , wherein said culturing step includes the embryonic stem cells proliferating in culture for over one month while maintaining the potential of the stem cells to differentiate into derivatives of endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm tissues, and while maintaining the karyotype of the stem cells. (google.com)
  • Our findings provide a readily reproducible strategy to exponentially expand ES cell-derived megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors that have the capacity to differentiate into functional platelet-producing megakaryocytes. (jci.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into mature megakaryocytes with the ability to produce functional platelets. (jci.org)
  • This approach insulates the stem cell from signals that would normally cause it to differentiate, or turn into specialized types of body cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, this does not affect their ability to differentiate into any cell type of the body. (dkfz.de)
  • However, the dormant cells stayed alive and retained their identity as stem cells: they continued producing the important "stem cell factors" that enable them to differentiate into the more than 200 cell types of the body. (dkfz.de)
  • Although genetically identical to the mature body cells from which they are derived, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are notably special in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into all kinds of cells. (redorbit.com)
  • There are approximately 30 cells inside the blastocyst that differentiate into the three types of major tissue layers. (brightkite.com)
  • Complex multicellular organisms, such as ourselves, start out from stem cells that differentiate into different kinds of cells. (medgadget.com)
  • The cells are obtained by causing cultures of pluripotent stem cells to differentiate in vitro, and then harvesting cells with certain phenotypic features. (google.com)
  • Exposure of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to microgravity inhibited their ability to differentiate and generate most cell lineages, needed for the development of bone, muscle, the immune system, and other organs and tissues, revealed a study performed on the NASA Space Shuttle Discovery. (medindia.net)
  • Each method demonstrates that hESC can differentiate into a broad spectrum of cell types in culture. (hindawi.com)
  • Careful observation and conscientious scrutiny are absolutely necessary for each cell in order to differentiate them into specialized cells. (cyberessays.com)
  • Both of these stem cell types are pluripotent, that is, they are capable of producing daughter cells that can differentiate into all of the various tissues and organs of the body that are derived from the endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm. (jrank.org)
  • A better solution would be to isolate the embryonic stem cells, induce these cells to differentiate, and generate a population of dopamine producing cells. (jrank.org)
  • His genome-wide analysis is helping to draw the molecular circuitry that defines these cells and keeps them young, as well as to identify the signals that allow them to differentiate into specialized cell types. (nih.gov)
  • We just wanted to make sure that our knockout cells could still differentiate and specialize," says Cheng. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Additionally, pluripotent stem cells offer a transformative cell source to differentiate into the full spectrum of cellular building blocks. (hindawi.com)
  • These stem cells created by this exposure to stresses - dubbed STAP cells by the researchers - were then able to differentiate and mature into different types of cells and tissue, depending on the environments they were given. (lfpress.com)
  • Stem cells are the body's master cells and are able to differentiate into all other types of cells. (lfpress.com)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells can differentiate into multiple types of cells belonging to all three germ layers. (mdpi.com)
  • According to Susan Solomon, CEO of the New York Stem Cell Foundation , "We currently conduct comparative studies between iPSCs and embryonic stem cells derived via nuclear transfer to understand similarities and differences--a crucial step before any cell therapies can reach patients. (forbes.com)
  • Reviewing the most pressing issues involved in human embryonic stem cell research, Human Embryonic Stem Cells, provides an invaluable sourcebook for researchers seeking a review of their basic biology and an unbiased assessment of their potential for new therapies. (springer.com)
  • The cells are being studied to be used as clinical therapies, models of genetic disorders, and cellular/DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to their plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic and adult stem cells each have advantages and disadvantages regarding potential use for cell-based regenerative therapies. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Dr. Irving L. Weissman, director of the Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, said the ruling was "devastating to the hopes of researchers and patients who have been waiting so long for the promise of stem cell therapies. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This new key understanding into how ES cells are maintained in culture may eventually enable scientists to establish real ES cell lines from a number of other mammals, which could have significant implications for organ transplantations and the development of drug therapies, Ying says. (innovations-report.com)
  • Such differences may prove important in the behavior of iPS cells in studies on tissue formation and may complicate therapies based on iPS cells. (redorbit.com)
  • In addition to helping to grow new tissues and organs, the technology may have important uses in drug testing, studying embryonic formation, and testing new therapies for various conditions. (medgadget.com)
  • They are being used to study the earliest stages of disease development, and efforts are under way to use them for testing drugs in the culture dish and as cell-based therapies. (ucsf.edu)
  • With genetic therapies, scientists led by Hideyuki Okano were able to induce pluripotency in regular human skin cells. (singularityhub.com)
  • However, those stem cells were triploid, meaning they had three sets of chromosomes, and therefore could not be used for new therapies. (medindia.net)
  • The investigators overcame the final hurdle in making personalized stem cells that can be used to develop personalized cell therapies. (medindia.net)
  • One company, in particular, Menlo Park, CA-based Geron, is taking the lead in developing experimental embryonic stem cell therapies and hopes to begin human trials next year . (frcblog.com)
  • Dr. Deisher co-founded and now works for the Ave Maria Biotechnology Company, which works to "provide safe, effective and affordable alternative vaccines and stem cell therapies that are not tainted by embryonic or electively aborted fetal materials," its Web site states. (nytimes.com)
  • 4 Although the fundamental principle of stem cell research remains the same (ie, the development of undifferentiated cells into committed cell lineages for the purpose of tissue renewal and repair), the science has evolved to encompass many new applications, including cell-based therapies 5 and drug screening. (aappublications.org)
  • He notes his company had planned this year to apply to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to use red blood cells and platelets derived from iPS cells in clinical trials, but 'at this point, therapies with these cells are years off. (scientificamerican.com)
  • There were already concerns surrounding the use of iPS cells in therapies because prior studies suggested they were prone to forming cancers . (scientificamerican.com)
  • Although no clinical trials involving therapies derived from iPS cells are on the books, researchers are currently testing drugs on them. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Amid serious financial constraints at the Worcester, MA-based biotech firm (OTCBB ACTC ), a plan is in place to pioneer the use of cellular therapies made with human embryonic stem cells as treatments for people. (xconomy.com)
  • And companies like ACT have been slow to move embryonic stem cell therapies into human clinical trials, despite the promise of such cells to provide the building blocks for regenerating tissues to repair organs damaged by serious conditions like heart disease, macular degeneration, and spinal cord injuries. (xconomy.com)
  • The FDA has only authorized one company to test the use of embryonic stem cell therapies in humans: Menlo Park, CA-based biotech Geron, which was forced delay the its first human study for treating victims of spinal chord injuries in August due to the FDA's concens about data it received on the treatment after it granted permission to conduct the trial. (xconomy.com)
  • This work demonstrates that forebrain neuronal subtypes with complex traits can be generated from embryonic stem cells, and provides a novel approach to the study of cortical interneuron development and to the establishment of cell-based therapies for neurological disease. (jneurosci.org)
  • This is not too surprising, since effective adult stem cell heart therapies have already been demonstrated . (fightaging.org)
  • According to the National Institutes of health resource for stem cell research , "Human embryonic and adult stem cells each have advantages and disadvantages regarding potential use for cell-based regenerative therapies. (emaxhealth.com)
  • If it works in man, this could be the game changer that ultimately makes a wide range of cell therapies available using the patient's own cells as starting material - the age of personalized medicine would have finally arrived," he said. (lfpress.com)
  • This is a global phenomenon of desperate patients going to fly-by-night clinics all over the world, that are advertising that they have therapies using stem cells, when there's no evidence that the therapies are either effective or safe. (wrn.com)
  • Stem cell--based therapies propose to treat human medical conditions by replacing cells that have been lost through disease or injury. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • Unlike an organ transplant, where a damaged or diseased tissue is removed and then replaced with a comparable organ from a donor, stem cell therapies would involve integration of replacement cells into the existing tissues of the patient. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • On the other hand, functionally matured blood cells derived from hESC/hiPSCs are expected to be widely used for clinical cellular therapies. (intechopen.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells have no antigenicity and thus are well-suited for therapies involving introduction of stem cells into the human body. (google.es)
  • Dieter Egli was just about to start graduate school in 1998 when researchers first worked out how to derive human embryonic stem cells. (nature.com)
  • Researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital, in collaboration with researchers from Japan, have discovered a way of changing adult stem cells back to their original embryonic state by exposing them to low oxygen and acidic environments. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • With this in mind, the researchers exposed multiple mature adult stem cells to traumatic, low oxygen and acidic environments until they had almost died. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Using mature blood cells from green fluorescent protein-transgenic (GFP+) mice (genetically modified mice who light up green under certain wavelengths of light), the researchers exposed the cells to an acidic environment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • LOS ANGELES - A treatment for eye diseases that is derived from human embryonic stem cells might have improved the vision of two patients, bolstering the beleaguered field, researchers reported Monday. (nytimes.com)
  • In this case, researchers at Advanced Cell Technology turned embryonic stem cells into retinal pigment epithelial cells. (nytimes.com)
  • Dependable and cutting-edge, Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy for Osteo-Degenerative Diseases: Methods and Protocols supplies the tools necessary to allow researchers to carry out critical research needed in order to bring this burgeoning and vitally important field closer to the clinic and to ensure the widespread application of a successful strategy. (springer.com)
  • Now, researchers at Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research working with human embryonic stem cells have uncovered the process responsible for the single-most tantalizing characteristic of these cells: their ability to become just about any type of cell in the body, a trait known as pluripotency. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers in the Whitehead laboratories of Young, Rudolf Jaenisch, MIT-computer scientist David Gifford, and the Harvard lab of Douglas Melton focused on three proteins known to be essential for stem cells. (redorbit.com)
  • Conversely, the researchers also showed that naturally existing normal stem cells as well as tumor-seeding cancer stem cells show characteristics of the post-EMT cells, including the acquisition of mesenchymal cell traits, which are usually associated with connective tissue cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • It turned out that such cells were located precisely where researchers expect to find mammary epithelial stem cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers found that the cells that underwent the EMT process were mesenchymal-like in appearance and demonstrated stem-cell surface markers. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers are currently focusing heavily on the therapeutic potential of embryonic stem cells, with clinical use being the goal for many laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • UC San Francisco researchers have for the first time developed a method to precisely control embryonic stem cell differentiation with beams of light, enabling them to be transformed into neurons in response to a precise external cue. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers have identified many different molecular cues that signal stem cells when to transform into their mature form, whether it be brain or liver or muscle, at just the right time. (eurekalert.org)
  • But so far, getting stem cells to follow instructions en masse has proven far more difficult than researchers once expected. (eurekalert.org)
  • To test how stem cells interpret developmental cues as either crucial signals or mere noise, Thomson and colleagues engineered cultured mouse embryonic stem cells in which the researchers could use a pulse of blue light to switch on the Brn2 gene, a potent neural differentiation cue. (eurekalert.org)
  • By adjusting the strength and duration of the light pulses, the researchers could precisely control the Brn2 dosage and watch how the cells respond. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team will follow a similar procedure to that of previous ES-cell trials carried out by researchers in the United States and South Korea. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Even the scientists behind the latest advancement argue that embryonic stem-cell research must still continue if researchers are to develop cures for Kinsley and thousands of fellow patients. (newser.com)
  • The headline in today's San Francisco Chronicle paper edition: "Clinical Trials Excite Stem Cell Researchers," (a different headline online). (nationalreview.com)
  • Researchers have achieved a major milestone in embryonic stem cell research: they isolated embryonic stem cells for the first time from a cloned primate embryo. (nih.gov)
  • Before this new study was published, Nature asked another group of researchers to confirm that the stem cells were genetically identical to the donor skin cells. (nih.gov)
  • The stem cells, the researchers showed, could turn into heart or nerve cells in the laboratory, and had other characteristics of established embryonic stem cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • In 2005, for example, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published voluntary ethical guidelines to which it urged stem cell and cloning researchers to adhere. (freerepublic.com)
  • So, how far do the ISSCR Guidelines allow embryonic stem cell researchers to go in pursuing CURES! (freerepublic.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Southern California (USC) have, for the first time in history, derived authentic embryonic stem (ES) cells from rats. (innovations-report.com)
  • ES cells provide researchers with a valuable tool to address fundamental biological questions, because they enable scientists to study how genes function, and to develop animals with conditions that mimic important human diseases. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers have long been working on establishing rat ES cells, but faced technical hurdles because the conventional methods developed for the derivation of mouse cells did not work in rats. (innovations-report.com)
  • Building on recent research into how ES cells are maintained, the USC researchers found that rat ES cells can be efficiently derived and grown in the presence of the "3i medium," which consists of molecules that inhibit three specific gene signaling components (GSK3, MEK and FGF receptor kinase). (innovations-report.com)
  • An accompanying study led by researchers at the University of Cambridge, U.K., reported similar findings, independently verifying that authentic ES cells can be established from rats. (innovations-report.com)
  • The development of rat embryonic stem cells, long sought by researchers around the world, is a major advance in biomedical science," says Martin Pera, Ph.D., director of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at USC. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers at USC are currently working on generating the first gene knockout rat through ES cell-based technologies. (innovations-report.com)
  • In order to find out whether these two phenomena have the same cause, the researchers compared the activity of all genes in MYC-depleted embryonic stem cells with those in diapaused mouse blastocysts. (dkfz.de)
  • Researchers are saying, however, that stem cells using this new method, are just like embryonic. (bloggernews.net)
  • US researchers have reported a breakthrough in stem cell research, describing how they have turned human skin cells into embryonic stem cells for the first time. (bloggernews.net)
  • The researchers suggest in the study that certain sites throughout the genome appear to be generally involved in distinguishing DNA methylation among different cell types and cancers, and these same sites are involved in reprogramming fibroblasts back into stem cells. (redorbit.com)
  • It also spurred on dozens of other researchers looking to help the more than 800,000 annual American stroke victims, as well as those using stem cells to treat traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. (ncregister.com)
  • These are the questions that stem cell researchers have faced and fought since the first human embryonic stem cell was cultured in 1998 by a man named James Thompson, a researcher from the University of Wisconsin-Madison (Fox, 2007). (brightkite.com)
  • Now, researchers at École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland have managed to create a special device through which they can guide stem cells in different spots to turn into the specific cells they want. (medgadget.com)
  • This week, a group of Japanese researchers from Kyoto University said they had figured out a way to turn embryonic stem cells into the more specific type of stem cell that makes sperm. (latimes.com)
  • The Japanese researchers were able to make sperm progenitor cells out of iPS cells, and some mouse pups were born as a result, but the entire process worked less well than with embryonic stem cells. (latimes.com)
  • That would dwarf the $6.5 million that New Jersey, the only other state to fund embryonic stem cell research, set aside this year to recruit researchers for the state's Stem Cell Institute. (pewtrusts.org)
  • It will encourage junior scientists to enter the field and provide a reliable source of funding for all stem cell researchers," he said. (ucsf.edu)
  • That's because instead of using embryonic stem cells, the researchers took human skin cells and modified them with four different types of genes to turn them into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). (singularityhub.com)
  • The researchers studied the differentiation potential of the mESCs using the embryoid body (EB) model, which models the differentiation of ESCs into embryonic tissue. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers discuss the close similarities between the EB model and adult stem cell-based tissue regeneration and the significance of their findings for regeneration of adult mammalian tissues. (medindia.net)
  • 2 This was an anticipated fulfillment of a campaign promise, but what came as a surprise was that this announcement to proceed with embryonic stem cells provided no limits or restrictions on the source of those cells--leaving that daunting responsibility to National Institutes of Health researchers. (icr.org)
  • The two researchers whose claims of injury led to a judge's decision Monday to issue a preliminary injunction banning federal funding for the research using human embryonic stem cells , have a history of disputes with colleagues as well as ethical objections to embryonic stem cell research. (nytimes.com)
  • In a statement submitted as part of the lawsuit, Dr. Deisher wrote that she was applying for grants from the health institutes but competition from embryonic stem cell researchers hurt her chances. (nytimes.com)
  • An article on Wednesday about two researchers whose claim of injury led to a judge's decision on human embryonic stem cell research described the decision incorrectly. (nytimes.com)
  • During the 20th century, researchers explored new territory, administering adult stem cells to patients with leukemia or anemia. (cyberessays.com)
  • Excitement grew as researchers quickly discovered that embryonic stem cells grow extremely fast. (cyberessays.com)
  • To address this question, a US team of doctors and researchers, including Massachusetts-based stem cell scientist Robert Lanza from the company Advanced Cell Technology, used human embryonic stem cells to produce fifty thousand new retinal pigment epithelial cells that were injected into one of each of the patients' eyes. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Approaching the problem from another direction, researchers hypothesized that embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells, under the right conditions, might be induced in vitro to produce a broad range of different tissues that could be utilized for transplantation. (jrank.org)
  • But, many researchers consider embryonic stem cells the most versatile types of stem cells, as they can morph into any type of cell. (goldsea.com)
  • Understanding the regulatory systems that give stem cells their potential and sway their development should help researchers steer the fates of these cells so they can be used to treat disease. (nih.gov)
  • Unpublished results from the researchers hint that significantly fewer anomalies are seen in iPS cells created via virus-free reprogramming strategies, such as ones that use proteins or small-molecule drugs. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Researchers at Johns Hopkins have uncovered the molecular underpinnings of one of the earliest steps in human development using human embryonic stem cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • So using a conventional genetic engineering tool, the researchers tried for years-literally-to knock out PIG-A in adult stem cells, without success. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Then the researchers took one more step to verify that their engineered embryonic stem cells behaved like normal stem cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Only when they added the PIG-A gene back into their cells did BMP-4 do its work and cause the cells to become trophoblasts, allowing the researchers to conclude that trophoblast differentiation depends on certain cell surface proteins to receive the BMP-4 signal. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Within three weeks, the researchers saw improved heart function and reduced scarring compared to a control group of animals that didn't receive the stem cells. (fightaging.org)
  • Stem cell research is really picking up these days, as it gives researchers a chance to develop totally new cells out of limited resources. (topnews.ae)
  • This embryonic cell development is the result of an effort in which researchers from three different organizations, the New York Stem Cell Foundation, the University of California at San Diego, and Columbia University in the US took part. (topnews.ae)
  • Then researchers put that material in the donated egg cell. (topnews.ae)
  • This week, researchers began the first clinical trial for stem cell therapy. (chron.com)
  • Archbishop Daniel DiNardo addressed the issue this month, for Respect Life Month , saying "Defenseless human life is also placed at risk today in the name of science, when researchers seek to destroy human life at its embryonic stage for stem cell research-and demand the use of all Americans' tax dollars to support this agenda. (chron.com)
  • New findings from researchers show that vitamin C enhances the process of reprogramming adult stem cells into embryonic stems cells, or pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (emaxhealth.com)
  • The finding has important implications for regenerative medicine, and was a surprise to researchers who say past efforts geared to reprogramming adult stem cells into embryonic stem cells that have a wider array of applications for treating diseases have been inefficient. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The researchers believe that high levels of ROS may interfere with the reprogramming of adult stem cells into embryonic stem cells , leading them to explore antioxidants. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Beginning with mature, adult cells, researchers let them multiply and then subjected them to stress "almost to the point of death", they explained, by exposing them to various events including trauma, low oxygen levels and acidic environments. (lfpress.com)
  • Researchers at Oregon Health and Science University have successfully used cloning to create human embryonic stem cells by taking skin cells and fusing them with donated human eggs. (nytimes.com)
  • The Oregon researchers, who published a paper on their work in the journal Cell, say their goal is what has been called therapeutic cloning: making embryonic stem cells that are genetically identical to a particular patient. (nytimes.com)
  • The researchers must still show they can produce stem cells starting with skin cells from adults. (nytimes.com)
  • 3 Human embryo culture for human embryonic stem cell derivation. (wiley.com)
  • Stem cell research has raised ethical concerns in the past, as extracting human embryonic stem cells from a 4- or 5-day-old embryo can lead to its destruction. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It may not be necessary to create an embryo to acquire embryonic stem cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Our research findings demonstrate that creation of an autologous pluripotent stem cell - a stem cell from an individual that has the potential to be used for a therapeutic purpose - without an embryo, is possible. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The research team discovered that while these transcription factors activate certain genes essential for cell growth, they also repress a key set of genes needed for an embryo to develop. (redorbit.com)
  • When Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog are inactivated as the embryo begins to develop, these networks then come to life, and the stem cell ceases to be a stem cell. (redorbit.com)
  • In order to harvest embryonic stem cells (as my feeble mind understands it), an embryo must be coaxed to divide and start to grow. (slashdot.org)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the embryo and are pluripotent, thus possessing the capability of developing into any organ or tissue type or, at least potentially, into a complete embryo. (google.es)
  • Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from a week old human embryo (blastocyst), often developed from unused in vitro fertilised eggs. (bartleby.com)
  • Creating new cell lines does involve the destruction of a pre-implantation embryo. (newscientist.com)
  • Some cancer cells acquire the ability to migrate through the body by re-activating biological programs that have lain dormant since the embryo stage, as the lab of Whitehead Member Robert Weinberg has helped to demonstrate in recent years. (innovations-report.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells (ES cells or ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid cell division allows the cells to quickly grow in number, but not size, which is important for early embryo development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stem cells are removed and the remainder of the embryo destroyed. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Embryonic stem cell research, he said, "necessarily depends upon the destruction of a human embryo. (emaxhealth.com)
  • If one step or 'piece of research' of an [embryonic stem cell] research project results in the destruction of an embryo, the entire project is precluded from receiving federal funding by the Dickey-Wicker Amendment," Lamberth wrote. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This involves transferring the nucleus of a cell of an adult (such as the patient requiring transplant) to an unfertilised egg that has had its nucleus removed, which is then stimulated to develop into an embryo. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • In both cases, the egg is allowed to develop into a hollow ball with inner cell mass , the future embryo, which is harvested and destroyed to create hES cell lines. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The egg then "reprograms" the adult nucleus so that the cell behaves like an embryo but has the genes of the adult cell. (nih.gov)
  • In another strategy, called therapeutic cloning, the embryo can instead be used to create stem cells that are genetically identical to a patient. (nih.gov)
  • Since embryonic stem cells have the ability to form virtually any cell type in the body, those taken from a cloned embryo could potentially be used to treat many diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Huang, K., Maruyama, T. & Fan, G. The naive state of human pluripotent stem cells: a synthesis of stem cell and preimplantation embryo transcriptome analyses. (nature.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells are derived from a group of cells called the inner cell mass in a very early stage embryo. (innovations-report.com)
  • Catholics must voice their opposition to new state legislation that would fund embryonic stem-cell research, which involves the killing of the human embryo, said Bishop Michael A. Saltarelli of Wilmington, Delaware. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • While NIH continues to waste more taxpayer funds on destructive embryo research, adult stem cells are the only stem cell treating patients, with more and more published evidence accumulating every week. (lifenews.com)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from totipotent cells of the early mammalian embryo and are capable of unlimited, undifferentiated proliferation in vitro ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Does it begin days later when the cells within that embryo begin communicating with each other and deciding which will be the hair, the heart, the brain, the eyes, and so forth? (brightkite.com)
  • What we are interested in are the cells that have made that first decision to be the embryo rather than the placenta. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Chris - They are controversial too because if we want to get stem cells, we need to get an embryo. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Pope Benedict XVI has reaffirmed his opposition to embryonic stem cell research, saying it's morally wrong to destroy an embryo no matter how beneficial the resulting treatment is. (mdtmag.com)
  • Sen. Roger Wicker, R-Miss., co-author of the 1996 law prohibiting the use of federal funds in work that harms an embryo, said at the hearing that the emphasis should be put on using adult stem cells for research, thus avoiding the "ethical challenges" associated with embryonic cells. (phys.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are cultured cells that were originally collected from the inner cell mass of an embryo at the blastocyst stage of development (four days post fertilization ). (jrank.org)
  • Given the possible substantial benefit of stem cell research on child health and development, the American Academy of Pediatrics believes that funding and oversight for human embryo and embryonic stem cell research should continue. (aappublications.org)
  • In these cases, the removal of the cells to form the stem cell line results in the destruction of the embryo. (aappublications.org)
  • There is some recent evidence that hESC lines can be generated from 1 to 2 cells obtained by a biopsy procedure that does not require destruction of the embryo, but this procedure has not obviated the need to continue to derive stem cells in the traditional manner, which results in the destruction of an embryo. (aappublications.org)
  • Moreover, although a single cell biopsy may be performed in IVF cases to test for genetic diseases, it is unclear whether it would be appropriate to transfer to a uterus an embryo that underwent such biopsy for the creation of stem cell lines. (aappublications.org)
  • It was hoped using reprogrammed mature cells would be a noncontroversial alternative to embryo-derived stem cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Our novel approach uses embryo-derived decellularized hearts as scaffolds to promote embryonic stem cell differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • The field of embryonic stem cells has been highly controversial because the research process involves destroying the embryo, typically four or five days old, after removing stem cells. (cnn.com)
  • Because the harvesting of embryonic stem cells requires the destruction of a human embryo, the technique has been the subject of ethical concerns and protests from pro-life campaigners. (lfpress.com)
  • This would produce a cloned, one-cell embryo that would mature for several days in the laboratory and then be destroyed to obtain stem cells genetically matched to the patient. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • 4 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the hematopoietic stem cells are extracted from a human embryo. (google.es)
  • This is something I would strongly favour as from a personal moral perspective I am very uncomfortable with allowing embryonic stem cell research. (blogs.com)
  • Neural rosettes, derived from human embryonic stem cells, assemble into spheres in culture. (nature.com)
  • In the next few months, surgeons in the Chinese city of Zhengzhou will carefully drill through the skulls of people with Parkinson's disease and inject 4 million immature neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells into their brains. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The company hoped that GRNOPC1, a product derived from human embryonic stem cells, would stimulate nerve growth in patients with debilitating damage to the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company will apply for approval to start US clinical trials in 2007 , using glial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells to treat spinal injuries. (frcblog.com)
  • The procedure -- which Geron intends to do next year -- would be the first human tests of a treatment derived from human embryonic stem cells, the highly versatile body cells that can be coaxed into becoming almost any tissue in the body. (frcblog.com)
  • Doctors injected a type of nerve cell, derived from human embryonic stem cells, into a patient with a spinal cord injury in hopes that it will repair and re-coat damaged nerve passages in the spine, according to the L.A. Times . (chron.com)
  • On the other hand, if the work of scientists like Sheng Ding is any indication, we may soon see better cell reprogramming via small molecules, and not retroviruses. (forbes.com)
  • Scientists have learnt how to turn the cells into dozens of mature cell types representing various tissues and organs in the body. (nature.com)
  • The editors have gathered protocols from scientists with extensive reputation and expertise, describing and comparing currently used techniques for the culture of human stem cells and discussing the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches. (wiley.com)
  • the richness in the details of each protocol presented will certainly encourage more scientists to begin studies of Human pluripotent stem cells. (wiley.com)
  • Last year, Medical News Today reported on a study revealing that scientists had grown artificial skin from stem cells of the umbilical cord . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In 2006, scientists created induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) - an alternative to harvesting embryonic stem cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • CNN reports that scientists at Harvard and Wake Forest have discovered a 'plentiful' non-embryonic source for stem cells , as well brain, liver, and bone cell types as well. (slashdot.org)
  • While there's no proof that amniotic stem cells are as potent as embryonic stem cells, scientists are hopeful that this will be a huge step forward for the field of stem-cell research. (slashdot.org)
  • Now scientists in the Weinberg lab have shown that both normal and cancer cells that are induced to follow one of these pathways may gain properties of adult stem cells, including the ability to self-renew. (innovations-report.com)
  • Furthermore, when the Weinberg lab scientists isolated stem-cell-like cells from cultured human mammary epithelial cells or from mouse breast tissue, their properties were very similar to the EMT-induced cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • These discoveries have raised hopes that taking control of stem cells could let scientists repair damaged and aging tissues using the body's own potential for regeneration. (eurekalert.org)
  • In recent years, scientists have found that many of the genes encoding these developmental cues constantly flip on and off in undifferentiated stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • BRITISH scientists have developed the world s first stem cell therapy to cure the most common cause of blindness. (freerepublic.com)
  • Scientists and stem cell research supporters were shocked by the ruling. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Before this, scientists could harvest the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, but were able to keep them alive only for a very short time. (bioedonline.org)
  • The scientists" used to say that embryonic stem cell research provided the primary, perhaps "only" hope for treatments of degenerative conditions like Parkinson's and spinal cord injury. (nationalreview.com)
  • Ultimately, scientists would like to use those stem cells to treat diseases in humans. (nationalreview.com)
  • Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) and Heidelberg Institute for Stem Cell Technology and Experimental Medicine (HI-STEM) have now shown that this process is regulated by the MYC oncogene. (dkfz.de)
  • The scientists had noticed that MYC is also active in embryonic stem cells. (dkfz.de)
  • The method described Wednesday by Oregon Health and Science University scientists in the journal Cell, would not likely be able to create human clones, said Shoukhrat Mitalipov, senior scientist at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. (bloggernews.net)
  • The same genes that are chemically altered during normal cell differentiation, as well as when normal cells become cancer cells, are also changed in stem cells that scientists derive from adult cells, according to new research from Johns Hopkins and Harvard. (redorbit.com)
  • The scientists used the CHARM method (comprehensive high-throughput arrays for relative methylation) to survey where, across the genomes of nine human iPS cell lines, genes had been silenced, or turned off, and then compared these DNA methylation sites with those of the fibroblasts the iPS cells were derived from. (redorbit.com)
  • As scientists learn more about the epigenetics of reprogrammed cells, they may find new ways of creating them or using them. (redorbit.com)
  • When collected through the in-vitro fertilization process, scientists extract those 30 cells and place them in a culture to help them proliferate and to keep them healthy and stable. (brightkite.com)
  • Mouse stem cells used to produce eggs, Japanese scientists. (latimes.com)
  • Some scientists say research on embryonic stem cells holds more promise than adult stem cells. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Scientists are studying whether stem cells might be able to replace cells lost or damaged by diseases such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's and to treat spinal cord and brain injuries. (pewtrusts.org)
  • UCSF scientists explain the power and potential of stem cell research in this video. (ucsf.edu)
  • It also will relieve scientists of the burden of segregating equipment and materials used for studies long approved for federal funding, such as those involving adult stem cells, and those traditionally funded by private and state funds, thereby accelerating the pace of discovery. (ucsf.edu)
  • UCSF scientists believe embryonic stem cells, which can develop into nearly every type of cell in the body, have the potential to help treat many diseases and disabilities. (ucsf.edu)
  • If, in the future, scientists find that hESC has a particular drawback (links to cancer, problems with acceptance by the recipient, or whatever you care to imagine) then stem cell based spinal cord injury therapy could be in jeopardy. (singularityhub.com)
  • A team of scientists led by Dr. Dieter Egli at the New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) and Dr. Mark Sauer at Columbia University Medical Center, has created the first disease-specific embryonic stem cell line with two sets of chromosomes, using somatic cell nuclear transfer. (medindia.net)
  • As reported today in Nature , the scientists derived embryonic stem cells by adding the nuclei of adult skin cells to unfertilized donor oocytes using a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). (medindia.net)
  • Stem cell therapy, a leading topic of interest among the budding scientists. (medindia.net)
  • The Pennsylvania Democrat spoke at a Senate hearing where scientists also expressed concern about recent court rulings that have disrupted funding for embryonic stem cell research , seen as offering promising potential for treating Parkinson's Disease, spinal cord injuries and numerous other debilitating illnesses. (phys.org)
  • George Q. Daley, associate director of the stem cell program at Children's Hospital Boston, said doubts about court action are "disrupting our research, they are dissuading scientists from entering the field and they are threatening American preeminence in the research. (phys.org)
  • In 2005 Keirstead argued that 'some scientists believe' that the rodent is a better model for human stem cells than other the primates model. (discovermagazine.com)
  • To avoid the controversy surrounding these cells, scientists around the world have explored reprogramming mature cells to make them just as potent, with the hope being that such induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells might one day help replace diseased or damaged tissue. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Canada's first embryonic stem cell lines ( Leading marine scientists for the first. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The scientists discovered that vitamin C has the ability to change gene expression, accelerating the process of transforming adult stem cells into embryonic stem cells. (emaxhealth.com)
  • LONDON - In experiments that could open a new era in stem cell biology, scientists have found a cheap and easy way to reprogram mature cells from mice back into an embryonic-like state that allowed them to generate many types of tissue. (lfpress.com)
  • Within days, the scientists found that the cells survived and recovered from the stressful stimulus by naturally reverting into a state similar to that of an embryonic stem cell. (lfpress.com)
  • The cells that are injected (termed oligodendrocyte precursors) are derived from embryonic stem cells in a way that scientists hope will limit the cells' ability to grow and specialize. (frcblog.com)
  • Scientists have finally succeeded in using cloning to create human embryonic stem cells, a step toward developing replacement tissue to treat diseases but one that might also hasten the day when it will be possible to create cloned babies. (nytimes.com)
  • Scientists have been trying for more than 10 years to create human embryonic stem cells using the cloning method. (nytimes.com)
  • This key set of repressed genes produce additional transcription factors that are responsible for activating entire networks of genes necessary for generating many different specialized cells and tissues. (redorbit.com)
  • In Human Embryonic Stem Cells, pioneers, leaders, and experts in this emerging field join forces to address all the key issues in the use of human pluripotent stem cells for treating degenerative diseases or for replacing tissues lost from trauma. (springer.com)
  • Thomson believes that similar timer mechanisms may govern stem cell differentiation into many different tissues. (eurekalert.org)
  • The House of Lords recommended approving human embryonic stem cell research in 2002, the justification for which was to provide cells for replacing tissues in patients with organ failures. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Specifically, he examined a subcategory of muscle cells called smooth muscle cells which reside in arteries, intestines and other tissues. (eurekalert.org)
  • hESCs can replicate indefinitely and produce non-regenerative tissues such as neural and myocardial cells. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • We genetically tagged these 2C-like ES cells and show that they lack the inner cell mass pluripotency proteins Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1), Sox2 and Nanog, and have acquired the ability to contribute to both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. (nih.gov)
  • This is an important part of embryonic development, which could give clinicians the ability to grow organs and tissues if it could be harnessed. (medgadget.com)
  • The cells can be exposed to specific chemical gradients of the morphogens, as they would in the body, resulting in the growth of desired tissues in proper amounts. (medgadget.com)
  • ESCs have the ability to self-renew indefinitely in vitro and to contribute to all embryonic tissues in chimeras and ultimately to all different cell types in adults. (frontiersin.org)
  • This inhibition of mESC differentiation could have significant implications for the field of human tissue engineering and the use of stem cells to regenerate adult tissues. (medindia.net)
  • Stem cells from adults can be 'coaxed' into becoming more specified tissues and used effectively for specific treatments. (icr.org)
  • Tissue engineering is an emerging field of research aimed at regenerating functional tissues by combining cells with a supporting substrate. (hindawi.com)
  • One drawback to this is that adult stem cells are very rare and although they have been isolated from bone marrow, brain , eyes, muscle, skin, liver, pancreas, and the digestive system , there are many tissues and organs for which it is not known if stem cells exist. (jrank.org)
  • However, the mechanisms that trigger differentiation of embryonic stem cells into various specialized tissue types are not yet well understood, so it will require additional research before transplantable tissues derived from embryonic stem cells will be a reality. (jrank.org)
  • If a population of embryonic stem cells containing a known, functional gene can be engineered, these cells might function as vectors to transfer the gene into target tissues. (jrank.org)
  • Decellularized organ scaffolds are being optimized to guide and spatially organize stem cell differentiation in efforts to rebuild functional tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • however, matching the developmental stages of embryonic scaffold with primitive cardiac progenitors may be used to optimize the differentiation and maturation of bioengineered cardiac tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • The scaffolds were successfully reseeded with different cellular sources derived from pluripotent stem cells to achieve beating cardiac tissues characterized by endothelial, cardiac, and smooth muscle markers. (hindawi.com)
  • Second, there was the serious problem that embryonic stem cells form tumors when transplanted to adult tissues, and the tumorogenic capability of these cells is difficult, if not impossible, to control. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • But tissues created from those stem cells would not genetically match a patient, meaning steps might be needed to prevent rejection. (nytimes.com)
  • And Dieter Egli, a regenerative medicine specialist at the New York Stem Cell Foundation, successfully produced human SCNT lines, but only when the egg's nucleus was left in the cell. (forbes.com)
  • This allows an even greater number of opportunities for those interested in purusing work in pluripotent stem cells, disease modelling, and other aspects of basic regenerative medicine research. (wiley.com)
  • These findings provide the foundation for learning how to modify the circuitry of embryonic stem cells to repair damaged or diseased cells or to make cells for regenerative medicine," says Young. (redorbit.com)
  • The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine may hold significant benefits for those suffering from degenerative diseases. (bartleby.com)
  • Understanding the role of EMT in adult stem cell creation may lead toward the development of healthy stem cells for regenerative medicine and provide drug targets for cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • Studies of how cancer cells spread have led to a surprising discovery about the creation of cells with adult stem cell characteristics, offering potentially major implications for regenerative medicine and for cancer treatment. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition to their potential in regenerative medicine, embryonic stem cells provide a possible alternative source of tissue/organs which serves as a possible solution to the donor shortage dilemma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Force generated by these cells ultimately helps restore the regenerative properties that adult stem cells lose due to aging. (eurekalert.org)
  • The research direction of many labs around the world will change because of the availability of rat ES cells," says Qi-Long Ying, Ph.D., assistant professor of Cell and Neurobiology at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, researcher at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at USC, and the study's principal investigator. (innovations-report.com)
  • In a pastoral letter, printed May 26, the bishop pointed out that Delaware's Senate Bill 80, the Delaware Regenerative Medicine Act, does nothing to stop human cloning for scientific research and does not promote adult stem-cell research as an ethical alternative. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • These abilities of human embryonic stems cells allow them to be used as a tool in regenerative medicine and research. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Proposition 71, which brought the misbegotten California Institute for Regenerative Medicine into being, was sold to voters in a blatantly mendacious campaign based on embryonic stem cell hype of CURES! (cbc-network.org)
  • The study calls into question the existence of a type of cell that, if validated, would have great potential for use in regenerative medicine. (bionews.org.uk)
  • California's Proposition 71 would create the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine for stem cell research. (pewtrusts.org)
  • In the article 'Microgravity Reduces the Differentiation and Regenerative Potential of Embryonic Stem Cells', Elizabeth Blaber and coauthors from NASA Ames Research Center (Moffett Field, CA) and University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia) report the effects of mechanical unloading on stem cells during a 15-day period of exposure to microgravity. (medindia.net)
  • Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which have the potential to generate virtually any differentiated progeny, are an attractive cell source for transplantation therapy, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. (hindawi.com)
  • This shows iPS cells have a lot of problems, but that doesn't mean they don't have potential-just not with the established methodologies used to create them,' says tissue engineer Anthony Atala, director of Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center's Institute for Regenerative Medicine in Winston-Salem, N.C. 'It's a solvable problem, but it looks as if one should look away from methods that don't genetically modify the cell. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Further, this process is most challenging in human cells, raising a significant barrier for producing iPSCs and serious concerns about the quality of the cells that are generated," explains senior study author Dr. Duanqing Pei from the South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at the Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The new findings that vitamin C can boost the production of embryonic stem cells from adult stem cells offers a source of cells for use in regenerative medicine that could be used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Chris Mason, chair of regenerative medicine bioprocessing at University College London, who was not involved in the work, said its approach was "the most simple, lowest-cost and quickest method" to generate so-called pluripotent cells - able to develop into many different cell types - from mature cells. (lfpress.com)
  • The book covers the derivation of human stem cell lines, the obtaining of cells from human stem cell banks, the culturing and characterisation of the cells, and the differentiation of the cells in vitro and in vivo . (wiley.com)
  • 4 Derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines. (wiley.com)
  • Regulatory issues are addressed in discussions of the ethical debate surrounding the derivation of human embryonic stem cells and the current policies governing their use in the United States and abroad, including the rules and conditions regulating federal funding and questions of intellectual property. (springer.com)
  • Derivation of novel human ground state naive pluripotent stem cells. (nature.com)
  • Derivation of ground-state female ES cells maintaining gamete-derived DNA methylation. (nature.com)
  • By growing the single blastomere overnight, the resulting cells could be used for both genetic testing and stem cell derivation without affecting the clinical outcome of the procedure. (nih.gov)
  • however, this latest work demonstrates the first successful derivation by SCNT of diploid pluripotent stem cells from adult and neonatal somatic cells. (medindia.net)
  • Gnedeva K, Vorotelyak E, Cimadamore F, Cattarossi G, Giusto E, Terskikh V.V, Terskikh A.V. Derivation of hair-inducing cell from human pluripotent stem cells. (bernsteinmedical.com)
  • In vitro myelin formation using embryonic stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • 4. A population of chondrocyte progenitors that proliferates in an in vitro culture, obtained by differentiating primate pluripotent stem (pPS) cells, and capable of forming progeny having the characteristics of the cells of claim 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These cells retained the potential to form derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers both in vitro and in teratomas. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) are pluripotent mammalian cells derived from the Inner Cell Mass (ICM) of mouse blastocysts, which give rise to all three embryonic germ layers both in vivo and in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • In vitro spontaneous differentiation from ESCs to Embryoid Bodies (EBs) and directed differentiation toward neuronal and endodermal cells entails an increase in histone content. (frontiersin.org)
  • The next challenge will be to demonstrate the functional utility of these cells, both in vitro and in preclinical models of bone and vascular diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Indeed, many adult organ-specific cells and stem cells show a limited proliferative capacity and lose their differentiated function after long-term in vitro culture. (hindawi.com)
  • In vitro induction of undifferentiated hESC to functionally mature blood cells may mimic the early hematopoietic development during human embryonic and fetal stages. (intechopen.com)
  • So far until now, in vitro hESC-derived blood cells possess phenotypical maturity and partial functions while still more or less share embryonic/fetal characteristics, differing greatly from their adult counterparts. (intechopen.com)
  • The present invention provides a method for the in vitro culture of embryonic stem cells, wherein the stem cells continue to express no antigen or antigen CD117, and mostly remain undifferentiated during culture. (google.es)
  • 18, 2001, entitled EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS, CLINICAL APPLICATIONS AND METHODS FOR EXPANDING IN VITRO, the contents of which are hereby expressly incorporated herein by reference. (google.es)
  • This invention relates to the in vitro expansion of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, to purified cultures of expanded embryonic stem cells, and to the use of embryonic stem cells in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, conditions and disorders. (google.es)
  • His wide-ranging research established him as a leader in embryonic stem-cell biology, a field challenged by restricted funding and an enthusiasm for competing technologies that don't carry the same ethical baggage. (nature.com)
  • The experiments will also represent the first clinical trials of ES cells under regulations that China adopted in 2015, in an attempt to ensure the ethical and safe use of stem cells in the clinic. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Technical and financial hurdles add to ethical and safety concerns over embryonic stems cells while adult stem cells are achieving remarkable clinic successes. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • ISIS had already pointed out at the time that research on hES cells was ethically unjustifiable, especially given that adult stem cells, easily obtainable from the patients themselves (see Box 1), appeared just as developmentally flexible as ES cells, and showed much greater promise in the clinic without either the ethical concerns or the risks of cancer from hES cells [2-6]. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Arguments that adult stem cell research or non embryonic methods deriving plutipotent stem cells should be pursued instead of ESCR and cloning for ethical reasons were denigrated as "anti science," even as celebrities milked the media with inaccurate assertions of coming miracle cures from ESCR-about which they were rarely challenged by fawning legislators and reporters. (nationalreview.com)
  • The latest breakthrough in stem cell research turns skin cells into stem cells just as useful as embryonic stem cells , without the ethical issues. (bloggernews.net)
  • The Diocese of Wilmington has established a special task force to educate public officials and voters about the ethical questions and scientific options surrounding human embryonic stem-cell research. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • Ethical adult stem cells have a proven track record of success. (ncregister.com)
  • In addition, hES cell research touches on many ethical, legal, scientific, and policy issues that are of concern to the public. (nap.edu)
  • This report provides guidelines for the conduct of hES cell research to address both ethical and scientific concerns. (nap.edu)
  • What are the ethical concerns involved in stem cell research? (nap.edu)
  • Most of those surveyed saw the use of stem-cells taken from adult sources as a logical means of avoiding those ethical problems. (catholicculture.org)
  • Meanwhile, ethical and successful adult stem cells continue to help patients with spinal cord injury improve , even years after injury. (frcblog.com)
  • Mitapilov and his team took donated egg cells and swapped their nuclei for the nuclei of cells from fetal tissue. (forbes.com)
  • Were they simply fibroblasts, the most common cells in normal connective tissue? (innovations-report.com)
  • In tissue engineering, the use of stem cells have been recently discovered and are known to be of importance. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have no idea what an "eye cell" is, but even if they are able to cultivate intact retinal tissue (exceedingly complex in and of itself), what miracle of neurosurgery is going to make the millions of nerve connections to the nerve fiber layer, or more centrally, the optic nerve? (freerepublic.com)
  • Adult stem cells are thought to be limited to differentiating into different cell types of their tissue of origin. (emaxhealth.com)
  • These cells are called adult stem cells, and they are located in every tissue of the body and respond rapidly when there is a need. (eurekalert.org)
  • To compare and contrast mature connective tissue cells called fibroblasts with the pluripotent stem cells into which they were reprogrammed, the investigators focused on a chemical change known as methylation. (redorbit.com)
  • These are the cells taken from skin or another adult tissue and rewound to an early state where they are flexible enough to -- say it with me -- become any type of cell in the body. (latimes.com)
  • This type of stem cell, the mother of all stem cells, has the potential to turn into every tissue in the body. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Nevertheless, these developments paved the way for a California biotech firm called Geron to receive a green light in 2009 to begin the process of using embryonic stem cells for a potential treatment to regenerate damaged nerve tissue. (icr.org)
  • If the cells can be stimulated at great expense toward a specified tissue type, they often develop tumors. (icr.org)
  • But since stem cells with successful track records―taken from adipose tissue, blood, or umbilical cords―do not involve murder, claiming medical necessity looks in this case like a smoke screen to obscure a more sinister purpose. (icr.org)
  • Basic science in the field of embryonic development, stem cell differentiation, and tissue engineering has offered important insights into key pathways and scaffolds that regulate hESC differentiation, which have produced advances in modeling gastrulation in culture and in the efficient induction of endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm, and many of their downstream derivatives. (hindawi.com)
  • Amongst them, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) may constitute an important new resource in tissue engineering, mainly due to an extensive differentiation capacity and high proliferative potential. (hindawi.com)
  • EB formation is the most common method for initiating differentiation in culture due to its similarity to postimplantation embryonic tissue in vivo . (hindawi.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells have the potential to be turned into different kinds of tissue that could be used to regenerate and repair tissue and treat a host of diseases including heart disease, Parkinson's, diabetes and Lou Gehrig's disease. (phys.org)
  • Critically, neither patient showed any ill effects as a result of the procedure nor any reduction in visual function, although both were given immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the foreign stem-cell derived tissue.For how long, if at all, they will need this though, isn't known. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Adult stem cells, found in both children and adults, are somewhat more limited, or multipotent, since they are associated with a single tissue or organ and function primarily in cell renewal for that tissue. (jrank.org)
  • Initially, stem cells were considered as a potential source of tissue for transplantation. (jrank.org)
  • Expanding on that idea, it was hypothesized that if adult stem cells from a specific organ could be collected and multiplied, it might be possible to use the resultant cells to replace a diseased organ or tissue. (jrank.org)
  • In the 1980s, studies on monkeys and rats showed that when fetal brain tissue rich in stem cells was implanted into the brains of diseased animals, there was a regeneration of functional brain cells and a reduction or elimination the symptoms of the disease . (jrank.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, able to create all cell types, save more embryonic tissue. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Rapid progress is being made toward controlled differentiation of human iPS cells into specific tissue types, such as heart, neuron, liver, pancreas and eye. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Therefore, embedding stem cells within a tissue-specific environment matched to the developmental stage of the progenitors may offer a practical solution for stem-cell-derived applications such as disease modeling, pharmaceutical safety testing, and screening of novel therapeutic targets. (hindawi.com)
  • Betterhumans reports on a new study in rats that shows "embryonic stem cells can repair heart tissue and speed recovery after heart attack. (fightaging.org)
  • First, there was the concern that the cells and their derived tissue would be rejected by the patient's immune system, requiring the patient to undergo lifelong immune suppression. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • Thus, the problem of immune rejection is of particular concern--if transplanted cells are attacked by the immune system, the entire tissue in which the foreign cells reside becomes the target of a potentially disastrous immune attack. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • That raises the hope that one day the cells will be turned into replacement tissue or even replacement organs to treat a host of diseases. (nytimes.com)
  • It is well believed that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs [ 1 ]) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs [ 2 ]) are of great potential use for tissue substitutes (for example, blood cells) and to cure various congenital disorders. (intechopen.com)
  • 5 Standard culture of human embryonic stem cells. (wiley.com)
  • 6 Culture of human embryonic stem cells in chemically defined conditions. (wiley.com)
  • Despite that temporary reprieve, the injunction "has created deep uncertainty in the field of embryonic stem cell research," testified NIH director Francis S. Collins. (phys.org)
  • The paper comes two months after the Geron Corporation cast a pall over the field by abruptly halting the world's first clinical trial based on embryonic stem cells - one aimed at treating spinal cord injury. (nytimes.com)
  • Geron, which has not published results from the aborted trial, also said it would abandon the entire stem cell field. (nytimes.com)
  • Considering the impressive work originally done by Hans Keirstead using rodents and embryonic stem cells, the Geron trial seems very promising, though it will be years before it could possibly become a widely available therapy. (singularityhub.com)
  • Geron now says that it hopes its embryonic stem cell experiment on spinal cord injury patients might begin in the 3rd quarter of 2010 . (frcblog.com)
  • The original FDA approval to test the cells in patients was given in January 2009 and Geron claimed it would begin in the summer of 2009, but before a single desperate patient had been injected with the potentially-dangerous cells, the FDA placed a hold on the Geron experiment due to safety concerns. (frcblog.com)
  • The Geron Corporation announced Wednesday that its plans to begin the first clinical trial using embryonic stem cells had been delayed by federal regulators. (frcblog.com)
  • The first experiments using human embryonic stem cells in human subjects could begin within a few months , the chief executive of biotech Geron said Monday. (frcblog.com)
  • At the annual BIO CEO conference in New York, Dr. Thomas Okarma said Geron plans to start embryonic stem-cell studies in humans with spinal cord injuries toward the end of the second quarter . (frcblog.com)
  • The FDA has now reversed the suspension, freeing Geron to proceed with a clinical trial in patients with severe spinal cord injuries, with a goal of eventually developing embryonic stem-cell treatments for such degenerative diseases as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. (icr.org)
  • But if all goes well with the trial, conducted by the biotech company Geron , there won't be any dramatic results-the trial is simply intended to test the treatment's safety, and patients will receive very low doses of the stem cell concoction. (discovermagazine.com)
  • A side note: Geron didn't receive any federal financing for this trial, so it won't be affected by the ongoing lawsuit challenging the use of human embryonic stem cells in scientific research. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Geron is using ESCs to make progenitor cells which are then injected. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Geron Corp. has begun testing an embryonic stem-cell treatment on a patient with spinal cord injuries, marking the first time such a medical therapy has been used on a human in a government approved study. (goldsea.com)
  • While federal funding for stem cell lines for research has been challenged in a lawsuit, companies such as Geron do not use government funding. (goldsea.com)
  • Geron, based in Menlo Park, Calif., is among several companies focusing on embryonic stem cell therapy as medical treatments. (goldsea.com)
  • The first human clinical trial of a therapy involving embryonic stems cells has been approved to proceed, Geron Corporation announced Friday . (cnn.com)
  • Yes this is excellent news, I blogged about this when Geron first announced the trial back in January 2009 http://speakingofresearch.com/2009/01/23/a-new-era-for-embryonic-stem-cells/ and was disappointed when additional animal studies identified potential problems. (cnn.com)
  • Kyle - Geron is working on pancreatic iselet cells as well. (cnn.com)
  • Back in 2009 the FDA approved an application from Geron Corporation to begin the first human safety trials of a therapy derived from embryonic stem cells, a move that was heralded as a strong vote of confidence in this controversial but exciting area of medicine. (discovermagazine.com)
  • But before the treatment of patients with spinal cord injuries could begin, the FDA reversed course and put a hold on the trial, noting that Geron had discovered cysts in some rats injected with the cells. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Geron … turns embryonic stem cells into precursors of neural support cells called oligodendrocytes. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Geron has announced that the second patient has been injected with embryonic stem cell derivatives. (frcblog.com)
  • Lastly, almost all of these protocols can also be used for analyzing and manipulating induced pluripotency iPS stem cells. (wiley.com)
  • Pluripotency distinguishes embryonic stem cells from adult stem cells, which are multipotent and can only produce a limited number of cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotency factors Oct4 and Nanog play a role in transcriptionally regulating the ESC cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter hES cell lines maintained undifferentiated proliferation for more than eight months, and showed normal karyotype and expression of markers of pluripotency, including Oct-4, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, nanog and alkaline phosphatase. (nih.gov)
  • These functional properties place opposing constraints on the genome of ESCs: self-renewal requires that ESC maintain a cell memory that specifies pluripotency, whereas the genome must be in a highly plastic state so as to enter distinct differentiation pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • A looming threat to US research on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been lifted. (newscientist.com)
  • Both work on adult stem cells, oppose the use of hESCs on moral grounds, and claim that President Barack Obama's decision to widen federal funding for hESC research undermined their ability to compete for grants. (newscientist.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be captured in a primed state in which they resemble the postimplantation epiblast, or in a naive state where they resemble the preimplantation epiblast. (nature.com)
  • Although MEK inhibition is essential for the naive state, here we show that reduced MEK inhibition facilitated the establishment and maintenance of naive hESCs that retained naive-cell-specific features, including global DNA hypomethylation, HERVK expression, and two active X chromosomes. (nature.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are derived from blastocyst and are capable of differentiating into number of cell types that make up the human body. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Two US public interest groups have asked a federal appeals court to hear a challenge of a patent over human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). (bionews.org.uk)
  • While the ability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to become any type of mature cell, from neuron to heart to skin and bone, is indisputably crucial to human development, no less important is the mechanism needed to maintain hESCs in their pluripotent state until such change is required. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The finding sheds new light upon the fundamental biology of hESCs with their huge potential as a diverse therapeutic tool but also suggests a new target for attacking cancer stem cells, which likely rely upon the same receptor and pathway to help spur their rampant, unwanted growth. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If so, said Willert, disrupting FZD7 function in cancer cells is likely to interfere with their development and growth just as it does in hESCs. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These findings have lead to identification of several pathways controlling the differentiation of hESCs into mesodermal derivatives such as myoblasts, mesenchymal cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, as well as hemangioblastic derivatives. (hindawi.com)
  • In the past 10 years, significant progress has been made in basic and translational research using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), with specific implications for pediatric diseases such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, 1 bone marrow failure syndromes, 2 leukemia, 3 and congenital heart disease. (aappublications.org)
  • Now, however, new research has found that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can generate cells that are functionally equivalent to DP cells. (bernsteinmedical.com)
  • Although almost all kinds of the mature blood cells can be generated from hESCs, there still lacks solid evidence for the generation of reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from hESC or hiPSC. (intechopen.com)
  • The present invention also relates to purified preparations of embryonic stem cells and for uses of embryonic stem cells in treating a wide variety of conditions, diseases and disorders. (google.es)
  • By contrast, expanding a population of embryonic stem cells while maintaining the cells in an undifferentiated and pluripotent state would allow several thousand patients to be treated with cells isolated from a single fetus. (google.es)
  • These results define R278.5 cells as an embryonic stem cell line, to our knowledge, the first to be derived from any primate species. (pnas.org)
  • A purified preparation of primate embryonic stem cells is disclosed. (google.es)
  • A method for isolating a primate embryonic stem cell line is also disclosed. (google.es)
  • Specifically, the field of the present invention is primate embryonic stem cell cultures. (google.es)
  • Disclosed herein are methods for culturing primate embryonic stem cells. (google.com)
  • 6 . The method of claim 2 , wherein the primate embryonic stem cells are human embryonic stem cells. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to methods for culturing primate embryonic stem cell cultures and culture media useful therewith. (google.com)
  • This invention provides a system for obtaining cells of the chondrocyte lineage by differentiating primate pluripotent stem cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Human blastocyst-derived, pluripotent cell lines are described that have normal karyotypes, express high levels of telomerase activity, and express cell surface markers that characterize primate embryonic stem cells but do not characterize other early lineages. (sciencemag.org)
  • Today, according to www.bionetonline.org , most of European countries such as France, Germany or Spain do not allow embryonic stem cell researches. (bartleby.com)
  • In Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy for Osteo-Degenerative Diseases: Methods and Protocols, accomplished investigators provide detailed descriptions on how to expand ESCs from the most commonly used species ex vivo, i.e. mouse and human, in static culture as well as in controllable bioreactor processes. (springer.com)
  • In an analysis published last month in Cell ( DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.05.032 ), Scott and his colleagues argued that a restructions on hESC research would not only cripple that work, but also "torpedo" research on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which share many of the characteristics of ESCs but are made by genetically reprogramming adult cells. (newscientist.com)
  • ESCs divide very frequently due to a shortened G1 phase in their cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinoblastoma proteins that inhibit the transcription factor E2F until the cell is ready to enter S phase are hyperphosphorylated and inactivated in ESCs, leading to continual expression of proliferation genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this difference in the cell cycle when compared to ESCs grown in media containing serum these cells have similar pluripotent characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comparison of genetically matched cell lines reveals the equivalence of human iPSCs and ESCs. (nature.com)
  • Mouse ESCs have a distinct epigenetic landscape and a more decondensed chromatin compared to differentiated cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cell lines derived from Inner Cell Mass (ICM) of blastocysts (E3.5 in the mouse) ( Evans and Kaufman, 1981 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study we show that ESCs contain about 30% less histones than differentiated cells deriving from them either spontaneously (Embryoid Bodies, EBs) or by inducing specific differentiation programs to neuronal and endodermal cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • We suggest that the difference in histone content between ESCs and differentiated cells may represent a new layer of control of the epigenome. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, ESCs produce tumors as has been demonstrated repeatedly in animal studies and shamefully, by the casualties of unregulated 'stem cell tourism' to places where ESC 'therapy' is offered. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Despite their therapeutic potential, progress in generating fully differentiated forebrain neurons from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has lagged behind that from more caudal regions of the neuraxis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful source for generating potentially unlimited numbers of specialized cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • These include the fundamental question of whether a neuron generated from ESCs outside of the normal developmental milieu can acquire the complex neurochemical and physiological properties exhibited by the equivalent cell born in utero . (jneurosci.org)
  • Against most expectations, human somatic cell nuclear transfer is proving exceptionally difficult to accomplish. (freerepublic.com)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer the same technique used to make Dolly the sheep requires one egg for each cloning attempt. (freerepublic.com)
  • The technique involves transplanting an individual's DNA into an egg cell that has been stripped of genetic material, a variation of a method called somatic cell nuclear transfer. (bloggernews.net)
  • I am thrilled to say we have accomplished our goal of creating patient-specific stem cells from diabetic patients using somatic cell nuclear transfer," said Susan L. Solomon, CEO and co-founder of NYSCF. (medindia.net)
  • Over the past five years, the scientific community has focused almost exclusively on somatic-cell nuclear transfer, or cloning, as the best resolution to the problem of immune rejection. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • During somatic-cell nuclear transfer, the genetic information of an unfertilized human egg would be removed and replaced with the unique genetic information of a patient. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • In both mice and humans, mutations in the gene-encoding transcription factor GATA1 cause an accumulation of proliferating, developmentally arrested megakaryocytes, suggesting that GATA1 suppression in ES and iPS cell-derived hematopoietic progenitors may enhance megakaryocyte production. (jci.org)
  • This is a major development in stem cell research because we know that rats are much more closely related to humans than mice in many aspects of biology. (innovations-report.com)
  • Until now, authentic ES cells have never been established from humans or animals other than mice. (innovations-report.com)
  • They will argue that the need for medical advances outweighs the right of these embryonic humans not to be killed. (bpnews.net)
  • By and large, people are turning a blind eye to these unborn, embryonic humans. (bpnews.net)
  • Ertelt, S. FDA OKs First Embryonic Stem Cell Research Trial on Humans, Despite Concerns . (icr.org)
  • No one knows, however, how effective, or safe, cells produced in this way might be, although tests in laboratory animals genetically engineered to develop similar sight-loss syndromes to humans have been very encouraging. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • ACT has the burden of trying to become one of the first companies to test human embryonic stem cells as a therapy in humans, meaning the FDA, which must okay the clinical trials, has lots of questions about their potential health effects. (xconomy.com)
  • One safety concern in using embryonic stem cells is that if any of the cells get into the body, they could form tumors. (nytimes.com)
  • IPSCs are not ready for human trials-tumors like ES cells, don't you know. (nationalreview.com)
  • We can try to correlate these differences with the ways these iPS cells behave, and answer questions such as which ones are more stable and which ones form tumors. (redorbit.com)
  • The iPS cells were watched to see if they would develop into tumors, a common worry when working with stem cells. (singularityhub.com)
  • FZD7 is a so-called "onco-fetal protein," expressed only during embryonic development and by certain human tumors. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, in August 2009 the FDA suspended the process because of the development of small tumors in mice that resulted from Geron's embryonic cell-containing concoction. (icr.org)
  • Without this expert scrutiny, remaining embryonic cells can grow out of control, and form unwanted tumors. (cyberessays.com)
  • What our findings show is that the problems with iPS cells don't just involve one or two or a few abnormal iPS cells escaping into the body and forming tumors, but that the whole population of cells is screwed up,' Lanza says. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Normally, embryonic stem cells tend to grow without limitations, producing tumors. (frcblog.com)
  • Zhou's team will coax ES cells to develop into precursors to neurons, and will then inject them into the striatum, a central region of the brain implicated in the disease. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Jeanne Loring, a stem-cell biologist at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, who is also planning stem-cell trials for Parkinson's, is concerned that the Australian and Chinese trials use neural precursors and not ES-cell-derived cells that have fully committed to becoming dopamine-producing cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • GABAergic interneuron precursors have the remarkable ability to migrate extensively and survive after transplantation into postnatal cortex, making them an attractive candidate for use in cell-based therapy for seizures or other neuropsychiatric disorders. (jneurosci.org)
  • In 2001, US President George W. Bush restricted government funding to research on just a few existing ES-cell lines. (nature.com)
  • 2 Sourcing human embryonic stem cell lines. (wiley.com)
  • But US government lawyers argued that research on cell lines created using other sources of funding does not. (newscientist.com)
  • David Cameron appears to be taking the compromise George W Bush line that embryonic stem cell research should only be permitted on existing lines. (blogs.com)
  • The 2015 regulations state that hospitals planning to carry out stem-cell clinical work must use government-certified ES-cell lines and pass hospital-review procedures. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The centre contains just two stem cell lines developed by research teams at King s College London and the Centre for Life in Newcastle. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The team that isolated the embryonic stem cell lines was led by Dr. Shoukhrat Mitalipov at Oregon Health and Science University in Portland. (nih.gov)
  • Just in time for Christmas, NIH Director Francis Collins has approved more human embryonic stem cell lines for taxpayer funding, bringing the total number of hESC lines at the federal trough to 142 . (lifenews.com)
  • Today's approval is not all that surprising-the four new lines, from the University of Queensland, were recommended for approval by the Stem Cell Working Group at the December 9, 2011 meeting of the Director's Advisory Committee . (lifenews.com)
  • The Stem Cell Working group had also voted not to approve six lines from China. (lifenews.com)
  • The first ES cell lines were established from mice in 1981 by Martin Evans of Cardiff University, UK, who was last year awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology. (innovations-report.com)
  • These new stem cell lines will make a huge contribution to basic and applied research and drug development, by providing a technology platform for facile genetic manipulation of a mammalian species that is widely used in academic and industrial labs studying physiology, pathology and pharmacology. (innovations-report.com)
  • I wonder how much the advance of methods to create embryonic-like stem cells was pushed forward by George W. Bush's restriction of embryonic stem cell lines that could be used. (bloggernews.net)
  • At the end of September, Collins approved three more human embryonic stem cell lines for taxpayer funding . (lifenews.com)
  • Prior to that the Obama administration last approved more federal funding for embryonic stem cell research on August 19, when Collins approved four more human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines for the embryonic stem cell registry. (lifenews.com)
  • These cell lines should be useful in human developmental biology, drug discovery, and transplantation medicine. (sciencemag.org)
  • What makes these twelve hESC lines even less suitable is that they were cultured in mouse feeder-cells, rendering them useless for clinical applications as they take on animal elements that could include viruses (Fox, 2007). (brightkite.com)
  • Nineteen ES-cell-like outgrowths and two stable hES cell lines were obtained. (nih.gov)
  • Current federal policy limits federally funded research to embryonic stem cell lines created before August 2001. (pewtrusts.org)
  • President George Bush favors keeping federal limits that restrict research to embryonic stem cell lines created before August 2001. (pewtrusts.org)
  • In a ruling that brings to a close a contentious two-year battle, a federal judge on Wednesday dismissed a lawsuit that sought to ban the use of federal funds to study any lines of human embryonic stem cells. (ucsf.edu)
  • Since President Obama's 2009 order, the NIH has approved the use of funding for approximately 100 cell lines, up from the 21 that qualified under the Bush order. (ucsf.edu)
  • The highly reproducible nature of the DEF-CS system coupled with the stable high growth rate of these stem cell lines is ideal for mass production of cells. (clontech.com)
  • Cellartis hES cell lines are available from several donors and are supplied from fully characterized cell banks. (clontech.com)
  • The research is the culmination of an effort begun in 2006 to make patient-specific embryonic stem cell lines from patients with type 1 diabetes. (medindia.net)
  • This push for the use of embryonic stem cells, as embodied in the Obama decision, is incomprehensible considering the medical fact that, although there are over 100 effective treatments using adult stem cells (which are in ample supply), no treatments have resulted from even the embryonic stem cell lines that have already been established. (icr.org)
  • Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the capability of self replication as well as being able to give rise to diverse types of differentiated or specialized cell lines. (jrank.org)
  • Embryonic stem cell lines could aid in testing the effect of new drugs and investigating appropriate drug dosages, eliminating the need for human subjects. (jrank.org)
  • Similarly, such cell lines may be utilized to investigate the biological effects of toxins on human cells. (jrank.org)
  • 10 Traditionally created embryonic stem cell lines are needed to serve as a comparison with the newly developed lines to establish whether they are indeed equivalent to traditionally developed lines. (aappublications.org)
  • Lanza and his colleagues investigated a range of cell types derived from eight human iPS cell lines and 25 embryonic stem cell lines. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In addition, where cells derived from embryonic stem cells are great at proliferating-a potentially critical feature if one wants to grow sufficient numbers of cells for clinical use-ones from the iPS lines were much feebler. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The result was the growth of two human embryonic stem cell lines that lack PIG-A, and therefore do not contain any proteins known as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor proteins on the cell's surface. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • and adult stem cells, found in adults, the best known of which, until recently, are certain cells from the bone marrow that can develop into all types of blood cells. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Bone marrow cells, in particular, were found to give rise to many cells besides those in the blood: in the skin, lung epithelium, kidney epithelium liver parenchyma, pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, endothelium, nerve cells in the cortex and cerebellum. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • She became one of 18 patients enrolled by neurosurgeon Gary Steinberg to undergo a transplant of bone marrow stem cells directly into her brain, next to the area of her stroke damage. (ncregister.com)
  • Adult stem cells can come from the placenta and umbilical cord blood after birth, and from organs such as bone marrow and skin. (pewtrusts.org)
  • This might be the reason why damaged skin goes green if Green Fluorescent Protein-labelled stem cells are injected into bone marrow. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Unrestricted somatic stem cells derived from umbilical cord blood are better in repairing heart attack damage compared to mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow. (medindia.net)
  • However, bone marrow transplantation has proven to be highly successful, and studies have shown that using blood enriched with hematopoetic stem cells leads to a higher engraftment rate than when an equivalent bone marrow sample is used. (jrank.org)
  • Charo says evidence for therapeutic use of stem cells is very limited, except for bone marrow stem cells. (wrn.com)
  • 78:7634-7638, 1981) or from fetal germ cells (Matsui, et al. (google.es)
  • culturing the stem cells in a culture essentially free of mammalian fetal serum and in the presence of fibroblast growth factor that is supplied from a source other than just a fibroblast feeder layer. (google.com)
  • culturing the stem cells in a culture essentially free of mammalian fetal serum and in the presence of a growth factor capable of activating a fibroblast growth factor signaling receptor, wherein the growth factor is supplied from a source other than just a fibroblast feeder layer. (google.com)
  • Embryonic germ cells are derived from the fetal gonads that arise later in fetal development. (jrank.org)
  • The research team, including senior author Dr. Charles Vacanti of Brigham and Women's Hospital, says their findings may one day lead to the creation of embryonic stem cells specific to each individual without the need for genetic manipulation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For now, they are just excited at the prospect of being able to build human models of genetic diseases using stem cells. (nationalreview.com)
  • You could do studies for heart cells or liver cells or other genetic diseases that affect other organs," said Dr. Arnold Kriegstein, director of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF. (nationalreview.com)
  • Genetic background drives transcriptional variation in human induced pluripotent stem cells. (nature.com)
  • Without ES cells it is impossible to perform precise genetic modifications for the creation of the disease model we want," he says. (innovations-report.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cells are also used in investigational studies of early human development, genetic diseases and toxicology testing. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • A previous study in mice indicates that it might be possible to generate embryonic stem (ES) cells using a single-cell biopsy similar to that used in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), which does not interfere with the embryo's developmental potential. (nih.gov)
  • WARF did not create or alter the properties inherent in stem cells any more than Myriad created or altered the genetic information encoded in the DNA it claimed', the brief states. (bionews.org.uk)
  • and WO 03/020920, with respect to the culturing and genetic alteration of pPS cells, differentiation into cardiomyocyte lineage cells, and use of the differentiated cells. (google.com)
  • The biotech last month asked the FDA for permission to conduct a Phase I/II clinical trial of its stem cell therapy for Stargardt's Macular Dystrophy, a genetic disease that is a leading cause of blindness in children. (xconomy.com)
  • Because of this role, it was hoped that DP cells grown in the laboratory (i.e., grown in culture) could form the basis of a treatment for genetic hair loss. (bernsteinmedical.com)
  • The research that got funded by the University of California, the New York Stem Cell Foundation and by the Russell Berrie Foundation used a mature cell, from which they took out genetic material. (topnews.ae)
  • It was noticed that the egg would only survive if its genetic material remains intact, and if it remains then it would lead to multiplication of cells, which would have three copies of each chromosome, which is not found in human cells. (topnews.ae)
  • But it has to be kept in mind that these cells are not normal, irrespective of the fact that it has been taken from human genetic material. (topnews.ae)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells have multi-potent abilities and are effective in regeneration of articular cartilage. (medindia.net)
  • Although there is great interest in the potential for using stem cells as cell replacements and other treatments for diseases that currently have no cure, research on the biology of human embryonic stem cells is still in its infancy. (springer.com)
  • Responsible stem cell research has the potential to develop new treatments and ultimately save lives. (newscientist.com)
  • China previously had no clear regulatory framework, and many companies had used that gap as an excuse to market unproven stem-cell treatments. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The International Society for Stem Cell Research has recently developed a Web site for patients seeking more information about available treatments - both in the United States and abroad. (nationalreview.com)
  • Adult stem cell research has already yielded many successful treatments for a host of medical conditions and should be encouraged by state and federal governments," the statement says. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • Meanwhile, adult stem cells remain the gold standard for patient treatments. (lifenews.com)
  • Stem cells could lead to future fertility treatments, study. (latimes.com)
  • This sort of miraculous healing is becoming more common with stem cell treatments, but the Japanese team at Keio University may have exceeded certain expectations. (singularityhub.com)
  • Bill Caldwell, the company's chairman and CEO, told me this week that the experimental Stargardt's treatment is the firm's top priority and its best chance to prove that embryonic stem cells can make effective treatments for diseases. (xconomy.com)
  • With more and more people are crossing borders or even oceans for medical treatments, a UW Law School Professor wants to raise awareness about "stem cell tourism. (wrn.com)
  • Alta Charo, Warren P. Knowles Professor of Law and Bioethics, says unscrupulous operators are taking advantage of some with on-line claims for cures and treatments derived from embryonic stem cells. (wrn.com)
  • This ruling means an immediate disruption of dozens of labs doing this work since the Obama administration made its order," said Dr. George Q. Daley, director of the stem cell transplantation program at Children's Hospital Boston. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Adds Daley, director of the Stem Cell Transplantation Program at HHMI/Children's Hospital in Boston, "Our data also point to differences between iPS cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells, which everyone has felt were similar if not identical. (redorbit.com)
  • Therefore, producing beta cells from stem cells for transplantation holds promise as a treatment and potential cure for type 1 diabetes. (medindia.net)
  • According to Robert Lanza, "Despite the progressive nature of these conditions, the vision of both patients appears to have improved after transplantation of the cells. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • In addition to possible applications in transplantation, embryonic stem cells may be useful tools in other clinical disciplines. (jrank.org)
  • Based on these developmental insights, we postulated that Lhx6 could serve as a useful marker to purify ESC-derived cortical interneuronal progenitors, and also to identify these cells following transplantation into mouse cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • This line permits the prospective isolation of GFP+ cells that, following transplantation into postnatal cortex, migrate extensively and develop neurochemical and electrophysiological features characteristic of endogenous interneuron populations. (jneurosci.org)
  • The lack of suitable stem cells is what holds human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research from progressing further. (brightkite.com)
  • This ruling clears away the legal uncertainty about sustained National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, providing the foundation for continued research advances," said Bernard Lo , MD, UCSF professor of medicine and director of the Program in Medical Ethics. (ucsf.edu)
  • hESC, and its association with abortion and other reproductive issues, was one of the most discussed topics in the US debate over stem cell research. (singularityhub.com)
  • George W. Bush's ban on some forms of stem cell research can almost be certainly traced back to the public perception of hESC. (singularityhub.com)
  • While views on the use of hESC differ around the world, induced pluripotent stem cells are a means of avoiding even the potential for controversy. (singularityhub.com)
  • Nevertheless, the FDA has approved embryonic stem cell use in 'the world's first clinical trial of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based therapy in man. (icr.org)
  • the same plasticity that permits hESC to generate hundreds of different cell types also makes them difficult to control. (hindawi.com)
  • It should be noted that EB differentiation does not reconstitute the full array of embryonic development, having no form of polarity or "body plan" All three approaches for hESC differentiation are efficient and have advantages and disadvantages. (hindawi.com)
  • Having been focusing on basic and clinical research on hESC/hiPSC-derived functionally mature blood cells for long, our group has established an efficient method to induce large-scale production of multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cells by coculturing hESC/hiPSCs with murine hematopoietic niche-derived stromal cells [ 3 - 6 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Human Embryonic Stem Cells: The Practical Handbook contains the first centralised collection of methods used in human embryonic stem cell biology. (wiley.com)
  • a highly readable and useful book… A notable feature of the book is its air of openness and honesty… This book… will help many to navigate the uncharted waters of human embryonic stem cell biology. (wiley.com)
  • In 1972 he joined the faculty of the Dept. Biological Chemistry at Harvard Medical School and in 1986 moved to the Roche Institute of Molecular Biology where he was Chair of the Dept. Cell and Developmental Biology and Adjunct Professor in the Dept. Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine. (elsevier.com)
  • In 1996 he moved to the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai where he was the Lillian and Henry M. Stratton Professorial Chair of the Dept. Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology. (elsevier.com)
  • We've discovered a basic mechanism the cell uses to decide whether to pay attention to a developmental cue or to ignore it," said co-senior author Matthew Thomson, PhD, a researcher in the department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology and the Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology at UCSF. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now that human cloning has been done with adult cells, the pro-cloning crowd pushes it using junk biology-just as they did in years past. (cbc-network.org)
  • At the same time, the research helps shed light on one of the fundamental mysteries of biology: how animals develop from single cells into the trillions of finely coordinated cells that make up an organism. (nih.gov)
  • The finding, they say, also highlights one aspect of human cell biology that has not been replicated in other animal model systems. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This is one area of stem cell biology where human and mouse differ significantly and we never would have discovered this if we had limited our studies to using only mouse embryonic stem cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The report, published online in the medical journal The Lancet, is the first to describe the effect on patients of a therapy involving human embryonic stem cells. (nytimes.com)
  • They come from the second clinical trial involving the stem cells, using a therapy developed by Advanced Cell Technology to treat macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness. (nytimes.com)
  • On the practical side, these topics range from the problems of deriving human embryonic stem cells and driving their differentiation along specific lineages, regulating their development into mature cells, and bringing stem cell therapy to clinical trials. (springer.com)
  • Another source of easily obtainable stem cells is umbilical cord cells, which have been routinely isolated from the umbilical cord of the newborn for transplant therapy, and has made headlines in successfully treating a woman paralysed for 19 years (see " Cord blood stem cells mend spinal injury ", this series). (i-sis.org.uk)
  • If we discover that certain genes or regions are altered in iPS cells," says Feinberg, "then we might be able to target these and come up with new ways of approaching stem cell therapy. (redorbit.com)
  • Only then will we be confident that iPS cells are a safe replacement for ES cells in research and therapy. (redorbit.com)
  • Chondrocytes and chondrocyte precursor cells obtained according to this disclosure are suitable for use in both research and clinical therapy. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The first federally approved trial of an embryonic stem cell therapy has begun, and the first patient with a spinal cord injury has been injected with a treatment made from embryonic stem cells. (discovermagazine.com)
  • It has also been suggested that embryonic stem cells might be used in gene therapy . (jrank.org)
  • When we started working with human embryonic stem cells in 1999, many predicted that it would be a number of decades before a cell therapy would be approved for human clinical trials," Dr. Thomas B. Okarma, Geron's president and chief executive officer, said in a statement. (goldsea.com)
  • Advanced Cell Technology is banking on an experimental cellular therapy for a rare eye disease to show the world that controversial embryonic stem cells have a place in treating diseases. (xconomy.com)
  • The embryonic stem cell therapy would seem to be superior, however: "The stem cells transformed into heart cells and integrated with the surrounding muscle. (fightaging.org)
  • They are used in sickle cell patients but it is a very intense process that involves the patient receiving significant chemotherapy +/- radiation therapy prior to transplant. (cnn.com)
  • Attempts to use either type of cell for therapy remain at the early stages of research, so it is not clear which will turn out to be better. (nytimes.com)
  • The dispersed integration of the transplanted cells throughout the targeted organ (indeed, throughout the entire body of the patient) would make it impossible to remove the stem cell derivatives surgically should any problems arise. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • One of the seminal achievements of mammalian embryology of the last decade is the routine insertion of specific genes into the mouse genome through the use of mouse ES cells. (google.es)
  • Shortly after fertilization, a mammalian egg begins to divide into identical, totipotent cells. (google.es)
  • Mouse ES cells injected into syngeneic mice form teratocarcinomas that exhibit disorganized differentiation, often with representatives of all three embryonic germ layers. (google.es)
  • In a paper published online by Cell on May 15, former postdoctoral researcher Sendurai Mani and his colleagues demonstrated in mice and in human cells that cells that have undergone an "epithelial-to-mesenchymal" (EMT) transition acquire several important characteristics of stem cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Here, we engineered ES cells from WT mice to express a doxycycline-regulated (dox-regulated) shRNA that targets Gata1 transcripts for degradation. (jci.org)
  • In order to explore the role that the gene plays in these cells, the investigators obtained embryonic stem cells from mice whose MYC genes (c-MYC and N-MYC) they could selectively deactivate. (dkfz.de)
  • The trial began in 2010 after being delayed by the FDA because cysts were found on mice injected with these cells, and safety concerns were raised. (wikipedia.org)
  • They took those sperm progenitor cells and injected them into the testes of infertile mice. (latimes.com)
  • New research published in the journal PLoS One found that embryonic stem cells can be used to form a type of cell that induces new hair follicle growth, and that these cells promote robust hair growth when implanted into mice. (bernsteinmedical.com)
  • Investigators in Australia, Singapore, Israel, Canada and the United States, among others, soon reported that they had converted embryonic stem cells into neurons, immune cells and beating heart cells 7 . (nature.com)
  • Hence, we developed a protocol to generate myelinating oligodendrocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells and established a myelin formation assay with embryonic stem cell-derived neurons in microfluidic devices. (nih.gov)
  • B) Quantification of the number of cells immunostained for several markers of oligodendrocytes, neurons (TUJ1) and astrocytes (GFAP) at D8 and D15 (two independent experiments). (nih.gov)
  • They discovered that if the Brn2 signal was strong enough and long enough, stem cells would quickly begin to transform into neurons. (eurekalert.org)
  • And once it goes, it really goes - the cells rapidly start converting into neurons. (eurekalert.org)
  • Precursor cells can turn into other kinds of neurons, and could accumulate dangerous mutations during their many divisions, says Loring. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells can turn into any type of cell in the body, like heart cells, muscles or neurons. (nytimes.com)
  • This handbook represents an essential source of up-to-date practical information for all cell and developmental biologists working with human embryonic stem cells or wishing to enter the field. (wiley.com)
  • How the cells manage to ignore these noisy fluctuations but then respond quickly and decisively to authentic developmental cues has remained a mystery. (eurekalert.org)
  • and at least some of these stem cells seem to have as wide a developmental potential as embryonic stem cells. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Prolonged Mek1/2 suppression impairs the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells. (nature.com)
  • In their research on embryonic stem cells, Andreas Trumpp and colleagues have now discovered the factor that controls this developmental pause. (dkfz.de)
  • However, so far it is still unknown whether the total histone content (as opposed to histone modifications) remains the same in cells of different developmental stage and differentiation capacity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Different histone modifications are known to mark chromatin in cells of different developmental stage. (frontiersin.org)
  • EB has the advantage of providing a three-dimensional structure, which enhances cell-cell interactions that may be important for some developmental processes. (hindawi.com)
  • This volume covers all aspects of embryonic stem cell differentiation, including mouse embryonic stem cells, mouse embryonic germ cells, monkey and human embryonic stem cells, and gene discovery. (elsevier.com)
  • Stem cells are subclassified as embryonic stem cells, embryonic germ cells, or adult stem cells. (jrank.org)
  • Clearly, research on embryonic stem cells has advanced considerably over the past five years, and it is therefore important to revisit the promise in light of current findings. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • Published, peer-reviewed clinical trials have shown stem cells have reversed stroke damage years after the injury, helped spinal-cord-injury victims regain lost movement, helped heart attack patients recover, cured sickle cell anemia and reversed a wide range of diseases, including multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and lupus erythematosus. (ncregister.com)
  • Geron's approach to treating spinal cord injury is a good one, but it relies on a specific cell type (embryonic stem cells). (singularityhub.com)
  • Peer-reviewed evidence of adult stem cell success for spinal cord injury patients has already been published by groups in Portugal , in Australia , in Ecuador , and in Brazil . (frcblog.com)
  • A clinical trial that would test the use of embryonic stem cells to treat spinal cord injury could begin within three months . (frcblog.com)
  • The first clinical trial of embryonic stem cells is on track to start early next year on patients with spinal cord injury. (frcblog.com)
  • They soon recognized the research potential of these intriguing entities, which can both replicate themselves and be nudged into becoming any of the body's 200-plus cell types 3 , 4 . (nature.com)
  • This finding has the potential to reduce the need to utilize both embryonic stem cells and DNA-manipulated iPS cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • So are these cells are still human, but without a potential human, doomed to die when the aminotic fluid drains. (slashdot.org)
  • I don't believe we should create life in order for it to be experimented on, but I support stem cell research because of its potential to contribute to breakthroughs in treating medical conditions (something I feel passionately about as the father of a severely disabled child). (blogs.com)
  • I cannot personally accept that a ball of human cells [even though it has the potential to become a full human being] deserves the same protection as the fully developed version. (blogs.com)
  • Not only does Nanog have the capacity to delay aging, it has the potential in some cases to reverse it," says Andreadis, noting that the embryonic stem cell gene worked in three different models of aging: cells isolated from aged donors, cells aged in culture, and cells isolated from patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. (eurekalert.org)
  • NIH-funded research with this line may only be conducted at Mount Sinai Hospital and "other Canadian laboratories affiliated with the Canadian Stem Cell Network for further research or potential clinical use. (lifenews.com)
  • Naive-cell-specific culture conditions allow the study of preimplantation development ex vivo but reportedly lead to chromosomal abnormalities, which compromises their utility in research and potential therapeutic applications. (nature.com)
  • This does not affect the potential of stem cells. (dkfz.de)
  • Recent research and the current scenario as well as future market potential of " Human Embryonic Stem Cells Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast, 2013 - 2019" globally. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • A scientist from Harvard, Dr. Doug Melton, has figured out how to use human embryonic stem cells to produce insulin-a potential major breakthrough for those that suffer from diabetes. (cbc-network.org)
  • Not all of Steinberg's patients experienced as miraculous improvement as Coontz did, but several had clinical improvements, and the clinical trial revolutionized the understanding of the brain's potential for post-stroke recovery and the potential of stem cells to induce that recovery. (ncregister.com)
  • What if we could agree that a single cell is not life, just yet, but a potential piece of life? (brightkite.com)
  • Because many believed Geron's trial offered hope for advancing knowledge related to stem cells and their potential uses, there was disappointment in the scientific community when the trial was cut short. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you know just one thing about embryonic stem cells, it's probably that they have the potential to grow into any type of cell in the body. (latimes.com)
  • But having the potential to become any type of cell is not the end game -- research groups around the world are trying to figure out the precise recipe for turning those stem cells into specific types of cells that would be useful for studying or treating various diseases. (latimes.com)
  • This cell has the potential to make all the cells in not only the foetus but the placenta too. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • To realize this potential, it is essential to be able to control ESC differentiation and to direct the development of these cells along specific pathways. (hindawi.com)
  • Collins said the NIH currents spends more on adult stem cell research than on embryonic stem cells, but that the two types of cells have different potential and current uses in both areas must be pursued. (phys.org)
  • Research on Parkinson disease , a neurodegenerative disorder that results in loss of brain function following the death of dopamine producing cells, underscored the potential of this approach. (jrank.org)
  • However, it turned out that these cultured DP cells lost their hair follicle-inducing potential too quickly to be useful in treating hair loss. (bernsteinmedical.com)
  • But more significantly, unlike cultured DP cells, they do not lose their potential to induce hair follicle formation when grown in the laboratory. (bernsteinmedical.com)
  • Those kinds of cells, which have much greater potential than the adult stem cells we've been using so far, are still in the research development stage," she said. (wrn.com)
  • Each of these cells, if isolated, has the potential to develop into a fetus. (google.es)
  • These cells are pluripotent stem cells, which, although having the potential to develop into many types of cells, no longer have the potential to develop into a fetus if isolated. (google.es)
  • Starting with an attempt to repair spinal-cord injuries in 2010, there have been more than a dozen clinical trials of cells created from ES cells - to treat Parkinson's disease and diabetes, among other conditions. (nature.com)
  • To induce diapause or to put embryonic stem cells into a dormant state, it is therefore sufficient to deactivate the MYC oncogene, Trumpp summarizes. (dkfz.de)