Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
Cell-surface molecules that exhibit lineage-restricted patterns of expression during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. The antigens are useful markers in the identification of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Cells used in COCULTURE TECHNIQUES which support the growth of the other cells in the culture. Feeder cells provide auxillary substances including attachment substrates, nutrients, or other factors that are needed for growth in culture.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subclass are expressed in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and may play a role in vasculogenesis.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The cluster of cells inside a blastocyst. These cells give rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper. They are pluripotent EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS capable of yielding many but not all cell types in a developing organism.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The creation of embryos specifically for research purposes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A malignant neoplasm consisting of elements of teratoma with those of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or both. It occurs most often in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Bipotential angio-hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to both HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS and ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The process by which a person or group of persons comes to be regarded or treated as lacking in human qualities.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
Signaling ligands that act in opposition to NODAL PROTEIN. During vertebrate development they regulate the degree of left-right asymmetry by controlling the spatiotemporal influence of NODAL PROTEIN.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex that catalyzes the METHYLATION of chromosomal HISTONE H3. It works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 1 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.

Isolation and characterization of the murine Nanog gene promoter. (1/5687)

Nanog protein is expressed in the interior cells of compacted morulae and maintained till epiblasts but downregulated by implantation stage. It is also expressed in embryonic stem cells, embryonic carcinoma cells and embryonic germ cells but disappeared in differentiated ES cells. In this study, we have isolated, sequenced, and performed the first characterization of the Nanog promoter. The transcription start sites were mapped by primer extension analysis. Two promoter regions were found upstream the transcription start sites and the expression of major Nanog promoter/reporter gene construct is abolished in differentiated F9 EC cells as compared to the undifferentiated counterpart. We also showed that a putative octamer motif (ATGCAAAA) is necessary for the major promoter activity. Gel shift and supershift assays showed that Oct-1, Oct-4 and Oct-6 protein selectively bind to the octamer motif.  (+info)

Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from the Chinese population. (2/5687)

Six human embryonic stem cell lines were established from surplus blastocysts. The cell lines expressed alkaline phosphatase and molecules typical of primate embryonic stem cells, including Oct-4, Nanog, TDGF1, Sox2, EBAF, Thy-1, FGF4, Rex-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Five of the six lines formed embryoid bodies that expressed markers of a variety of cell types; four of them formed teratomas with tissue types representative of all three embryonic germ layers. These human embryonic stem cells are capable of producing clones of undifferentiated morphology, and one of them was propagated to become a subline. Human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population should facilitate stem cell research and may be valuable in studies of population genetics and ecology.  (+info)

Derivation of multipotent mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells. (3/5687)

BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells provide access to the earliest stages of human development and may serve as a source of specialized cells for regenerative medicine. Thus, it becomes crucial to develop protocols for the directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into tissue-restricted precursors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we present culture conditions for the derivation of unlimited numbers of pure mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells and demonstrate multilineage differentiation into fat, cartilage, bone, and skeletal muscle cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings will help to elucidate the mechanism of mesoderm specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation and provide a platform to efficiently generate specialized human mesenchymal cell types for future clinical applications.  (+info)

Identification and isolation of embryonic stem cells in reproductive endocrinology: theoretical protocols for conservation of human embryos derived from in vitro fertilization. (4/5687)

BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent cells obtained from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts derived from in vitro culture associated with reproductive endocrinology therapy. Human ESCs are regarded as highly significant since they retain the capacity to differentiate into any of approximately 200 unique cell types. Human ESC research is controversial because to acquire such cells, the ICM of human blastocysts must be manipulated in a way that renders embryos nonviable and unsuitable for transfer in utero. Techniques to yield competent ESCs with conservation of source blastocysts would satisfy many objections against ESC research, but at present such approaches remain largely untested. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We contrast experimental culture of single blastomeres obtained by 1) non-destructive biopsy of embryos destined for transfer, and 2) isolation of karyotypically normal blastomeres from disaggregated ("dead") embryos considered unsuitable for transfer, and evaluate these approaches with regard to production of ESCs. Pluripotency was confirmed by morphological criteria and by quantification of divergent homeodomain proteins specific to undifferentiated cell development. Following ESC isolation and identification, assessment was conducted according to a novel ESC grading system, also proposed here. CONCLUSION: The role of reproductive endocrinology in ESC research remains paramount. In this report, we hypothesize new and expand on existing strategies having the potential to enhance human ESC isolation, identification and in vitro maintenance.  (+info)

LIF and BMP signaling generate separate and discrete types of GFAP-expressing cells. (5/5687)

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling both promote the differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive cells. This study compares the cellular and molecular characteristics, and the potentiality, of GFAP(+) cells generated by these different signaling pathways. Treatment of cultured embryonic subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitor cells with LIF generates GFAP(+) cells that have a bipolar/tripolar morphology, remain in cell cycle, contain progenitor cell markers and demonstrate self-renewal with enhanced neurogenesis - characteristics that are typical of adult SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ) stem cells/astrocytes. By contrast, BMP-induced GFAP(+) cells are stellate, exit the cell cycle, and lack progenitor traits and self-renewal--characteristics that are typical of astrocytes in the non-neurogenic adult cortex. In vivo, transgenic overexpression of BMP4 increases the number of GFAP(+) astrocytes but depletes the GFAP(+) progenitor cell pool, whereas transgenic inhibition of BMP signaling increases the size of the GFAP(+) progenitor cell pool but reduces the overall numbers of astrocytes. We conclude that LIF and BMP signaling generate different astrocytic cell types, and propose that these cells are, respectively, adult progenitor cells and mature astrocytes.  (+info)

Embryonic stem cells cultured in biodegradable scaffold repair infarcted myocardium in mice. (6/5687)

Our previous findings demonstrated that directly injecting embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into ischemic region of the heart improved cardiac function in animals with experimental myocardial infarction (MI). Tissue engineering with stem cells may provide tissue creation and repair. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of grafting of ESC-seeded biodegradable patch on infarcted heart. MI in mice was induced by ligation of the left coronary artery. Mouse ESCs were seeded on polyglycolic-acid (PGA) material patches. Three days after culture, an ESC-seeded patch was transplanted on the surface of ischemic and peri-ischemic myocardium. Eight weeks after MI operation and patch transplantation, hemodynamics and cardiac function were evaluated in four (sham-operated, MI, MI + cell-free patch, and MI + ESC-patch) groups of mice. The blood pressure and left ventricular function were significantly reduced in the MI animals. Compared with MI alone and MI + cell-free patch groups, the animals received MI + ESC-seeded patches significantly improved blood pressure and ventricular function. The survival rate of the MI mice grafted with MI + ESC-seeded patches was markedly higher than that in MI alone or MI + cell-free patch animals. GFP-positive tissue was detected in infarcted area with grafting of ESC-seeded patch, which suggests the survivors of ESCs and possible myocardial regeneration. Our data demonstrate that grafting of ESC-seeded bioabsorbable patch can repair infarcted myocardium and improve cardiac function in MI mice. This novel approach of combining stem cells and biodegradable materials may provide a therapeutic modality for repairing injured heart.  (+info)

Neural induction promotes large-scale chromatin reorganisation of the Mash1 locus. (7/5687)

Determining how genes are epigenetically regulated to ensure their correct spatial and temporal expression during development is key to our understanding of cell lineage commitment. Here we examined epigenetic changes at an important proneural regulator gene Mash1 (Ascl1), as embryonic stem (ES) cells commit to the neural lineage. In ES cells where the Mash1 gene is transcriptionally repressed, the locus replicated late in S phase and was preferentially positioned at the nuclear periphery with other late-replicating genes (Neurod, Sprr2a). This peripheral location was coupled with low levels of histone H3K9 acetylation at the Mash1 promoter and enhanced H3K27 methylation but surprisingly location was not affected by removal of the Ezh2/Eed HMTase complex or several other chromatin-silencing candidates (G9a, SuV39h-1, Dnmt-1, Dnmt-3a and Dnmt-3b). Upon neural induction however, Mash1 transcription was upregulated (>100-fold), switched its time of replication from late to early in S phase and relocated towards the interior of the nucleus. This spatial repositioning was selective for neural commitment because Mash1 was peripheral in ES-derived mesoderm and other non-neural cell types. A bidirectional analysis of replication timing across a 2 Mb region flanking the Mash1 locus showed that chromatin changes were focused at Mash1. These results suggest that Mash1 is regulated by changes in chromatin structure and location and implicate the nuclear periphery as an important environment for maintaining the undifferentiated state of ES cells.  (+info)

Transcriptional profiling of reporter genes used for molecular imaging of embryonic stem cell transplantation. (8/5687)

Stem cell therapy offers exciting promise for treatment of ischemic heart disease. Recent advances in molecular imaging techniques now allow investigators to monitor cell fate noninvasively and repetitively. Here we examine the effects of a triple-fusion reporter gene on embryonic stem (ES) cell transcriptional profiles. Murine ES cells were stably transfected with a self-inactivating lentiviral vector carrying a triple-fusion (TF) construct consisting of fluorescence, bioluminescence, and positron emission tomography (PET) reporter genes. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis allowed isolation of stably transfected populations. Microarray studies comparing gene expression in nontransduced control ES cells vs. stably transduced ES cells expressing triple fusion (ES-TF) revealed some increases in transcriptional variability. Annotation analysis showed that ES-TF cells downregulated cell cycling, cell death, and protein and nucleic acid metabolism genes while upregulating homeostatic and anti-apoptosis genes. Despite these transcriptional changes, expression of the TF reporter gene had no significant effects on ES cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation capability. Importantly, transplantation studies in murine myocardium demonstrated the feasibility of tracking ES-TF cells in living subjects using bioluminescence and PET imaging. Taken together, this is the first study to analyze in detail the effects of reporter genes on molecular imaging of ES cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Non-cell autonomous cues for enhanced functionality of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes via maturation of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial K ATP channels. AU - Keung, Wendy. AU - Ren, Lihuan. AU - Sen Li, Li. AU - Wong, Andy On Tik. AU - Chopra, Anant. AU - Kong, Chi Wing. AU - Tomaselli, Gordon F.. AU - Chen, Christopher S.. AU - Li, Ronald A.. PY - 2016/9/28. Y1 - 2016/9/28. N2 - Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a potential unlimited ex vivo source of ventricular (V) cardiomyocytes (CMs), but hESC-VCMs and their engineered tissues display immature traits. In adult VCMs, sarcolemmal (sarc) and mitochondrial (mito) ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP) channels play crucial roles in excitability and cardioprotection. In this study, we aim to investigate the biological roles and use of sarcK ATP and mitoK ATP in hESC-VCM. We showed that SarcI K, ATP in single hESC-VCMs was dormant under baseline conditions, but became markedly activated by cyanide (CN) or the known ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transplantation of expanded bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs) improves left ventricular function and remodelling after myocardial infarction. AU - Zuba-Surma, Ewa K.. AU - Guo, Yiru. AU - Taher, Hisham. AU - Sanganalmath, Santosh K.. AU - Hunt, Greg. AU - Vincent, Robert J.. AU - Kucia, Magda. AU - Abdel-Latif, Ahmed. AU - Tang, Xian Liang. AU - Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.. AU - Dawn, Buddhadeb. AU - Bolli, Roberto. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Adult bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs) exhibit a Sca-1+/Lin-/CD45- phenotype and can differentiate into various cell types, including cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. We have previously reported that transplantation of a small number (1 × 106) of freshly isolated, non-expanded VSEL-SCs into infarcted mouse hearts resulted in improved left ventricular (LV) function and anatomy. Clinical translation, however, will require large numbers of cells. Because the frequency of ...
Movahednia, Mohammad Mehdi Ehdi, Kidwai, Fahad Karim Arim, Zou, Yu, Tong, Huei Jinn, Liu, Xiaochen, Islam, Intekhab, Toh, Wei Seong, Raghunath, Michael, Cao, Tong (2015). Differential effects of the extracellular microenvironment on human embryonic stem cell differentiation into keratinocytes and their subsequent replicative life span. Tissue Engineering - Part A 21 (42223) : 1432-1443. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.tea. ...
0010] Other researchers have also generated RBCs from ESCs; however, these methods either used non-human/non-primate stem cells or used an embryoid body-dependent method (i.e. no direct differentiation). These methods, however, produced a mixture of erythroid and myeloid cells. See Carotta S, et al., Directed differentiation and mass cultivation of pure erythroid progenitors from mouse embryonic stem cells, Blood 104:1873-1880 (2004); Chadwick K, et al., Cytokines and BMP-4 promote hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells, Blood 102:906-915 (2003); Kaufman D, et al., Hematopoietic colony-forming cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:10716-10721 (2001); Ng, E, et al., Forced aggregation of defined numbers of human embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies fosters robust, reproducible hematopoietic differentiation, Blood 106:1601-1603 (2005); and Zambidis E, et al., Hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells ...
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT CLEARANCES FOR RECEIPT OF INTERNATIONAL SHIPMENT OF HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS Release Date: November 16, 2001 NOTICE: NOT-OD-02-013 National Institutes of Health Many of the sources of human embryonic stem cells are located in countries other than the United States. For investigators wishing to conduct federal research using human embryonic stem cells, permission may be required for their importation. Several U.S. federal government agencies have policies in place for the importation of biological specimens. This document explains them and provides agency contacts and additional information. Some countries may have additional requirements for exportation, but NIH does not know of specific cases at the present time. Therefore, this issue is not addressed in this document. The primary concern about importation of human embryonic stem cells pertains to their potential infectious properties, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) i.e., mad cow disease. All of the sources ...
Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-CMs) can improve the contractility of injured hearts. We hypothesized that mesodermal cardiovascular progenitors (hESC-CVPs), capable of generating vascular cells in addition to cardiomyocytes, would provide superior repair by contributing to multiple components of myocardium. We performed a head-to-head comparison of hESC-CMs and hESC-CVPs and compared these with the most commonly used clinical cell type, human bone marrow mononuclear cells (hBM-MNCs). In a nude rat model of myocardial infarction, hESC-CMs and hESC-CVPs generated comparable grafts. Both similarly improved systolic function and ventricular dilation. Furthermore, only rare human vessels formed from hESC-CVPs. hBM-MNCs attenuated ventricular dilation and enhanced host vascularization without engrafting long-term or improving contractility. Thus, hESC-CMs and CVPs show similar efficacy for cardiac repair, and both are more efficient than hBM-MNCs. However, hESC-CVPs do ...
Title: Alternative Strategies for the Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines and the Role of Dead Embryos. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Svetlana Gavrilov, Virginia E. Papaioannou and Donald W. Landry. Affiliation:Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Collage of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY, 10032, USA.. Keywords:Arrested human embryos, ES cell derivation, alternative approaches, human embryonic stem cells, hESC. Abstract: The therapeutic potential for human embryonic stem cells (hESC) drives intense public and scientific interest. However, the classical approach for derivation of hESC entails the destruction of human embryos. Controversial ethical issues and correspondingly restrictive federal policies in many countries have prompted the development of alternative approaches for the isolation of hESC. Here, several different strategies are discussed with a focus on the harvesting of live hESC from dead embryos. ...
Human embryonic stemcells (hESCs) can serve as a potentially limitless source of cells that may enable regeneration of diseased tissue and organs. Here we investigate the use of human embryonic stemcell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in promoting recovery from cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury in a mouse model. Using microarrays, we have described the hESC-CM transcriptome within the spectrum of changes that occur between undifferentiated hESCs and fetal heart cells. The hESC-CMs expressed cardiomyocyte genes at levels similar to those found in 20-week fetal heart cells, making this population a good source of potential replacement cells in vivo. Echocardiographic studies showed significant improvement in heart function by 8 weeks after transplantation. Finally, we demonstrate long-term engraftment of hESC-CMs by using molecular imaging to track cellular localization, survival, and proliferation in vivo. Taken together, global gene expression profiling of hESC differentiation enables a ...
QUESTION: I know there have been recent successes with adult stem cell research but why do you say we should eliminate all embryonic stem cell research just because it hasnt been as effective? Im reading articles that say embryonic stem cells hold more potential than adult stem cells so it seems logical to pursue both types of research.. ANSWER: CLR does not consider the lack of success as the reason to reject embryonic stem cell research. In fact, we dont categorically reject all embryonic stem cell research. In our efforts to follow the guidelines in Gods Word we work to defend the lives of all people regardless of age, perceived quality, or status. Therefore we reject any procedure that intentionally destroys human life. Since the current process of harvesting embryonic stem cells involves the killing of embryos we must condemn the process.. Research groups continue to pursue methods of harvesting embryonic stem cells without destroying human lives. If effective harvesting methods are ...
In spite of serious cardiotoxicity side-effects, doxorubicin is frequently used for treatment of several types of cancers. Isolated human adult cardiomyocytes could be the best model for assessing drug-induced cardiotoxicity, while harvesting mature cardiomyocytes is restricted by some limitations such as biopsy size, cell numbers, viability, proliferative capacity and their disability to be passaged as a cell line. In the present study, human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes applied as a model for evaluation of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. In this process, cardiogenic differentiated hESCs spheroids were exposed to different concentrations of doxorubicin for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The viability of spheroids as well as their morphology was assessed as important criterion of cardiotoxicity. Findings of the study showed that the viability of spheroids was significantly reduced at doses of 3 and 30 µM (P|0.05). Moreover, cell morphology was changed in the presence of same doses. Overall
A purified preparation of primate embryonic stem cells is disclosed. This preparation is characterized by the following cell surface markers: SSEA-1 (−); SSEA-4 (+); TRA-1-60 (+); TRA-1-81 (+); and alkaline phosphatase (+). In a particularly advantageous embodiment, the cells of the preparation are human embryonic stem cells, have normal karyotypes, and continue to proliferate in an undifferentiated state after continuous culture for eleven months. The embryonic stem cell lines also retain the ability, throughout the culture, to form trophoblast and to differentiate into all tissues derived from all three embryonic germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm). A method for isolating a primate embryonic stem cell line is also disclosed.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) derived from the inner cell mass of pre-implantation human blastocysts have two unique properties-indefinite self-renewal in culture and pluripotency, or the ability to differentiate into tissues from all three embryonic germ layers. As a result, hESC are a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine applications and have enormous potential in modeling human embryonic development. To realize this potential, a deeper understanding of the basic biology of hESC, especially of the genes that regulate self-renewal and differentiation, will be necessary. ❧ The focus of our study is on Oct4, a POU domain transcription factor and critical regulator of pluripotency whose levels are precisely controlled in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). In contrast to the single murine Oct4 isoform, which is better understood and more widely studied, three alternatively spliced isoforms exist in humans-OCT4A, OCT4B, and OCT4B1. Studies of human OCT4 are further confounded by ...
Embryonic Stem Cell Marker Antibody Panels from R&D Systems,R&D Systems adds two new Stem Cell Antibody Panels to its expanding line of stem cell products. The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Marker Antibody Panel (Catalog # SC008) contains the antibodies against: alkaline phosphatase, Nanog, Oct-3/4, SSEA-1 and SSEA-4. The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Marker Antibo,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The mitochondrion is emerging as a key organelle in stem cell biology, acting as a regulator of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation. In this study we sought to understand the effect of mitochondrial complex III inhibition during neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. When exposed to antimycin A, a specific complex III inhibitor, embryonic stem cells failed to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons, maintaining high Oct4 levels even when subjected to a specific differentiation protocol. Mitochondrial inhibition affected distinct populations of cells present in culture, inducing cell loss in differentiated cells, but not inducing apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells. A reduction in overall proliferation rate was observed, corresponding to a slight arrest in S phase. Moreover, antimycin A treatment induced a consistent increase in HIF-1α protein levels. The present work demonstrates that mitochondrial metabolism is critical for neuronal differentiation and emphasizes that
We have found an element in the cell that controls pluripotency, that is the ability of the human embryonic stem cell to differentiate or become almost any cell in the body, said senior author Kenneth S. Kosik, professor in the Department of Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Biology. Kosik is also co-director and Harriman Chair in Neuroscience Research of UCSBs Neuroscience Research Institute. The beauty and elegance of stem cells is that they have these dual properties, said Kosik. On the one hand, they can proliferate -- they can divide and renew. On the other hand, they can also transform themselves into any tissue in the body, any type of cell in the body. The research team includes James Thomson, who provided an important proof to the research effort. Thomson, an adjunct professor at UCSB, is considered the father of human embryonic stem cell biology. Thomson pioneered work in the isolation and culture of non-human primate and human embryonic stem cells. These cells provide ...
From: Scott Gilbert , [email protected],Subject: HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS: A PRIMER. I teach embryology to undergraduate poets, musicians, and languagemajors, so my friends and family assume that I can tell them whats going o=nabout stem cells. So here is my list of Frequently Asked Questions, alongwith my answers.. The Science =20What are embryonic stem cells?. When the fertilized human egg divides, it forms two groups of cells. By theten-cell stage, there are outside cells and inside cells. The outside cell=sbecome the fetal part of the placenta. These cells will attach to theuterus. The inner cells are those cells that are going to become the embryo=,itself. Each of these inner cells can become any type of cell in the body.In fact, before day 14, this group of inner cells can split in half, andeach half will develop into a whole embryo. This is how identical twins areformed. These inner cells have this ability to form any type of the 220cell types of the body, and this capacity is ...
Scientists produce functioning neurons from human embryonic stem cells Neurons will be used to create models of neurological diseases. Thursday, 09 August 2007 Scientists with the Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Medicine at UCLA were able to produce from human embryonic stem cells a highly pure, large quantity of functioning neurons that will allow them to create models of and study diseases such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, prefrontal dementia and schizophrenia. Researchers previously had been able to produce neurons - the impulse-conducting cells in the brain and spinal cord - from human embryonic stem cells. However, the percentage of neurons in the cell culture was not high and the neurons were difficult to isolate from the other cells. UCLAs Yi Sun, an associate professor of psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Thomas Südhof at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center were able to produce 70 to 80 percent of neurons in cell ...
Scientists have found that the DNA of human embryonic stem cells is chemically modified in a characteristic, predictable pattern. This pattern distinguishes human embryonic stem cells from normal adult cells and cell lines, including cancer cells. The study, which appears online today in Genome Research, should help researchers understand how epigenetic factors contribute to self-renewal and developmental pluripotence, unique characteristics of human embryonic stem cells that may one day allow them to be used for therapeutic cloning.
Peppiatt CM, Collins TJ, Mackenzie L et al. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) antagonises inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release, inhibits calcium pumps and has a use-dependent and slowly reversible action on store-operated calcium entry channels. Cell Calcium 2003; 34:97-108 ...
This protocol describes for the first time, a detailed method to generate vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) from its three developmental contributers: neuroectoderm, paraxial mesoderm and lateral plate mesoderm progenitor cells, all of which can be derived from human embryonic stem cells. The derived SMCs display contractile ability upon stimulation and have been shown to support vessel formation when transplanted in-vivo. The developmental origin-specific SMC subtypes, enable the study of unique features of the derived SMC subtypes, such as extracellular matrix degradation ...
This protocol describes the generation of a mixed progenitor population from human embryonic stem cells and further isolation of renal cells.. ...
Posted on behalf of Corie Lok.. Two clinical trials testing retinal cells derived from human embryonic stem cells report positive preliminary results today. A paper published today in The Lancet says that the cells appear to be safe four months after being injected into the eyes of two blind patients and describes visual improvements in the patients.. This isnt the first trial of therapies based on human embryonic stem cells, nor does it provide the first data on these therapies in humans. It does, however, provide the first - albeit early - data from the only ongoing clinical trial of such a treatment. One trial involves patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, whereas the other is focused a juvenile form of degenerative blindness called Stargardts macular dystrophy. Neither condition is treatable.. The results reported today are from the first patient from each of the two trials, both of which will eventually enrol a ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from developing mouse blastocysts in vitro that maintain long‐term self renewal and the capacity to give rise to all cell types in the adult body (including some extraembryonic cell types) when subjected to the appropriate conditions
Because video data are complex and are comprised of many images, mining information from video material is difficult to do without the aid of computer software. Video bioinformatics is a powerful quantitative approach for extracting spatio-temporal data from video images using computer software to perform dating mining and analysis. In this article, we introduce a video bioinformatics method for quantifying the growth of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by analyzing time-lapse videos collected in a Nikon BioStation CT incubator equipped with a camera for video imaging. In our experiments, hESC colonies that were attached to Matrigel were filmed for 48 hours in the BioStation CT. To determine the rate of growth of these colonies, recipes were developed using CL-Quant software which enables users to extract various types of data from video images. To accurately evaluate colony growth, three recipes were created. The first segmented the image into the colony and background, the second enhanced the ...
Sept. 14, 1999: The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation establishes WiCell as a clearinghouse to distribute stem cells and foster research.. -- Aug. 9, 2001: President Bush announces his decision to limit federal funding for embryonic stem cell research to cell lines in existence at that point in time.. -- Sept. 4, 2001: A team of Wisconsin scientists led by Dan Kaufman announces it has coaxed stem cells to become blood cells.. -- Nov. 30, 2001: Neural progenitor cells, stem cells that have migrated part way down the developmental pathway to becoming specific types of brain cells, are created and implanted in mice where the cells further develop into functioning neurons. The work was conducted in the laboratory of UW-Madison stem cell scientist Su-Chun Zhang at the Waisman Center.. -- Feb. 10, 2003: Wisconsin scientists James Thomson and Thomas Zwaka report the ability to manipulate genes in human stem cells, a technique critical to studying gene function and creating cells to mimic disease in ...
A Thanksgiving present from the European Union!The Enlarged Board of Appeal of the European Patent Office (EPO) did not take the day off. Early on November 27, the EPO announced that they would not allow the development of human embryonic stem cells to be patented as filed by WARF in 1996, since that technique depended…
Effects of hydrodynamic culture on embryonic stem cell differentiation: cardiogenic modulation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Stem cells from adults can be coaxed into becoming more specified tissues and used effectively for specific treatments. Stem cells from embryos, however, involve the destruction of a human life and have not yet offered any useful treatments. Nevertheless, the FDA has approved embryonic stem cell use in the worlds first clinical trial of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based therapy in man.1. The news comes as the latest chapter in a long series of events. When President George W. Bush introduced a policy in August 2001 that prevented federal funding for stem cell research involving embryos, guidelines regarding the use of embryonic stem cells had already been established in labs and remained on the table.. After taking office, President Barack Obama reversed the Bush decision on March 10, 2009.2 This was an anticipated fulfillment of a campaign promise, but what came as a surprise was that this announcement to proceed with embryonic stem cells provided no limits or restrictions on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene expression patterns of Royan human embryonic stem cells correlate with their propensity and culture systems. AU - Rassouli, Hassan. AU - Khalaj, Mona. AU - Hassani, Seyedeh-Nafiseh. AU - Nemati, Shiva. AU - Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini. AU - Baharvand, Hossein. N1 - Copyright the Author(s). Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Objective: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to give rise to all types of cells in the human body when appropriately induced to differentiate. Stem cells can differentiate spontaneously into the three-germ layer derivatives by embryoid bodies (EBs) formation. However, the two-dimensional (2D) adherent culture of hESCs under defined conditions is commonly used for directed differentiation toward a specific type of mature cells. In this study, we aimed to determine the ...
Since President Obama repealed research restrictions on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in 2009, hESC research has expanded significantly. Before the repeal there were 20 hESC-endorsed lines available for government research funding, now there are 128.. While government funding has been more accessible, investors have still been leery of investing in stem cell companies that use hESCs. There is still a great deal of concern regarding the political environment for this kind of research and many are concerned that if President Obama does not get reelected in 2012 that government funding will again be drastically reduced and that many hESC companies will not be able to survive the cuts. Although the increase in hESC lines available for government funded research has given a boost to the industry, other non-embryonic stem cell work is still funded at a significantly higher rate. According to a recent article in Bloomberg titled Embryonic Stem-Cell Approvals Rise, the National Institutes of ...
Embryonic stem cells are obtained from early-stage embryos - a group of cells that forms when a womans egg is fertilized with a mans sperm in an in vitro fertilization clinic. Because human embryonic stem cells are extracted from human embryos, several questions and issues have been raised about the ethics of embryonic stem cell research.. The National Institutes of Health created guidelines for human stem cell research in 2009. The guidelines define embryonic stem cells and how they may be used in research, and include recommendations for the donation of embryonic stem cells. Also, the guidelines state embryonic stem cells from embryos created by in vitro fertilization can be used only when the embryo is no longer needed.. The embryos being used in embryonic stem cell research come from eggs that were fertilized at in vitro fertilization clinics but never implanted in a womans uterus. The stem cells are donated with informed consent from donors. The stem cells can live and grow in special ...
Primary stem cell-derived endothelial cells can be used for a variety of purposes (e.g., assays of cell-cell adhesion, migration, vascular tube formation, angiogenesis assays and many other applications) Standard biochemical procedures can be performed using endothelial cell cultures include RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, or immunofluorescent staining or flow cytometry, et al.. Primary stem cell-derived endothelial cells from Cell Biologics are distributed for research purposes only. Our products are not authorized for human use. Transfer or resale of any Cell Biologics cells or products from the purchaser to other markets, organizations, or individuals is prohibited by Cell Biologics without the express written consent of the company. Cell Biologics Terms and Conditions must be accepted before submitting an order.. Question 9: How much does isolation of stem cell-derived endothelial cells cost? ...
Over 70% of diffuse intrinsic pediatric gliomas, an aggressive brainstem tumor, harbor heterozygous mutations that create a K27M amino acid substitution (methionine replaces lysine 27) in the tail of histone H3.3. The role of the H3.3K27M mutation in tumorigenesis is not fully understood. Here, we use a human embryonic stem cell system to model this tumor. We show that H3.3K27M expression synergizes with p53 loss and PDGFRA activation in neural progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, resulting in neoplastic transformation. Genome-wide analyses indicate a resetting of the transformed precursors to a developmentally more primitive stem cell state, with evidence of major modifications of histone marks at several master regulator genes. Drug screening assays identified a compound targeting the protein menin as an inhibitor of tumor cell growth in vitro and in mice.
Purpose: A potential application of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is the generation of corneal epithelial (CEpi) and endothelial (CEndo) cells to be used for corneal disease treatment. In this study, we designed a new method to induce hESC differentiating to CEpi and CEndo like cells for cornea substitute construction.. Methods: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) were cultured in a transwell coculture system with differentiated human corneal stromal cells to differentiate into periocular mesenchymal precursor (POMPs). Next, the CEndo-like cells expressed N-cadherin/vimention were derived from POMPs with lens epithelial cell-conditioned medium, and isolated by Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To obtain CEpi-like cells, the hESCs were cultured in the limbal stem cells conditioned medium for directional differentiation. The epithelial markers were detected by immunocytochemistry. And then, the induced CEpi and CEndo like cells were cultured on the acellular porcine cornea matrix ...
Hubei Key Lab of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, formerly known as the Life Sciences Institute, was founded in 1997. In 2006 the construction project of Hubei Key Lab of Embryonic Stem Cell Research was approved. In November 2009 the Lab was formally accepted with honors, making it the only provincial key Lab in the field of stem cell in Hubei Province. The Lab covers an area of over 1000 square meters. It has the first-class Lab facilities for cell culture and molecular biology, with its equipment worth more than 10,000,000 Yuan. Major technology platforms include human, mouse embryonic stem cell culture technology and system construction technology, somatic cell cloning (nuclear transplant) technology, mRNA synthesis, gene recombination technology, and a variety of adult stem cell isolation and proliferation and clinical transplantation technologies. Currently the Lab is undertaking two National Natural Science Foundation Programs, 3551 Optics Valley Talent Program in Wuhan Donghu Development ...
Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression that occur in cells without alterations to DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications are critical components of eukaryotic gene regulation and chromatin organization. Different epigenetic mechanisms, including the post-translational modifications of DNA-associated histone proteins play a role in the activation or repression of genes. ❧ One of my research goals was to define the epigenetic signature of cultured human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and to determine how their epigenomes change during lineage commitment. Pluripotent hESCs are capable of self-renewal and have the capacity to differentiate into any lineage of the embryo. However, hESCs grown in culture are heterogeneous in nature, consisting of a mixture of pluripotent to differentiated cells, making investigation of pluripotent hESCs difficult. Therefore precise definition of pluripotent cells present in culture is critical in order to use these cells for future stem cell based ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Towards automated control of embryonic stem cell pluripotency. AU - Khazim, Mahmoud. AU - Postiglione, Lorena. AU - Pedone, Elisa. AU - Rocca, Dan L.. AU - Zahra, Carine. AU - Marucci, Lucia. PY - 2019/6/27. Y1 - 2019/6/27. UR - https://doi.org/10.1101/685297. U2 - 10.1101/685297. DO - 10.1101/685297. M3 - Other contribution. ER - ...
Im going to venture in here and throw in my two cents in hopes that you wrote this piece in earnest, not realizing the scientific implications of your accusations and postulations. However, I must say, first and foremost, for the integrity of this piece and any others youve written on human embryonic stem cells, you are not a scientist. As such, it is not only unfair for you to make assumptions, but whats worse is that you are actually distributing your opinion as fact. Describing human embryonic stem cell research as the killing of young human beings for spare parts is not only inaccurate, but entirely untrue. It is because of people like yourself that human embryonic stem cells have become synomous with the idea of scientists growing a baby matrix-style and carving it up into little pieces, throwing away the rest. This is NOT what human embryonic stem cell research is in ANY sense.. I agree that there may well be ethical issues in terms of the ways that eggs (oocytes) and embryos are ...
Background and Aims: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells and thus provide a promising cell source for clinical applications of regenerative medicine. Currently hESCs are cultured on fibroblast feeder cell layers, which provide necessary cell-cell interactions for the attachment and soluble factors enabling the undifferentiated growth of hESCs. However, culturing of feeder cells is expensive and laborious. In addition, xeno-products, used in feeder cell and hESC cultures could transmit animal pathogens to hESCs, and cause rejections when transplanted to patients. Therefore there is a need to develop xeno- and feeder cell-free culturing methods for hESCs. The first aim of this research project was to set up and compare two commercial xeno-products containing feeder cell-free culturing methods for hESCs. The second aim was to optimize a novel, defined, serum- and xeno-free Reges medium, developed in Regea, into feeder cell-free conditions ...
France looked set on Thursday to maintain its curbs on human embryonic stem cell research after the conservative government fought off a parliamentary bid to liberalize the country
After years of animal trials, the first human has been injected with cells from human embryonic stem cells, according to Geron Corporation, the company which is sponsoring the controversial study. This is the first human embryonic stem cell trial in the world, Geron CEO Dr.
After years of animal trials, the first human has been injected with cells from human embryonic stem cells, according to Geron Corporation, the company which is sponsoring the controversial study. This is the first human embryonic stem cell trial in the world, Geron CEO Dr.
Embryonic stem cells are primitive cells derived from a blastocyst, or early stage embryo. These cells have not yet formed into adult stem cells.Embryonic stem cells are referred to as being pluripotent, meaning they have the capacity to become any cell in the human body. Because of this, and their ability to replicate indefinitely, embryonic stem cells can be employed as
ANN ARBOR, Mich. - The University of Michigans first human embryonic stem cell line will be placed on the U.S. National Institutes of Healths registry, making the cells available for federally-funded research. It is the first of the stem cell lines derived at the University of Michigan to be placed on the registry.. The line, known as UM4-6, is a genetically normal line, derived in October 2010 from a cluster of about 30 cells removed from a donated five-day-old embryo roughly the size of the period at the end of this sentence. That embryo was created for reproduction but was no longer needed for that purpose and was therefore about to be discarded.. This is significant, because acceptance of these cells on the registry demonstrates our attention to details of proper oversight, consenting, and following of NIH guidelines established in 2009, says Gary Smith, Ph.D., who derived the line and also is co-director of the U-M Consortium for Stem Cell Therapies, part of the A. Alfred Taubman ...
Oct4 is one of the master pluripotency genes that controls differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We generated HES2 and HES3 hESC lines stably transduced with lentivirus carrying Oct4 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) that display 80-90% reduction of Oct4 expression. Analysis of pluripotency marker expression shows that these Oct4 shRNA-transduced hESCs display normal wild-type expression levels of the pluripotency marker CD9 but an absence of GCTM2 expression. These hESC-derived adipocyte precursor cells display a characteristic morphology and can be propagated and cryopreserved as a standard stem cell line. Interestingly, Oct4 shRNA-transduced hESCs display a remarkably high lineage-specific spontaneous differentiation toward adipocytes. After two weeks of spontaneous differentiation under feeder-free conditions, 60-70% of cells display a mature adipocyte morphology as well as the expression of multiple adipocyte-specific mRNAs as assessed by RT-PCR. The upregulation of trophoblast, ...
The role of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in maintaining undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) was investigated using a targeted phosphoproteomics approach to specifically profile tyrosine phosphorylation events following FGF-2 stimulation. A cumulative total number of 735 unique tyrosine phosphorylation sites on 430 proteins were identified, by far the largest inventory to date for hESC. Early signaling events in FGF-2 stimulated hESC were quantitatively monitored using stable isotope dimethyl labeling, resulting in temporal tyrosine phosphorylation profiles of 316 unique phosphotyrosine peptides originating from 188 proteins. Apart from the rapid activation of all four FGF receptors, trans-activation of several other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) was observed as well as induced tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream proteins such as PI3-K, MAPK and several Src family members. Both PI3-K and MAPK have been linked to hESC maintenance through FGF-2 mediated signaling. The ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold vast promise in science and medicine because of their potential to replicate indefinitely and their capability to differentiate to any cell type found in the adult. Many environmental cues, including soluble factors and intercellular signals, affect hESC differentiation and self-renewal decisions. By integrating a variety of carefully synthesized materials, engineers at the University of Wisconsin have developed a culture system that precisely regulates the size and shape of hESC colonies by confining them to three-dimensional microwells, while providing desired soluble and immobilized chemical factors. By measuring growth and differentiation rates of hESC colonies of different sizes, the UW-MRSEC has identified an optimum self-renewing colony size of 100-200 um diameter; smaller colonies grow slowly, while larger colonies exhibit undesired spontaneous differentiation. Results of this study illustrate the importance of regulating intercellular interactions ...
Geron stops human embryonic stem cell tests Geron Corp., the company that started the first U.S.-approved trial of human embryonic stem cells, fell the most in more than 11 years after research costs and regulatory complexities caused it to end the program. The first trial testing Gerons embryonic stem-cell therapy in spinal-cord injury patients began in April. In October, it reported that none of the four patients in the trial had experienced negative reactions to the therapy, consisting of 2 million cells injected into their spines at the damaged site.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differentiation and Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes. AU - Basma, Hesham E. AU - Soto-Gutiérrez, Alejandro. AU - Yannam, Govardhana Rao. AU - Liu, Liping. AU - Ito, Ryotaro. AU - Yamamoto, Toshiyuki. AU - Ellis, Ewa. AU - Carson, Steven D. AU - Sato, Shintaro. AU - Chen, Yong. AU - Muirhead, David. AU - Navarro-Álvarez, Nalu. AU - Wong, Ronald J.. AU - Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta. AU - Platt, Jeffrey L.. AU - Mercer, David F. AU - Miller, John D.. AU - Strom, Stephen C.. AU - Kobayashi, Naoya. AU - Fox, Ira J.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Background & Aims: The ability to obtain unlimited numbers of human hepatocytes would improve the development of cell-based therapies for liver diseases, facilitate the study of liver biology, and improve the early stages of drug discovery. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, potentially can differentiate into any cell type, and therefore could be developed as a source of human hepatocytes. Methods: To generate ...
Cell therapies to repair the failing heart could offer great clinical benefit but few studies directly comparing efficacy between cell types have been performed. Here we sought to compare the cardiac repair efficacy of three promising human cell types: bone marrow mononuclear cells (hBMMNC), human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CM) and hESC-derived cardiovascular progenitors (hESC-CVP).. Methods/Results: Myocardial infarction (MI) was performed in athymic nude rats by 60 min ischemia then reperfusion. Baseline echocardiography was performed 4 days after MI before transplantation with 10x10^6 cells into the central infarct region and border zones. Rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: hESC-CVP n=10, hESC-CM n=11, hBMMNC n=11 and non-cardiac cells (control) derived from human ESCs (hNC) n=13. Flow cytometry revealed 77% of hESC-CVP cells were KDR+/PDGFRα+ whilst 69% of hES-CM cells were cardiac troponin-T+. At 4d after MI there was no significant difference in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterozygous embryonic stem cell lines derived from nonhuman primate parthenotes. AU - Dighe, Vikas. AU - Clepper, Lisa. AU - Pedersen, Darlene. AU - Byrne, James. AU - Ferguson, Betsy. AU - Gokhale, Sumita. AU - Penedo, Cecilia. AU - Wolf, Don. AU - Mitalipov, Shoukhrat. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - Monoparental parthenotes represent a potential source of histocompatible stem cells that should be isogenic with the oocyte donor and therefore suitable for use in cell or tissue replacement therapy. We generated five rhesus monkey parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PESC) lines with stable, diploid female karyotypes that were morphologically indistinguishable from biparental controls, expressed key pluripotent markers, and generated cell derivatives representative of all three germ layers following in vivo and in vitro differentiation. Interestingly, high levels of heterozygosity were observed at the majority of loci that were polymorphic in the oocyte donors. Some PESC lines ...
Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are promising candidates to regenerate myocardium as a treatment for heart disease. However, this application is limited because of the inability to prospectively identify a pure population of cardiovascular progenitors (CVPs) that is devoid of residual, undifferentiated cells capable of teratoma formation. Furthermore, the potential of hESC-derived cardiovascular lineage cells to functionally couple to human myocardium remains unknown. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypotheses that (i) CVPs derived from hESCs can be isolated based on a set of distinct surface markers and (ii) they can functionally integrate into the human fetal heart. We screened a large panel of monoclonal antibodies to prospectively identify early cardiovascular precursors that emerge from differentiating hESCs based on the expression of surface markers. We discovered four surface markers that highly enrich for CVPs: receptor tyrosine kinase-like ...
Stem cell Q & A. The scientific community had reason to celebrate when President Barack Obama signed an executive order on March 9 removing the previous administrations restrictions on human embryonic stem cell research. The order lifted the ban on federal funding for research using embryonic stem cell lines created after August 9, 2001, fulfilling one of Obamas campaign promises.. Investigators at the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Regenerative Medicine are excited by the possibilities presented by the change, hoping it will foster scientific collaboration, new funding and advances in this burgeoning field.. Human embryonic stem cells have the ability to develop into any tissue in the body. Researchers hope to someday use this capability to repair damage to organs and tissue caused by injury and chronic illness.. In the following interview, David Scadden, MD, director of the Center of Regenerative Medicine and codirector of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, explains what this ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can proliferate extensively in culture and give rise to progeny of the three germ layers. Several reports suggested that mouse and hESCs may attenuate immune responses. In this study, we focused on the mechanism by which hESCs inhibit T cell responses. Using coculture experiments, we demonstrate that hESCs inhibit cytokine secretion and T cell proliferation in response to potent T cell activators. Furthermore, we show that hESCs downmodulate the TCR-associated CD3-ζ chain. These effects are maintained when hESCs are replaced by their conditioned media and can be restored by the addition of l-arginine to hESC-conditioned media or by treatment of hESCs with a specific arginase inhibitor. Moreover, we show arginase-I expression and activity in hESCs. We further demonstrate that mouse ESCs (mESCs) similarly inhibit T cell activation via arginase I, suggesting an evolutionary conserved mechanism of T cell suppression by ESCs. In addition, we demonstrate that ...
Pluripotent stem cells are known to display distinct metabolic phenotypes than their somatic counterparts. While accumulating studies are focused on the roles of glucose and amino acid metabolism in facilitating pluripotency, little is known regarding the role of lipid metabolism in regulation of stem cell activities. Here, we show that fatty acid (FA) synthesis activation is critical for stem cell pluripotency. Our initial observations demonstrated enhanced lipogenesis in pluripotent cells and during cellular reprogramming. Further analysis indicated that de novo FA synthesis controls cellular reprogramming and embryonic stem cell pluripotency through mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, we found that de novo FA synthesis regulated by the lipogenic enzyme ACC1 leads to the enhanced mitochondrial fission via (i) consumption of AcCoA which affects acetylation‐mediated FIS1 ubiquitin-proteasome degradation and (ii) generation of lipid products that drive the mitochondrial dynamic equilibrium ...
Our previous study demonstrated the direct involvement of the HIF-1α subunit in the promotion of cardiac differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We report the use of cobalt chloride to induce HIF-1α stabilization in human ESCs to promote cardiac differentiation. Treatment of undifferentiated hES2 human ESCs with 50μM cobalt chloride markedly increased protein levels of the HIF-1α subunit, and was associated with increased expression of early cardiac specific transcription factors and cardiotrophic factors including NK2.5, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cardiotrophin-1. When pretreated cells were subjected to cardiac differentiation, a notable increase in the occurrence of beating embryoid bodies and sarcomeric actinin-positive cells was observed, along with increased expression of the cardiac-specific markers, MHC-A, MHC-B, and MLC2V. Electrophysiological study revealed increased atrial-and nodal-like cells in the cobalt chloride-pretreated group. Confocal calcium ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have large nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratios and nucleic acid spectral bands are prominent in their characteristic Raman signatures. Under normal conditions, the major variations in these signatures are due to changes in glycogen content, but how these signatures vary in response to different external conditions is largely unknown. In this study we investigated the influences of temperature variations on hESC Raman signatures. At 32 °C, compared to the 37 °C control condition, cell proliferation rates were markedly reduced and glycogen Raman band intensities were elevated. In addition, at both temperatures, an inverse relationship between cell proliferation rates (i.e., onset of exponential growth phase vs. end of exponential phase) and glycogen Raman band intensities was observed. This relationship suggested a role for glycogen in the energy metabolism of hESC self-renewal. Protein and lipid spectral variations were small and co-varied with those of nucleic acids, ...
It is impossible to discuss human embryonic stem cell (HECS) research without also discussing the debate about the ethicality of the research. Many different individual arguments comprise a single, larger debate: Is it ethical to destroy human embryos to alleviate the pain and suffering of existing human lives? The debate polarizes the issue of stem-cell research as a whole, although it applies only to embryonic stem-cell research. Stem-cell research using cells from umbilical cords or adult somatic stem-cells, which are not as useful for research, are not subject to the same controversy. The effects of this debate are readily evident; because of the controversial nature, many religious organizations refuse to acknowledge the benefits of research using embryonic stem-cells, politicians refuse to support research efforts, and federal funding is in a constant state of limbo. But while the argument against embryonic stem-cell research seems at first glance strongly founded, further investigation ...
Insulin resistance leads to a number of metabolic and cellular abnormalities including endothelial dysfunction that increase the risk of vascular disease. Although it has been particularly challenging to study the genetic determinants that predispose to abnormal function of the endothelium in insulin-resistant states, the possibility of deriving endothelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells generated from individuals with detailed clinical phenotyping, including accurate measurements of insulin resistance accompanied by multilevel omic data (eg, genetic and genomic characterization), has opened new avenues to study this relationship. Unfortunately, several technical barriers have hampered these efforts. In the present review, we summarize the current status of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells for modeling endothelial dysfunction associated with insulin resistance and discuss the challenges to overcoming these limitations. ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Multiresolution identification of germ layer components in teratomas derived from human and nonhuman primate embryonic stem cells. AU - Chebira, Amina. AU - Ozolek, John A.. AU - Castro, Carlos A.. AU - Jenkinson, William G.. AU - Gore, Mukta. AU - Bhagavatula, Ramamurthy. AU - Khaimovich, Irina. AU - Ormon, Shauna E.. AU - Navara, Christopher S.. AU - Sukhwani, Meena. AU - Orwig, Kyle E.. AU - Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi. AU - Schatten, Gerald. AU - Rohde, Gustavo K.. AU - Kovacevic, Jelena. PY - 2008/9/10. Y1 - 2008/9/10. N2 - We propose a system for identification of germ layer components in teratomas derived from human and nonhuman primate embryonic stem cells. Tissue regeneration and repair, drug testing and discovery, the cure of genetic and developmental syndromes all may rest on the understanding of the biology and behavior of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Within the field of stem cell biology, an ES cell is not considered an ES cell until it can produce a teratoma tumor (the gold ...
The mechanisms by which human embryonic stem cells (hESC) differentiate to endodermal lineage have not been extensively studied. Mathematical models can aid in the identification of mechanistic information. In this work we use a population-based modeling approach to understand the mechanism of endoderm induction in hESC, performed experimentally with exposure to Activin A and Activin A supplemented with growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)). The differentiating cell population is analyzed daily for cellular growth, cell death, and expression of the endoderm proteins Sox17 and CXCR4. The stochastic model starts with a population of undifferentiated cells, wherefrom it evolves in time by assigning each cell a propensity to proliferate, die and differentiate using certain user defined rules. Twelve alternate mechanisms which might describe the observed dynamics were simulated, and an ensemble parameter estimation was performed on each ...
Abstract Human stem cell research is a new field with much promise, but progress towards a clinical setting has been complicated by scientific and ethical challenges. The most heated discussion over stem cell research has focused on the source of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Different views on the moral status of the human embryo have plagued all aspects of the debate (and decision-making). In 2006, a way of de-differentiating somatic cells to a pluripotent state was realised. The advent of these induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) appeared to circumvent concerns over embryo destruction, and hence iPSCs have been touted as an ethical way forward. However, for the foreseeable future, scientific investigations involving iPSCs are likely to drive further embryo destruction. As a result, iPSC research is complicit in embryo destruction and is inextricably locked in to the moral status debate. I argue that a new approach is needed to deal with the serious uncertainties and indeterminate ...
Introduction. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Summary 3. What are stem cells? 3.1 Adult stem cells 3.2 Core blood stem cells 3.3 Embryonic stem cells 4. Potentially of embryonic stem cells 5. UK Stem Cell bank. 6. Controversial Issues 7. Bibliography 1. Introduction This is a report on stem cells and the stem cell bank The aim of this report to overview stem cell research, including stem cell banks and pitched at general readers of non scientific background. 2 Summary This report consists of brief information on what stem cells are and their sources, the UK Stem Cell Bank and the controversy surrounding embryonic stem cell research. The main point of this report is the potential for treatment of illness using embryonic stem cells. 3. What are Stem Cells? Stem cells are unspecialized (cells of no particular function) that reproduce themselves continually and under the right conditions develop from simple to more complex cells which are specialized to perform particular functions, this is termed cell ...
Pluripotency and the capability for self-renewal are essential characteristics of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which hold great potential as a cellular source for tissue replacement. Short cell cycle (15-16 h) compared to somatic cells is another property of hESCs. Efficient synchronization of hESCs at different cell cycle stages is important to elucidate the mechanistic link between cell cycle regulation and cell fate decision. This protocol describes how to establish synchronization of hESCs at different cell cycle stages.
The man who discovered induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has received the 2012 Nobel Prize for medicine. Dr. Shinya Yamanaka, a researcher from Kyoto University, developed a new process in 2006 that used four genes to reprogram skin cells in mice to behave like embryonic stem cells, which are pluripotent and thus capable of developing into any cell of the human body. In November 2007, Yamanaka and his team were able to create human iPSCs.. Yamanaka and the co-recipient, John B. Gurdon, received the prize owing to their discovery that mature, specialised cells can be reprogrammed to become immature cells capable of developing into all tissues of the body, according to a press release from the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet. By reprogramming human cells, scientists have created new opportunities to study diseases and develop methods for diagnosis and therapy.. The discovery means that embryonic stem cell research, which has just begun to undergo human clinical trials in Europe, ...
As with cultures of mouse ES cells, human ES cells begin to differentiate if they are removed from feeder layers and grown in suspension culture on a non-adherent surface. The human ES cells form embryoid bodies which, in the early stages, may be simple or cystic and filled with fluid. Although human embryoid bodies vary in their cellular content, many include cells that look like neurons and heart muscle cells [14, 25, 26].. After the human embryoid bodies form, they can be dissociated and replated in monolayer cultures which are then exposed to specific growth factors that influence further cell differentiation. Some growth factors induce cell types that would normally be derived from ectoderm in the embryo; these include retinoic acid, epidermal growth factor (EGF), bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Other growth factors, such as activin-A and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1) trigger the differentiation of mesodermally derived cells. Two ...
A team of researchers from Scotland has used a novel 3D printing technique to arrange human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for the very first time.
Enzymatically degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels for the 3D culture and release of human embryonic stem cell derived pancreatic precursor cell aggregates Journal Article ...
Since the successful isolation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the past decades, massive investigations have been conducted to dissect the pluripotency network that governs the ability of these cells to differentiate into all cell types. Beside the core Oct4-Sox2-Nanog circuitry, accumulating regulators, including transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers, microRNA and signaling molecules have also been found to play important roles in preserving pluripotency. Among the various regulations that orchestrate the cellular pluripotency program, transcriptional regulation is situated in the central position and appears to be dominant over other regulatory controls. In this review, we would like to summarize the recent advancements in the accumulating findings of new transcription factors that play a critical role in controlling both pluripotency network and ESC identity.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Parthenogenesis-derived multipotent stem cells adapted for tissue engineering applications. AU - Koh, Chester J.. AU - Delo, Dawn M.. AU - Lee, Jang Won. AU - Siddiqui, M. Minhaj. AU - Lanza, Robert P.. AU - Soker, Shay. AU - Yoo, James J.. AU - Atala, Anthony. PY - 2009/2/1. Y1 - 2009/2/1. N2 - Embryonic stem cells are envisioned as a viable source of pluripotent cells for use in regenerative medicine applications when donor tissue is not available. However, most current harvest techniques for embryonic stem cells require the destruction of embryos, which has led to significant political and ethical limitations on their usage. Parthenogenesis, the process by which an egg can develop into an embryo in the absence of sperm, may be a potential source of embryonic stem cells that may avoid some of the political and ethical concerns surrounding embryonic stem cells. Here we provide the technical aspects of embryonic stem cell isolation and expansion from the parthenogenetic ...
When I was doing the chapter 5 guided reading, I spent most of my time reading about stem cells. I wanted to know more about what they are able to do and the controversy in using embryonic stem cells. The main characteristics of stem cells, that you most likely know, are as follows: they can renew themselves and they can differentiate. These two characteristics are what most scientists agree on. There are also two different types of stem cells used for research. They are adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells. Adult stem cells are more likely to be rejected than embryonic stem cells, so embryonic stem cells seem better to research with. This is where the controversy comes in. When taking these cells from an embryo, scientists are killing the human child it would have been developed into. So far, these embryonic stem cells come from unwanted embryos. Politicians are trying to make this type of research illegal because they think it kills human life. Im not saying whether this is right or ...
Researchers have identified the gene which controls the critical self-renewal function of stem cells. Both adult and embryonic stem cells are able to repeatedly renew themselves, which allows them to be grown up in large numbers in the laboratory before being differentiated into specific tissue types. Although both types of stem cell - adult and embryonic - are able to do this, embryonic stem cells are able to differentiate into a broader range of cell types than adult stem cells. A team of scientists led by Boris Reizis of Columbia University Medical Center in New York, working on mouse cells, found that the gene Zfx controls self-renewal in both embryonic stem cells and in haematopoietic stem cells - adult blood precursor cells. The researchers published their findings in the journal Cell.. Other genes have previously been found that promote self renewal in embryonic cells - Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 - but Zfx is the first to control the same function in both adult and embryonic stem cells. Reizis ...
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease line made from a never-frozen donated embryo.. The University of Michigans second human embryonic stem cell line has just been placed on the U.S. National Institutes of Healths registry, making the cells available for federally-funded research. It is the second of the stem cell lines derived at U-M to be placed on the registry.. The line, known as UM11-1PGD, was derived from a cluster of about 30 cells removed from a donated five-day-old embryo roughly the size of the period at the end of this sentence. That embryo was created for reproductive purposes, tested and found to be affected with a genetic disorder, deemed not suitable for implantation, and would therefore have otherwise been discarded when it was donated in 2011.. It carries the gene defect responsible for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a hereditary neurological disorder characterized by a slowly progressive degeneration of the muscles in the foot, lower leg and hand. CMT, as it is known, is one of the most ...
The ethically fraught field of embryonic stem cell research received much attention in late 2007 when induced pluripotent cells stem cells (iPSCs) were derived from somatic cells manipulated with the Yamanaka factors- Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc. These genes, which are highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, induce pluripotency and embryonic stem cell-like characteristics in human and mouse cells when overexpressed. Such cells hold promise for the field of regenerative medicine, and they dodge the controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells, since iPSCs can be derived from somatic cells, not embryos. Furthermore, they have demonstrated therapeutic benefit similar to that of embryonic stem cells. However, iPSCs are not free from drawbacks, and use could be limited in humans if viral transgenes are used in the induction process. This is especially true for oncogenes c-Myc and KLF4; reactivation of these in the host genome can lead to tumor formation. This has led researchers to examine the ...
Growth factors and transcription factors are well known to regulate pluripotent stem cells, but less is known about translational control in stem cells. Here, we use embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to investigate a connection between ESC growth factors and eIF2α-mediated translational control (eIF2α phosphorylation promotes protein expression from mRNAs with upstream open-reading frames, or uORFs). We find abundant phosphorylated P-eIF2α (P-eIF2α) in both pluripotent mouse and human ESCs, but little P-eIF2α in ESCs triggered to differentiate. We show that the growth factors LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor) and BMP4 (bone morphogenic protein 4) both maintain P-eIF2α in mESCs, but use distinct mechanisms: LIF inhibits an eIF2α phosphatase whereas BMP4 activates an eIF2α kinase. The mRNAs encoding the pluripotency factors Nanog and c-Myc possess uORFs while Oct4 mRNA does not. We find that salubrinal, a chemical that increases eIF2α phosphorylation, promotes Nanog and c-Myc expression, but not Oct4
Researchers first grew human embryonic stem cells in the lab in 1998, and policy on stem cells and human-animal chimeras followed two years later.. In August 2000, under President Bill Clinton, the NIH published a final rule that prohibited funding [r]esearch in which human pluripotent stem cells are combined with an animal embryo, along with providing the first guidelines for the kind of stem cell research that the agency would fund.. Since scientists hadnt yet developed induced pluripotent stem cells, this rule only applied to embryonic stem cells.. On Aug. 9, 2001, President George W. Bush limited the scope of stem cell research that could be federally funded to experiments using embryonic stem cell lines that had been derived prior to that day, among other limitations.. In November 2001, his administration also revoked the 2000 rule. But an NIH spokesperson told us, The policy that was in place under President Bush did not address human-animal chimeras specifically, and therefore did not ...
A concern raised some time ago is to determine whether the iPS cells produced from adult somatic cells have the specific characteristics of embryonic stem cells. If so, iPS cells could advantageously replace embryonic stem cells for experimental and clinical purposes, without the ethical difficu ...
Regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important functional role either in physiological or pathological conditions. The plasminogen activation (PA) system, comprising the uPA and tPA proteases and their inhibitor PAI-1, is one of the main suppliers of extracellular proteolytic activity contributing to tissue remodeling. Although its function in development is well documented, its precise role in mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation in vitro is unknown. We found that the PA system components are expressed at very low levels in undifferentiated ESCs and that upon differentiation uPA activity is detected mainly transiently, whereas tPA activity and PAI-1 protein are maximum in well differentiated cells. Adipocyte formation by ESCs is inhibited by amiloride treatment, a specific uPA inhibitor. Likewise, ESCs expressing ectopic PAI-1 under the control of an inducible expression system display reduced adipogenic capacities after induction of the gene. Furthermore, the adipogenic
Recently, a handful of intergenic long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to compete with mRNAs for binding to miRNAs and to contribute to development and disease. Beyond these reports, little is yet known of the extent and functional consequences of miRNA-mediated regulation of mRNA levels by lncRNAs. To gain further insight into lncRNA-mRNA miRNA-mediated crosstalk, we reanalyzed transcriptome-wide changes induced by the targeted knockdown of over 100 lncRNA transcripts in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We predicted that, on average, almost one-fifth of the transcript level changes induced by lncRNAs are dependent on miRNAs that are highly abundant in mESCs. We validated these findings experimentally by temporally profiling transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression following the loss of miRNA biogenesis in mESCs. Following the depletion of miRNAs, we found that |50% of lncRNAs and their miRNA-dependent mRNA targets were up-regulated coordinately, consistent with their interaction being
This unit describes a protocol for the isolation of cells from murine embryonic stem cells with hematopoietic stem cell activity, defined by the ability to reconstitute, long term, multiple lineages of the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice. The protocol subjects hematopoietic progenitors specified in differentiating embryoid bodies to ectopic HoxB4 expression (delivered via retroviral infection), followed by coculture and expansion on OP9 stromal cells in the presence of hematopoietic cytokines for 10 days. The protocol results in the generation of hundreds of millions of cells that can rescue mice from lethal irradiation. Although little is known about the phenotype and frequency of the actual hematopoietic stem cell-like cell within the population of cells generated by this protocol, the protocol establishes a system in which these cells can be further studied and the results ultimately translated to the human system. McKinney-Freeman, Shannon L.; Naveiras, Olaia; Daley, George Q.
The current epidemic of obesity has caused a surge of interest in the study of adipose tissue formation. While major progress has been made in defining the molecular networks that control adipocyte terminal differentiation, the early steps of adipocyte development and the embryonic origin of this lineage remain largely unknown. Here we performed genome-wide analysis of gene expression during adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We then pursued comprehensive bioinformatic analyses, including de novo functional annotation and curation of the generated data within the context of biological pathways, to uncover novel biological functions associated with the early steps of adipocyte development. By combining in-depth gene regulation studies and in silico analysis of transcription factor binding site enrichment, we also provide insights into the transcriptional networks that might govern these early steps. This study supports several biological findings: firstly, adipocyte development in mouse
Rat ES cells were derived using 3I medium from E4.5 blastocysts. Rat embryonic fibroblast cells were derived form E14.5 embryos. To analyze the mechanism under the selfrenewal of rat ES cells, microarrays were used for the genome wide analysis of gene expressoin profiles in rat ES cells. Rat embryonic fibroblast cells and mouse ES cells were tested at same time as control. Our results from clustering analysis demonstrated that the gene expression profile of rat ES cells resembles mouse ES cells, but not REFs. Keyword: 3I medium; rat embryonic stem cells; mouse ES cells; rat embryonic fibroblast cells Rat ES cells were cultured in 3I medium; rat embryonic fibroblast cells were derived and cultured GMEM/10% FBS; mouse ES cells (C57/BL6)were cultured in GMEM/10% FBS added LIF and feeder cells were removed before RNA extraction. Three replicates each.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene conversion during vector insertion in embryonic stem cells. AU - Hasty, Edward P. AU - Rivera-pérez, Jaime. AU - Bradley, Allan. PY - 1995/6/11. Y1 - 1995/6/11. N2 - Recombination of an insertion vector Into Its chromosomal homologue is a conservative event in that both the chromosomal and the vector sequences are preserved. However, gene conversion may accompany homologous recombination of an Insertion vector. To examine gene conversion in more detail we have determined the targeting frequencies and the structure of the recomblnant alleles generated with a series of vectors which target the hprt gene in embryonic stem cells. We demonstrate that gene conversion of the introduced mutation does not significantly limit homologous recombination and that gene conversion occurs without a sequence specific bias for five different mutations. The frequency of the loss of a vector mutation and the gain of a chromosomal sequence is Inversely proportional to the distance between the ...
1. Volarevic V, Ljujic B, Stojkovic P. et al. Human stem cell research and regenerative medicine: present and future. Br Med Bull. 2011;99:155-168 2. Volarevic V, Erceg S, Bhattacharya SS. et al. Stem cell-based therapy for spinal cord injury. Cell Transplant. 2013;22:1309-1323 3. Turner L, Knoepfler P. Selling Stem Cells in the USA: Assessing the Direct-to-Consumer Industry. Cell Stem Cell. 2016;19:154-157 4. Smith AG. Embryo-derived stem cells: of mice and men. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2001;17:435-462 5. Zhang X, Stojkovic P, Przyborski S. et al. Derivation of human embryonic stem cells from developing and arrested embryos. Stem Cells. 2006;24:2669-2676 6. Thomson JA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Shapiro SS. et al. Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science. 1998;28:1145114-1145117 7. Reubinoff BE, Pera MF, Fong CY. et al. Embryonic stem cell lines from human blastocysts: somatic differentiation in vitro. Nat Biotechnol. 2000;18:399-404 8. De Trizio E, Brennan CS. The business of ...
The complete relationship of embryonic stem cells (ESC) to cells in the mouse embryo remains controversial. advancement and is dropped after implantation. The regularity of deriving clonal ESC lines shows that all E4.5 epiblast cells may become ESC. We further display that ICM cells from early blastocysts can improvement to ERK-independence if given a particular laminin substrate. These results suggest that development from the epiblast coincides with competence for ERK-independent self-renewal and consequent propagation as ESC lines. Launch Mammalian preimplantation advancement establishes the founding cell people from the foetus and specifies two extraembryonic lineages. In mouse at throughout the 16-cell stage the external cells acquire trophectoderm identification; the inside cells form inner cell mass (ICM) which eventually segregates into primitive endoderm (PrE) and preimplantation epiblast. Epiblast cells exhibit pluripotency factors such as for example Oct4 Sox2 and Nanog1-5 whereas PrE ...
By Stuart P. Atkinson Current protocols for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) to clinically relevant cell types are woefully inefficient with many millions or tens of millions of ESC used for each differentiation, only to yield small proportions of the desired cell type. This entails large scale culture and amplification of ESC, often over a large period of
Those of us who are opposed to the use of embryonic stem cells for research are routinely accused of being hard-hearted toward those whose maladies can be addressed with stem cell research. Of course, this is not the case. We fully support adult stem cell research, but even if adult stem cells prove problematic in some cases I would still not support embryonic stem cell research when the embryo must be destroyed to obtain them.. When we think about saving lives we must count the cost. Is relieving the symptoms of disease worth the cost of the lives of the weakest and most defenseless members of society? Treating embryos with careless disregard will lead to further abuses down the road.. One of the problems with embryonic stem cells was the possibility of immune rejection. To avoid this, many want to clone the affected individual and use the embryonic stem cells from the clone. But this treats the human embryo as a thing, a clump of cells. The basis of this ethic is strictly the end justifies ...
ImStem Biotechnology has successfully treated an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS) using human embryonic stem cells (hESC) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), called hES-MSCs (…). Now researchers from ImStem, in collaboration with University of Connecticut Health Center (UCHC) and Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.(OTCBB:ACTC), have developed a novel therapy to treat MS with hES-MSCs.. They found that hES-MSCs are more effective in treating animal model of MS than MSCs from bone marrow of adult human donors (BM-MSC). This work is published in the June 5th 2014 online edition of Stem Cell Reports, the official journal of International Society for Stem Cell Research.. The beauty of the new hES-MSCs is their consistently high efficacy in MS model. This is a big surprise when we found that most BM-MSC lines show poor or no efficacy.. Additionally, BM-MSCs but not hES-MSCs express high level of IL-6, a proinflammatory cytokine can worsen the disease. This definitely adds more advantages to ...
With the introduction of just four factors researchers have successfu...The cells--which the researchers designate induced pluripotent stem c... Human embryonic stem cells might be used to treat a host of diseases...Those problems could be circumvented if pluripotent cells could be obt... We have demonstrated that pluripotent stem cells can be directly gene...,With,few,factors,,adult,cells,take,on,character,of,embryonic,stem,cells,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
The research, carried out by Dr Emmajayne Kingham at the University of Southampton in collaboration with the University of Glasgow and published in the journal Small, cultured human embryonic stem cells on to the surface of plastic materials and assessed their ability to change.. Scientists were able to use the nanotopographical patterns on the biomedical plastic to manipulate human embryonic stem cells towards bone cells. This was done without any chemical enhancement.. The materials, including the biomedical implantable material polycarbonate plastic, which is a versatile plastic used in things from bullet proof windows to CDs, offer an accessible and cheaper way of culturing human embryonic stem cells and presents new opportunities for future medical research in this area.. Professor Richard Oreffo, who led the University of Southampton team, explains: To generate bone cells for regenerative medicine and further medical research remains a significant challenge. However we have found that by ...
What are Stem Cells?. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the potential to become specialized types of cells. Stem cells can be categorized as embryonic stem cells or adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are derived from a human fetus; there are many ethical concerns with embryonic stem cells, and these are not used in our practice.. Stem Cells are the seeds that grow into new muscle, tendon, ligament, cartilage and bone. These primitive cells are stored in our bodies in several places but they are very rich and easily accessible in bone marrow. In the case of PRP-Therapy, a few local stem cells can be triggered to help rebuild damaged tissue and more may trickle in over time. When Stem cells are actively harvested from bone marrow, concentrated in a centrifuge and mixed with a PRP injection, the results can be much more profound. This is because many thousands more cells are directly introduced to the injured area which can result in much faster and more extensive repair.. ...
Experiments on pigs have shown that secretion from human embryonic stem cells can minimize heart injury by reducing tissue death by 60 per cent, say researchers.
0080]Stem cells may be stem cells recently obtained from a donor, and in certain preferred embodiments, the stem cells are autologous stem cells. Stem cells may also be from an established stem cell line that is propagated in vitro. Suitable stem cells include embryonic stems and adult stem cells, whether totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent or of lesser developmental capacity. Stem cells are preferably derived from mammals, such as rodents (e.g. mouse or rat), primates (e.g. monkeys, chimpanzees or humans), pigs, and ruminants (e.g. cows, sheep and goats). Examples of mouse embryonic stem cells include: the JM1 ES cell line described in M. Qiu et al., Genes Dev 9, 2523 (1995), and the ROSA line described in G. Friedrich, P. Soriano, Genes Dev 5, 1513 (1991), and mouse ES cells described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,190,910. Many other mouse ES lines are available from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, Me.). Examples of human embryonic stem cells include those available through the following suppliers: ...
"Second Human Embryonic Stem Cell Clinical Trial to Start." USA Today, November 22. Schwartz, S et al. (2012). "Embryonic Stem ... The FDA approved a phase I clinical trial with ViaCyte beta cells derived from human embryonic stem cell for the treatment of ... Phase I/II clinical trials involving retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, derived from human embryonic stem cells, for the ... Two clinical trials involving derivatives of human embryonic stem cells were approved in 2010. Advanced Cell Technology (ACT) ...
"Embryonic Stem Cell". Archived from the original on 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2008-01-01. Frisch M, Melchinger AE (2005). " ... In gene-knockout experiments in particular, where the knockout is performed on easily cultured stem cell lines, but is required ... with the percentage of genetic material from the original stem cells reduced to a minimum (on the order of 0.01%). Due to the ... but also the minimum percentage of genetic material from the original stem cell line. A consomic strain is an inbred strain ...
... which is remarkable in the development of stem cell biology. Fibroblast Embryonic stem cell Jian-ming Xu (2005). "Preparation, ... "Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Mouse Embryonic and Adult Fibroblast Cultures by Defined Factors". Cell. 126 (4): 663- ... are widely used as feeder in embryonic stem cell culture because they can mimic the microenvironment in embryo. In 2006, Shinya ... 2015). Principles of Stem Cell Biology and Cancer: Future Applications and Therapeutics. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 3-5. ISBN 978-1 ...
This work was foundational in the field of embryonic stem cells and stem cell research. Stevens' later studies focused on ... Stevens called these cell types "pluripotent embryonic stem cells." In order to study this phenomenon, Stevens selectively bred ... "Embryonic Stem Cell Pioneer Dies". The Scientist Magazine®. Peterson, Joyce (March 30, 2015). "Leroy C. Stevens, Ph.D., 1920- ... Leroy C. Stevens (1920-2015) was a scientist at The Jackson Laboratory acknowledged as the pioneer of embryonic stem cell ...
Houbaviy, HB; Murray MF; Sharp PA (2003). "Embryonic stem cell-specific MicroRNAs". Dev Cell. 5 (2): 351-358. doi:10.1016/S1534 ... It has been shown that miR-130a is expressed in the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell compartment but not in mature blood ... 2006). "Downregulation of miR-122 in the rodent and human hepatocellular carcinomas". J. Cell. Biochem. 99 (3): 671-8. doi: ... Mature microRNAs are processed from the precursor stem-loop by the Dicer enzyme. In this case, the mature sequence is excised ...
Houbaviy HB, Murray MF, Sharp PA (August 2003). "Embryonic stem cell-specific MicroRNAs". Developmental Cell. 5 (2): 351-8. doi ... miRNA libraries constructed from cloning and sequencing short RNAs derived from cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells have ... Once nutritional conditions becomes favorable, the expression of mir-235 is downregulated by IIS pathway, and stem cells leave ... These totipotent cells represent the earliest stages of mammalian development (they are derived from the inner cells of the ...
Houbaviy HB, Murray MF, Sharp PA (August 2003). "Embryonic stem cell-specific MicroRNAs". Developmental Cell. 5 (2): 351-8. doi ... "Ethanol-induced expression of ET-1 and ET-BR in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and human endothelial cells involves hypoxia ... was evaluated by transfecting cervical cancer cells (SiHa and ME-180) with anti-miR-199a oligonucleotides and the cell ... Dostie J, Mourelatos Z, Yang M, Sharma A, Dreyfuss G (February 2003). "Numerous microRNPs in neuronal cells containing novel ...
Dani C (1999). "Embryonic stem cell-derived adipogenesis". Cells Tissues Organs (Print). 165 (3-4): 173-80. doi:10.1159/ ... A lipoblast is a precursor cell for an adipocyte. Alternate terms include adipoblast and preadipocyte. Early stages are almost ... Adipogenesis Adipose differentiation-related protein Lipoblastoma List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Michael ... v t e (Cell biology, All stub articles, Pathology stubs). ...
Houbaviy HB, Murray MF, Sharp PA (Aug 2003). "Embryonic stem cell-specific MicroRNAs". Developmental Cell. 5 (2): 351-8. doi: ... The presence of miR-34 products has also been confirmed in embryonic stem cells. miR-34 has been shown to be maternally ... The precursor miRNA stem-loop is processed in the cytoplasm of the cell, with the predominant miR-34 mature sequence excised ... p53-deficient human gastric cancer cells, restoration of functional miR-34 inhibits cell growth and induces chemosensitization ...
Houbaviy, HB; Murray MF; Sharp PA (2003). "Embryonic stem cell-specific MicroRNAs". Dev Cell. 5 (2): 351-358. doi:10.1016/S1534 ... increased during the induction of endothelial cell differentiation in embryonic stem cells (tested on murine) or induce ... B-cell lymphomas * Cell lines * Cerebellum * Purkinje cells * HeLa cells Finally they have tissues-specific miRNA expression. ... 2012). "Role of the MicroRNA-17-92 Cluster in the Endothelial Differentiation of Stem Cells". Journal of Vascular Research. 49 ...
"Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved June 24, 2007. Works of John Wesley, vol. XVI, ... It supports research on stem cells retrieved from umbilical cords and adult stem cells, stating that there are "few moral ...
doi:10.1093/cb/cbn006 Tuffs, A. (2001). "Germany debates embryonic stem cell research". BMJ, 8, 323. Taylor, R. (1998). The ... The Protestant leadership in Germany is divided on the issue of stem cell research; however, those opposing liberalising laws ... The Case of Stem Cell Research". Christian Bioethics, 14(1), 95-107. ... contributing to the debate around bioethics and stem cell research. ...
As embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass at the blastocyst stage, removing them from the inner cell mass ... Removal of LIF pushes stem cells toward differentiation, however genetic manipulation of embryonic stem cells allows for LIF ... Martello G, Smith A (2014). "The nature of embryonic stem cells". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 30: 647-75. ... LIF is often added to stem cell culture media as an alternative to feeder cell culture, due to the limitation that feeder cells ...
In 2010, the Foundation issued a public policy document on embryonic stem cell research. In 2012 the Irish Stem Cell Foundation ... The Adult Stem Cell Foundation of Ireland'. The Irish Stem Cell Foundation supports all types of stem cell research governed by ... "An Irish Stem Cell Perspective". Forbes.com. Retrieved 29 January 2019. "Government urged on stem cell legislation". Rte.ie. 8 ... The Irish Stem Cell Foundation is Ireland's National Stem Cell Research Organisation. A Member of the International Consortium ...
Capito supports embryonic stem cell research. In 2001, Capito voted for a bill to ban the cloning of human embryos. In May 2005 ... Also in 2007, Capito again voted in favor of funding stem-cell research. She also voted in favor of research using stem cells ... to repeal restrictions on embryonic stem-cell research funding. Capito also voted in 2006 to attempt to override President ...
Reid supported embryonic stem cell research. Over the time, Reid shifted his support towards more progressive views. Regarding ... Reid, Harry M. "George Bush Vetos [sic] Stem Cell Research". giveemhellharry.com. Archived from the original on September 29, ...
ES cells and ES cells. The combination of embryonic stem cell and diploid embryo is a common technique used for the making of ... If embryonic stem cells are to be used for gene targeting to make a chimera, the following procedure is common: a construct for ... Ledermann, B (2000). "Embryonic Stem Cell and Gene Targeting". Experimental Physiology. 85 (6): 603-613. doi:10.1017/ ... These kinds of chimeras can be made through either aggregation of stem cells and the diploid embryo or injection of the stem ...
Kursad Turksen (2006). Embryonic Stem Cell Protocols: Differentiation models. Humana Press. pp. 263-. ISBN 978-1-58829-784-6. ... Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are interstitial cells found in the gastrointestinal tract. There are different types of ICC ... Myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY) serve as pacemaker cells that generate the bioelectrical events known as slow ... This cell type can be characterized morphologically as having a small cell body often triangular or stellate-shaped with ...
"Embryonic pathway delivers stem cell traits". MIT News. "Marker to identify, attack breast cancer stem cells discovered". ... "The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Generates Cells with Properties of Stem Cells". Cell. 133 (4): 704-15. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Cell. 117 (7): 927-939. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.06.006. ISSN 0092-8674. "Decoding the emergence of metastatic cancer stem cells ... "Embryonic pathway delivers stem cell traits". Whitehead Institute of MIT. Yang, Jing; Mani, Sendurai A; Donaher, Joana Liu; ...
He opposes embryonic stem cell research. He opposes human cloning. Rogers has a "D" rating from NORML for his voting history ...
... the Stem Cell and Policy Award from the Genetics Policy Institute (2005); Pioneer in Embryonic Stem Cell Research (2006) ... use of human and primate stem cells to determine the potential of stem cell-based medical therapies and better understand cell ... Schatten G, Smith J, Navara C, Park JH, Pedersen R (June 2005). "Culture of human embryonic stem cells". Nature Methods. 2 (6 ... Gerald Schatten (born 1949) is an American stem cell researcher with interests in cell, developmental, and reproductive biology ...
She supports embryonic stem-cell research. She was given a 50% rating from NARAL Pro-Choice America and a 67% rating from ...
Allen ND, Plagge A, Kelsey G (2000). "Directed Mutagenesis in Embryonic Stem Cells". In Jackson IJ, Abbott CM (eds.). Mouse ... When using the Tet system in cell culture, it is important to confirm that each batch of fetal bovine serum is tested to ... The two most commonly used inducible expression systems for research of eukaryote cell biology are named Tet-Off and Tet-On. ... Also, since the 19bp tet-o sequence is naturally absent from mammalian cells, pleiotropy is thought to be minimized compared to ...
Hu Q, Rosenfeld MG (2012). "Epigenetic regulation of human embryonic stem cells". Frontiers in Genetics. 3: 238. doi:10.3389/ ... Within eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. Before typical cell division, these ... Cell division is essential for an organism to grow, but, when a cell divides, it must replicate the DNA in its genome so that ... to fit the small available volumes of the cell. In eukaryotes, DNA is located in the cell nucleus, with small amounts in ...
Gewin V (2012-09-12). "Human embryonic stem cells restore gerbil hearing". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2012.11402. S2CID ... using stem cells. Also reported in 2013 was regrowth of hair cells in deaf adult mice using a drug intervention resulting in ... A 2008 study has shown that gene therapy targeting Atoh1 can cause hair cell growth and attract neuronal processes in embryonic ... However, the regrowth of cochlear hair cells does not imply the restoration of hearing sensitivity, as the sensory cells may or ...
Johnson opposes funding research that uses embryonic stem cells. He has said he disagrees with it morally and that eliminating ... Ramde, Dinesh (October 2, 2010). "Johnson opposes funding for embryonic stem cells". The Herald Times Reporter. Manitowoc, WI. ...
Embryonic stem cells incorporate the altered gene, which replaces the already present functional copy. These stem cells are ... In animals it is necessary to ensure that the inserted DNA is present in the embryonic stem cells. Bacteria consist of a single ... Suter DM, Dubois-Dauphin M, Krause KH (July 2006). "Genetic engineering of embryonic stem cells" (PDF). Swiss Medical Weekly. ... Cloning and stem cell research, although not considered genetic engineering, are closely related and genetic engineering can be ...
"Metabolic oxidation regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation". Nature Chemical Biology. 6 (6): 411-417. doi:10.1038/ ... Differentiation is the process by which specialized cells from less specialized cells such as stem cells. Stem cells are ... and that all cells arise from preexisting cells through cell division. Most cells are very small, with diameters ranging from 1 ... or transfection if the host cells were eukaryotic cells like yeast, plant, or animal cells. Once the host cell or organism has ...
"A method to recapitulate early embryonic spatial patterning in human embryonic stem cells". Nature Methods. 11 (8): 847-854. ... Cell Stem Cell. 3 (5): 508-518. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2008.09.013. PMC 2683270. PMID 18983966. Baillie-Johnson, Peter; Brink, ... The term Gastruloid has been expanded to include self-organised human embryonic stem cell arrangements on patterned (micro ... Gastruloids are three dimensional aggregates of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that, under appropriate culture conditions, develop ...
"USCCB on embryonic stem cell research" (PDF). Retrieved July 6, 2017. Code of Canon Law, canon 1398 Archived February 3, 2012, ... The Church considers the destruction of any embryo to be equivalent to abortion, and thus opposes embryonic stem cell research ... Newport, Frank (March 30, 2009). "Catholics Similar to Mainstream on Abortion, Stem Cells". Gallup. The same poll reported ... assisted suicide and stem-cell research." The incoming Obama administration proposed to rescind this rule. Attempts have been ...
In embryonic cells, Nfix has been shown to regulate intermediate progenitor cell (IPC) generation by promoting the ... "Neurogenic Differentation by Hippocampal Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells is Biased by NFIX Expression". Development. 145 (3): ... Intermediate progenitor cells can divide to produce neuroblasts. Neurons produced by Nfix null IPC's do not mature, usually die ... Cell. Biol. 20 (22): 8499-8512. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.22.8499-8512.2000. PMC 102156. PMID 11046146. Imagawa M, Sakaue R, Tanabe A ...
... accused the administration in July 2007 of political interference and muzzling him on key issues like embryonic stem cell ... Don't politicize STEM! Stick to the science, not social issues'". neuro.hms.harvard.edu. 2020-09-01. Retrieved 2021-10-20.{{ ...
... embryonic stem cell research, in vitro fertilization, pornography, and contraception. The party's first election was the 1987 ...
Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. Only when Daxx was bound to ... and cell death. Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. When the cell is ... Another important cell death-property of Daxx is the association with PML-NB. It was shown that Daxx associates with Pml only ... This partnership is found mainly in the S-phase of the cell cycle. No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and ...
... is shown to regulate neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells, and neuronal ... cell cycle signalling and mouse embryonic stem cell development. Balaguer et al. identified a list of 32 genes targeted by miR- ... oligodendroma-derived stem cells, as well as human glioblastoma multiforme-derived stem cells. In addition, miR-137 targets ... In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Jarid1b (also known as KDM5b, a histone H3 Lysine 4 demethylase) has recently been shown ...
"From Early Embryonic to Adult Stage: Comparative Study of Action Potentials of Native and Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived ... Stem Cells and Development. 25 (19): 1397-1406. doi:10.1089/scd.2016.0073. ISSN 1547-3287. PMID 27484788. Pal, AsokeK; Ambulkar ... The anti-Müllerian hormone is used for evaluating the function of Sertoli cells. A urinary steroid profile shows the ratio of ...
... a journey from the gamete through the embryo and into offspring and embryonic stem cells". Human Reproduction Update. 16 (5): ... The resulting reduction in per-cell copy number of mtDNA plays a role in the mitochondrial bottleneck, exploiting cell-to-cell ... The bottleneck exploits random processes in the cell to increase the cell-to-cell variability in mutant load as an organism ... the cells of the inner cell mass restrict mtDNA replication until they receive the signals to differentiate to specific cell ...
Male germ-line stem cells divide asymmetrically to give one stem cell and a spermatogonia cell (unspecialised male germ cell) ... Rodent PGCs migrate to the gonads and mitotically divide at embryonic day (E) 10.5. It is at this stage they switch from ... Germ cell nest breakdown involves the degeneration of many germ cell nuclei and the invasion of pre-granulosa cells into the ... In the germ cell nest, one germ cell matures into an oocyte whereas others act as 'nurse cells', transferring their contents ...
... rescinding the ban on federal taxpayer dollars to fund research on embryonic stem cells, Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action and ...
Depletion of SON results in stem cell differentiation. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are able to undergo lineage-specific ... "SON connects the splicing-regulatory network with pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells". Nature Cell Biology. 15 (10): ... Pluripotent stem cells, such as hESCs can undergo gastrulation to give rise to the three germ layers. A significant level of ... Cooper, Thomas A.; Wan, Lili; Dreyfuss, Gideon (February 2009). "RNA and Disease". Cell. 136 (4): 777-793. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
The lab performs in vitro culture of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells for the validation of molecular ... He is the Max and Anne Wien Professor of Life Sciences in the Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology and Center for ... In 2004, Macklis founded the Neuroscience / Nervous System Diseases Program at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute at Harvard ... "Jeffrey D. Macklis, MD". Harvard Stem Cell Institute. Retrieved 3 May 2019. "PiN Faculty Member - Jeffrey Macklis, MD". Harvard ...
Expression of this gene is up-regulated in some cancer cell lines, and in embryonic day 15 in mice. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... 2002). "The centrosomal protein TACC3 is essential for hematopoietic stem cell function and genetically interfaces with p53- ... The function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, it is speculated that it may be involved in cell growth and ... 2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ...
"Spinal Cord-Development and Stem Cells". Stem Cell Development Compendium. Retrieved 2 Dec 2015. Than-Trong, Emmanuel; Bally- ... Overall, spontaneous embryonic activity has been shown to play a role in neuron and muscle development but is probably not ... Treatments need to focus on limiting post-injury cell death, promoting cell regeneration, and replacing lost cells. ... "Spinal Cord - Development and Stem Cells". Life Map Discovery Compendium. Retrieved 12 Dec 2015. Kaufman, Bard. " ...
... crypt cells in the intestinal epithelium, have a cycle time as short as 9 to 10 hours. Stem cells in resting mouse skin may ... the CDK-cyclin machinery operates independently in the early embryonic cell cycle. Before the midblastula transition, zygotic ... Controlling the Cell Cycle The cell cycle & Cell death Transcriptional program of the cell cycle: high-resolution timing Cell ... Cell cycle checkpoints are used by the cell to monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle. Checkpoints prevent cell ...
Embryoblast cells also known as the inner cell mass form a compact mass of cells at the embryonic pole on one side of the ... 2008). "Human embryo culture". In Lanza, Robert; Klimanskaya, Irina (eds.). Essential stem cell methods. Academic Press. p. 343 ... The blastocyst's outer cells will become the first embryonic epithelium (the trophectoderm). Some cells, however, will remain ... The blastomeres are the daughter cells of the zygote, and when the blastomeres number from 16-32 the ball of cells is called a ...
... expressing her support for embryonic stem cell research. In the ad, he visibly showed the effects of his Parkinson's disease: ... Serrano, Alfonso (October 26, 2006). "Fox: I Was Over-Medicated In Stem Cell Ad". CBS News. Archived from the original on ... "Michael J Fox makes stem cell ads". BBC News. October 25, 2006. Archived from the original on December 21, 2007. Retrieved ... Unfortunately, Senator Jim Talent opposes expanding stem cell research. Senator Talent even wanted to criminalize the science ...
Studies have shown that embryonic stem cells are more mechanosensitive than their differentiated counterparts. During embryonic ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... McBride, SH; Falls T; Knothe Tate ML (2008). "Modulation of stem cell shape and fate B: mechanical modulation of cell shape and ... the uncommitted stem cells of the embryo will undergo differentiation into certain cell lineages. However the exact mechanism ...
He is also Principal Investigator for in Vitro Fertilization and human embryonic stem cell research at the NUS National ... He was one of the founder scientists of Embryonic Stem Cell International (ESI), a Singapore registered Biotechnology Company. ... Stem Cell Research > People - Group Leader Details Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine (Webarchive template ...
... the statement was largely supported by Roman Catholic countries and opposed by countries with active embryonic stem cell ...
March 2020). "Wnt-3a Induces Epigenetic Remodeling in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells". Cells. 9 (3): E652. doi:10.3390/ ... Embryonic development is the process where the body plan is created. From studies in vertebrate model systems we can infer the ... is needed for formation of the hippocampus portion of the brain Wnt3a promotes stem cell properties of dental pulp stem cells ... "Wnt3a deficiency irreversibly impairs hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and leads to defects in progenitor cell ...
In February 2006, Steele compared embryonic stem cell research to medical experiments performed by the Nazis during the ... Rutenberg, Jim (October 28, 2006). "A Candidate's Sister Steps in to Defend Him on Stem Cell Issue". The New York Times. ... Altman, George (February 12, 2006). "Steele Apologizes for Holocaust, Stem Cell Comparison". Fox News. Archived from the ... Steele said that he only supported stem cell research if it did not result in the destruction of the embryo. ...
... meaning they would be more potent than embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). It was not clear why ... Induced stem cells Muse cell Stem cell controversy Masayuki Yamato Cyranoski, David (January 29, 2014). "Acid bath offers easy ... On September 24, 2015, the RIKEN scientists reported that Obokata's STAP cells came from embryonic stem cell contamination, ... One previous way of creating stem cells has been via genetic manipulation of adult cells into iPS cells. Progress on iPS-based ...
These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. The androgens function as ... An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone that regulates ... which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing into fallopian tubes and other female reproductive tract tissues ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ...
29 viable mice offspring from two female mother mice by creating sperm-like structures from haploid embryonic stem cells using ... Cell Stem Cell. 23 (5): 665-676.e4. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2018.09.004. ISSN 1934-5909. PMID 30318303. (All articles with dead ... In usual circumstances, when foreign cells (such as cells or organs from other people, or infectious bacteria) are put into a ... "Repopulation of testicular Seminiferous tubules with foreign cells, corresponding resultant germ cells, and corresponding ...
The molecular logic of Nanog-induced self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem cells. Nat Commun 10, 1109 (2019). https://doi.org/ ... PRC2 has a role in X chromosome inactivation, in maintenance of stem cell fate, and in imprinting. Aberrant expression of PRC2 ... for long term epigenetic silencing of chromatin and have an important role in stem cell differentiation and early embryonic ... Koehler, Claudia; Hennig, Lars (2010). "Regulation of cell identity by plant Polycomb and trithorax group proteins". Current ...
"Fibrochondrogenesis in two embryonic stem cell lines: effects of differentiation timelines". Stem Cells. 26 (2): 422-430. doi: ... specifically human embryonic stem cells. Utilization of these cells as curative cartilage replacement materials on the cellular ... Stem Cells and Development. 18 (2): 283-92. doi:10.1089/scd.2008.0024. ISSN 1547-3287. PMC 3132948. PMID 18454697. Hoben GM, ... shown potential as a means to produce therapeutic cellular biomaterials via tissue engineering and manipulation of stem cells, ...
Chowdhury, F. (2010). "Soft substrates promote homogeneous self-renewal of embryonic stem cells via downregulating cell-matrix ... Gilbert, P.M. (2010). "Substrate elasticity regulates skeletal muscle stem cell self-renewal in culture". Science. 329 (5995): ... Petri dishes are also used for cell cultivation of isolated cells from eukaryotic organisms, such as in immunodiffusion studies ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.11.001. PMID 16286000. Blevins, Steve M.; Bronze, Michael S. (2010). "Robert Koch and the 'golden age' ...
... embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and are thought to be able to give rise to all cells of the body. Embryonic stem cells ... A common example of a stem cell is the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells ... "Stem Cell Policy: World Stem Cell Map". www.mbbnet.umn.edu. Retrieved 2021-09-20. Mlsna, Lucas J. (2010). "Stem Cell Based ... "Stem Cell Research in Spain: If Only They Were Windmills …". Cell Stem Cell. 4 (6): 483-486. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2009.05.016. ...
Embryonic Research Rossant's research in cell reprogramming has built a foundation for proteomic stem cell resources, and given ... They then use this information to research how to change human iPS cells (induced pluripotent stem cells) into cell types that ... and focuses on stem cell and embryonic research. The lab specifically focuses on how cells in the early mouse embryos decide ... stem cell lineages. Stem Cell Research A notable segment of Rossant's research has been her work leading to the 1998 discovery ...
"A Myc network accounts for similarities between embryonic stem and cancer cell transcription programs". Cell. 143 (2): 313-24. ... "Enhancers of Polycomb EPC1 and EPC2 sustain the oncogenic potential of MLL leukemia stem cells". Leukemia. 28 (5): 1081-91. doi ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.09.010. PMC 3018841. PMID 20946988. Kim S, Swaminathan S, Shen L, Risacher SL, Nho K, Foroud T, Shaw LM ... Molecular Cell. 21 (1): 51-64. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.12.007. PMID 16387653. Kim J, Woo AJ, Chu J, Snow JW, Fujiwara Y, Kim ...
Dr Brianne Hobbs comments on the significance of the findings on the safety and early biological activity of pluripotent stem ... Cite this: Embryonic Stem Cells for AMD: A Promise Fulfilled? - Medscape - Jan 23, 2015. ... The idea of transplanting retinal cells is not new, but the method of transplanting the cells at the edge of the atrophic zone ... The results should also be interpreted with caution because the company that funded the study, Advanced Cell Technology, was ...
As you turn on your HDTV and watch the endless controversy over embryonic stem cell research, ask yourself: Should the ... Scientist predicts embryonic stem cell research will be abandoned, Bowman says *Federal funding for embryonic stem cell ... do all the things embryonic stem cells do, explains the father of human embryonic stem cells James Thomson. Harvards David ... That gives adult stem cells really a very interesting and potent quality that embryonic stem cells dont have, said Rocky Tuan ...
The issue: Trying to harness embryonic stem cells -- master cells that can morph into any cell of the body -- to create better ... Culling those stem cells destroys a days-old embryo, which many strongly oppose on moral grounds. Once created, those cells can ... The government issued final rules Monday expanding taxpayer-funded research using embryonic stem cells, easing scientists ... Opponents of stem cell research criticized the move.. "These guidelines encourage researchers to go out and destroy embryos for ...
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Human cells have been resistant to cloning-until now. ... Embryonic Stem Cell Breakthrough To Revive Cloning Debate. ... Other researchers have used SCNT to generate only mouse and monkey embryonic stem cells, the press release said, but those ... Such stem cells can regenerate and replace those damaged cells and tissues and alleviate diseases that affect millions of ... In somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), a donor cell is transferred to an egg cell whose nucleus has been removed, creating a ...
NIH Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry. The NIH has developed its current NIH Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry comprised of ... "First Human Embryonic Stem Cells Approved for use under the NIH Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research." ... Stem Cell Information. The NIH Stem Cell Information web site contains numberous links that may be useful to experienced ... issued Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research that provided NIH-funded researchers with access to human embryonic stem cell ( ...
... they isolated embryonic stem cells for the first time from a cloned primate embryo. The technique, if developed in humans, ... could potentially be used to make personalized stem cells to treat diseases without worry of rejection by the patients immune ... Researchers have achieved a major milestone in embryonic stem cell research: ... Researchers have achieved a major milestone in embryonic stem cell research: they isolated embryonic stem cells for the first ...
PRNewswire/ -- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Stem cells are primitive cells found in all multi-cellular organisms that are characterized by ... Embryonic stem cell culture products. - Embryonic stem cell lines. - Antibodies to embryonic stem cell antigens. - Bead-based ... Tools for embryonic stem cell gene regulation. - Embryonic stem cell services and mechanisms for in vivo and in vitro stem cell ... Adult stem cells, found in adult tissues - including hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells, and ...
Fellowships for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research PA-05-013. NIGMS ... Only research using hESC lines that are registered in the NIH Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry will be eligible for Federal ... Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC): Criteria for federal funding of research on hESCs can be found at http://stemcells.nih.gov/ ... Only approved HESC lines listed on the NIH Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry http://stemcells.nih.gov/registry/ may be used ...
... we used human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to generate an atrial-specific tissue model of AF for pharmacologic testing. We ... Modeling Atrial Fibrillation using Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Atrial Tissue Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 13;7(1):5268. doi: 10.1038 ... Since current experimental models of Atrial Fibrillation (AF) have significant limitations, we used human embryonic stem cells ... Anti-arrhythmic drugs were tested on single atrial-like CMs and cell sheets. Flecainide profoundly slowed upstroke velocity ...
... [ ... SIRT1 Regulates Sphingolipid Metabolism and Neural Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Through c-Myc-SMPDL3B. ... Abstract SIRT1 Regulates Sphingolipid Metabolism and Neural Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Through c-Myc-SMPDL3B ... Synopsis SIRT1 Regulates Sphingolipid Metabolism and Neural Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Through c-Myc-SMPDL3B ...
This technical article covers the indirect co-culture of embryonic stem cells with embryonic fibroblasts. ... Mammalian Cell Culture. Indirect Co-culture of Embryonic Stem Cells with Embryonic Fibroblasts ... Note: This protocol is designed to grow undifferentiated embryonic stem cells in an indirect co culture with the fibroblast ... Separate ESC from MEF feeder cells:. *Transfer ESC/MEF cell suspension to a new T-75 flask and incubate at 37 °C for 45 minutes ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells with the capacity for continuous self-renewal. Recent advances in ES cell ... Wichterle H, Lieberam I, Porter JA, Jessell TM (2002) Directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into motor neurons. Cell ... Generation of neural crest-derived peripheral neurons and floor plate cells from mouse and primate embryonic stem cells. Proc ... Functional Properties of Motoneurons Derived from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. Gareth B. Miles, Damien C. Yohn, Hynek Wichterle ...
Moreover, embryonic stem cells provide a unique opportunity in which to study early development and cell fate decisions. We ... Regulatory circuitry of embryonic stem cells / Richard A. Young. Author: Young, Richard A. National Institutes of Health (U.S ... The capacity of embryonic stem cells to self-renew and to give rise to virtually all somatic lineages holds much promise for ... Using this genome-wide data, we have developed a model for the core regulatory circuitry of human embryonic stem cells. For ...
... embryos are destroyed for their cells, as President Bush claims and non-partisan journalists repeat frequently in stem cell ... cell research, both proponents and opponents begin with the premise that ... In the contentious political debate over embryo stem (ES) ... These central cells are, by definition, embryonic stem cells. ... The proposed alternative is "to maintain the [mutant animals] as embryonic stem (ES) cells: clumps of tissue that can be frozen ...
... to encourage new research applications proposing research on hPSCs from non-embryonic sources. This FOA addresses Executive ... and testing of stem cells that are capable of producing all or almost all of the cell types of the developing body and may ... to encourage new research applications proposing research on hPSCs from non-embryonic sources. This FOA addresses Executive ...
... as opposed to the wishful thinking and hype of embryonic stem cells. The lead story is Dr. Thomas Einhorn at Boston University ... Einhorn, chairman of orthopedic surgery at Boston University Medical Center, credits adult stem cells in the marrow ... a story out today that highlights some of the real successes and promise of adult stem cells, ... That gives adult stem cells really a very interesting and potent quality that embryonic stem cells dont have.. ...
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are cells from a several-days-old human embryo (called a blastocyst). Researchers covet these cells ... Whats more, some poll questions ask about "stem cell research" instead of "embryonic stem cell research"-a crucial distinction ... Elizabeths Medical Center, said, "I think embry-onic stem cells are going to fade in the rear-view mirror of adult stem cells ... Scientists, however, are more divided, as many claim that adult stem cells lack the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, ...
The inter-institutional debate on whether the EU should fund embryonic stem cell research, and if so under which conditions, ... Using stem cells from mouse embryos on brain damaged rats, Dr Trapps team found that the stem cells were able to migrate to ... When using embryonic mouse stem cells on mice with the same condition, the team expected to see even more positive results, but ... No conclusion in sight for inter-institutional debate on embryonic stem cell research. The inter-institutional debate on ...
... adult stem cells, or embryonic-type alternatives, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, which can be obtained by genetically ... What makes embryonic stem cell-based therapies ethically worse is that a very young human being, still in his or her embryonic ... the wrong that was committed involved taking somatic cells (not stem cells), such as kidney cells or retinal cells, from an ... New cures from embryonic stem cells?. Father Tadeusz Pacholczyk. Friday, December 3, 2021Culture Help us expand our reach! ...
Research Using Non-Embryonic Sources NOT-NS-08-013. NINDS ... NIH Administrative Revisions for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell ( ... using human fibroblast cells have shown that these cells can be directly reprogrammed to behave like human embryonic stem cells ... Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been recognized as a valuable tool for advancing our knowledge of human development and ... NIH Administrative Revisions for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell (hPSC) Research Using Non-Embryonic Sources Notice Number: NOT-NS- ...
No animals transplanted with the human stem cells will be raised for reproduction. No human embryonic stem cell lines will be ... Emails that are offensive or unrelated to stem cells will be deleted.) ... Stem Cell Information: *NIH Stem Cell Information Page. RSS Feed: *RSS Data Feed ...
In Canada, research must follow the Stem Cell Oversight Committee guidelines and SCOC approval for the use of the cell lines ... Emails that are offensive or unrelated to stem cells will be deleted.) ... "other Canadian laboratories affiliated with the Canadian Stem Cell Network for further research or potential clinical use. ... Stem Cell Information: *NIH Stem Cell Information Page. RSS Feed: *RSS Data Feed ...
Emails that are offensive or unrelated to stem cells will be deleted.) ... Stem Cell Information: *NIH Stem Cell Information Page. RSS Feed: *RSS Data Feed ...
... non-embryonic stem-cells and certain types of embryonic stem cell research.". While this point may be concerning to some in the ... According to LifeSiteNews.com, Huntsman spokesperson Tim Miller recently prepared a statement regarding embryonic stem cell ... Huntsman Confirms Support for Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Refuses to Sign Pro-Life Pledge ... support for embryonic stem cell research and his refusal to sign a prominent organizations pro-life pledge may have a negative ...
Cell Stem Cell (2016) Tissue Mechanics Orchestrate Wnt-Dependent Human Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation. (PubMed: 27452175) ... when we provide cues to embryonic stem cells to initiate differentiation towards the mesoderm lineage, we find that cells on ... we are able to enhance differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to multipotent mesodermal progenitors, cells that can go ... p,In this grant we found that the softer the surface upon which human embryonic stem cells (hESc) were grown the greater the ...
... about EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free. ... human stem cells; embryonic stem cells; mesenchymal stem cells; embryonic-derived progenitors; osteogenic differentiation; ... Keywords : Human embryonic stem cells; neural progenitor cells; stem cells; differentiation; propagation; migration; cell ... embryonic stem cells. Showing result 1 - 5 of 228 swedish dissertations containing the words embryonic stem cells. ...
... - October 4, 2010 Experts discuss how ... recent court rulings could change U.S. policies on embryonic stem cell research. ... THE FATE OF EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH: EXAMINING THE LEGAL BATTLE BEHIND THE SCIENCE. ... Experts discuss how recent court rulings could change U.S. policies on embryonic stem cell research. ...
  • The stage of differentiation substantially affected attachment and survival of the cells in vitro after clinical formulation. (thelancet.com)
  • Uncovering the nature of this heterogeneity at the molecular level is important to the understanding of how stem cells modulate their stemness/differentiation balance. (nature.com)
  • However, they stressed, human embryonic stem cells are still, and will continue to be, the gold standard for research on pluripotency and differentiation. (the-scientist.com)
  • Differentiation signals continuously and asymmetrically modulate Oct4 and Sox2 protein levels, altering their binding pattern in the genome, and leading to cell fate choice. (nih.gov)
  • When given no stimuli for differentiation, (i.e. when grown in vitro ), ES cells maintain pluripotency through multiple cell divisions. (phys.org)
  • We wanted to take a closer look at the molecular program linking the decrease in glutamine metabolism to stem cell differentiation,' said Rehman, who is an associate professor of medicine and pharmacology at UIC. (news-medical.net)
  • OCT4 is a transcription factor that activates genes that maintain the cell in a state of pluripotency and silence the genes and prevent differentiation and maturation of the stem cells. (news-medical.net)
  • We wanted to see what would happen if we added glutamine withdrawal to the differentiation-cocktail we use for producing endothelial cells from human embryonic stem cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Flow cytometry experiments on an E14 line expressing a Sox1 promoter-driven GFP reporter showed that about 60% of cells at day 8 are GFP positive, indicating the successful differentiation of neural progenitor cells at this stage. (elsevier.com)
  • These methods are useful for analyzing the involvement of specific genes and pathways in regulating the cell identity transition during neuronal differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • StemMACS™ iPS-Brew XF, human and StemMACS PSC-Brew XF, human have been specifically designed to provide your cells with the best-quality nutrients to sustain robust growth and maintain a high pluripotent phenotype and differentiation potential. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Importantly, Bmal12/2 mESCs display deficient multi-lineage cell differentiation capacity during the formation of teratomas and gastrula-like organoids. (ugr.es)
  • Overall, we reveal that Bmal1 regulates pluripotent cell differentiation and propose that the molecular clock is an hitherto unrecognized regulator of mammalian development. (ugr.es)
  • Background Notch signaling mediates the committed induced differentiation of ear sensory cells and promotes the formation of a precise arrangement of mosaics between hair cells and supporting cells. (researchsquare.com)
  • Therefore, it is necessary to study the effects of regulating Notch receptors and ligand expression on the in vitro differentiation equilibrium of hair cells and supporting cells from ESCs. (researchsquare.com)
  • Then the effect of each ligand on the in vitro differentiation of hair cells was examined by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (researchsquare.com)
  • The individual deletion of JAG-2 or DLL-1 had no significant effect on the differentiation of hair cell-like cells. (researchsquare.com)
  • Both research teams report that they followed the techniques developed and reported in the lab of another researcher, Samadikuchaksaraei, in growing, multiplying and guiding the differentiation of their primitive cells toward the more specialized lung cells that were desired. (lifeethics.org)
  • In particular it relates to directing the differentiation of human ES cells into neural progenitors and neural cells and the production of functioning neural cells and/or neural cells of a specific type. (justia.com)
  • However, differentiation to a specific neural cell population is required to realize many of the potential applications of ES cells in regenerative medicine of the central nervous system and neuroscience. (justia.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an unlimited source of cells for the differentiation into the derivates that are suitable for a variety of biomedical applications. (muni.cz)
  • Cell therapies, disease modeling, and drug testing, which are examples of application, demand robust and replicable protocols for the derivation and differentiation of hESCs. (muni.cz)
  • Ten-Eleven Translocation Ablation Impairs Cardiac Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ten-eleven Translocation (TET) dioxygenases mediated DNA methylation oxidation plays an important role in regulating the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • emGFP) expression under the control of Nkx2.5 promoter as marker for cardiac progenitor cells , we discovered that Tet1 and Tet2 depletion significantly impaired mESC -to-cardiac progenitor differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Single- cell RNA-seq analysis further revealed that Tet deletion resulted in the accumulation of mesoderm progenitors to hamper cardiac differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation has the potential to be instrumental in cell based therapies and in vitro disease modeling and chemical screens. (nyu.edu)
  • To understand cell differentiation and to gain control of cell fate during direct programming, it is necessary to rationalize how selector factors recognize their genomic targets and control gene expression. (nyu.edu)
  • Therefore, successful in vitro differentiation protocols to be applied either for cell based therapies or disease modeling should produce neurons with defined generic and subtype identity. (nyu.edu)
  • Stem cells have what Pinctott calls "magical properties" in that they can "morph" into other types of cells through a process called differentiation. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • The transcriptomes of 1846 single cells were profiled by SmartSeq2 at different timepoints throughout a 54-day differentiation protocol that converted H1 human embryonic stem cells to a variety of brain cell types. (uth.edu)
  • We engineered SOX2Cit/+ and DCXCit/Y hESC lines to target progenitors and neurons throughout neural differentiation for single-cell transcriptomic profiling, then identified discrete cell types consisting of both rostral (cortical) and caudal (mid/hindbrain) identities. (uth.edu)
  • Examples include protocols for the guided differentiation of pluripotent cells towards specialized and functional cell types, phenotypic maintenance of primary cells in cell culture, or engineering of materials for improved tissue interaction with medical implants. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • An intimate knowledge of the flexibility of stem/progenitor cell differentiation pathways is key in understanding normal cell differentiation and the development of cancer, and in identifying and designing treatments for various injuries and disorders, such as those of neurons, glia, muscles and skin. (uth.edu)
  • One project is to examine the differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neuronal pathway. (uth.edu)
  • Our current studies suggested that the transfer of this single recombinant molecule in proliferating neural stem cells and in myoblasts is sufficient to cause their differentiation into functional neuronal phenotype. (uth.edu)
  • We are currently using this system to examine the flexibility of the differentiation pathway in various types of stem/progenitor cells and whether such manipulations can be utilized to generate large amount of functional neurons for transplantation. (uth.edu)
  • Our other studies indicate a mechanistic link between neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation and cancer. (uth.edu)
  • Another interest concerns the chromatin-mediated temporal activation and repression of genes during stem/progenitor cell differentiation and cancer. (uth.edu)
  • Recently, such chromatin-mediated modulation of genes has been suggested to accompany the differentiation of various stem/progenitor cells and also the formation of neural tumors. (uth.edu)
  • We are currently studying mechanisms of chromatin modification during normal differentiation and cancerous development of stem/progenitor cells of neural, muscle and skin origins. (uth.edu)
  • the EST, which assesses the effects of compounds on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes, can be used to rank the potency of chemicals within a series of alkoxyacetic acid metabolites formed from The implementation of the European REACH (Registration, glycol ethers. (cdc.gov)
  • The Academies are urging all institutions conducting human embryonic stem cell research to establish oversight committees to ensure that the new guidelines are followed. (mit.edu)
  • It has been 13 years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). (thelancet.com)
  • Unlike whole genome approaches, methodological hurdles for evaluating mitochondria in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and in reprogrammed human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) are significant and techniques developed or adapted for stem cells are almost non-existent. (ca.gov)
  • We showed that mitochondria in reprogrammed hIPSCs are not completely reset to the embryonic state seen in hESCs, which may have implications for the use of hIPSCs in regenerative medicine. (ca.gov)
  • Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold great potential for treating multiple human dread diseases, including but not limited to cancer, diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer disease, and certain types of heart failure. (ca.gov)
  • However, a growing appreciation exists for the notion that not all hESCs have identical capabilities in correcting or ameliorating disease and not all hESCs will be valuable as potential therapeutic cell sources. (ca.gov)
  • Because hESCs contain genetic information like all human cells, some hESCs will have genetic mutations or alterations that will make them more or less desirable for therapy. (ca.gov)
  • Methods and Results The temporal ex-pression pattern of Notch ligands and receptors during in vitro hair cell-like cell differentia-tion from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) was detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). (researchsquare.com)
  • Ever since human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were first cultivated by Dr. James Thompson at the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1998, they have been at the centre of one of the most promising, and at times controversial, areas of modern medicine. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • Here we report a system to generate early human brain forebrain and mid/hindbrain cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and infer and experimentally confirm a lineage tree for the generation of these types based on single-cell RNA-Seq analysis. (uth.edu)
  • But according to a primer by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), which aims to advance stem cell research and regenerative medicine, adult stem cells are extremely useful for future therapies but are restricted in what they can do. (freerepublic.com)
  • Because of their plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, ES cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. (phys.org)
  • Stem cell quality and safety for regenerative medicine therapies is of utmost importance. (ca.gov)
  • In 2013, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) - the nation's largest funder of stem cell research outside of the federal government - authorized a new program, the Alpha Stem Cell Clinics Network. (lozierinstitute.org)
  • Californians were the first in the nation to support and fund embryonic stem cell research and we are big believers in the power of this revolutionary science to not only improve but to save lives. (freemasonrywatch.org)
  • A population of pure lung and thyroid progenitor cells in vitro has been derived that successfully mimics the developmental milestones of lung and thyroid tissue formation. (medindia.net)
  • The findings represent years of research dedicated to identifying how to generate an unlimited source of lung progenitor cells in vitro from embryonic stem (ES) cells. (medindia.net)
  • The ESCRO committees should review proposals for research that takes stem cells from excess blastocysts at in vitro fertilization clinics or from blastocysts created expressly for stem cell research. (mit.edu)
  • In 2006, scientists at Novocell reported that they had transformed human embryonic stem cells into insulin-producing beta cells in the laboratory, in vitro, although these cells were of no therapeutic value since they were unresponsive to glucose. (cellmedicine.com)
  • On prolonged culture in vitro , human ES cells acquire karyotypic changes that are also seen in human EC cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • The single-blastomere technology uses a one-cell biopsy approach similar to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), which is widely used in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) process and does not interfere with the embryo's developmental potential. (express-press-release.net)
  • These cell lines, potentially, can maintain a normal karyotype through an infinite life span in vitro and their pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into any cell type. (justia.com)
  • ES cell lines derived from human blastocysts allow the study of the cellular and molecular biology of early human development, functional genomics, generation of differentiated cells from the stem cells for use in transplantation or drug discovery and screening in vitro. (justia.com)
  • Mouse ES cells are able to give rise to neural tissue in vitro either spontaneously or during embryoid body formation. (justia.com)
  • Human ES cells have been demonstrated to give rise to neural progenitor cells in vitro and have further demonstrated the capability of the progenitors to differentiate in vitro into mature neurons. (justia.com)
  • Skills and knowledge derived from in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture of mammalian embryos opened the chance for scientists to develop the strategies to derive embryonic stem cell lines from mammalian and human embryos. (who.int)
  • These cells would become an in vitro human model to investigate intrinsic resistance to ALS. (nyu.edu)
  • To determine how the pathogenesis of these viruses differs, we compared their ability to induce disease in mice and replicate and induce cell death in vitro. (cdc.gov)
  • Organoid cell culture has transformed cell-based assays in drug discovery and basic biology by conferring physiologic relevance to in vitro cell-based biological models. (corning.com)
  • Dr Clevers' technology allowed, for the first time, the expansion of adult stem cell-derived organoids in genetically stable form and ultimately, the generation of in vitro models of any epithelial disease from any patient. (corning.com)
  • In vitro toxicity data of these metabolites derived in the development of validated and accepted in vitro and in silico embryonic stem cell test were used as input in the PBK model to extrapolate in vitro concentration-response curves to predicted approaches is urgently needed. (cdc.gov)
  • Totipotent cell cultured from early embryo. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In what's reported as a world-first achievement, biologists have grown mouse embryo models in the lab without the need for fertilized eggs, embryos, or even a mouse-using only stem cells and a special incubator. (phys.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of an early stage embryo known as a blastocyst. (phys.org)
  • Since ES cells resemble the early developing embryo, CReM investigators studied normal lung and thyroid development in the developing embryo. (medindia.net)
  • Interestingly, ES cell lines which are mutant for PcG members failed to silence genes expressed in distinct lineages of the mouse embryo and show a greater tendency to differentiate. (bl.uk)
  • In addition, U-M researchers identified several instances in which more than one cell line came from the same embryo donors, further reducing the overall genetic diversity of the most widely available lines. (healthnewstrack.com)
  • This would produce a cloned, one-cell embryo that would mature for several days in the laboratory and then be destroyed to obtain stem cells genetically matched to the patient. (firstthings.com)
  • While researching embryonic stem cells, scientists at the UNC School of Medicine discovered that by housing a protein called Bax in its active form in the Golgi, embryonic stem cells are primed to kill themselves if damage to their DNA makes them a threat to the developing embryo. (scitechdaily.com)
  • If they suffer damage that makes them a threat to the developing embryo, they swiftly fall on their swords for the greater good, according to a study published online on May 3, 2012, in the journal Molecular Cell . (scitechdaily.com)
  • The hair-trigger suicidal response is an important adaptation for embryonic stem cells, said the UNC School of Medicine researcher, because a slower response could allow DNA damage to proliferate and harm the embryo. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Will the Catholic Church & the U.S. Courts Embrace Advanced Cell Technologies "Embryo-Safe" Technique Using Embryonic Stem Cells? (express-press-release.net)
  • Advanced Cell Technology with laboratory facilities in Marlborough Massachusetts has pioneered a solution to the ethical, moral & legal debate raging in regards to protection of a human embryo. (express-press-release.net)
  • As does a human being give millions of blood cells in a pint of blood so does ACT's "single blastomere" process take but "one cell" from a 2 day old embryo. (express-press-release.net)
  • As the blood removed from a human donor "regenerate" the removed pint of blood so does the human embryo "regenerate" the one cell. (express-press-release.net)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are derived from the pluripotent cells of the early embryo. (justia.com)
  • During the process of axis formation, it is thought that inductive signals elaborated by several regions of the embryo (the anterior visceral endoderm and the early gastrula organiser) induce the pluripotent cells of the epiblast to assume an anterior neural fate. (justia.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells which are thought to correspond to the epiblast of the pre-implantation embryo. (justia.com)
  • U.S. Chief District Court Judge Royce Lamberth in Washington ruled that government funding for embryonic stem-cell research was barred by a law that prohibits the use of federal money for research in which an embryo is destroyed. (typepad.com)
  • 2. Nuclear transfer is a technique used to duplicate genetic material by creating an embryo through the transfer and fusion of a diploid cell in an enucleated female oocyte.2 Cloning has a broader meaning than nuclear transfer as it also involves gene replication and natural or induced embryo splitting (see Annex 1). (who.int)
  • They are able to take a fully differentiated cell like a skin cell and reprogram it back to pluripotency. (lifenews.com)
  • But if any of these cells retain their pluripotency, they may develop into tumors. (lifenews.com)
  • Skipping pluripotency reduces the risk of tumor formation which means these kinds of cells made by direct conversion are not only easier to make but also may be safer for use in patients. (lifenews.com)
  • Skipping pluripotency provides you the opportunity to avoid any possible tumorigenic source of cells," says molecular biologist Vania Broccoli of the Stem Cells and Neurogenesis Unit at the San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Italy. (lifenews.com)
  • Indeed, noted Yamanaka, whose group first linkurl:published;http://www.the-scientist.com/blog/display/53873/ on reprogramming somatic cells into stem cell-like cells last November, without earlier research on how human embryonic stem cells maintain pluripotency and differentiate, the reprogramming studies could never have been done. (the-scientist.com)
  • Here I explore the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PcG proteins in ES cells and how these proteins contribute to the maintenance of ES cell pluripotency. (bl.uk)
  • In particular, Ring1A/B proteins from the PRC1 complex were shown to be essential for maintaining a poised form of RNAPII at silenced ES cell promoters, thus contributing to the maintenance of pluripotency in ES cells. (bl.uk)
  • Pluripotent stem cells cultured in StemMACS PSC-Brew XF display typical colony morphology (A) and high expression of pluripotency markers (B). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Our solutions enable hPSCs grown in StemMACS PSC-Brew XF, human the ability to show typical morphology, expression of pluripotency-associated markers and retain the ability to differentiate into cell types that derive from the three embryonic germ layers, even after consecutive passages in culture. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Wnt/beta-catenin/CBP signaling maintains long-term murine embryonic stem cell pluripotency. (xcessbio.com)
  • Well, it was thought that best way to get any kind of cell that was needed for therapy was to start with a pluripotent cell and differentiate it into the cell type of interest. (lifenews.com)
  • To use pluripotent stem cells to treat patients, researchers would have to take pluripotent cells and differentiate them into the cells needed. (lifenews.com)
  • The research, which will be published in the April 6 edition of the journal Cell Stem Cell , identifies factors necessary for embryonic stem cells to differentiate into lung progenitor cells and provides key information about how the tissue engineering technology can be used to develop new gene and cell-based therapies to treat lung diseases. (medindia.net)
  • This led the researchers to focus on that time of development in order to identify what factors are responsible for how the cells differentiate. (medindia.net)
  • The ability to generate a supply of progenitor cells with the potential to differentiate into lung cells will be a huge boon to several research fields," said James Kiley, PhD, director of the Division of Lung Diseases at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), which funded the study. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers observed that glutamine metabolism drops dramatically as the cells differentiate into various mature cell types, such as the endothelial cells that form the lining of blood vessels. (news-medical.net)
  • When the researchers selectively withheld glutamine from human embryonic stem cells growing in the lab, they noticed that levels of an important regulatory molecule called OCT4 decreased significantly, and the cells began to differentiate. (news-medical.net)
  • It is also important to note that reactive oxygen species served as a signal which allowed stem cells to differentiate. (news-medical.net)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells exist in a pluripotent state and have the ability to differentiate into all adult cell types. (bl.uk)
  • The E14 mouse embryonic stem cells were used to form embryoid bodies through the hanging drop method, and then induced to differentiate into neural progenitor cells by retinoic acid, and finally differentiated into neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • The stem cells generated using this approach are healthy, completely normal, and differentiate into all the cell types of the human The safety record for one-cell biopsy as part of PGD now has a 15-year track record, and is carried out routinely as part of IVF processes around the world. (express-press-release.net)
  • Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells which have the potential to differentiate into cell lines through three germ layers. (researchsquare.com)
  • Specifically, OPCs with activated Notch signaling tend to differentiate into supporting cells, whereas OPCs with inhibited Notch signaling tend to differentiate into hair cells. (researchsquare.com)
  • Therefore, our long term goal is to understand how extracellular signals and transcription factors control cell fate and apply that knowledge to differentiate ESC into disease relevant neuronal cell types. (nyu.edu)
  • Organoids arise from organ-derived adult pluripotent stem cells, organ stem cells, or cancer stem cells which possess the innate capacity to expand and differentiate into multiple cell types. (corning.com)
  • They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Embryonic stem cell lines are being used to develop new cellular therapies for spinal cord injuries and various diseases, to screen for new drugs and to better understand inherited diseases. (healthnewstrack.com)
  • The derivation project will be conducted by the university's new Consortium for Stem Cell Therapies, which includes researchers from across campus, as well as collaborators at Michigan State University and Wayne State University. (healthnewstrack.com)
  • Stem cell-based therapies propose to treat human medical conditions by replacing cells that have been lost through disease or injury. (firstthings.com)
  • Unlike an organ transplant, where a damaged or diseased tissue is removed and then replaced with a comparable organ from a donor, stem cell therapies would involve integration of replacement cells into the existing tissues of the patient. (firstthings.com)
  • Once we were able to clone human embryos, those embryos would provide patient-specific stem cell repair kits for anyone requiring cell-replacement therapies. (firstthings.com)
  • Unless this research is allowed to resume immediately, important momentum will be lost - and along with it the hopes of all of us who may one day need the cures, therapies, and discoveries that would have come from today's human embryonic stem cell research. (stanford.edu)
  • They may also find utility in interrogating hESC and hIPSC mitochondria function to pick the best stem cell lines for developing future cellular therapies. (ca.gov)
  • The study has therefore drawn criticism from experts who point out that embryonic stem cell "therapies" such as this are not applicable to humans, since adverse side effects such as the formation of tumors would also occur in human patients. (cellmedicine.com)
  • Tada: That may very well happen using incredible therapies…using adult-stem-cell research. (cbc-network.org)
  • Tada told King patiently that she opposes embryonic-stem-cell research, in part because she advocates channeling scarce resources "into [adult] therapies which have the most promise, which are the most effective. (cbc-network.org)
  • Right now," she said, "incredible therapies" are happening "with their own stem cells, whether dental pulp or nasal tissues, or bone-marrow tissues. (cbc-network.org)
  • Gene and cell therapies present novel alternatives to disease management, offering the promise of a single treatment and a lifelong cure. (bvsalud.org)
  • The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in 2006 opened the door to promising research and therapeutic techniques, such as the generation of disease models and the potential to replace cells damaged by neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's. (lifenews.com)
  • The guidelines also address how far scientists should go in mixing human and animal cells to create so-called chimeras, which researchers may need to do in order to test the therapeutic potential of human stem cells in animal models. (mit.edu)
  • During the conversation, George noted that Ron Reagan, to his mind, "wildly hyped the potential therapeutic promise of embryonic stem cell research. (christianheadlines.com)
  • Researchers claim these results make cardiac stem cells excellent candidates for cardiac regeneration, and give the possibility that the patient s own stem cells could be collected, expanded and stored for subsequent therapeutic repair. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • Despite the huge potential of stem cells for therapeutic use, very few people have actually investigated their basic biology," said study senior researcher Mohanish Deshmukh, PhD, professor of cell and developmental biology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells . (medlineplus.gov)
  • 5. In 2001, France and Germany requested the United Nations General Assembly to develop international conventions on human reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and research on stem cells. (who.int)
  • Discuss stem cells, adult and embryonic, and their therapeutic potential for MS here. (thisisms.com)
  • These committees should include legal and ethical experts, as well as representatives of the public, and experts in biology and stem cell research. (mit.edu)
  • Embryonic stem cell research has the potential to change the future of medicine," said Sean Morrison, director of the U-M Center for Stem Cell Biology and one of the study leaders. (healthnewstrack.com)
  • James Thomson, professor of cell and regenerative biology at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, and the first to derive an hESC cell line in 1998, says, "Now there will be a way for Geron's work in this area to move forward," adding, "after years of controversy there is finally a reasonable policy for stem cell research. (cbc-network.org)
  • In their most recent study, the Novocell scientists implanted "precursor" cells into the mice, where the cells were then allowed to mature in vivo into insulin-producing cells - a procedure which is unlikely to be approved by the FDA for use in humans, according to Dr. Mark Magnuson, Director of the Center for Stem Cell Biology at Vanderbilt University. (cellmedicine.com)
  • The Centre for Stem Cell Biology and the Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, U.K. (portlandpress.com)
  • The facility has a fully equipped laboratory for cell and molecular biology. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Nature Cell Biology. (doximity.com)
  • Using molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology, pathology and mouse model approaches, we are studying several aspects of these pathways. (uth.edu)
  • Cold Spring Harbor, NY -- Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (CSHLP) announced the release of The Digital Cell: Cell Biology as a Data Science, available on its website in hardcover format. (cshlpress.org)
  • Participants included leaders with the American Society for Cell Biology, the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Society for Neuroscience and the International Society for Stem Cell Research. (brownpelicanla.com)
  • A research effort of this size represents millions of dollars in public money invested in the medical promise of embryonic stem cells. (firstthings.com)
  • Our report provides the first description of hESC-derived cells transplanted into human patients. (thelancet.com)
  • Geron's stem cell assets were given a new lease in early January when former CEO Tom Okarma, now heading a subsidiary of BioTime of Alameda, California, signed a definitive agreement for the latter to take control of the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) program. (cbc-network.org)
  • We speculate that this is because the cells from which hESC are derived exist physiologically in a low oxygen environment and require a switch to be turned on to facilitate oxygen consumption during development. (ca.gov)
  • Patent Number 7,893,315 a non-destructive alternative for deriving human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines. (express-press-release.net)
  • Because of the biological nature of the human eye the trial will be able to provide a 100% irrefutable proof that the (hESC) derived RPE cells used attached to the Bruch's membrane. (express-press-release.net)
  • It has been found that use of these human fibroblasts reduces the introduction of zoonotic contaminants when generating human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines. (cdc.gov)
  • Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are self-renewing and capable of differentiating into any of the three germ layers. (nature.com)
  • Comparison of toxicity of benzene metabolite hydroquinone in hematopoietic stem cells derived from murine embryonic yolk sac and adult bone marrow. (cdc.gov)
  • The idea is to provide vaccine alternatives for people with strong religious beliefs, who reject standard commercially available vaccines that were derived via cells from aborted fetal tissue. (xconomy.com)
  • 2005 Cardiologist Douglas Losordo at Tufts University showed that a type of human bone marrow stem cell can turn into most tissue types of the body. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • When transplanted into rats which had heart attacks, the stem cells repaired damaged heart tissue. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • The mice s bone marrow stem cells migrated to their hearts and caused repair of damaged heart tissue. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • First, there was the concern that the cells and their derived tissue would be rejected by the patient's immune system, requiring the patient to undergo lifelong immune suppression. (firstthings.com)
  • Thus, the problem of immune rejection is of particular concern-if transplanted cells are attacked by the immune system, the entire tissue in which the foreign cells reside becomes the target of a potentially disastrous immune attack. (firstthings.com)
  • 2008). We showed that mitochondria are capable of respiring and utilizing oxygen for energy generation but do this at a very limited level compared to mature tissue cells of an adult. (ca.gov)
  • The neural tissue often forms in these circumstances in amongst a mixture of a range of cell types. (justia.com)
  • Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers hope to use these cells to grow healthy tissue to replace injured or diseased tissues in the human body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dr. Carlos Lima in Lisbon, Portugal, has helped restore bladder and muscle control to people with paralysis using stem cells from their own nasal tissue. (cbc-network.org)
  • She then told King about the dangers associated with embryonic stem cells of which he might be unaware, such as tissue rejection and tumors. (cbc-network.org)
  • Induction of local tissue regeneration in the human would best be accomplished if the patient's own cells at the desired site could be caused to dedifferentiate into the required embryonic stem cells. (earthpulse.net)
  • Scientists have discovered, she said, that a baby's fetal cells show up more often in a mother's healthy breast tissue and less often in a woman who has breast cancer (43 versus 14 percent). (physiciansforlife.org)
  • Pinctott writes that such cells have been found in "diseased thyroid and liver tissue and have turned themselves into thyroid and liver cells respectively. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • There's a lot of evidence now starting to come out that these cells may actually be repairing tissue," said Artlett. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • When provided with a suitable growth environment, including appropriate cultureware, growth factors, extracellular matrix, nutrients, and culture media, organ-derived progenitor cells harvested from patients grow and assemble into three-dimensional structures - organoids - which incorporate all cell types normally found in the original tissue, and allow physical and chemical interactions between and among cells. (corning.com)
  • In addition HUB generated models for other diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The company has also introduced adult stem cell-derived kidney organoids, and continues to investigate the molecular mechanisms of tissue development and cancer using organoids generated from adult Lgr5 stem cells. (corning.com)
  • Similarly, transformed cells grown on plastic have modified their gene expression to adapt to tissue culture conditions. (corning.com)
  • You will note that the predominant cell type seen in this dermal tissue sample, was the spindle-shaped fibroblast. (cdc.gov)
  • These cells secrete an extracellular tissue matrix, when used to generate cell culture media. (cdc.gov)
  • After injury to tissue occurs, the cell membranes, damaged from the wound formation, release thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin 2-alpha, potent vasoconstrictors. (medscape.com)
  • It is generally thought that, at the clonal level, blood is constructed from a small number of embryonic-born hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). (harvard.edu)
  • It is believed that benzene and its metabolites target hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to cause toxicity and cancer in the hematopoietic system. (cdc.gov)
  • In the current study, we compared the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a major metabolite of benzene in humans and animals, on mouse embryonic yolk sac hematopoietic stem cells (YS-HSCs) and adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs). (cdc.gov)
  • The Obama Administration is appealing the judge's ruling, and an appeals court judge has since allowed federally funded stem cell research to continue while the legal argument continues. (xconomy.com)
  • On Dec. 2, the U.S. National Institutes of Health announced it had approved 13 new human embryonic stem cell lines for use by federally funded researchers. (healthnewstrack.com)
  • In recent years, she has become an outspoken opponent of human cloning and of federally funded embryonic-stem-cell research. (cbc-network.org)
  • Theresa "Tracy" Deisher, a Stanford-trained molecular physiologist, made national news in late August as one of the co-plaintiffs who successfully challenged the Obama Administration's year-old policy that provided additional funding for embryonic stem cell research. (xconomy.com)
  • She got her scientific training at Stanford, and received a PhD in molecular and cell physiology in 1990. (xconomy.com)
  • Reference: "Human Embryonic Stem Cells Have Constitutively Active Bax at the Golgi and Are Primed to Undergo Rapid Apoptosis" by Raluca Dumitru, Vivian Gama, B. Matthew Fagan, Jacquelyn J. Bower, Vijay Swahari, Larysa H. Pevny and Mohanish Deshmukh, 3 May 2012, Molecular Cell . (scitechdaily.com)
  • Here we present CRISPR-UMI (Unique Molecular Identifier), a single cell tracing approach, providing a robust screening method that can detect, and thus overcome, cellular heterogeneity and clonal outliers. (researchsquare.com)
  • A broad understanding of the sequence of events, cells involved, relative time table, and molecular signaling can allow for maximum optimization of this important patient care issue. (medscape.com)
  • Although seemingly basic in concept, advances in molecular science have allowed modern medicine to gain a true appreciation of the complex interplay between the cells involved in the phases of wound healing. (medscape.com)
  • The cell then starts to express the genes that allow it to mature into a specific type of cell. (news-medical.net)
  • Recent research has shown that PcG proteins are involved in silencing genes in ES cells which play a key role in development and cell fate decisions. (bl.uk)
  • Analysis of the expression levels of PRC2 genes showed them to be significantly reduced in differentiated cells compared to undifferentiated ES cells. (bl.uk)
  • The knockdown of Pcl2 does not have a severe impact on the stability of ES cells but affects the recruitment of Ezh2 and Suz12 to the promoters of PRC2 target genes leading to a small reduction on H3K27me3 levels but no changes in gene expression. (bl.uk)
  • Thus, instead of "selector genes," "selector cassettes" are the functional units controlling cell fate. (nyu.edu)
  • 2005). Small Nuclear RNAs Encoded by Herpesvirus saimiri Upregulate the Expression of Genes Linked to T Cell Activation in Virally Transformed T Cells. (cookandersenlaboratory.com)
  • Genetic variations in stem cell-related genes and colorectal cancer prognosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Pediatric Astrocytomas and Their Association With Polymorphisms in Embryonic Stem Cell Marker Genes. (cdc.gov)
  • The U-M report comes as Michigan researchers launch new projects made possible by a recent state constitutional amendment allowing researchers in the state to derive new human embryonic stem cell lines using approaches already used in the rest of the country. (healthnewstrack.com)
  • In Michigan, U-M researchers announced on Dec. 8 that they received approval from the Medical School's Institutional Review Board and the university's Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research Oversight Committee to begin accepting donated embryos that will be used to derive the university's first human embryonic stem cell lines. (healthnewstrack.com)
  • Morrison, a member of the consortium's scientific advisory board, said the University of Michigan "will also make it a priority to derive new embryonic stem cell lines from underrepresented groups, including African-Americans. (healthnewstrack.com)
  • Roughly one-third of the public (35%) opposes embryonic stem cell research, saying that protecting the potential life of embryos is more important than conducting the research, while more than one-in-ten (14%) do not express an opinion on the issue. (pewresearch.org)
  • Because the undifferentiated nature of pluripotent stem cells makes them unpredictable and prone to causing tumors. (lifenews.com)
  • This is exactly the reason embryonic stem cells are known to cause tumors in animal models. (lifenews.com)
  • Second, there was the serious problem that embryonic stem cells form tumors when transplanted to adult tissues, and the tumorogenic capability of these cells is difficult, if not impossible, to control. (firstthings.com)
  • For example, a faulty self-destruct button is one factor that allows cancer cells to proliferate unchecked and cause tumors. (scitechdaily.com)
  • But the formation of tumors is not the only risk inherent in embryonic stem cells, which have proven to be highly problematic in a multitude of ways. (cellmedicine.com)
  • The technical challenges of using retroviruses to reprogram cells to a pluripotent state could be worked out within the year, researchers said today in a press conference at the annual meeting of the International Society for Stem Cell Research in Philadelphia. (the-scientist.com)
  • Here, we asked how mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) leave the pluripotent state and choose between germ layer fates. (nih.gov)
  • As glutamine metabolism drops, and levels of reactive oxygen species rise, OCT4 breaks down and is no longer able to hold the cell in a pluripotent state. (news-medical.net)
  • So far the scientists are only using direct conversion in mouse cells and only in the lab. (lifenews.com)
  • They are working to make sure that directly converted cells work inside the mouse as well. (lifenews.com)
  • An international team of researchers has conducted a long-term experiment aboard the International Space Station to test the effect of space radiation on mouse embryonic stem cells. (phys.org)
  • Usually there are mouse embryonic fiberglass on the bottom of it to help the cells grow. (pearson.com)
  • Some mouse embryonic stem cells growing now in the lab were derived more than 30 years ago, so they're long outlived the life of the animal from which they came. (pearson.com)
  • 2003 Researchers injected mouse embryonic stem cells into the hearts of rats after induced heart attack. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • 2002 Researchers turned mouse embryonic stem cells into heart-like cells in a Petri dish. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • R&D Systems now offers a Human/Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell 4-Color Flow Cytometry Kit (Catalog # FMC001). (selectscience.net)
  • This kit contains four different fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies and the corresponding isotype controls for single-step staining of human and mouse embryonic stem cells. (selectscience.net)
  • The figure displays a Multi-color Analysis of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells by Flow Cytometry. (selectscience.net)
  • D3 mouse embryonic stem cells were stained with the indicated antibodies (filled histograms) or corresponding isotype controls (open histograms) provided in the Human/Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell 4-Color Flow Cytometry Kit (Catalog # FMC001). (selectscience.net)
  • Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the stem cells of teratocarcinomas, and the malignant counterparts of embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos, whether human or mouse. (portlandpress.com)
  • Furthermore, when cells from such an 'adapted' culture were inoculated into a SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mouse, we obtained a teratocarcinoma containing histologically recognizable stem cells, which grew out when the tumour was explanted into culture and exhibited properties of the starting ES cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • We describe the step-by-step procedure for culturing and differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells into neuronal lineages, followed by a series of assays to characterize the differentiated cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we have used na¨ıve pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to study the role of Bmal1 during early development. (ugr.es)
  • Alteration of the conditions of culture, or subsequent selection of neural cells from this mixture, has been used in the mouse system to produce relatively pure populations of neural progenitor cells from differentiating cultures of mouse ES cells. (justia.com)
  • Transplantation experiments have demonstrated the potential of mouse ES derived neural cells to participate in brain development and to correct various deficits in animal model systems. (justia.com)
  • Herein, we utilized a CRISPR /Cas9 based genome editing method to generate single, double, and triple Tet-deficient mouse ESCs ( mESCs ) and differentiated these cells toward cardiac progenitors. (bvsalud.org)
  • All cell-culture required for gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, including expansion, transfection, drug selection, colony picking and colony expansion. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell culture is carried out within a dedicated cell culture laboratory. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • The study established an experimental system for comparison of the hematopoietic toxicity and leukemogenicity of benzene and metabolites during mouse embryonic development and adulthood. (cdc.gov)
  • Cell line: dox inducible Cas9 mouse embryonic stem cells AN3-12. (researchsquare.com)
  • physiologically based animals because a mouse embryonic stem cell line is used. (cdc.gov)
  • Scientists envisioned taking pluripotent stem cells and making them into any kind of cell they wanted. (lifenews.com)
  • While many scientists have argued these cell lines are necessary to provide realistic conditions in the lab, Deisher rejects that idea. (xconomy.com)
  • In a report released today through the National Academies, 10 scientists, including two from MIT, offer guidelines for research involving human embryonic stem cells, the cells taken from a five-day-old fertilized egg that may be tweaked to become any organ within the body. (mit.edu)
  • The Michigan initiatives are getting underway as stem cell scientists across the nation respond to sweeping policy changes issued by the Obama administration. (healthnewstrack.com)
  • Project scientists expect to begin accepting the first donated embryos early next year and to achieve their first embryonic stem cell line by mid-2010. (healthnewstrack.com)
  • The problem is, the promise of medicine's magical future was a lie -- and the scientists who were pushing embryonic stem cell research -- and getting people like Reagan to push it -- knew it at the time. (christianheadlines.com)
  • 2004 German scientists found that the transfer of bone marrow stem cells improved patients heart function after severe heart attack. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • The finding offers a new glimpse into the private lives of stem cells that could help scientists use them to grow new neurons or other cells to replace those that have been lost in patients with Parkinson's and other diseases. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Scientists at the San Diego-based biotechnology company Novocell have reported that they were able to use human embryonic stem cells to produce insulin in diabetic mice, although the treatment also yielded some additional, undesirable consequences. (cellmedicine.com)
  • To date, scientists have made some progress in optimizing regimens in deriving ES cell lines from human embryos but much more research and development are still required especially in the aspect of directing stem cells into the specific cells of potential clinical use. (who.int)
  • Collaboration among clinicians and scientists from diverse fields, together with the public awareness of how useful this technology could offer to modern medicine, will result in the accumulation of knowledge in this field and ultimately a progress in cell-based therapy in the future. (who.int)
  • In the last 18 months, however, researchers have discovered a new reprogramming technique that could avoid that problem altogether: the direct conversion of one differentiated cell type to another. (lifenews.com)
  • I urge researchers to make use of the opportunities that are available to them, and to do all they can to fulfill the promise that stem cell research offers. (freerepublic.com)
  • Using this approach, the researchers differentiated the ES cells into gut tube endoderm and then identified growth factors that induced lung and thyroid lineages. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine have uncovered how changes in metabolism of human embryonic stem cells help coax them to mature into specific cell types - and may improve their function in engineered organs or tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • When researchers want to produce mature cells from stem cells, they traditionally use a cocktail of growth factors and other chemicals known to produce the specific cell type they want,' Marsboom, said. (news-medical.net)
  • In the first published study of its kind, the U-M team analyzed 47 embryonic stem cell lines, including most of the lines commonly used by stem cell researchers. (healthnewstrack.com)
  • 2004 Researchers from the Texas Heart Institute received FDA approval for bone marrow stem cell transplants in patients with severe heart failure. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • 2003 Researchers found that infusing bone marrow stem cells into patients after a heart attack aided regeneration of the heart. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • The key to the stem cells' quick response is that they pre-activate a critical protein called Bax, the researchers found. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The Proceedings of the National Academies of Science (PNAS) has published the article that was the subject of this blog last week , and which claims that researchers at the University of Texas at Houston have produced the "first transplantable source of lung epithelial cells. (lifeethics.org)
  • Some suggest that it is Congress' role to tell researchers what kinds of cells to use. (issues2000.org)
  • Researchers at Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children have found a way to turn human embryonic stem cells into a cell type that creates vital body organs , a breakthrough in medical science. (blogto.com)
  • Science has been studying the phenomena of fetal cell microchimerism for more than 30 years, after researchers at Stanford University were shocked in 1979 to discover a pregnant mother's blood containing cells with Y sex chromosomes. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • The Busheviks have allowed federal funding only for existing lines of embryonic stem cells which falls far short of what medical researchers and patients' groups are seeking. (ostroyreport.com)
  • The former president, with the support of conservatives and evangelicals, had said such research was increasingly unnecessary because of scientific advances that allowed the use of adult stem cells. (freerepublic.com)
  • Recent advances in adult stem cells, an investment banker told The Scientist, such as Shinya Yamanaka's induced pluripotent stem cells, have pointed investors in a different direction. (bioedge.org)
  • We've had advances in adult stem cells and [FDA] approvals. (bioedge.org)
  • The most widely used human embryonic stem cell lines lack genetic diversity, a finding that raises social justice questions that must be addressed to ensure that all sectors of society benefit from stem cell advances, according to a University of Michigan research team. (healthnewstrack.com)
  • Recent advances in cell programming demonstrated that terminal cell fate can be established by a handful of selector transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • Indeed, even the most astonishing research advances using adult cells are ignored by these arbiters of public policy as if they never happened. (cbc-network.org)
  • And since liberal elites dominate public discourse in the stem-cell debate, the American people remain generally unaware of these astonishing scientific advances. (cbc-network.org)
  • Clearly, for King, stem-cell medical advances only count if they come from embryonic sources. (cbc-network.org)
  • Only 10 years ago the sheep Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult organism, demonstrating that the differentiated state of a mammalian cell can be fully reversible to a pluripotent embryonic state. (merlot.org)
  • The judge rejected the Obama administration's argument that embryonic stem-cell research itself did not result in the destruction of embryos. (typepad.com)
  • They say that the administration's stem cell policy hinders the overall research process. (ostroyreport.com)
  • The cells displayed typical RPE behaviour and integrated into the host RPE layer forming mature quiescent monolayers after transplantation in animals. (thelancet.com)
  • Besides the ethical concerns of stem cell therapy (see stem cell controversy ), there is a technical problem of graft-versus-host disease associated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (phys.org)
  • Long-term improvement of cardiac function in rats after infarction by transplantation of embryonic stem cells. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • The Houston team also claims that is possible that their new cell lines might one day be transplanted, although there has never been any research reporting the successful transplantation of epithelial cells into the lungs. (lifeethics.org)
  • A potential alternative treatment, adoptive transfer of mature T cells (ATMTC) through bone marrow transplantation has emerged as a successful therapy for 22q11.2DS. (medscape.com)
  • An interesting feature of mESCs is the presence of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in gene expression that may be responsible for cell fate decisions. (nature.com)
  • Cell fate decisions are fundamental for development, but we do not know how transcriptional networks reorganize during the transition from a pluripotent to a differentiated cell state. (nih.gov)
  • Our study provides a framework for understanding how complex transcription factor networks control cell fate decisions in progenitor cells. (nih.gov)
  • We succeeded in capturing a cell fate decision in cultured stem cells that is normally very transient during the earliest stages of lung and thyroid development," said Kotton, who also is an associate professor of medicine at BUSM. (medindia.net)
  • 2016) Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay Influences Human Embryonic Stem Cell Fate. (cookandersenlaboratory.com)
  • To fulfill those expectations, ESCs have to be directed at high efficiency to disease relevant cell types, either by the application of extracellular signals or direct programming by forced expression of transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • An examination of DSB levels and apoptosis in adult neural stem cell compartments, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) revealed low DSB levels in Lig4(Y288C) mice, comparable with the levels in differentiated neuronal tissues. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Collectively, these studies reveal that the adult neural stem cell compartment, like the embryonic counterpart, can sensitively activate apoptosis. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Unexpectedly, despite the essential catalytic roles of FARSA, knockdown of FARSA in MCL cells did not lead to cell death but resulted in accelerated cell proliferation and cell cycle, whereas overexpression of FARSA induced remarkable cell-cycle arrest and overwhelming apoptosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • mESCs are clonal cell lines derived from the pre-implantation epiblast. (nature.com)
  • It was through pioneering technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) that this concept was experimentally proven. (merlot.org)
  • Over the past five years, the scientific community has focused almost exclusively on somatic-cell nuclear transfer, or cloning, as the best resolution to the problem of immune rejection. (firstthings.com)
  • During somatic-cell nuclear transfer, the genetic information of an unfertilized human egg would be removed and replaced with the unique genetic information of a patient. (firstthings.com)
  • Weismann postulated that germ-plasm was the hereditary material in cells, and parents transmitted to their offspring only the germ-plasm present in germ-cells (sperm and egg cells) rather than somatic or body cells. (asu.edu)
  • B ack at the beginning of 2002, there was considerable optimism regarding the promise that embryonic stem cells were said to hold for millions of people suffering from fatal or debilitating medical conditions. (firstthings.com)
  • Since 2002, approximately nine hundred research papers have been published on investigations of human embryonic stem cells, with more than a thousand additional papers investigating the properties of embryonic stem cells derived from animals. (firstthings.com)
  • Clonally expanded novel multipotent stem cells from human bone marrow regenerate myocardium after myocardial infarction , Journal of Clinical Investigation 115, 326-338, February 2005. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • 2004 In a sample of 20 heart failure patients, 10 were injected with bone marrow cells during bypass surgery. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • Improved exercise capacity and ischemia 6 and 12 months after transendocardial injection of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells for ischemic cardiomyopathy. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • 2003 Doctors implanted bone marrow cells into the hearts of eight patients with severe heart disease. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • Had he followed up, even skeptically, by demanding that Tada give examples of these incredible breakthroughs, she could have told him about human heart patients who have already benefited from treatment with their own bone marrow or blood stem cells. (cbc-network.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells that exist only within five days of embryonic development. (freerepublic.com)
  • During development, the genetic content of each cell remains, with a few exceptions, identical to that of the zygote. (merlot.org)
  • It lays the groundwork for studying the mechanisms and programming of cells during lung development, which, in turn, will help develop new treatments. (medindia.net)
  • Stem cells usually are harvested after three to five days from a blastocyst--an early stage of development before implantation in the uterus. (mit.edu)
  • The Network's goal, according to CIRM, "is to accelerate the development and delivery of stem cell treatments to patients. (lozierinstitute.org)
  • In addition, ATII cells synthesize and secrete the serine protease inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha-1 AT) which also plays a key role in alveolar homeostasis by regulating protease imbalance and adjusting fluid clearance (7, 8), the importance of which is supported by the association of alpha-1 AT deficiency with the development of pulmonary emphysema (9). (lifeethics.org)
  • Both report the successful production of ATII lung cells, as demonstrated by the way the cells look and by demonstrating the production of Surfactant Protein C - which, in human development is only found in mature ATII cells after the unborn (or premature) child has reached 36 weeks of gestation. (lifeethics.org)
  • During development of the human brain, multiple cell types with diverse regional identities are generated. (uth.edu)
  • Under HUB's commercial development, organoid technology also provides standardization and consistency which is difficult to match, especially with primary cell cultures. (corning.com)
  • Clearly, research on embryonic stem cells has advanced considerably over the past five years, and it is therefore important to revisit the promise in light of current findings. (firstthings.com)
  • malignant pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (NTera-2), "The NTERA-2 cl.D1 cell line is a pluripotent human testicular embryonal carcinoma cell line derived by cloning the NTERA-2 cell line. (chip-atlas.org)
  • In this course we will explore such epigenetic changes and study different approaches that can return a differentiated cell to an embryonic state in a process referred to as epigenetic reprogramming, which will ultimately allow generation of patient-specific stem cells and application to regenerative therapy. (merlot.org)
  • Stable benefit of embryonic stem cell therapy in Myocardial infarction, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, August 2004. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • The promise of other fields the authors explore, like gene therapy and embryonic stem cell research, is still more far-reaching. (bio-itworld.com)
  • For stem-cell therapy to really count, it has to come from embryos. (cbc-network.org)
  • In what any ethicist might declare to be legitimate 'embryonic stem cell therapy,' the baby's fetal stem cells migrate to the mother's injured sites and offer themselves as a healing remedy, becoming part of the mother's very body. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • It circumvents cell heterogeneity, a consequence of Cas9 genome editing, by scoring single cell derived clones individually. (researchsquare.com)
  • Embryonic stem cell research oversight (ESCRO) committees should be established. (mit.edu)
  • Instead, we should foster all of these methods, and we should adequately fund and have ethical oversight over all ethical stem cell research. (issues2000.org)
  • They found that by also withdrawing glutamine, twice as many endothelial cells were produced, compared to the use of growth factors alone. (news-medical.net)
  • The glutamine-starved endothelial cells were better able to organize into blood vessels in a 3-dimensional scaffold. (news-medical.net)
  • These endothelial cells migrated into place more successfully to form the tubes that make up vascular networks,' said Rehman, which may improve the engineering of functional blood vessels from human embryonic stem cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Raymond Lund, Ph.D., a scientific collaborator with ACT, and considered one of the world's foremost experts in retinal cell physiology and vision restoration, commented, "The study results of ACT's RPE cells implanted in the various animal models of macular degeneration was phenomenal. (express-press-release.net)
  • It thus came as no surprise that King cared nothing about adult-stem-cell research breakthroughs when the noted artist, evangelist, and disability-rights activist Joni Eareckson Tada raised the issue in an August interview. (cbc-network.org)
  • Most differentiated cells therefore retain all of the genetic information necessary to generate an entire organism. (merlot.org)
  • Severe pulmonary diseases can be caused by deficiencies or genetic mutations in proteins synthesized by ATII cells that are important in maintaining normal lung homeostasis. (lifeethics.org)
  • A second key benefit was indefinite expansion similar to that of transformed cells, but without the genetic abnormalities inherent in cancer cells. (corning.com)
  • PNH is due to a spontaneous genetic mutation that causes red blood cells to be deficient in a protein, leaving them fragile. (diseasesdic.com)
  • 95%) expandable populations of proliferating neural progenitors from human ES cells. (justia.com)
  • To successfully engineer new blood vessels or tissues for diseased patients, we need to help stem cells adapt to the metabolic environment and demands of the mature organs. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to a major antibiotic effect, the technique was found to produce the regeneration of all local tissues, apparently by stimulating dedifferentiation of mature human cells. (earthpulse.net)
  • Direct comparison of the cell types were made to primary tissues using gene expression atlases and fetal human brain single-cell gene expression data, and this established that the cell types resembled early human brain cell types, including preplate cells. (uth.edu)
  • The hypothesized existence of cancer stem cells (CSC) and its markers aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), CD44, SOX2 and OCT4 in oral dysplastic tissues provides the potential for a more reliable assessment of malignant transformation of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). (jomfp.in)
  • As greater understanding of the growth factors involved in wound healing emerges, future patient care may include scarless wound healing and transplant of tissues engineered from stem cell progenitors. (medscape.com)
  • Comparing the transcriptomic and epigenomic landscapes of these two cell types under normal and stressed conditions might yield insight into new approaches to treat neurodegenerative diseases. (nyu.edu)
  • I fully support stem cell research, but I draw the line at taxpayer-funded research that requires the destruction of human embryos, and millions of Americans feel similarly,' he said in a statement. (freerepublic.com)
  • According to the 2007 Pew survey , majorities of Democrats (60%) and political independents (55%) say it is more important to conduct stem cell research that might result in new medical cures than it is to avoid destroying the potential life of human embryos, but only 37% of Republicans agree. (pewresearch.org)
  • Advanced Cell Technology is a Massachusetts company which claimed in 2001 that it had cloned human embryos. (bioedge.org)
  • Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50-150 cells. (phys.org)
  • Stem cells derived from human embryos, it was claimed, provided the best hope for relief of human suffering. (firstthings.com)
  • The three proposed solutions to this incompatibility problem (generating large banks of stem cell lines, cloning human embryos to provide a source of cells that perfectly match the patient, or genetically engineering stem cells to reduce immune rejection) were either socially, scientifically, or morally problematic (or all three). (firstthings.com)
  • The article, which appears in Science and is free to access , comes in the midst of a simmering debate about CRISPR gene editing, a powerful technique for rewriting living genomes, which has already been used at least once in (nonviable) human embryos and inspired calls for a voluntary moratorium on editing human egg, sperm, and embryonic cells. (bio-itworld.com)
  • The results revealed differential effects of benzene metabolites on embryonic and adult HSCs. (cdc.gov)
  • This step-by-step protocol is an addition to the publication CRISPR-UMI: Single cell lineage tracing of pooled CRISPR/Cas9 screens doi: 10.1038/nmeth.4466. (researchsquare.com)
  • However, conventional analysis suffers from cellular heterogeneity that is either a consequence of Cas9 editing or cell culture intrinsic. (researchsquare.com)
  • Derived from fetal or adult cells, iPSC strategies avoided the ethical issues surrounding embryonic stem cells. (lifenews.com)
  • I support biomedical research and I believe the administration would be far better served by directing taxpayer funds to research on non-embryonic stem cells, which is both effective and ethical. (freerepublic.com)
  • These guidelines are important because stem cell research is potentially a very valuable way of treating people for a variety of diseases, but the whole field of stem cell research is surrounded by disparate ethical viewpoints," said Hynes, who is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. (mit.edu)
  • In a full-page ad appearing today in the Washington Post , the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) called on Congress to pass legislation ensuring continued federal funding for human embryonic stem cell research under the National Institutes of Health rigorous ethical guidelines. (stanford.edu)