Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The creation of embryos specifically for research purposes.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.
A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Female parents, human or animal.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (1/4782)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (2/4782)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

Identification of sonic hedgehog as a candidate gene responsible for the polydactylous mouse mutant Sasquatch. (3/4782)

The mouse mutants of the hemimelia-luxate group (lx, lu, lst, Dh, Xt, and the more recently identified Hx, Xpl and Rim4; [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]) have in common preaxial polydactyly and longbone abnormalities. Associated with the duplication of digits are changes in the regulation of development of the anterior limb bud resulting in ectopic expression of signalling components such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and fibroblast growth factor-4 (Fgf4), but little is known about the molecular causes of this misregulation. We generated, by a transgene insertion event, a new member of this group of mutants, Sasquatch (Ssq), which disrupted aspects of both anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) patterning. The mutant displayed preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs of heterozygous embryos, and in both hindlimbs and forelimbs of homozygotes. The Shh, Fgf4, Fgf8, Hoxd12 and Hoxd13 genes were all ectopically expressed in the anterior region of affected limb buds. The insertion site was found to lie close to the Shh locus. Furthermore, expression from the transgene reporter has come under the control of a regulatory element that directs a pattern mirroring the endogenous expression pattern of Shh in limbs. In abnormal limbs, both Shh and the reporter were ectopically induced in the anterior region, whereas in normal limbs the reporter and Shh were restricted to the zone of polarising activity (ZPA). These data strongly suggest that Ssq is caused by direct interference with the cis regulation of the Shh gene.  (+info)

Factor VII deficiency rescues the intrauterine lethality in mice associated with a tissue factor pathway inhibitor deficit. (4/4782)

Mice doubly heterozygous for a modified tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) allele (tfpi delta) lacking its Kunitz-type domain-1 (TFPI+/delta) and for a deficiency of the factor VII gene (FVII+/-) were mated to generate 309 postnatal and 205 embryonic day 17.5 (E17. 5) offspring having all the predicted genotypic combinations. Progeny singly homozygous for the tfpidelta modification but with the wild-type fVII allele (FVII+/+/TFPIdelta/delta), and mice singly homozygous for the fVII deficiency and possessing the wild-type tfpi allele (FVII-/-/TFPI+/+), displayed previously detailed phenotypes (i.e., a high percentage of early embryonic lethality at E9.5 or normal development with severe perinatal bleeding, respectively). Surprisingly, mice of the combined FVII-/-/TFPIdelta/delta genotype were born at the expected mendelian frequency but suffered the fatal perinatal bleeding associated with the FVII-/- genotype. Mice carrying the FVII+/-/TFPIdelta/delta genotype were also rescued from the lethality associated with the FVII+/+/TFPIdelta/delta genotype but succumbed to perinatal consumptive coagulopathy. Thus, the rescue of TFPIdelta/delta embryos, either by an accompanying homozygous or heterozygous FVII deficiency, suggests that diminishment of FVII activity precludes the need for TFPI-mediated inhibition of the FVIIa/tissue factor coagulation pathway during embryogenesis. Furthermore, the phenotypes of these combined deficiency states suggest that embryonic FVII is produced in mice as early as E9.5 and that any level of maternal FVII in early-stage embryos is insufficient to cause a coagulopathy in TFPIdelta/delta mice.  (+info)

Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (5/4782)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

JunB is essential for mammalian placentation. (6/4782)

Lack of JunB, an immediate early gene product and member of the AP-1 transcription factor family causes embryonic lethality between E8.5 and E10.0. Although mutant embryos are severely retarded in growth and development, cellular proliferation is apparently not impaired. Retardation and embryonic death are caused by the inability of JunB-deficient embryos to establish proper vascular interactions with the maternal circulation due to multiple defects in extra-embryonic tissues. The onset of the phenotypic defects correlates well with high expression of junB in wild-type extra-embryonic tissues. In trophoblasts, the lack of JunB causes a deregulation of proliferin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene expression, resulting in a defective neovascularization of the decidua. As a result of downregulation of the VEGF-receptor 1 (flt-1), blood vessels in the yolk sac mesoderm appeared dilated. Mutant embryos which escape these initial defects finally die from a non-vascularized placental labyrinth. Injection of junB-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells into tetraploid wild-type blastocysts resulted in a partial rescue, in which the ES cell-derived fetuses were no longer growth retarded and displayed a normal placental labyrinth. Therefore, JunB appears to be involved in multiple signaling pathways regulating genes involved in the establishment of a proper feto-maternal circulatory system.  (+info)

Deletion of a region that is a candidate for the difference between the deletion forms of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and deltabeta-thalassemia affects beta- but not gamma-globin gene expression. (7/4782)

The analysis of a number of cases of beta-globin thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) due to large deletions in the beta-globin locus has led to the identification of several DNA elements that have been implicated in the switch from human fetal gamma- to adult beta-globin gene expression. We have tested this hypothesis for an element that covers the minimal distance between the thalassemia and HPFH deletions and is thought to be responsible for the difference between a deletion HPFH and deltabeta-thalassemia, located 5' of the delta-globin gene. This element has been deleted from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing the complete human beta-globin locus. Analysis of this modified YAC in transgenic mice shows that early embryonic expression is unaffected, but in the fetal liver it is subject to position effects. In addition, the efficiency of transcription of the beta-globin gene is decreased, but the developmental silencing of the gamma-globin genes is unaffected by the deletion. These results show that the deleted element is involved in the activation of the beta-globin gene perhaps through the loss of a structural function required for gene activation by long-range interactions.  (+info)

Diverse developing mouse lineages exhibit high-level c-Myb expression in immature cells and loss of expression upon differentiation. (8/4782)

The c-myb gene encodes a sequence specific transactivator that is required for fetal hematopoiesis, but its potential role in other tissues is less clear because of the early fetal demise of mice with targeted deletions of the c-myb gene and incomplete of knowledge about c-myb's expression pattern. In the hematopoietic system, c-Myb protein acts on target genes whose expression is restricted to individual lineages, despite Myb's presence and role in multiple immature lineages. This suggests that c-Myb actions within different cell type-specific contexts are strongly affected by combinatorial interactions. To consider the possibility of similar c-Myb actions could extend into non-hematopoietic systems in other cell and tissue compartments, we characterized c-myb expression in developing and adult mice using in situ hybridization and correlated this with stage-specific differentiation and mitotic activity. Diverse tissues exhibited strong c-myb expression during development, notably tooth buds, the thyroid primordium, developing trachea and proximal branching airway epithelium, hair follicles, hematopoietic cells, and gastrointestinal crypt epithelial cells. The latter three of these all maintained high expression into adulthood, but with characteristic restriction to immature cell lineages prior to their terminal differentiation. In all sites, during fetal and adult stages, loss of c-Myb expression correlated strikingly with the initiation of terminal differentiation, but not the loss of mitotic activity. Based on these data, we hypothesize that c-Myb's function during cellular differentiation is both an activator of immature gene expression and a suppressor of terminal differentiation in diverse lineages.  (+info)

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BACKGROUND: Maturity of intestinal functions is critical for neonatal health and survival, but comprehensive description of mechanisms underlying intestinal maturation that occur during late gestation still remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate biological processes specifically involved in intestinal maturation by comparing fetal jejunal transcriptomes of two representative porcine breeds (Large White, LW; Meishan, MS) with contrasting neonatal vitality and maturity, at two key time points during late gestation (gestational days 90 and 110). MS and LW sows inseminated with mixed semen (from breed LW and MS) gave birth to both purebred and crossbred fetuses. We hypothesized that part of the differences in neonatal maturity between the two breeds results from distinct developmental profiles of the fetal intestine during late gestation. Reciprocal crossed fetuses were used to analyze the effect of parental genome. Transcriptomic data and 23 phenotypic variables known to be
In pigs, the perinatal period is the most critical time for survival. Piglet maturation, which occurs at the end of gestation, leads to a state of full development after birth. Therefore, maturity is an important determinant of early survival. Skeletal muscle plays a key role in adaptation to extra-uterine life, e.g. glycogen storage and thermoregulation. In this study, we performed microarray analysis to identify the genes and biological processes involved in piglet muscle maturity. Progeny from two breeds with extreme muscle maturity phenotypes were analyzed at two time points during gestation (gestational days 90 and 110). The Large White (LW) breed is a selected breed with an increased rate of mortality at birth, whereas the Meishan (MS) breed produces piglets with extremely low mortality at birth. The impact of the parental genome was analyzed with reciprocal crossed fetuses. Microarray analysis identified 12,326 differentially expressed probes for gestational age and genotype. Such a high number
Script: During the first 8 weeks following fertilization, the developing human is called an embryo, which means growing within. This time, called the embryonic period, is characterized by the formation of most major body systems. ...
View a customizable human prenatal development timeline ranging from fertilization to birth. Also includes quizzes, images, and movies.
Script: I løpet av de første 8 uker etter befruktningen, kalles det voksende menneske for et embryo, som betyr å yngle innenfor. Denne fasen, betegnet embryonalperioden, kjennetegnes ved dannelsen av de fleste vesentlige kroppssystemer. ...
Nature, Nurture, & Prenatal Development Learning Outcomes Compare and contrast the influence of nature versus nurture Describe developmental research techniques Discuss prenatal development Developmental psychology: branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life.
Following fertilization the embryonic stage of development continues until the end of the 10th week (gestational age) (8th week fertilization age). The first two weeks from fertilization is also referred to as the germinal stage or preembryonic stage.[6] The zygote spends the next few days traveling down the fallopian tube dividing several times to form a ball of cells called a morula. Further cellular division is accompanied by the formation of a small cavity between the cells. This stage is called a blastocyst. Up to this point there is no growth in the overall size of the embryo, as it is confined within a glycoprotein shell, known as the zona pellucida. Instead, each division produces successively smaller cells. The blastocyst reaches the uterus at roughly the fifth day after fertilization. It is here that lysis of the zona pellucida occurs. This process is analogous to zona hatching, a term that refers to the emergence of the blastocyst from the zona pellucida, when incubated in vitro. This ...
The respiratory system does not carry out its physiological function (of gas exchange) until after birth. The respiratory tract, diaphragm and lungs do form early in embryonic development. The respiratory tract is divided anatomically into 2 main parts: 1. upper respiratory tract, consisting of the nose, nasal cavity and the pharynx; 2. lower respiratory tract consisting of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs. In the head/neck region, the pharynx forms a major arched cavity within the phrayngeal arches. The lungs go through 4 distinct histological phases of development and in late fetal development thyroid hormone, respiratory motions and amniotic fliud are thought to have a role in lung maturation. Development of this system is not completed until the last weeks of Fetal development, just before birth. Therefore premature babies have difficulties associated with insufficient surfactant (end month 6 alveolar cells type 2 appear and begin to secrete surfactant). ...
The respiratory system does not carry out its physiological function (of gas exchange) until after birth. The respiratory tract, diaphragm and lungs do form early in embryonic development. The respiratory tract is divided anatomically into 2 main parts: 1. upper respiratory tract, consisting of the nose, nasal cavity and the pharynx; 2. lower respiratory tract consisting of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs. In the head/neck region, the pharynx forms a major arched cavity within the phrayngeal arches. The lungs go through 4 distinct histological phases of development and in late fetal development respiratory motions and amniotic fliud are thought to have a role in lung maturation. Development of this system is not completed until the last weeks of Fetal development, just before birth. Therefore premature babies have difficulties associated with insufficient surfactant (end month 6 alveolar cells type 2 appear and begin to secrete surfactant). --Mark Hill 09:25, 14 April 2010 (EST) Page ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Duncan Simpson.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Physics of Living Matter PLM6 series.. ...
Fetal Development : A pregnancy is one of the most intriguing miracles in life. Every week is filled with wonderful new developments as the unborn baby quickly crosses one milestone after another. At 24 weeks, an
Fetal Development Pictures Week 3 - See how your baby is developing at 3 weeks pregnant, and browse SureBaby.coms fetal development week by week picture
Fetal Development Pictures Week 10 - See how your baby is developing at 10 weeks pregnant, and browse SureBaby.coms fetal development week by week picture
Read the script for The Biology of Prenatal Development documentary and watch corresponding video clips. Available in 92 languages.
In the article, Lab-Grown Mouse Embryos Form Limbs and Organs scientists had managed to develop a method that would allow them to grow a mouse embryo outside its mothers uterus. Traditionally when studying the embryonic development of a species; which had allowed scientists to understand how a single cell would develop into a body with specific cell types. To see how fetal development occurs and what important features are present during different stages surgical images were taken from cutting into the womb of the mouse. This time however scientists were able to artificially create a womb which allowed them to analyze the gestation of the embryo in real time without having to cut into the womb.. Having the right conditions to grow the embryo was important to maintain proper functionality and development. Conditions such as the right amount of pressure, oxygen, and nutrients were vital to sustain the embryos genetic material and even managed to get the embryo to develop functioning systems ...
This volume contains most of the papers presented at the First International Symposium on The Effect of Prolonged Drug Usage on Fetal Development held at the Beit-Berl Convention Center, Kfar Saba, Is
Emphasizing the importance of proper prenatal care and nutrition, this two-sided fetal development tear pad shows development from conception to birth.
When babies are born very early, they miss most or all of the important last trimester, often described by doctors as fetal development interrupted.
Chapter 2: Nutrition for Fetal Development We cannot always or even often control events, but we can control how we respond to them. When things happen which dismay we ought to look to GOD for HIS meaning, remembering that HE is not taken by surprise nor can HIS purposes be thwarted in the end. Elisabeth…
In this chapter, we will begin by examining some of the ways in which heredity helps to shape the way we are. We will look at what happens genetically during conception, and describe some known …
Your baby experiences a lot of prenatal changes as he/she prepares to meet you for the first time. Read this article to know what those changes are.
At nine weeks pregnant, your babys embryonic tail has gone and hes now looking a bit more human. By the end of this week, hell measure about 2.3cm long. - BabyCentre UK
Mineral needs of high productive sows:. Each sow, as well in the lactation period as in the gestation, has their own specific mineral and trace elements requirements.. Figure 1: Mineral and trace elements losses after 3 births, compared to non pregnant sows:. Figure 2: Effect of trace elements on reproductive sows over totally 375 litters in organic - and inorganic form:. Column 2 and 3 are with higher levels of Calcium. ( can bind other macro- and micro minerals ( P, S, Fe, Cu and Zn) and demands for Calcium are not as great as for late foetal development and during lactation ( Ca through the milk). Note:. ...
The previous study of Abeliovich et al. (2000) and the results presented here are the only two studies performed to date describing the phenotypic consequences of a homozygous null mutation in the gene encoding α-synuclein. Both studies are consistent in the finding that normal mouse development, life span, and behavior are not affected by the lack of α-synuclein. Abeliovich et al. (2000) found that levels of DA in the striatum were reduced by ∼18% in the mutant compared with the wild-type animals. We found similar modest reductions in striatal levels of DA, but the wide variance in the measurements between different mice precluded drawing any conclusions about the significance of the reductions seen.. However, our study differs from that of Abeliovich et al. (2000) in two important ways. First, ultrastructural examination of synapses fromSnca−/− mice showed a reduction in the reserve-resting pool of synaptic vesicles in the hippocampus of mice lacking α-synuclein and in hippocampal ...
View Notes - Human Development from PSC PSC 1 at UC Davis. Introduction to Psychology Lecture 10: Human Development Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development 3 phases SEE TEXT germinal stage =
1. The general course of prenatal growth in the mouse, the guinea pig, and the chick can be expressed by straight line relations between the logarithms of the weight and age only when age is counted from the beginning of the embryo proper.. 2. This is interpreted as showing that the manner of growth before the beginning of the embryo proper is essentially different from that after this time.. 3. The velocity constants for the animals mentioned are similar; the major differences in their curves depend on the amount of tissue involved in the first organization of the embryo proper and in the length of prenatal life.. 4. Growth of different animals may be compared more accurately if, instead of either birth age or conception age, embryo age is used.. ...
Problems in Prenatal Development. Section 5-3. Types of Birth Defects. Some babies are born with serious problems that threaten their health or ability to live. These problems are called birth defects . Some birth defects are mild and can be corrected Slideshow 2769944 by feng
Kenngott, Rebecca; Ebach, Katja; Neumüller, C.; Vermehren, Margarete; Sinowatz, Fred (2012): Morphology and immunohistochemistry of the bovine ovary during prenatal development. 45. Jahrestagung Physiologie und Pathologie der Fortpflanzung, gleichzeitig 37. Veterinär-Humanmedizinische Gemeinschaftstagung und 1. Deutsch-Polnische Gemeinschaftstagung, 29.02. - 02.03.2012, Berlin, Deutschland. ...
Pregnancy is very crucial period of women. This article explains 2nd Month of Pregnancy Common Symptoms and Fetal Development,diet exercises and other things also.
Its common to have concerns about early fetal development and whats to be expected. Heres how to optimize your health during pregnancy.
Relationship that a child has with its mother - foetal development, and with its family during the first year conditions its emotional responses
Many features of the developing nervous system are visible from external observations of intact human embryos. In this study, a photographic atlas from the 4th to the 7th week after ovulation (Carnegie stages 10-18) is provided. The neural folds began to fuse at stage 10, and the rostral and caudal ...
The present anatomical atlas concentrates on the early weeks of prenatal development of the human embryo. It comprises more than 800 scanning electron-microscopic pictures of specimens of exclusively ...
Its fascinating to see how your baby is growing every week. Track babys development week by week and find out how your baby transforms from a pea-sized embryo
Chan MM, Smith ZD, Grosswendt S, Kretzmer H, Norman TM, Adamson B, et al. Molecular recording of mammalian embryogenesis. Nature. 2019 ;570(7759):77-82. ...
Mammalian embryogenesis is a complex, highly regulated process that requires both temporal and spatial control of multiple cellular signals to ensure proper cellular growth, tissue differentiation, and organ development. Many of these processes are controlled through several evolutionarily ...
Providing options for pregnant women. Pregnancy testing, ultrasound scan, STI education & treatment, education, and support available. You are not alone.
Pregnancy is a time of celebration, inquisitiveness, tiredness and a lot of emotional and physical changes. But even though on the outside you are going through
Researchers have demonstrated the feasibility of focused fetal gene expression analysis of target genes found in amniotic fluid using Standardized NanoArray PCR (SNAP) technology. This analysis could be used to monitor fetal ...
Week 29: Much is happening at 29 weeks! Different organs are changing rapidly…for one, the babys eyes are getting to a more focused state. If the mother feels consistent taps from inside their belly, that might be the baby hiccuping (probably from all the nutrients he/she is getting from the mothers digested food!). If the ...
While you are aware of your wifes expanding belly, do you know what changes are taking place inside? Click here for a resource that will update you on the monthly development of your baby.
Click on your specific week to get a detailed description of how your baby is developing, or see how your baby is growing with our month-by-month pictures. - BabyCenter
At 32 weeks pregnant, your doctor may recommend you start tracking your little ones kicks and movements. Find out how to do this here.
Embryonic Development Model - $615 No Tax - Buy Embryonic Development Models, Shows 12 Stages of Embryo Development. Easy online ordering from Cascade HealthCare Products Inc.
The question is, how will she feel later when she has a wanted pregnancy and goes to a pregnancy web site and learns the truth? I was with my babysitter when she was finally pregnant with a baby her mother couldnt force her to abort -- when she looked at a prenatal development book from the library and learned that what Planned Parenthood had told her was like a blood clot was more like what she considered a baby. Planned Parenthood staff werent there. I was ...
Question: In the spiritual world, embryonic development can be at seven, nine, and 12 months. Why not just nine but seven and 12 as well? Answer: They are
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the T-box family genes, Tbx1-Tbx5, during early mouse development. AU - Chapman, Deborah L.. AU - Garvey, Nancy. AU - Hancock, Sarah. AU - Alexiou, Maria. AU - Agulnik, Sergei I.. AU - Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.. AU - Cebra-Thomas, Judith. AU - Bollag, Roni Jacob. AU - Silver, Lee M.. AU - Papaioannou, Virginia E.. PY - 1996/8/1. Y1 - 1996/8/1. N2 - A novel family of genes, characterized by the presence of a region of homology to the DNA-binding domain of the Brachyury (T) locus product, has recently been identified. The region of homology has been named the T-box, and the new mouse genes that contain the T-box domain have been named T-box 1-6 (Tbx1 through Tbx6). As the basis for further study of the function and evolution of these genes, we have examined the expression of 5 of these genes, Tbx1-Tbx5, across a wide range of embryonic stages from blastocyst through gastrulation and early organogenesis by in situ hybridization of wholemounts and tissue sections. Tbx3 is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential patterns of expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during mouse embryogenesis. AU - Offenhäuser, Nina. AU - Santolini, Elisa. AU - Simeone, Antonio. AU - Di Fiore, Pier Paolo. PY - 2000/7/1. Y1 - 2000/7/1. N2 - Eps15 and Eps15R are related tyrosine kinase substrates, which have been implicated in endocytosis and synaptic vesicle recycling. Through the protein:protein interaction abilities of their EH domains, they establish a complex network of interactions with several proteins, including Numb, a protein necessary for neuronal cell fate specification. We analyzed the expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during murine development, at the time of active neurogenesis. The most striking difference was at the level of subcellular localization, with Eps15 present in the cytosol and on the plasma membrane, while Eps15R exhibited mainly a nuclear localization. Interesting topographical differences also emerged. In the 12.5 days post coitum neuroepithelium, Eps15 was expressed in the ...
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Fetal Development Milestones. At conception everything about your child has been determined. Your babys heart begins beating just 3 weeks after conception.
The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved multiprotein complex, with an important developmental role in several organisms, ranging from plants to mammalians.
Primo Vision allows you to follow the whole sequence of embryo development in an undisturbed and ideal environment. With increased information on embryo development based on detailed analysis you can confidently select the best embryos for transfer
The eMouseAtlas team have generated a series of 3D images to capture mouse embryo development and to use as a spatial framework for gene-expression and other spatially organised data. The resource is published and available on the Web at ...
Moms-to-be have bookshelves filled with pregnancy books that tell them everything they need to know about their pregnancies. But how much of that information
By 10 weeks pregnant your babys forehead is temporarily bulging, the outer part of her ear is fully developed and her chin is no longer bent down to her chest. - BabyCentre UK
by Elyse Wild • photography by Two Eagles Marcus The path to discovery is often dark, illuminated only by the insatiable. Read more ...
Fetal has shown a childs heart begins to beat at only 21 days and she can feel pain at 20 weeks yet there are those that argue abortion should be an option up to discharge.
Health News) One of the risks of delivering a pre-term or low-weight baby is neurological impairment. Often, these two conditions go hand-in-hand with children born before the desired 40-week mark having … Read More ...
At 39 weeks pregnant, stay on the lookout for the signs of labour, and try to relax as much as you can during this final stage. Learn more here.
J:122405 Kemp CR, Willems E, Wawrzak D, Hendrickx M, Agbor Agbor T, Leyns L, Expression of Frizzled5, Frizzled7, and Frizzled10 during early mouse development and interactions with canonical Wnt signaling. Dev Dyn. 2007 Jul;236(7):2011-9 ...
FGF-basic is one of 23 known members of the FGF family. Proteins of this family play a central role during prenatal development, postnatal growth
I had an ultrasound done yesterday and everything was fine. The fetal development is good but the report says |b|spine: posterior|/b|. I want to know the meaning of this and if it is a defect in the position of the fetus? Secondly, if it is a defect then what causes it and is it curable? I am 19 weeks and 5 days pregnant.
3 Months Pregnant - pregnancy starts to show. Tests, fetal development, the health of the mother, visiting a doctor. What to expect being 3 months pregnant?
In order to reach the goal of creation, we need to develop a desire towards that goal, a vessel, a place, in which we will be able to imagine, feel, and realize
1964). "Cataract development after embryonic and fetal x-irradiation." Radiation Research. (22)3: 519-534. Rugh, Roberts, and ... "Cataract development after embryonic and fetal x-irradiation." Radiation Research 22.3 (1964): 519-534. Rugh, Roberts, and ... The Dynamics of Development (1964) The Mouse: Its Reproduction and Development (1967) A Laboratory Manual of Vertebrate ... "Effect of fetal x‐irradiation upon the subsequent fertility of the offspring." Journal of Experimental Zoology 138.2 (1958): ...
Physiologic EMH occurs during embryonic and fetal development; during this time the main site of fetal hematopoiesis are liver ... During fetal development, hematopoiesis occurs mainly in the fetal liver and in the spleen followed by localization to the bone ... The formation of these cells occurs in the AGM later in development. Later, they migrate to the fetal liver where the majority ... Primitive hematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sac during early embryonic development. It is characterized by the production of ...
Following embryonic development the fetal stage of development takes place. In human prenatal development, fetal development ... Fetal viability refers to a point in fetal development at which the fetus may survive outside the womb. The lower limit of ... featuring numerous motion pictures of human fetal movement. In the Womb (National Geographic video). Fetal development: ... "Insights into Early Fetal Development". Archived from the original on 2013-06-01., Behind the Medical Headlines (Royal College ...
The human brain undergoes gyrification during fetal and neonatal development. In embryonic development, all mammalian brains ... caused by defective neuronal migration during the 12th to 24th weeks of fetal gestation resulting in a lack of development of ... Smith, RS; Walsh, CA (February 2020). "Ion Channel Functions in Early Brain Development". Trends in Neurosciences. 43 (2): 103- ... A cerebral cortex without surface convolutions is lissencephalic, meaning 'smooth-brained'. As development continues, gyri and ...
highlighting yet another role of LONP1 in human embryonic/fetal development. Lon protease family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... A study published in 2021 has suggested that genetic variants in LONP1 may be a predisposing factor to the development of ... Gur E, Sauer RT (August 2008). "Recognition of misfolded proteins by Lon, a AAA(+) protease". Genes & Development. 22 (16): ...
"Distribution of osteonectin mRNA and protein during human embryonic and fetal development". The Journal of Histochemistry and ... Metsäranta M, Young MF, Sandberg M, Termine J, Vuorio E (Sep 1989). "Localization of osteonectin expression in human fetal ...
... variants are a part of the normal embryonic and fetal development. They may also be pathologic mutant forms of ... As a result, fetal blood in the placenta is able to take oxygen from maternal blood. Hemoglobin also carries nitric oxide (NO) ... The development of α and β genes created the potential for hemoglobin to be composed of multiple distinct subunits, a physical ... With the development of X-ray crystallography, it became possible to sequence protein structures. In 1959, Max Perutz ...
In some cases, the origin might be the fetal liver during embryonic development. The HSC then differentiate into multipotent ... Regulatory T cells can develop either during normal development in the thymus, and are then known as thymic Treg cells, or can ... About 98% of thymocytes die during the development processes in the thymus by failing either positive selection or negative ... Mutations of the FOXP3 gene can prevent regulatory T cell development, causing the fatal autoimmune disease IPEX. Several other ...
NKX2.1 is key to the fetal development of lung structures. The dorsal-ventral pattern of NKX2.1 expression forms the ventral ... NKX2.1 can be induced by activin A via SMAD2 signaling in a human embryonic stem cell differentiation model. ... NKX2.1 knockout in mice results in the development of a shortened trachea which is fused to the esophagus, with the bronchi ... July 2007). "Lineage-specific dependency of lung adenocarcinomas on the lung development regulator TTF-1". Cancer Research. 67 ...
"Expression of fibroblast growth factors 18 and 23 during human embryonic and fetal development". Gene Expr. Patterns. 5 (4): ... including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth, and invasion. It has been shown in ... Development. 127 (9): 1833-43. doi:10.1242/dev.127.9.1833. PMID 10751172. Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA Cloning ... signaling pathways and possible functions during embryogenesis and post-natal development". Histol. Histopathol. 22 (1): 97-105 ...
In utero, this sensitive period of fetal development occurs between gestation days 16-17. Embryonic exposure to vinclozolin can ... Buckley, Jill; Willingham, Emily; Agras, Koray; Baskin, Laurence (2006). "Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin ... nipple development, and decreased ano-genital distance were noted. At higher dose levels, male sex organ weight decreased ... "Epigenetic Transgenerational Actions of Vinclozolin on the Development of Disease and Cancer". Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis ...
The epithelium of the vagina originates from three different precursors during embryonic and fetal development. These are the ...
"Blood coagulation factors in human embryonic-fetal development: preferential expression of the FVII/tissue factor pathway". ... ISBN 978-1-4511-1805-6. Turpie AG (June 2007). "Oral, direct factor Xa inhibitors in development for the prevention and ...
Niemann H; Tian XC; King WA; Lee RS (February 2008). "Epigenetic reprogramming in embryonic and foetal development upon somatic ... The employment of adult somatic cells in lieu of embryonic stem cells for cloning emerged from the foundational work of John ... 1997). "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells". Nature. 385 (6619): 810-3. Bibcode:1997Natur.385..810W ... showed that genes in the nucleus of such a mature differentiated somatic cell are still capable of reverting to an embryonic ...
... angiogenesis and fetal development. Even though polyamines carry out important roles like soothing and ameliorating in rice ... They also carry out significant effects on embryo/fetus proliferation, implantation, embryonic diapause, placentation, ... Functions in embryo/fetal development, KEAI 3(1): 7-10 Cobbet Christopher, Phytochelatins and Their Roles in Heavy Metal ... For example, Arabidopsis showed much lower activity in seed development when a specific gene of was impaired. With both genes ...
The anterior and posterior cardinal veins are a part of the embryonic venous system. During the eighth week of fetal ... development these cardinal veins will slowly shrink and disappear into other structures. The left anterior cardinal vein ...
A 1981 study of a deceased triploid XXX twin fetus without a heart showed that although its fetal development suggested that it ... Non-conjoined monozygotic twins form up to day 14 of embryonic development, but when twinning occurs after 14 days, the twins ... Thorpe, K (June 2006). "Twin children's language development". Early Human Development. 82 (6): 387-395. doi:10.1016/j. ... If they occur early in fetal development, they will be present in a very large proportion of body cells. Another cause of ...
It is present in the embryonic and fetal stages of neural development found between the thalamus and caudate nucleus. The ... Early in embryonic development, the interneurons in the cortex stem primarily from the MGE and the AEP. In vitro experiments ... During the late stages of embryonic development, both the LGE and MGE guide cell migration to the cortex, specifically the ... where they facilitate tangential cell migration during embryonic development. Tangential migration does not involve ...
The congenital malformation develops during weeks 6-11 of fetal development as a persistent embryonic prosencephalic vein of ... Vidyasagar C (April 2005). "Persistent embryonic veins in the arteriovenous malformation of the diencephalon". Acta ...
Fetal circulation begins within the 8th week of development. Fetal circulation does not include the lungs, which are bypassed ... The human arterial system originates from the aortic arches and from the dorsal aortae starting from week 4 of embryonic life. ... The development of the circulatory system starts with vasculogenesis in the embryo. The human arterial and venous systems ... Cardiovascular diseases may also be congenital in nature, such as heart defects or persistent fetal circulation, where the ...
Human placental lactogen (hPL) is a hormone used in pregnancy to develop fetal metabolism and general growth and development. ... The placenta is a temporary embryonic and later fetal organ that begins developing from the blastocyst shortly after ... In the fetus, hPL acts on lactogenic receptors to modulate embryonic development, metabolism and stimulate production of IGF, ... "The roles of placental growth hormone and placental lactogen in the regulation of human fetal growth and development". Journal ...
... which is a chromatin regulator enzyme that is essential during fetal development, CHD8 is an ATP dependent enzyme. The protein ... The importance of CHD8 can be observed in studies where CHD8-knockout mice died after 5.5 embryonic days because of widespread ... This course of development is fairly gradual, in that parents typically report concerns in development over the first two years ... A second course of development is characterized by normal or near-normal development before onset of regression or loss of ...
... may hinder embryonic and fetal development as well as decrease oxygen consumption in adults. Apart from prenatal developments, ...
"Physiological processes such as fetal nutrition and fetal development progress directly from embryonic/fetal tissue-directed ... Because the binding of these receptors is unanticipated by the regulated activity of the fetal cells it can be inferred that ... "The association of in utero exposure to such carcinogens and the subsequent development of cancer has been reported for all ... In addition to receptor binding, it has also been proven that fetal tissues are suspected as "privileged targets of neoplastic ...
During continued fetal development, the early body systems, and structures that were established in the embryonic stage ... It is also during the third trimester that maternal activity and sleep positions may affect fetal development due to restricted ... Nair M, Kumar B (7 April 2016). "Embryology for fetal medicine". In Kumar B, Alfirevic Z (eds.). Fetal Medicine. Cambridge ... The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten ...
In later stages of pregnancy, a simple Doppler fetal monitor can be used to quantify the fetal heart rate. A fetal heartbeat ... The embryonic left atrium remains as the trabecular left atrial appendage, and the embryonic right atrium remains as the right ... Heart development, also known as cardiogenesis, refers to the prenatal development of the heart. This begins with the formation ... With the development of the SAN, a band of specialized conducting cells start to form creating the bundle of His that sends a ...
... starts with fertilization, in the germinal stage of embryonic development, and continues in fetal ... The development of the human embryo follows fertilization, and continues as fetal development. By the end of the tenth week of ... The very early stages of embryonic development are the same in all mammals, but later stages of development, and the length of ... The next period is that of fetal development where many organs become fully developed. This fetal period is described both ...
This process is needed for proper development during embryonic and fetal growth where there is destruction and reconstruction ... Survivin is known to be expressed during fetal development and across most tumour cell types, but is rarely present in normal, ... Survivin's role in cancer development in the context of a signaling pathway is its ability to inhibit activation of downstream ... It has been observed that the development of hormone resistance in prostate cancer may be due to the upregulation of ...
The gene encodes a 180-amino acid polypeptide, expressed from 18 weeks during embryonic development until birth in human fetal ... is expressed in normal fetal and adult testes and in spermatocytic tumors and testicular carcinoma in situ". Laboratory ... is expressed in normal fetal and adult testes and in spermatocytic seminomas and testicular carcinoma in situ". Laboratory ...
No aborted fetuses were found, suggesting that death occurred early on in embryonic or fetal development and that the fetus was ... These messages are used during embryonic development to signal the migration of early melanocytes (pigment cells) from the ... The development of an organism from single-celled to fully formed is a process with many, many steps. Even beginning with ... All horses possess the KIT gene, as it is necessary for survival even at the earliest stages of development. The presence or ...
产前发育的事件,是在特定孕齡時出現的。因此也可以根據胎兒毒素暴露(英语:Environmental toxicants and fetal development)、胎兒藥物暴露(英语:Drugs in pregnancy)或垂直傳播傳染(英语: ... 胎齡(英语:Human fertilization)(embryonic age或fetal age)是從人類受精(英语:human fertilization)開始計算的時間,受精一般是在排卵後的一天,大約在最後一次月經(LMP)開始後的
... and the condition can arise during embryonic and fetal development due to insufficient neural stem cell proliferation, impaired ... Severely impaired intellectual development is common, but disturbances in motor functions may not appear until later in life.[ ... These findings suggest that a normal DNA damage response is critical during brain development, perhaps to protect against ... The role of the DNA damage response pathways in brain development and microcephaly: insight from human disorders. DNA Repair ( ...
"Normal Ranges of Embryonic Length, Embryonic Heart Rate, Gestational Sac Diameter and Yolk Sac Diameter at 6-10 Weeks". Fetal ... Development[edit]. During embryogenesis, the extraembryonic coelom (or chorionic cavity) that constitutes the gestational sac ... As development progresses, small lacunae begin to form within the extraembryonic mesoderm which enlarges to become the ... Karki DB, Sharmqa UK, Rauniyar RK (2006). "Study of accuracy of commonly used fetal parameters for estimation of gestational ...
Peripheral Nervous System - Development and Stem Cells (en anglès). Embryonic Development & Stem Cell Compendium. LifeMap ... Güzelmansur I, Aksoy HT, Hakverdi S, Seven M, et al «Fetal cervical neuroblastoma: prenatal diagnosis» (en anglès). Case Rep ... Oliveira KMC, Pindur L, Han Z, Bhavsar MB, et al «Time course of traumatic neuroma development» (en anglès). PLoS One, 2018 Jul ... Newbern, JM «Molecular control of the neural crest and peripheral nervous system development» (en anglès). Curr Top Dev Biol, ...
Using sophisticated technologies, scientists are now finding that exposure to cocaine during fetal development may lead to ... "Evidence for cocaine and methylecgonidine stimulation of M(2) muscarinic receptors in cultured human embryonic lung cells" ... has no appreciable effect on childhood growth and development.[26] However, the official opinion of the National Institute on ... "Growth, Development, and Behavior in Early Childhood Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure, Frank et al. 285 (12): 1613 - JAMA" ...
Tooth development is the complex process by which teeth form from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth. Although ... and the periodontium must all develop during appropriate stages of fetal development. Primary (baby) teeth start to form ... a b A. R. Ten Cate, Oral Histology: Development, Structure, and Function, 5th ed. (Saint Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1998), pp. 86 ... A. R. Ten Cate, Oral Histology: Development, Structure, and Function, 5th ed. (Saint Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1998), p. 81. ISBN ...
... limb development, and cardiovascular formation. The magnitude of ethanol neurotoxicity in fetuses leading to fetal alcohol ... "The Antioxidants Vitamin E and β-Carotene Protect Against Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity in Embryonic Rat Hippocampal Cultures ... One notable example is the possible significant lead exposure during the Roman Empire resulting from the development of ... Brocardo, Patricia S.; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Christie, Brian R. (2011). "The Role of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum ...
Arthropod Structure & Development. 41 (5): 483-493. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2012.02.009. Besøkt 25. november 2015.. ... Wourms, J.P. (1981): Viviparity: The maternal-fetal relationship in fishes. American Zoologist no 21: side 473-515. ... Stewart, J.R.; Ecay, T.W.; Heulin, B. (2009). «Patterns of maternal provision and embryonic mobilization of calcium in ... Demski, L.S & Wourms, J.P. (1993): The Reproduction and Development of Sharks, Skates, Rays, and Ratfishes. I Environmental ...
Maweya ji hefteya 9em heta jidayikbûnê ya peresînê jî wekî qonaxa korpeleyî (bi înglîzî: fetal period) tê navkirin. Di vê ... Peresîna di dirêjiya du hefteyên destpêkê ya piştî pîtînê, wekî qonaxa pêşembriyoyî (bi înglîzî: pre-embryonic stage) tê ... Peresîna mirov dabeşê du beşên serekî dibe, peresîna pêşzayînî (bi înglîzî: prenatal development) û peresîna paşzayînî (bi ... "prenatal development". Encyclopedia Britannica, 19 Feb. 2020, [1]. Accessed 4 October 2022. ...
... of amnionic sacs and chorionic sacs for multiple gestations Embryonic/fetal cardiac activity Assessment of embryonic/fetal ... Acuson Corporation's pioneering work on the development of Coherent Image Formation helped shape the development of diagnostic ... Fetal number, including number of amnionic sacs and chorionic sacs for multiple gestations Fetal cardiac activity Fetal ... "Fetal Keepsake Videos". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-21. "Statement on Measurement of the Fetal Heart Rate ...
Prognosis of pulmonary agenesis depends on the degree of pulmonary involvement during the embryonic stage of lung development, ... Susan E, Wert (2004). Fetal and Neonatal Physiology (3rd ed.). Bradley P. Fuhrman and Jerry J. Zimmerman. (2011). Pediatric ... Unlike pulmonary hypoplasia which in most cases result from the incomplete development of lung during prenatal development, ... the primary structure developed in the earliest stage of embryonic development that gives rise to the entire respiratory tract ...
... gynogenetic embryos show better embryonic development relative to placental development, while for androgenones, the reverse is ... Another hypothesis proposed is that some imprinted genes act coadaptively to improve both fetal development and maternal ... The majority of imprinted genes in mammals have been found to have roles in the control of embryonic growth and development, ... In domesticated livestock, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in imprinted genes influencing foetal growth and development have ...
Jarid1b is frequently expressed early in mouse embryonic development and is thought to maintain the expression of ... and spine density in mouse adult hippocampal neuroprogenitor-derived and mouse fetal hippocampus neurons. Decreased spine ... cell cycle signalling and mouse embryonic stem cell development. Balaguer et al. identified a list of 32 genes targeted by miR- ... In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Jarid1b (also known as KDM5b, a histone H3 Lysine 4 demethylase) has recently been shown ...
Abnormal genital development includes disorders of fetal origin, disorders in androgen synthesis or action, disorders in anti- ... "From Early Embryonic to Adult Stage: Comparative Study of Action Potentials of Native and Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived ... In the normal prenatal stages of fetal development, the fetus is exposed to testosterone - albeit more in male fetuses than ... These genetic abnormalities occur during the prenatal stage of an individuals' fetal development. During this stage, genetic ...
Later on in development, the germ cell nests break down through invasion of granulosa cells. The result is individual oogonia ... Rodent PGCs migrate to the gonads and mitotically divide at embryonic day (E) 10.5. It is at this stage they switch from ... This allows organelles redistribution during oocyte differentiation, leading to about 20% of the foetal germ cells ... The germ cell nest (germ-line cyst) forms in the ovaries during their development. The nest consists of multiple interconnected ...
The consequence of SON haploinsufficiency on embryonic development has also been studied in zebrafish animal models (Danio ... failure of neurons to migrate properly during early development of the fetal brain. Ventriculomegaly can also be observed in ... The development of gross and fine motor skills, as well as fluent and receptive language skills are shown to be delayed in ... Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are able to undergo lineage-specific differentiation into specific types of cells, known as ...
Embryotoxicity Embryonic death and impaired embryonic development of the bursa of Fabricius in chicken by aflatoxin B1 has been ... Wangikar, P.B; Dwivedi, P; Sinha, N; Sharma, A.K; Telang, A.G (2005). "Effects of aflatoxin B1 on embryo fetal development in ... Sur, E; Celik, İ (2003). "Effects of aflatoxin B1on the development of the bursa of Fabricius and blood lymphocyte acid ... Teratogenicity The teratogenic effects of aflatoxin B1 in rabbits have been reported to include reduced fetal weights, wrist ...
A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by week 8 of human fetal development. These are Leydig ... which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing into fallopian tubes and other female reproductive tract tissues ... This includes the embryological development of the primary male sex organs, and the development of male secondary sex ... Scott F. Gilbert; with a chapter on plant development by Susan R. Singer (2000). Scott F. Gilbert (ed.). Developmental Biology ...
Randrianaivo H, Haddad G, Roman H, Delezoide AL, Toutain A, Le Merrer M, Moraine C (Sep 2002). "Fetal fibrochondrogenesis at 26 ... Hoben GM, Koay EJ, Athanasiou KA (Feb 2008). "Fibrochondrogenesis in two embryonic stem cell lines: effects of differentiation ... Fibrochondrogenesis is a rare autosomal recessive form of osteochondrodysplasia, causing abnormal fibrous development of ... abnormal development of fibroblasts, specialized cells that make up fibrous connective tissue, which plays a role in the ...
XCI is initiated very early during female embryonic development or upon differentiation of female embryonic stem (ES) cells and ... to eight-cell stage and is maintained in the developing extra-embryonic tissues of the embryo, including the fetal placenta. ... They found that during embryonic development, several X-linked genes-including sex-1, sex-2, fox-1, and ceh-39-act in a ... following concerted patterns throughout development; for example, at the beginning of most female mammal development, both X ...
The Philippines prohibits human embryonic and aborted human fetal stem cells and their derivatives for human treatment and ... Increases knowledge about the development of embryos, Increases knowledge about serious disease, or Enables any such knowledge ... Embryonic stem cells were isolated in mice in 1981, and in humans in 1998. Stem cell treatments are a type of cell therapy that ... Because Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are cultured from the embryoblast 4-5 days after fertilization, harvesting them is most often ...
"Fetal development Archived 2011-10-27 at the Wayback Machine". MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia (2007-10-19). Retrieved 2009-02 ... it can implant in the endometrial lining of the uterus and begin the gastrulation stage of embryonic development. The human ... This stage has also been referred to as the pre-embryo in legal discourses including relevance to the use of embryonic stem ... Condic, Maureen L. (14 April 2014). "Totipotency: What It Is And What It Is Not". Stem Cells and Development. 23 (8): 796-812. ...
However, the development of this enzyme can be strictly regulated by other factors such as thermostability, electrophoresis, ... Hua JC, Berger J, Pan YC, Hulmes JD, Udenfriend S (April 1986). "Partial sequencing of human adult, human fetal, and bovine ... embryonic stem cells or embryonal carcinoma cells). There is a positive correlation between serum bone alkaline phosphatase ... it plays an integral role in metabolism within the liver and development within the skeleton. Due to its widespread prevalence ...
In the male fetus the presence of a Y chromosome leads to the development of the testes, which secrete a large amount of ... Both penis and clitoris develop from the same tissues that become the glans and shaft of the penis and this shared embryonic ... W.George, D.Wilson, Fredrick, Jean (1984). "2 - Sexual Differentiation". Fetal Physiology and Medicine. ScienceDirect (Second, ... Initially undifferentiated, the tubercle develops into a penis during the development of the reproductive system depending on ...
... it has been suggested that the physiological hypoxia that prevails in normal embryonic and fetal development, or pathological ... Fetal hypoxia has been found to predict unusual movements at age 4 (but not age 7) among children who go on to develop ... Fetal hypoxia, in the presence of certain unidentified genes, has been correlated with reduced volume of the hippocampus, which ... December 2019). "The fetal origins of mental illness". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 221 (6): 549-562. doi: ...
The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) is a region of embryonic mesoderm that develops during embryonic development from the para- ... LTR-HSC activity was also found in the aorta gonad mesonephros region at a slightly earlier time than in the yolk sac and fetal ... The AGM region plays an important role in embryonic development, being the first autonomous intra-embryonic site for definitive ... "Ventral embryonic tissues and Hedgehog proteins induce early AGM hematopoietic stem cell development". Development. 136 (15): ...
PTP-PEST, a soluble protein tyrosine phosphatase that is ubiquitously expressed in mice both during embryonic development and ... but no methylation in other tissues such as fetal muscle, kidney and brain. The EFS gene is one of more than 100 of the genes ... mTECs are important for proper T-cell maturation and negative selection of autoreactive clones, required for development of ... and the development of cancer. The chromosomal location of the EFS gene is 14q11.2 and its genomic coordinates are 14:23356400- ...
In the United States, excess body weight is associated with the development of many types of cancer and is a factor in 14-20% ... However, radiation and radioactive drugs are normally avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose might exceed 100 ... cells or embryonic tissue. Cancers are usually named using -carcinoma, -sarcoma or -blastoma as a suffix, with the Latin or ... Some hormones play a role in the development of cancer by promoting cell proliferation. Insulin-like growth factors and their ...
The brain type is predominant in adult brain and embryonic tissues, whereas the liver and muscle types are predominant in adult ... fetal)-type glycogen phosphorylase". Journal of Gastroenterology. 36 (7): 457-64. doi:10.1007/s005350170068. PMID 11480789. ... recent developments". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 9 (15): 1177-89. doi:10.2174/1381612033454919. PMID 12769745. Moller DE ( ...
This particular gene is widely expressed, especially in tissues derived from the mesoderm during fetal development. The ... and biochemical markers that screen for embryonic tumors. Once the infant is born, possibility of hypoglycemia must be assessed ... Limb patterning and skeletal development may also go awry when GPC3 mutations inhibit regulations of responses to bone ... Chen, Chih-Ping (1 June 2012). "Prenatal findings and the genetic diagnosis of fetal overgrowth disorders: Simpson-Golabi- ...
Browsing by Subject "Embryonic and Fetal Development". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ... Maturation of fetal body systems : report of a WHO Scientific Group [‎meeting held in Geneva from 21 to 27 August 1973]‎  ... WHO Scientific Group on Maturation of Fetal Body Systems; World Health Organization (‎Organización Mundial de la Salud, 1974)‎ ... WHO Scientific Group on Maturation of Fetal Body Systems; World Health Organization (‎Organisation mondiale de la Santé, 1974 ...
An important goal of developmental biology is to understand human embryonic/fetal development and the causes of congenital ... Enabling research with human embryonic and fetal tissue resources. Development 15 September 2015; 142 (18): 3073-3076. doi: ... Enabling research with human embryonic and fetal tissue resources Dianne Gerrelli, Dianne Gerrelli * ... Sectioned embryonic or fetal tissue is used to identify the temporal and spatial expression of specific genes or proteins. Gene ...
Results of search for su:{Embryonic and fetal development} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently ... by Consensus Development Conference on the Effect of Corticosteroids for Fetal Maturation on Perinatal Outcomes (1994: Bethesda ... Report of the Consensus Development Conference on the effect of corticosteroids for fetal maturation on perinatal outcomes. ... Life before birth : the challenges of fetal development / Peter W. Nathanielsz. by Nathanielsz, Peter W. ...
The period of pregnancy prior to fetal viability outside of the uterus is considered early pregnancy. ... Second transvaginal sonogram obtained 1 week after the initial study fails to demonstrate fetal development. This confirms the ... In the first trimester, embryonic causes of spontaneous abortion are the predominant etiology and account for 80-90% of ... Second transvaginal sonogram obtained 1 week after the initial study fails to demonstrate fetal development. This confirms the ...
Week 5 is the start of the "embryonic period." This is when all the babys major systems and structures develop. ... Assessment of fetal growth and development. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson ... Fetal development, physiology, and effects on long-term health. In: Landon MB, Galan HL, Jauniaux ERM, et al, eds. Gabbes ... It is now a fetus, the stage of development up until birth. ... Fetal Health and DevelopmentRead more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine ...
... during embryo-foetal development, direct evidence of their interaction with embryonic thyroid receptors (TRs) is still lacking ... during embryo-foetal development, direct evidence of their interaction with embryonic thyroid receptors (TRs) is still lacking ... Maternal thyroid hormones are transcriptionally active during embryo-foetal development: results from a novel transgenic mouse ... In vivo, β-gal staining, absent until embryonic day 9.5-10.5 (E9.5-E10.5), was observed as early as E11.5-E12.5 in different ...
... common to different blood elements in embryonic development and during the post-fetal life of mammals ... The lymphocyte as a stem cell, common to different blood elements in embryonic development and during the post-fetal life of ... These are the first embryonic leukocytes that first appear as lymphocytes.. In what follows, we will see how these ... In the course of events in the extra-embryonic areas outlined above, the first freely migrating cells appear in the mesenchyme ...
Investigation of developmental toxicity of favipiravir on fetal bone and embryonic development. *A. Bilir, E. Atay, F. Firat, ... it was aimed to determine the developmental toxicity of favipiravir on fetal bone development and embryonic development.. ... *. End of embryonic period. (n.d.). http://www. ... How much drinking causes fetal alcohol syndrome?. No set amount of alcohol causes fetal alcohol syndrome in every case, but ... At 8 weeks pregnant, there are many changes in your babys development. ... New research finds that prenatal exposure to even low levels of alcohol may influence facial development. ...
Facts about the process of human zygotic, embryonic, and fetal development do not answer the question of when life begins. The ... when theres a lethal fetal anomaly and, early on, in cases of rape and incest. ...
2. Trafficking of hematopoietic stem cells during embryogenesis and fetal development. 2.1. HSC migration during the embryonic ... 2.Trafficking of hematopoietic stem cells during embryogenesis and fetal development*2.1.HSC migration during the embryonic ... Blood circulation enables regulated trafficking of HSCs from specific embryonic and extra-embryonic sites to the fetal liver, ... HSC migration from embryonic to fetal hematopoiesis.. Definitive hematopoietic stem cell pools emerge from intra- (AGM) and ...
Van der Auwera, I., and DHooghe, T. (2001). Superovulation of Female Mice Delays Embryonic and Fetal Development. Hum. Reprod. ... Ertzeid, G., and Storeng, R. (2001). The Impact of Ovarian Stimulation on Implantation and Fetal Development in Mice. Hum. ... This work was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2019YFA0802600 and 2018YFC1004500 to YZ), ... 2014). Uterine Rbpj Is Required for Embryonic-Uterine Orientation and Decidual Remodeling via Notch Pathway-independent and - ...
... neither maternal toxicity nor effects on embryonic or fetal development were noted. In the ingestion study with rats, drinking ...
The periods of embryonic, foetal and infant development are remarkably susceptible to environmental hazards. Toxic exposures to ... However, even subtle changes caused by chemical exposures during early development may lead to important functional deficits ... nutrition and paediatrics gathered at the International Conference on Fetal Programming and Developmental Toxicity, in Torshavn ...
Embryonic and Fetal Development. Larsen-Su SA, Krueger SK, Yueh MFei, Pereira CB, Williams DE. 2002. Developmental regulation ... Maternal-Fetal Exchange. Larsen-Su SA, Krueger SK, Yueh MFei, Pereira CB, Williams DE. 2002. Developmental regulation of flavin ... Developmental regulation of flavin-containing monooxygenase form 1 in the liver and kidney of fetal and neonatal rabbits.. ... Developmental regulation of flavin-containing monooxygenase form 1 in the liver and kidney of fetal and neonatal rabbits.. ...
Embryonic and early fetal development of human taste buds: A transmission electron microscopical study. 1996. https:// ... Key milestones in baby taste bud development. Weeks pregnant. Milestone. 4-5 weeks. The tongue and roof of the mouth (palate) ... How to support your babys taste bud development. The foods you eat during pregnancy could influence your babys sense of taste ... Medically reviewed by Layan Alrahmani, M.D., Ob-gyn, maternal-fetal medicine specialist ...
the embryonic and foetal development at two weekly intervals;. (ii) the physical, psychological and psychiatric risks ...
6. Blighted Ovum: Also called an embryonic pregnancy. A fertilized egg implants into the uterine wall, but fetal development ... The placenta is the organ linking the mother’s blood supply to her baby’s. If there’s a problem with the development of ... The earlier you are in the pregnancy, the more likely that your body will expel all the fetal tissue by itself and will not ... Conditions that can interfere with a fetus’ development include. • poor diet, or malnutrition. • drug and alcohol use. â ...
... human embryonic development, stem cell biology and fetal medicine. Read more ... human embryonic development and fetal medicine. Read more ... Prenatal Genetics & Fetal Medicine MSc / PG Dip. University ... Reproductive Genetics and Fetal Medicine MSc. University College London UCL Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Institute For Womens ... This programme provides you with a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the field of prenatal genetics and fetal ...
Forms of Vitamin A, known as retinoids, are essential for embryonic and fetal development including the formation of the eyes, ... Choline is vital for embryonic and fetal brain development, healthy liver function and placental function (19). During ... Prenatal vitamins and minerals such as iron, calcium, and folic acid are vital for proper fetal growth, development, and ... and thyroid hormone is necessary for myelination of the central nervous system and healthy fetal brain development (10). Iodine ...
... spontaneously aborted at various stages of fetal development. In this respect, sensitivity to the value of embryonic and fetal ... The essence of this method is to take a cell from an existing individual and manipulate it so that it behaves like an embryonic ... The rapid pace of progress in this field will require periodic review of these principles in light of new developments. ... The early stages of development of a fertilized egg. In somatic cell nuclear transfer, it refers to the early developmental ...
... the amygdala has received special attention because the amygdala develops at an early embryonic stage and its development ... Researchers speculate that high cortisol levels may also alter the development of the fetal brain. Several recent studies have ... axis may influence the development of the fetal HPA axis. When dysregulation of the maternal HPA axis occurs - as a result of ... This concept of fetal programming is gaining traction and has been used to explain susceptibility to cardiovascular disease, ...
These events fall within the works undertaken by Institut Marquès on how music benefits the embryonic and fetal development. ... REMINDER: The clinics Ig Nobel Prize-winning work included the development of Babypod, the device for playing vagina music ...
Many more miracles in early embryonic and fetal development must then follow… ... For example, we may see low fertilization rates per egg, or we may see slow embryo development, excessive fragmentation of the ... Letrozole or Femara is another oral medication that is sometimes used to stimulate development of multiple follicles during ... The hormones that stimulate egg development must be made in the brain and pituitary and be released properly ...
During embryonic/fetal development, hematopoiesis occurs in all of the following organs/structures except... ... The textbook describes that in the fetal heart, a passageway occurs through the interatrial wall that permits blood to move ...
... and a teratogen is something that either induces or amplifies abnormal embryonic or fetal development and causes birth defects. ... Studies have shown that an excess of vitamin A can affect embryonic development and result in teratogenesis, or the production ... Multi-Fetal Pregnancy. In humans, multi-fetal pregnancy occurs when a mother carries more than one fetus during the pregnancy. ... and learning defects collectively grouped under the heading Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS ...
The effects of furosemide on embryonic and fetal development and on pregnant dams were studied in mice, rats and rabbits. ... Treatment during pregnancy requires monitoring of fetal growth because of the potential for higher fetal birth weights. ... Data from the above studies indicate fetal lethality that can precede maternal deaths. ...
  • 2002. Developmental regulation of flavin-containing monooxygenase form 1 in the liver and kidney of fetal and neonatal rabbits. . (
  • Estrogen effects on fetal and neonatal testicular development. (
  • Heavy metals accumulate in the maternal blood circulation system and reach the fetus through the placenta (12), leading to negative effects on pregnancy progression and fetal growth, such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal death, fetal physical dysmorphology, and mental retardation (13,14). (
  • Molecular and cell biology instrumentation for in vitro, in vivo and whole body imaging studies of embryonic, fetal, neonatal and adult animals. (
  • Lead fetus through the placenta ( 12 ), leading to negative effects is a toxic heavy metal that is widely used in different on pregnancy progression and fetal growth, such as industries and it has no known function in the human spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal death, fetal body. (
  • We examined (i) the capacity of transplants of embryonic neocortex to restore corticofugal systems disrupted following neonatal damage to the occipital cortex and (ii) the influence of the embryonic origin of the transplanted neurons on the reconstruction of the corticofugal circuitry. (
  • Consequently, transplantations aiming at the reconstruction of neural circuits disrupted following neonatal damage affecting a given cortical area should only use fetal cortical cells taken from the same cortical locale. (
  • The zebrafish AGM HSCs migrate to the caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT) that mirrors the functions of both fetal liver and placenta in mammals, providing transient niche to support definitive HSC expansion and differentiation. (
  • If there’s a problem with the development of the placenta, it can also lead to a miscarriage. (
  • While the mineral is needed for a variety of biological functions, the mineral is generally needed to support growth and development of the fetus and placenta during pregnancy, in addition to meeting the increased demand for red blood cells to transport oxygen. (
  • This is because blastocyst stage embryos have differentiated into two cell types: stem cells and trophectoderm (the fetal portion of the placenta). (
  • However, when females fetuses and offspring are closely examined in a model of lipopolysaccharide-induced maternal inflammation during pregnancy, we find that sex confers selective vulnerabilities and outcomes that impact the placenta, fetal brain, adult brain, and behavior in ways that are categorically distinct and in some cases opposite between females and males. (
  • But the researchers said pollution particles crossing the placenta could cause "irreversible embryonic damage" and could also damage the placenta itself. (
  • Increasingly, HDBR material is enabling the derivation of stem cell lines and contributing towards developments in tissue engineering. (
  • Use of the HDBR and other fetal tissue resources discussed here will contribute to the long-term aims of understanding the causation and pathogenesis of congenital anomalies, and developing new methods for their treatment and prevention. (
  • β-gal expression was assayed in tissue sections of transgenic mouse embryos at different stages of development. (
  • 2) mesoderm is not a limiting skin, but a layer that simultaneously creates space and connects: 3) as it gives rise to the major structural components and organs of the inner body including the notochord (made of three-dimensional meso tissue) which underlies and promotes the development of the CNS made of neuroectoderm, mesoderm also involves primary and secondary aspects. (
  • and it involves the transition of epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells, or "embryonic connective tissue", a ground substance comprising of a gel-like substance, which is part of mesoderm ( Kierszenbaum & Tres, 2015 ). (
  • The stem cells (from which all fetal tissue is derived) cannot easily be biopsied. (
  • Extraction of amniotic fluid from the uterus and extraction of a sample of the chorionic villus of the fetus so as to examine a sample of fetal tissue. (
  • Scientists have discovered, she said, that a baby's fetal cells show up more often in a mother's healthy breast tissue and less often in a woman who has breast cancer (43 versus 14 percent). (
  • Together, this work improves our understanding of metanephric kidney development and provides a template to guide the regeneration of renal tissue. (
  • No human embryonic stem cells or human fetal tissue were used to produce the treatments President Trump received-period. (
  • Novoheart is a subsidiary fully owned by Medera Two new Pfizer-coauthored studies validate Novoheart's pioneering human bioengineered heart tissues and chambers for improving drug development Novoheart seeks to revolutionize human heart tissue engineering for disease. (
  • In this study, it was aimed to determine the developmental toxicity of favipiravir on fetal bone development and embryonic development. (
  • At exposure levels of 20 ppm in rats and 80 ppm in rabbits, neither maternal toxicity nor effects on embryonic or fetal development were noted. (
  • During 20-24 May 2007, researchers in the fields of environmental health, environmental chemistry, developmental biology, toxicology, epidemiology, nutrition and paediatrics gathered at the International Conference on Fetal Programming and Developmental Toxicity, in Torshavn, Faroe Islands. (
  • This confirms the diagnosis of an embryonic pregnancy. (
  • Vitamin B deficiencies during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities and various side effects to the mother including hair loss, anemia, digestive problems, lower immune response, weakness, and fatigue. (
  • Magnesium, perhaps the most important electrolyte to supplement with during pregnancy, is required for healthy development and supports sufficient blood flow to the brain ( 3 ). (
  • When dysregulation of the maternal HPA axis occurs - as a result of exposure to stressful life events or the experience of anxiety or depressive symptoms during pregnancy - the baby is exposed to higher levels of cortisol and this may lead to long-standing alterations in the fetal HPA axis, making the child more susceptible to depression or anxiety as an adult. (
  • 1) Understand the mechanisms of maternal immune suppression during early pregnancy, 2) Understand the regulation of immune cells in the development of gynecological and obstetrical conditions (ie. (
  • Detection of thyroid hormones in human embryonic cavities during the first trimester of pregnancy. (
  • so it seems odd to me that this embryo actually made it through all the additional cell divisions, implanted itself and looked like a viable pregnancy development until the fetal arrest. (
  • Amnion and chorion are both present during a woman's pregnancy and are part of the extra embryonic membranes that function in an embryo's overall development. (
  • Embryonic life is a critical stage in human life, and exposure of the fetus to chemicals including heavy metals affects pregnancy outcome and subsequent life stages (11). (
  • We will be looking at depression and anxiety during pregnancy as risk factors for adverse outcomes to both mothers and fetal development. (
  • As well as depression and anxiety being an insult to both neurological and neurobehavioral development of fetuses exposed during pregnancy. (
  • Recent studies have shown that anxiety and depression in pregnancy have had adverse implications for embryonic and fetal development. (
  • Conception typically occurs at what is considered the 2nd week of pregnancy.Conception is also the beginning of the germinal period of prenatal development. (
  • This stage occurs during the first 2 weeks of development (or the 2nd - 4th weeks of pregnancy).The union of the sperm and egg cell forms a single cell called a zygote. (
  • During pregnancy, nutrient requirements increase, in order to support fetal growth and development and to maintain the mother's metabolism. (
  • and the Mediterranean diet, being considered as the healthiest and most balanced diet, could help preventing maternal and fetal diseases before, during, and even after pregnancy. (
  • More on pregnancy-specific distress: it is important to highlight certain features specific to the state of pregnancy and embryonic/fetal development that may have a bearing on studies of stress-related outcomes. (
  • For these reasons, we recommend that studies of stress in the context of pregnancy and fetal development should include a measure of pregnancy-specific stress (e.g. (
  • In terms of assessing aspects of maternal-placental-fetal stress biology during pregnancy, in addition to collecting stress-related biomarkers such as those related to glucocorticoid activity and pro-inflammatory state, it may be important to assess concentrations of placental corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH). (
  • Most professionals believe that twin pregnancy is not desirable due to several disadvantages (dystocia, retained foetal membranes, abortion, early pregnancy loss, higher culling rate, etc.) caused by twin calving. (
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is part of this group and was first defined in 1973 as a condition characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiencies, facial abnormalities and defects of the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • Results: We find that while males experience more pronounced placental pathology, fetal brain hypoxia, depleted PV and Satb2+ densities, and social and learning-related behavioral abnormalities, females exhibit unique acute inflammatory signaling in fetal brain, postnatal growth delay, opposite alterations in cortical PV densities, changes in juvenile behavior, delayed postnatal body growth, and elevated anxiety-related behavior as adults. (
  • Hematopoiesis is sustained by a renewable pool of stem cells that interacts with distinct, sequential and specific microenvironments during normal development and throughout adult life. (
  • Presenilin 1 (PS1) is a protein expressed in the central nervous system as well as other tissues of animals from early embryonic development through adult life. (
  • Placental pathology, acute fetal brain inflammation and hypoxia, long-term changes in adult cortex cytoarchitecture, altered densities and ratio of excitatory (Satb2+) to inhibitory (Parvalbumin+) neuronal subtypes, postnatal growth and behavior outcomes were compared between male and female offspring. (
  • Secreted extracellular matrix components which regulate craniofacial development could be reactivated and play roles in adult wound healing. (
  • These ontologies standardize and expand current terminology for fetal and adult lungs, providing a qualitative framework for data annotation, retrieval, and integration across a wide variety of datasets in the BREATH database. (
  • Although much of the earlier work in this area was limited by many conceptual and methodological problems, over the last two decades, larger, better-designed prospective, population-based human studies, as well as mechanistic ones focused on brain development and epigenetics, have provided further evidence in support of what is known as the prenatal programming hypothesis or fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis. (
  • This image highlighted the left palm of an infant, held steady by the hands of an adult, which displayed a developmental abnormality known as a simian crease (arrowhead), or simian line, which is a palmar crease that is formed upon fusion of the proximal, and distal creases during embryonic development. (
  • Blood circulation enables regulated trafficking of HSCs from specific embryonic and extra-embryonic sites to the fetal liver, ending their developmental journey in the bone marrow (BM) where most of the definitive lifelong hematopoiesis is maintained (Orkin and Zon, 2008 ). (
  • 1.Both the amnion and the chorion are extra embryonic membranes found in reptiles, birds , and mammals. (
  • Here, we report that deletion of the gene encoding the integrin-α5 subunit (Itga5) using the Pdgfrb-Cre transgenic mouse line, leads to oedema, haemorrhage and increased levels of embryonic lethality. (
  • 1 Link2 signaling provides been proven to be needed for later levels of embryonic bloodstream vessel advancement, 2-4 including vascular redecorating, vessel integrity, and maturation. (
  • The CNS is particularly vulnerable to the effects of ethanol during prenatal development. (
  • In the 9 months before a baby is born, there is an enormous amount of prenatal development. (
  • In this lesson, you will explore the following stages of prenatal development: the germinal period, the embryonic period, and the fetal period. (
  • Prenatal development is the process by which a baby develops inside the mother's womb. (
  • Prenatal development takes about 38 weeks to complete. (
  • The 3 primary stages of prenatal development are the germinal period, the embryonic period, and the fetal period. (
  • This is the embryonic period of prenatal development. (
  • This is the most important time of prenatal development because the embryo is developing the foundations for a healthy baby.The blastocyst that implanted in the uterus continues to divide rapidly after implantation. (
  • In humans, the fetal stage of prenatal development begins about eight weeks after fertilization , when the major structures and organ systems have formed, until birth. (
  • Even though several studies highlighted the role of maternal thyroid hormones (THs) during embryo-foetal development, direct evidence of their interaction with embryonic thyroid receptors (TRs) is still lacking. (
  • The physician must consider the effects of drug exposure on the developing fetus or embryo and acknowledge specific susceptibilities at each point in fetal development, as balanced against the risks of worsening maternal illness. (
  • In the mouse the first blood vessels are generated between embryonic days 6.5 to 9.5, a beating heart by E8.5, but a functional circulatory system is not achieved until E10, delaying the blood dispersal of HSCs into the embryo proper until E10.5 (Cumano et al. (
  • It is present in the embryo development of reptiles , birds, and mammals. (
  • It helps reduce the risk of injuries to the unborn embryo and its development in the womb. (
  • The amnion is expandable and flexible in size as it tries to accommodate the development of the embryo to its later stages. (
  • 3.The amnion is filled with amniotic fluid that holds the embryo in suspension, while the chorion also acts as a protective barrier during the embryo's development. (
  • Embryogenesis is a term that can be used to describe all of the processes of embryo development up until the time it becomes a fetus. (
  • During embryonic development melanocytes are formed from melanoblasts, which originate in the neural crest and migrate through the developing embryo in order to reach their final position on the body [ 2 ]. (
  • Report of the Consensus Development Conference on the effect of corticosteroids for fetal maturation on perinatal outcomes. (
  • 1970 Oct. Observations on the maturation of thyroid function in early fetal life. (
  • It is now a fetus, the stage of development up until birth. (
  • Therefore, at this meeting, MAGISNAT's scientific committee wanted to dwell on the topic of the importance of complete and proper nutrition as a preventive action to increase fertility and, subsequently, as a beneficial action for the fetus' development and growth and for the mother's health. (
  • A fetus (or foetus , or fœtus ) is a developing mammal or other viviparous vertebrate , after the embryonic stage and before birth . (
  • [7] When the fetal stage commences, a fetus is typically about 30 mm (1.2 inches) in length, and the heart is beating. (
  • [9] [13] The breathing-like movement of the fetus is necessary for stimulation of lung development, rather than for obtaining oxygen. (
  • The fetus has increased muscle development. (
  • At the early stages of embryonic development, the vertebrate face has a common plan. (
  • Placodes are ectodermal thickenings of the embryonic vertebrate head. (
  • When nonhuman mammalian development is compared with human development, the study subjects must be compared at the same developmental stage (fetal, perinatal, postnatal) When collected appropriately, data from experimental studies of nonhuman mammalian embryos elucidate important aspects of human facial development. (
  • As a result, approximately 300 terms for fetal and postnatal lung structures, tissues, and cells were identified for each species. (
  • Teratology is the study of birth defects, and a teratogen is something that either induces or amplifies abnormal embryonic or fetal development and causes birth defects. (
  • Unexpectedly, these defects were not caused by loss of α5 from Pdgfrb-Cre expressing mural cells (pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells), which wrap around the endothelium and stabilise blood vessels, nor by defects in the heart or great vessels, but were due to abnormal development of the lymphatic vasculature. (
  • During preimplantation stages, differentiation occurs between precursors of embryonic and extraembryonic structures. (
  • The transcriptomes of 2684 single cells were profiled by CelSeq at different timepoints throughout a 54-day differentiation protocol that converted H1 human embryonic stem cells to a variety of brain cell types. (
  • At the beginning of the prefetal period (prefetuses 16.0-21.0 mm PCL) of development there appeared certain morphological signs of gonad differentiation in the form of mesenchymal cells condensation. (
  • The Protein kinase C (PKC) -associated sign pathway performs essential roles in regulation of cell development, differentiation and apoptosis. (
  • One kind of fetal cells that enter into the mother's body is the baby's stem cells. (
  • The baby's fetal stem cells can actually become the mother's own cells that make up her liver, heart, or brain. (
  • In what any ethicist might declare to be legitimate 'embryonic stem cell therapy,' the baby's fetal stem cells migrate to the mother's injured sites and offer themselves as a healing remedy, becoming part of the mother's very body. (
  • Here we report a system to generate early human brain forebrain and mid/hindbrain cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and infer and experimentally confirm a lineage tree for the generation of these types based on single-cell RNA-Seq analysis. (
  • Progress in the development of more effective brain cancer treatments has been hampered in large part by the complex heterogeneity - or the variety of cells - within each tumour," says Dr. Michael Taylor, pediatric neurosurgeon and senior scientist in developmental and stem cell biology at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) and co-lead of the study. (
  • DC - The news circulating wildly that President Trump's medical treatment for COVID-19 included therapies developed using embryonic stem cells and thereby destroying human life in the process are false, two medical scholars are saying on record. (
  • Uninformed commentary has emerged this morning stating that President Trump has received a medication created with the use of human embryonic stem cells. (
  • The Regeneron therapy given to the president was made in Velocimmune humanized mice, a novel platform that uses genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to generate antibodies described here and here . (
  • Mouse embryonic stem cells and genetic modifications to make such mice date back to 1981, have been extensively studied, and were instrumental in the discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, another fully ethical alternative to fetal material, as discussed in this Nature review. (
  • iPSCs are much easier to use than human embryonic stem cells, more flexible in their uses, and are not ethically controversial. (
  • No one has ever advocated against using mouse embryonic stem cells for development of therapies - only against destruction of human lives. (
  • In vivo, β-gal staining, absent until embryonic day 9.5-10.5 (E9.5-E10.5), was observed as early as E11.5-E12.5 in different primordia (i.e. central nervous system, sense organs, intestine, etc.) of the TRE2× transgenic embryos, while the foetal thyroid function (FTF) was still inactive. (
  • It is essential to understand the effect of medications and to know the point in fetal development when drugs are most toxic and which fetal organs are most susceptible. (
  • NP accumulation damages organs (testis, epididymis, ovary, and uterus) by destroying Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and germ cells, causing reproductive organ dysfunction that adversely affects sperm quality, quantity, morphology, and motility or reduces the number of mature oocytes and disrupts primary and secondary follicular development. (
  • The endoderm will form tissues such as the digestive tract and bladder, as well as other internal organs.All of the essential structures have been formed (both inside and outside) by the time the embryonic period comes to an end. (
  • Used with organs, regions, and animal headings for embryologic and fetal development. (
  • Diverse populations of functionally mature but naive lymphocytes are generated in the absence of foreign Ags in the primary lymphoid organs (thymus, fetal liver, and bone marrow). (
  • Our results provide in vivo direct evidence that during embryonic life and before the onset of FTF, maternal THs are transcriptionally active through the action of embryonic TRs. (
  • Facts about the process of human zygotic, embryonic, and fetal development do not answer the question of when life begins. (
  • That's because, in Welch's terms, Indiana's anti-abortion law is "underinclusive" - as restrictive as it is, it nevertheless allows abortions when the life or health of the mother is seriously at risk, when there's a lethal fetal anomaly and, early on, in cases of rape and incest. (
  • However, even subtle changes caused by chemical exposures during early development may lead to important functional deficits and increased risks of disease later in life. (
  • In this respect, sensitivity to the value of embryonic and fetal life would be similar to the development of other methods of assisted reproduction, such as in vitro fertilization. (
  • however, this study indicates that the fetal environment is vitally important and that risk may be transmitted from mother to child during fetal life. (
  • In the present study we investigated the effects of 10 −12 to 10 −5 M BPA concentrations on fetal Leydig cell function, as fetal life is a critical period of sensitivity to ED effects on male reproductive function. (
  • These disorders have been hypothesized to be the expression of one common underlying disorder, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) that arises during fetal life [3] , [4] . (
  • An organic basis for his models eluded Freud all his life, but considering our anatomical development gives rise to insights that might provide a solution to his dilemma. (
  • Embryonic images displayed in Life magazine during the mid-twentieth century serve as a representation of technological advances and the growing public interest in the stages of embryological development. (
  • With the vigorous development of nanometer-sized materials, nanoproducts are becoming widely used in all aspects of life. (
  • During the first 2 months of embryonic life when the cells are rapidly dividing and differentiating. (
  • Both Johnson and Artlett defend the hypothesis that the baby's fetal cells have a beneficent purpose, not to hurt the mother, but to protect, defend, and repair her for the rest of her life, especially when she becomes seriously ill. (
  • The thyroid gland is originally located in the floor of the pharynx, between the tuberculum impar (the first pharyngeal arch) and the copula (the second and third pharyngeal arches), during the 4th week of fetal life [11]. (
  • This study completes the existing data on embryogenesis and gonad formation, its topography helps to better elucidate their structural organization during fetal development, it is important to determine the morphological peculiarities of some congenital defects. (
  • An important goal of developmental biology is to understand human embryonic/fetal development and the causes of congenital anomalies. (
  • This in vivo study was performed to examine the influence of an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on early development of amphibian embryos . (
  • 11 to 28 amphibian embryos per group were investigated in the development range from 2- cell -stage (or later) to the tail bud stage (after five days). (
  • Embryos exposed to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field showed an accelerated rate of early development compared to control group . (
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (
  • Waiting for 1-2 days after thawing would identify embryos with arrested development and, therefore, unsuitable for transfer. (
  • Lastly, contrarily to the DES effect, the negative effect of BPA on testosterone produced by the mouse fetal testis was maintained after invalidation of estrogen receptor α (ERα). (
  • Moreover, fetal testis migration into the scrotum is dependent on testosterone and Insulin-like 3 (INSL3), a hormone produced by Leydig cells [9] , [10] . (
  • Human fetal testis: source of estrogen and target of estrogen action. (
  • In this particular instance, this patient's mother had used the anticonvulsant, trimethadione (brand name Tridione ® ), while pregnant, causing this malformation, as well as others affecting the child's face, ears, and heart, a condition known as fetal trimethadione syndrome. (
  • Thyroglossal duct cysts (TDC) are usually considered to be a benign embryonic malformation where the thyroglossal duct fails to obliterate after descent of the thyroid gland [3]. (
  • Reminiscent of the pathologies seen in the human lymphatic malformation, fetal cystic hygroma, α5 mutants display defects both in the separation of their blood and lymphatic vasculature and in the formation of the lymphovenous valves. (
  • These findings suggest that the mother's depression may affect the structure and organization of the fetal brain, particularly the development of the amygdala, the region of the brain which modulates vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders. (
  • The immune system plays a significant role in reproductive processes such as embryonic implantation and fetal development but also in reproductive diseases and disorders. (
  • endometriosis, preeclampsia, and preterm birth), 3) Identify microbial communities and communication between these communities and the host immune system with reproductive disorders and 4) Utilizing multi-factorial data (clinical, biological and patient history) for development of personalized treatment strategies and diagnostics. (
  • Investigating the biocomplexity and communication between our immune, microbial and reproductive systems will translate into the development of complementary and alternative therapies for treatment of reproductive disorders. (
  • 1981. Thyroid development and disorders of thyroid function in the newborn. (
  • 1997. Fetal thyroid function: Diagnosis and management of fetal thyroid disorders. (
  • An argument is made that males are more vulnerable to gestational complications and neurodevelopmental disorders, the implication being that an understanding of disrupted development in males is sufficient to understand causal mechanisms that are assumed to be similar but attenuated in females. (
  • Here we examine this assumption in the context of immune-driven alterations in fetal brain development and related outcomes in female and male mice. (
  • Method: Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were treated with low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at embryonic day 12.5. (
  • Recent advances in the generation of kidney organoids and the culture of primary nephron progenitors from mouse and human have been based on knowledge of the molecular basis of kidney development in mice. (
  • Development of Regeneron's antibody cocktail is detailed in the journal Science , describing how they identified their antibodies made from Velocimmune mice and blood from recovered patients previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. (
  • In the first trimester, embryonic causes of spontaneous abortion are the predominant etiology and account for 80-90% of miscarriages (see the image below). (
  • or was it just poor egg quality that caused the fetal arrest/missed abortion. (
  • As I show in Antidote to abortion arguments , I am well aware of the facts of embryonic and fetal development and the arguments of the abortion industry. (
  • Fetal growth can be terminated by various factors, including miscarriage , feticide committed by a third party, or induced abortion . (
  • Ashwell KW, 2013, 'Embryology and post-hatching development of the monotremes', in Ashwell KWS (ed. (
  • Transplants of embryonic occipital or frontal cortex were grafted homo- or heterotopically into the damaged occipital cortex of newborn rats. (
  • Others would be lost after implantation, spontaneously aborted at various stages of fetal development. (
  • Most of these would perish because of cellular manipulations during early embryonic growth in the laboratory. (
  • In the context of fetal programming, the amygdala has received special attention because the amygdala develops at an early embryonic stage and its development appears to be particularly sensitive to elevated levels of cortisol, which is the end-product of a dysregulated HPA axis. (
  • Whole-genome RNA-sequencing analysis of embryonic day (E) 14.5 cap stage molars revealed reductions in early expressed enamel matrix components ( Odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein ) and dentin dysplasia targets ( Dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 ). (
  • In a female who has two X chromosomes sometime early in development, randomly in each cell, at that particular point in development, one of her chromosomes becomes inactive. (
  • Direct comparison of the cell types were made to primary tissues using gene expression atlases and fetal human brain single-cell gene expression data, and this established that the cell types resembled early human brain cell types, including preplate cells. (
  • It is thought that these belted phenotypes are due to downregulated melanoblast formation or early melanoblast losses in neural crest development. (
  • Dirty air was previously known to increase the risk of stillbirth, but the research is the first to assess the number of fetal deaths. (
  • The periods of embryonic, foetal and infant development are remarkably susceptible to environmental hazards. (
  • After that I wrote to you about the Faroes Statement: in 2007, twenty-five experts in environmental health from eleven countries (including from the UK) met on the Faroes and contributed to this statement: 'The periods of embryonic, foetal and infant development are remarkably susceptible to environmental hazards. (
  • The Human Developmental Biology Resource (HDBR), based in London and Newcastle, UK, was established to provide embryonic and fetal material for a variety of human studies ranging from single gene expression analysis to large-scale genomic/transcriptomic studies. (
  • Perinatal factors affecting human development : proceedings of the special session held during the Eighth Meeting of the PAHO Advisory Committee on Medical Research, 10 June 1969. (
  • The development of the human blood-CSF-brain barrier. (
  • The development of a cardio-vascular network is probably as important for HSC trafficking as the invention of the wheel was for human travelling. (
  • To this aim, fetal testes from human at 6.5-10.5 gestational weeks (GW) or from rat and mouse at a comparable critical period of development (14.5 days post-coitum (dpc) for rat and 12.5 dpc for mouse) were explanted and cultured using our validated organotypic culture system in the presence or absence of BPA for 1-3 days. (
  • In conclusion, these results evidenced i) a deleterious effect of BPA on fetal Leydig cells function in human for concentrations from 10 −8 M upwards, ii) species-specific differences raising concerns about extrapolation of data from rodent studies to human risk assessment, iii) a specific signaling pathway for BPA which differs from the DES one and which does not involve ERα. (
  • In this chapter, we will consider how nature and nurture interact to influence the course of human development from conception to adulthood. (
  • Ontogenesis of the nuclear 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine receptor in the human fetal brain. (
  • Ontogeny of the estrogen receptor in the human fetal uterus. (
  • 2000. Human first trimester fetal ovaries express oncofetal antigens and steroid receptors. (
  • Human breast development. (
  • These systems play a critical role in processes ranging from human sexual development to behaviour, intelligence and the functioning of the immune system. (
  • The widespread use of opicapone will inevitably lead to biological exposure and damage to the human body, such as affecting fetal development. (
  • Although the mouse is widely used to model human lung development, function, and disease, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in alveolarization of the peripheral lung is incomplete. (
  • Positive evidence of human fetal risk. (
  • During development of the human brain, multiple cell types with diverse regional identities are generated. (
  • In summary, we present an experimentally validated lineage tree that encompasses multiple brain regions, and our work sheds light on the molecular regulation of region-specific neural lineages during human brain development. (
  • Basically, the amnion is one of the defenses against any potential fetal damage during the developmental stages. (
  • A high nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count at birth is taken as a biomarker of fetal hypoxia. (
  • External health conditions, lifestyle habits, and underlying conditions may also interfere with the fetus’ development, especially in the second trimester. (
  • Since the thyroid hormone plays an important role on brain development during gestation, these findings may imply a great risk for embryonic and fetal development in general. (
  • [6] , [7] Any distress during fetal development stimulates hepatic erythropoiesis which results in a high number of NRBC in the circulation. (
  • In the case of female X chromosome inactivation, that actually occurs within the first couple weeks of embryonic development. (
  • In humans, during embryonic and fetal development, the liver is a major hematopoietic organ. (
  • It is not only essential to a mother's health, but it is also vital for the development and overall well being of her baby. (
  • How Does Mother's Depression Affect the Fetal Brain? (
  • Science has been studying the phenomena of fetal cell microchimerism for more than 30 years, after researchers at Stanford University were shocked in 1979 to discover a pregnant mother's blood containing cells with Y sex chromosomes. (
  • Pinctott pointed out that as the quantity of fetal cells in a mother's body increase the activity of autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis decreases. (
  • One would expect them [the fetal cells in the mother's body] to be attacked fairly rapidly. (
  • At 8 weeks pregnant, there are many changes in your baby's development. (
  • A physician caring for a pregnant patient who requires medication should take care in choosing dosages and types of drugs that maximize effectiveness while minimizing fetal risk. (
  • Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk. (
  • Here, we describe the generation and analysis of 6732 single cell transcriptomes from the fetal mouse kidney [embryonic day (E)18.5] and 7853 sorted nephron progenitor cells (E14.5). (
  • however, it has been hypothesized that alterations of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may influence the development of the fetal HPA axis. (
  • Specifically, the higher occurrence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias might be the result of increasing alterations of the function of fetal Leydig cells. (
  • She called the evidence "tantalizing" that fetal cells may offer the mother increased resistance to certain diseases. (
  • However, in humans Thalidomide interfered with embryonic and fetal development in ways not observed in rodent tests. (
  • Calcium supplementation supports the development of the baby's bones while simultaneously protecting the mother from bone loss while carrying the baby ( 5 ). (
  • Craniofacial development is an extraordinarily complex process that requires the orchestrated integration of multiple specialized tissues, such as the surface ectoderm, neural crest, mesoderm, and pharyngeal endoderm, in order to generate the central and peripheral nervous systems, axial skeleton, musculature, and connective tissues of the head and face. (
  • Review of light and electron microscopic data, immunohistochemical and functional data on fetal development of the endocrine pancreas. (
  • In addition to playing a vital role in the healthy development of the baby, folate has also shown in numerous studies to play a large role in the prevention of birth defects ( 9 ). (
  • As one of the researchers involved in the development of the oral contraceptive pill, Min Chueh Chang helped to revolutionize the birth control movement. (
  • Air pollution particles were first detected in placentas in 2018 and at that time dirty air was known to be strongly correlated with increased miscarriages, premature births, insufficient birth weight and impaired brain development. (
  • The transgenic animal can be used in the study of the in vivo functions of PS1 and the effect of FAD mutation in PS1 function both during embryonic development and during aging. (