Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The creation of embryos specifically for research purposes.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.
A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Female parents, human or animal.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (1/4782)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (2/4782)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

Identification of sonic hedgehog as a candidate gene responsible for the polydactylous mouse mutant Sasquatch. (3/4782)

The mouse mutants of the hemimelia-luxate group (lx, lu, lst, Dh, Xt, and the more recently identified Hx, Xpl and Rim4; [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]) have in common preaxial polydactyly and longbone abnormalities. Associated with the duplication of digits are changes in the regulation of development of the anterior limb bud resulting in ectopic expression of signalling components such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and fibroblast growth factor-4 (Fgf4), but little is known about the molecular causes of this misregulation. We generated, by a transgene insertion event, a new member of this group of mutants, Sasquatch (Ssq), which disrupted aspects of both anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) patterning. The mutant displayed preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs of heterozygous embryos, and in both hindlimbs and forelimbs of homozygotes. The Shh, Fgf4, Fgf8, Hoxd12 and Hoxd13 genes were all ectopically expressed in the anterior region of affected limb buds. The insertion site was found to lie close to the Shh locus. Furthermore, expression from the transgene reporter has come under the control of a regulatory element that directs a pattern mirroring the endogenous expression pattern of Shh in limbs. In abnormal limbs, both Shh and the reporter were ectopically induced in the anterior region, whereas in normal limbs the reporter and Shh were restricted to the zone of polarising activity (ZPA). These data strongly suggest that Ssq is caused by direct interference with the cis regulation of the Shh gene.  (+info)

Factor VII deficiency rescues the intrauterine lethality in mice associated with a tissue factor pathway inhibitor deficit. (4/4782)

Mice doubly heterozygous for a modified tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) allele (tfpi delta) lacking its Kunitz-type domain-1 (TFPI+/delta) and for a deficiency of the factor VII gene (FVII+/-) were mated to generate 309 postnatal and 205 embryonic day 17.5 (E17. 5) offspring having all the predicted genotypic combinations. Progeny singly homozygous for the tfpidelta modification but with the wild-type fVII allele (FVII+/+/TFPIdelta/delta), and mice singly homozygous for the fVII deficiency and possessing the wild-type tfpi allele (FVII-/-/TFPI+/+), displayed previously detailed phenotypes (i.e., a high percentage of early embryonic lethality at E9.5 or normal development with severe perinatal bleeding, respectively). Surprisingly, mice of the combined FVII-/-/TFPIdelta/delta genotype were born at the expected mendelian frequency but suffered the fatal perinatal bleeding associated with the FVII-/- genotype. Mice carrying the FVII+/-/TFPIdelta/delta genotype were also rescued from the lethality associated with the FVII+/+/TFPIdelta/delta genotype but succumbed to perinatal consumptive coagulopathy. Thus, the rescue of TFPIdelta/delta embryos, either by an accompanying homozygous or heterozygous FVII deficiency, suggests that diminishment of FVII activity precludes the need for TFPI-mediated inhibition of the FVIIa/tissue factor coagulation pathway during embryogenesis. Furthermore, the phenotypes of these combined deficiency states suggest that embryonic FVII is produced in mice as early as E9.5 and that any level of maternal FVII in early-stage embryos is insufficient to cause a coagulopathy in TFPIdelta/delta mice.  (+info)

Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (5/4782)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

JunB is essential for mammalian placentation. (6/4782)

Lack of JunB, an immediate early gene product and member of the AP-1 transcription factor family causes embryonic lethality between E8.5 and E10.0. Although mutant embryos are severely retarded in growth and development, cellular proliferation is apparently not impaired. Retardation and embryonic death are caused by the inability of JunB-deficient embryos to establish proper vascular interactions with the maternal circulation due to multiple defects in extra-embryonic tissues. The onset of the phenotypic defects correlates well with high expression of junB in wild-type extra-embryonic tissues. In trophoblasts, the lack of JunB causes a deregulation of proliferin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene expression, resulting in a defective neovascularization of the decidua. As a result of downregulation of the VEGF-receptor 1 (flt-1), blood vessels in the yolk sac mesoderm appeared dilated. Mutant embryos which escape these initial defects finally die from a non-vascularized placental labyrinth. Injection of junB-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells into tetraploid wild-type blastocysts resulted in a partial rescue, in which the ES cell-derived fetuses were no longer growth retarded and displayed a normal placental labyrinth. Therefore, JunB appears to be involved in multiple signaling pathways regulating genes involved in the establishment of a proper feto-maternal circulatory system.  (+info)

Deletion of a region that is a candidate for the difference between the deletion forms of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and deltabeta-thalassemia affects beta- but not gamma-globin gene expression. (7/4782)

The analysis of a number of cases of beta-globin thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) due to large deletions in the beta-globin locus has led to the identification of several DNA elements that have been implicated in the switch from human fetal gamma- to adult beta-globin gene expression. We have tested this hypothesis for an element that covers the minimal distance between the thalassemia and HPFH deletions and is thought to be responsible for the difference between a deletion HPFH and deltabeta-thalassemia, located 5' of the delta-globin gene. This element has been deleted from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing the complete human beta-globin locus. Analysis of this modified YAC in transgenic mice shows that early embryonic expression is unaffected, but in the fetal liver it is subject to position effects. In addition, the efficiency of transcription of the beta-globin gene is decreased, but the developmental silencing of the gamma-globin genes is unaffected by the deletion. These results show that the deleted element is involved in the activation of the beta-globin gene perhaps through the loss of a structural function required for gene activation by long-range interactions.  (+info)

Diverse developing mouse lineages exhibit high-level c-Myb expression in immature cells and loss of expression upon differentiation. (8/4782)

The c-myb gene encodes a sequence specific transactivator that is required for fetal hematopoiesis, but its potential role in other tissues is less clear because of the early fetal demise of mice with targeted deletions of the c-myb gene and incomplete of knowledge about c-myb's expression pattern. In the hematopoietic system, c-Myb protein acts on target genes whose expression is restricted to individual lineages, despite Myb's presence and role in multiple immature lineages. This suggests that c-Myb actions within different cell type-specific contexts are strongly affected by combinatorial interactions. To consider the possibility of similar c-Myb actions could extend into non-hematopoietic systems in other cell and tissue compartments, we characterized c-myb expression in developing and adult mice using in situ hybridization and correlated this with stage-specific differentiation and mitotic activity. Diverse tissues exhibited strong c-myb expression during development, notably tooth buds, the thyroid primordium, developing trachea and proximal branching airway epithelium, hair follicles, hematopoietic cells, and gastrointestinal crypt epithelial cells. The latter three of these all maintained high expression into adulthood, but with characteristic restriction to immature cell lineages prior to their terminal differentiation. In all sites, during fetal and adult stages, loss of c-Myb expression correlated strikingly with the initiation of terminal differentiation, but not the loss of mitotic activity. Based on these data, we hypothesize that c-Myb's function during cellular differentiation is both an activator of immature gene expression and a suppressor of terminal differentiation in diverse lineages.  (+info)

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BACKGROUND: Maturity of intestinal functions is critical for neonatal health and survival, but comprehensive description of mechanisms underlying intestinal maturation that occur during late gestation still remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate biological processes specifically involved in intestinal maturation by comparing fetal jejunal transcriptomes of two representative porcine breeds (Large White, LW; Meishan, MS) with contrasting neonatal vitality and maturity, at two key time points during late gestation (gestational days 90 and 110). MS and LW sows inseminated with mixed semen (from breed LW and MS) gave birth to both purebred and crossbred fetuses. We hypothesized that part of the differences in neonatal maturity between the two breeds results from distinct developmental profiles of the fetal intestine during late gestation. Reciprocal crossed fetuses were used to analyze the effect of parental genome. Transcriptomic data and 23 phenotypic variables known to be
In pigs, the perinatal period is the most critical time for survival. Piglet maturation, which occurs at the end of gestation, leads to a state of full development after birth. Therefore, maturity is an important determinant of early survival. Skeletal muscle plays a key role in adaptation to extra-uterine life, e.g. glycogen storage and thermoregulation. In this study, we performed microarray analysis to identify the genes and biological processes involved in piglet muscle maturity. Progeny from two breeds with extreme muscle maturity phenotypes were analyzed at two time points during gestation (gestational days 90 and 110). The Large White (LW) breed is a selected breed with an increased rate of mortality at birth, whereas the Meishan (MS) breed produces piglets with extremely low mortality at birth. The impact of the parental genome was analyzed with reciprocal crossed fetuses. Microarray analysis identified 12,326 differentially expressed probes for gestational age and genotype. Such a high number
Script: During the first 8 weeks following fertilization, the developing human is called an embryo, which means growing within. This time, called the embryonic period, is characterized by the formation of most major body systems. ...
View a customizable human prenatal development timeline ranging from fertilization to birth. Also includes quizzes, images, and movies.
Script: I løpet av de første 8 uker etter befruktningen, kalles det voksende menneske for et embryo, som betyr å yngle innenfor. Denne fasen, betegnet embryonalperioden, kjennetegnes ved dannelsen av de fleste vesentlige kroppssystemer. ...
Nature, Nurture, & Prenatal Development Learning Outcomes Compare and contrast the influence of nature versus nurture Describe developmental research techniques Discuss prenatal development Developmental psychology: branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life.
Following fertilization the embryonic stage of development continues until the end of the 10th week (gestational age) (8th week fertilization age). The first two weeks from fertilization is also referred to as the germinal stage or preembryonic stage.[6] The zygote spends the next few days traveling down the fallopian tube dividing several times to form a ball of cells called a morula. Further cellular division is accompanied by the formation of a small cavity between the cells. This stage is called a blastocyst. Up to this point there is no growth in the overall size of the embryo, as it is confined within a glycoprotein shell, known as the zona pellucida. Instead, each division produces successively smaller cells. The blastocyst reaches the uterus at roughly the fifth day after fertilization. It is here that lysis of the zona pellucida occurs. This process is analogous to zona hatching, a term that refers to the emergence of the blastocyst from the zona pellucida, when incubated in vitro. This ...
The respiratory system does not carry out its physiological function (of gas exchange) until after birth. The respiratory tract, diaphragm and lungs do form early in embryonic development. The respiratory tract is divided anatomically into 2 main parts: 1. upper respiratory tract, consisting of the nose, nasal cavity and the pharynx; 2. lower respiratory tract consisting of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs. In the head/neck region, the pharynx forms a major arched cavity within the phrayngeal arches. The lungs go through 4 distinct histological phases of development and in late fetal development thyroid hormone, respiratory motions and amniotic fliud are thought to have a role in lung maturation. Development of this system is not completed until the last weeks of Fetal development, just before birth. Therefore premature babies have difficulties associated with insufficient surfactant (end month 6 alveolar cells type 2 appear and begin to secrete surfactant). ...
The respiratory system does not carry out its physiological function (of gas exchange) until after birth. The respiratory tract, diaphragm and lungs do form early in embryonic development. The respiratory tract is divided anatomically into 2 main parts: 1. upper respiratory tract, consisting of the nose, nasal cavity and the pharynx; 2. lower respiratory tract consisting of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs. In the head/neck region, the pharynx forms a major arched cavity within the phrayngeal arches. The lungs go through 4 distinct histological phases of development and in late fetal development respiratory motions and amniotic fliud are thought to have a role in lung maturation. Development of this system is not completed until the last weeks of Fetal development, just before birth. Therefore premature babies have difficulties associated with insufficient surfactant (end month 6 alveolar cells type 2 appear and begin to secrete surfactant). --Mark Hill 09:25, 14 April 2010 (EST) Page ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Duncan Simpson.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Physics of Living Matter PLM6 series.. ...
Fetal Development : A pregnancy is one of the most intriguing miracles in life. Every week is filled with wonderful new developments as the unborn baby quickly crosses one milestone after another. At 24 weeks, an
Fetal Development Pictures Week 10 - See how your baby is developing at 10 weeks pregnant, and browse SureBaby.coms fetal development week by week picture
Fetal Development Pictures Week 3 - See how your baby is developing at 3 weeks pregnant, and browse SureBaby.coms fetal development week by week picture
Read the script for The Biology of Prenatal Development documentary and watch corresponding video clips. Available in 92 languages.
In the article, Lab-Grown Mouse Embryos Form Limbs and Organs scientists had managed to develop a method that would allow them to grow a mouse embryo outside its mothers uterus. Traditionally when studying the embryonic development of a species; which had allowed scientists to understand how a single cell would develop into a body with specific cell types. To see how fetal development occurs and what important features are present during different stages surgical images were taken from cutting into the womb of the mouse. This time however scientists were able to artificially create a womb which allowed them to analyze the gestation of the embryo in real time without having to cut into the womb.. Having the right conditions to grow the embryo was important to maintain proper functionality and development. Conditions such as the right amount of pressure, oxygen, and nutrients were vital to sustain the embryos genetic material and even managed to get the embryo to develop functioning systems ...
This volume contains most of the papers presented at the First International Symposium on The Effect of Prolonged Drug Usage on Fetal Development held at the Beit-Berl Convention Center, Kfar Saba, Is
Emphasizing the importance of proper prenatal care and nutrition, this two-sided fetal development tear pad shows development from conception to birth.
When babies are born very early, they miss most or all of the important last trimester, often described by doctors as fetal development interrupted.
Chapter 2: Nutrition for Fetal Development We cannot always or even often control events, but we can control how we respond to them. When things happen which dismay we ought to look to GOD for HIS meaning, remembering that HE is not taken by surprise nor can HIS purposes be thwarted in the end. Elisabeth…
In this chapter, we will begin by examining some of the ways in which heredity helps to shape the way we are. We will look at what happens genetically during conception, and describe some known …
Your baby experiences a lot of prenatal changes as he/she prepares to meet you for the first time. Read this article to know what those changes are.
At nine weeks pregnant, your babys embryonic tail has gone and hes now looking a bit more human. By the end of this week, hell measure about 2.3cm long. - BabyCentre UK
Mineral needs of high productive sows:. Each sow, as well in the lactation period as in the gestation, has their own specific mineral and trace elements requirements.. Figure 1: Mineral and trace elements losses after 3 births, compared to non pregnant sows:. Figure 2: Effect of trace elements on reproductive sows over totally 375 litters in organic - and inorganic form:. Column 2 and 3 are with higher levels of Calcium. ( can bind other macro- and micro minerals ( P, S, Fe, Cu and Zn) and demands for Calcium are not as great as for late foetal development and during lactation ( Ca through the milk). Note:. ...
The previous study of Abeliovich et al. (2000) and the results presented here are the only two studies performed to date describing the phenotypic consequences of a homozygous null mutation in the gene encoding α-synuclein. Both studies are consistent in the finding that normal mouse development, life span, and behavior are not affected by the lack of α-synuclein. Abeliovich et al. (2000) found that levels of DA in the striatum were reduced by ∼18% in the mutant compared with the wild-type animals. We found similar modest reductions in striatal levels of DA, but the wide variance in the measurements between different mice precluded drawing any conclusions about the significance of the reductions seen.. However, our study differs from that of Abeliovich et al. (2000) in two important ways. First, ultrastructural examination of synapses fromSnca−/− mice showed a reduction in the reserve-resting pool of synaptic vesicles in the hippocampus of mice lacking α-synuclein and in hippocampal ...
View Notes - Human Development from PSC PSC 1 at UC Davis. Introduction to Psychology Lecture 10: Human Development Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development 3 phases SEE TEXT germinal stage =
1. The general course of prenatal growth in the mouse, the guinea pig, and the chick can be expressed by straight line relations between the logarithms of the weight and age only when age is counted from the beginning of the embryo proper.. 2. This is interpreted as showing that the manner of growth before the beginning of the embryo proper is essentially different from that after this time.. 3. The velocity constants for the animals mentioned are similar; the major differences in their curves depend on the amount of tissue involved in the first organization of the embryo proper and in the length of prenatal life.. 4. Growth of different animals may be compared more accurately if, instead of either birth age or conception age, embryo age is used.. ...
Problems in Prenatal Development. Section 5-3. Types of Birth Defects. Some babies are born with serious problems that threaten their health or ability to live. These problems are called birth defects . Some birth defects are mild and can be corrected Slideshow 2769944 by feng
Kenngott, Rebecca; Ebach, Katja; Neumüller, C.; Vermehren, Margarete; Sinowatz, Fred (2012): Morphology and immunohistochemistry of the bovine ovary during prenatal development. 45. Jahrestagung Physiologie und Pathologie der Fortpflanzung, gleichzeitig 37. Veterinär-Humanmedizinische Gemeinschaftstagung und 1. Deutsch-Polnische Gemeinschaftstagung, 29.02. - 02.03.2012, Berlin, Deutschland. ...
Pregnancy is very crucial period of women. This article explains 2nd Month of Pregnancy Common Symptoms and Fetal Development,diet exercises and other things also.
Its common to have concerns about early fetal development and whats to be expected. Heres how to optimize your health during pregnancy.
Relationship that a child has with its mother - foetal development, and with its family during the first year conditions its emotional responses
Many features of the developing nervous system are visible from external observations of intact human embryos. In this study, a photographic atlas from the 4th to the 7th week after ovulation (Carnegie stages 10-18) is provided. The neural folds began to fuse at stage 10, and the rostral and caudal ...
The present anatomical atlas concentrates on the early weeks of prenatal development of the human embryo. It comprises more than 800 scanning electron-microscopic pictures of specimens of exclusively ...
Its fascinating to see how your baby is growing every week. Track babys development week by week and find out how your baby transforms from a pea-sized embryo
Chan MM, Smith ZD, Grosswendt S, Kretzmer H, Norman TM, Adamson B, et al. Molecular recording of mammalian embryogenesis. Nature. 2019 ;570(7759):77-82. ...
Mammalian embryogenesis is a complex, highly regulated process that requires both temporal and spatial control of multiple cellular signals to ensure proper cellular growth, tissue differentiation, and organ development. Many of these processes are controlled through several evolutionarily ...
Providing options for pregnant women. Pregnancy testing, ultrasound scan, STI education & treatment, education, and support available. You are not alone.
Pregnancy is a time of celebration, inquisitiveness, tiredness and a lot of emotional and physical changes. But even though on the outside you are going through
Researchers have demonstrated the feasibility of focused fetal gene expression analysis of target genes found in amniotic fluid using Standardized NanoArray PCR (SNAP) technology. This analysis could be used to monitor fetal ...
Week 29: Much is happening at 29 weeks! Different organs are changing rapidly…for one, the babys eyes are getting to a more focused state. If the mother feels consistent taps from inside their belly, that might be the baby hiccuping (probably from all the nutrients he/she is getting from the mothers digested food!). If the ...
While you are aware of your wifes expanding belly, do you know what changes are taking place inside? Click here for a resource that will update you on the monthly development of your baby.
Click on your specific week to get a detailed description of how your baby is developing, or see how your baby is growing with our month-by-month pictures. - BabyCenter
At 32 weeks pregnant, your doctor may recommend you start tracking your little ones kicks and movements. Find out how to do this here.
Embryonic Development Model - $615 No Tax - Buy Embryonic Development Models, Shows 12 Stages of Embryo Development. Easy online ordering from Cascade HealthCare Products Inc.
The question is, how will she feel later when she has a wanted pregnancy and goes to a pregnancy web site and learns the truth? I was with my babysitter when she was finally pregnant with a baby her mother couldnt force her to abort -- when she looked at a prenatal development book from the library and learned that what Planned Parenthood had told her was like a blood clot was more like what she considered a baby. Planned Parenthood staff werent there. I was ...
Question: In the spiritual world, embryonic development can be at seven, nine, and 12 months. Why not just nine but seven and 12 as well? Answer: They are
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the T-box family genes, Tbx1-Tbx5, during early mouse development. AU - Chapman, Deborah L.. AU - Garvey, Nancy. AU - Hancock, Sarah. AU - Alexiou, Maria. AU - Agulnik, Sergei I.. AU - Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.. AU - Cebra-Thomas, Judith. AU - Bollag, Roni Jacob. AU - Silver, Lee M.. AU - Papaioannou, Virginia E.. PY - 1996/8/1. Y1 - 1996/8/1. N2 - A novel family of genes, characterized by the presence of a region of homology to the DNA-binding domain of the Brachyury (T) locus product, has recently been identified. The region of homology has been named the T-box, and the new mouse genes that contain the T-box domain have been named T-box 1-6 (Tbx1 through Tbx6). As the basis for further study of the function and evolution of these genes, we have examined the expression of 5 of these genes, Tbx1-Tbx5, across a wide range of embryonic stages from blastocyst through gastrulation and early organogenesis by in situ hybridization of wholemounts and tissue sections. Tbx3 is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential patterns of expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during mouse embryogenesis. AU - Offenhäuser, Nina. AU - Santolini, Elisa. AU - Simeone, Antonio. AU - Di Fiore, Pier Paolo. PY - 2000/7/1. Y1 - 2000/7/1. N2 - Eps15 and Eps15R are related tyrosine kinase substrates, which have been implicated in endocytosis and synaptic vesicle recycling. Through the protein:protein interaction abilities of their EH domains, they establish a complex network of interactions with several proteins, including Numb, a protein necessary for neuronal cell fate specification. We analyzed the expression of Eps15 and Eps15R during murine development, at the time of active neurogenesis. The most striking difference was at the level of subcellular localization, with Eps15 present in the cytosol and on the plasma membrane, while Eps15R exhibited mainly a nuclear localization. Interesting topographical differences also emerged. In the 12.5 days post coitum neuroepithelium, Eps15 was expressed in the ...
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Fetal Development Milestones. At conception everything about your child has been determined. Your babys heart begins beating just 3 weeks after conception.
Primo Vision allows you to follow the whole sequence of embryo development in an undisturbed and ideal environment. With increased information on embryo development based on detailed analysis you can confidently select the best embryos for transfer
The eMouseAtlas team have generated a series of 3D images to capture mouse embryo development and to use as a spatial framework for gene-expression and other spatially organised data. The resource is published and available on the Web at ...
Moms-to-be have bookshelves filled with pregnancy books that tell them everything they need to know about their pregnancies. But how much of that information
By 10 weeks pregnant your babys forehead is temporarily bulging, the outer part of her ear is fully developed and her chin is no longer bent down to her chest. - BabyCentre UK
by Elyse Wild • photography by Two Eagles Marcus The path to discovery is often dark, illuminated only by the insatiable. Read more ...
Fetal has shown a childs heart begins to beat at only 21 days and she can feel pain at 20 weeks yet there are those that argue abortion should be an option up to discharge.
Health News) One of the risks of delivering a pre-term or low-weight baby is neurological impairment. Often, these two conditions go hand-in-hand with children born before the desired 40-week mark having … Read More ...
At 39 weeks pregnant, stay on the lookout for the signs of labour, and try to relax as much as you can during this final stage. Learn more here.
J:122405 Kemp CR, Willems E, Wawrzak D, Hendrickx M, Agbor Agbor T, Leyns L, Expression of Frizzled5, Frizzled7, and Frizzled10 during early mouse development and interactions with canonical Wnt signaling. Dev Dyn. 2007 Jul;236(7):2011-9 ...
FGF-basic is one of 23 known members of the FGF family. Proteins of this family play a central role during prenatal development, postnatal growth
I had an ultrasound done yesterday and everything was fine. The fetal development is good but the report says |b|spine: posterior|/b|. I want to know the meaning of this and if it is a defect in the position of the fetus? Secondly, if it is a defect then what causes it and is it curable? I am 19 weeks and 5 days pregnant.
3 Months Pregnant - pregnancy starts to show. Tests, fetal development, the health of the mother, visiting a doctor. What to expect being 3 months pregnant?
Fetal cardiovascular development[edit]. The FBN-1 gene is involved in a variety of embryonic developmental programs. The ... skeletal system development. • kidney development. • embryonic eye morphogenesis. • post-embryonic eye morphogenesis. • ... heart development. • camera-type eye development. • metanephros development. • regulation of cellular response to growth factor ... "Fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 in human embryonic and early fetal development". Matrix Biology. 21 (8): 637-46. doi:10.1016/s0945- ...
1964). "Cataract development after embryonic and fetal x-irradiation." Radiation Research. (22)3: 519-534. Rugh, Roberts, and ... "Cataract development after embryonic and fetal x-irradiation." Radiation Research 22.3 (1964): 519-534. Rugh, Roberts, and ... The Dynamics of Development (1964) The Mouse: Its Reproduction and Development (1967) A Laboratory Manual of Vertebrate ... "Effect of fetal x‐irradiation upon the subsequent fertility of the offspring." Journal of Experimental Zoology 138.2 (1958): ...
Physiologic EMH occurs during embryonic and fetal development; during this time the main site of fetal hematopoiesis are liver ... During fetal development, hematopoiesis occurs mainly in the fetal liver and in the spleen followed by localization to the bone ... The formation of these cells occurs in the AGM later in development. Later, they migrate to the fetal liver where the majority ... Primitive hematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sac during early embryonic development. It is characterized by the production of ...
"Epigenetic reprogramming in embryonic and foetal development upon somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning" (PDF). Reproduction. ... 1997). "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells". Nature. 385 (6619): 810-3. Bibcode:1997Natur.385..810W ... showed that genes in the nucleus of such a mature differentiated somatic cell are still capable of reverting to an embryonic ... cells need to go through during cloning is not perfect and embryos produced by nuclear transfer often show abnormal development ...
"Blood coagulation factors in human embryonic-fetal development: preferential expression of the FVII/tissue factor pathway". ... Turpie AG (June 2007). "Oral, direct factor Xa inhibitors in development for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic ...
Following embryonic development the fetal stage of development takes place. In human prenatal development, fetal development ... Fetal viability refers to a point in fetal development at which the fetus may survive outside the womb. The lower limit of ... featuring numerous motion pictures of human fetal movement. "In the Womb" (National Geographic video). Fetal development: ... also called fetal growth restriction (FGR); factors affecting fetal growth can be maternal, placental, or fetal. Maternal ...
"Distribution of osteonectin mRNA and protein during human embryonic and fetal development". The Journal of Histochemistry and ... Metsäranta M, Young MF, Sandberg M, Termine J, Vuorio E (Sep 1989). "Localization of osteonectin expression in human fetal ...
... variants are a part of the normal embryonic and fetal development. They may also be pathologic mutant forms of ... As a result, fetal blood in the placenta is able to take oxygen from maternal blood. Hemoglobin also carries nitric oxide (NO) ... The development of α and β genes created the potential for hemoglobin to be composed of multiple distinct subunits, a physical ... This means that the oxygen binding curve for fetal hemoglobin is left-shifted (i.e., a higher percentage of hemoglobin has ...
In some cases, the origin might be the fetal liver during embryonic development. The HSC then differentiate into multipotent ... Regulatory T cells can develop either during normal development in the thymus, and are then known as thymic Treg cells, or can ... About 98% of thymocytes die during the development processes in the thymus by failing either positive selection or negative ... Mutations of the FOXP3 gene can prevent regulatory T cell development, causing the fatal autoimmune disease IPEX. Several other ...
"Expression of fibroblast growth factors 18 and 23 during human embryonic and fetal development". Gene Expr. Patterns. 5 (4): ... including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth, and invasion. It has been shown in ... Development. 127 (9): 1833-43. PMID 10751172. Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA Cloning Using In Vitro Site- ... signaling pathways and possible functions during embryogenesis and post-natal development". Histol. Histopathol. 22 (1): 97-105 ...
In utero, this sensitive period of fetal development occurs between gestation days 16-17. Embryonic exposure to vinclozolin can ... Buckley, Jill; Willingham, Emily; Agras, Koray; Baskin, Laurence (2006). "Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin ... nipple development, and decreased ano-genital distance were noted. At higher dose levels, male sex organ weight decreased ... "Epigenetic Transgenerational Actions of Vinclozolin on the Development of Disease and Cancer". Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis ...
Transgender women do not naturally have the anatomy needed for embryonic and fetal development. As of 2008, there were no ...
Hassan HJ, Leonardi A, Chelucci C, et al. (1990). „Blood coagulation factors in human embryonic-fetal development: preferential ...
During continued fetal development, the early body systems, and structures that were established in the embryonic stage ... It is also during the third trimester that maternal activity and sleep positions may affect fetal development due to restricted ... Ethanol during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.[42] Studies have shown that ... Development of embryo and fetus. Main articles: Prenatal development, Human embryogenesis, and Fetus ...
In some cases the origin might be the fetal liver during embryonic development. The HSC then differentiate into multipotent ... DevelopmentEdit. Origin, early development and migration to the thymusEdit. All T cells originate from c-kit+Sca1+ ... Regulatory T cells can develop either during normal development in the thymus, and are then known as thymic Treg cells, or can ... Mutations of the FOXP3 gene can prevent regulatory T cell development, causing the fatal autoimmune disease IPEX. ...
The human brain undergoes gyrification during fetal and neonatal development. In embryonic development, all mammalian brains ... caused by defective neuronal migration during the 12th to 24th weeks of fetal gestation resulting in a lack of development of ... Smith, RS; Walsh, CA (February 2020). "Ion Channel Functions in Early Brain Development". Trends in Neurosciences. 43 (2): 103- ... A cerebral cortex without surface convolutions is lissencephalic, meaning 'smooth-brained'. As development continues, gyri and ...
The epithelium of the vagina originates from three different precursors during embryonic and fetal development. These are the ...
No aborted fetuses were found, suggesting that death occurred early on in embryonic or fetal development and that the fetus was ... These messages are used during embryonic development to signal the migration of early melanocytes (pigment cells) from the ... The development of an organism from single-celled to fully formed is a process with many, many steps. Even beginning with ... All horses possess the KIT gene, as it is necessary for survival even at the earliest stages of development. The presence or ...
Any drug that acts during embryonic or fetal development to produce a permanent alteration of form or function is known as a ... Pregnancy and fetal development progress through various changes. The period of one week from fertilisation to implantation of ... Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The most severe form of FASD is fetal alcohol ... From the third month to the end of nine months is the period of fetal maturation. Intake of drugs during this period may modify ...
After a certain stage of intrauterine development it is perfectly evident that fetal life is fully human. Although some might ... The Church considers the destruction of any embryo to be equivalent to abortion, and thus opposes embryonic stem cell research. ... a b John Connery, Abortion: The Development of the Roman Catholic Perspective, Loyola University Press, 1997. ... a b Abortion, the development of the Roman Catholic perspective By John R. Connery ...
NKX2.1 is key to the fetal development of lung structures. The dorsal-ventral pattern of NKX2.1 expression forms the ventral ... NKX2.1 can be induced by activin A via SMAD2 signaling in a human embryonic stem cell differentiation model. ... NKX2.1 knockout in mice results in the development of a shortened trachea which is fused to the esophagus, with the bronchi ... July 2007). "Lineage-specific dependency of lung adenocarcinomas on the lung development regulator TTF-1". Cancer Research. 67 ...
... angiogenesis and fetal development. Even though polyamines carry out important roles like soothing and ameliorating in rice ... They also carry out significant effects on embryo/fetus proliferation, implantation, embryonic diapause, placentation, ... Functions in embryo/fetal development, KEAI 3(1): 7-10 Cobbet Christopher, Phytochelatins and Their Roles in Heavy Metal ... For example, Arabidopsis showed much lower activity in seed development when a specific gene of was impaired. With both genes ...
It is present in the embryonic and fetal stages of neural development found between the thalamus and caudate nucleus. The ... Early in embryonic development, the interneurons in the cortex stem primarily from the MGE and the AEP. In vitro experiments ... During the late stages of embryonic development, both the LGE and MGE guide cell migration to the cortex, specifically the ... where they facilitate tangential cell migration during embryonic development. Tangential migration does not involve ...
The congenital malformation develops during weeks 6-11 of fetal development as a persistent embryonic prosencephalic vein of ... Vidyasagar C (April 2005). "Persistent embryonic veins in the arteriovenous malformation of the diencephalon". Acta ...
... may hinder embryonic and fetal development as well as decrease oxygen consumption in adults. Apart from prenatal developments, ...
"Physiological processes such as fetal nutrition and fetal development progress directly from embryonic/fetal tissue-directed ... Because the binding of these receptors is unanticipated by the regulated activity of the fetal cells it can be inferred that ... "The association of in utero exposure to such carcinogens and the subsequent development of cancer has been reported for all ... In addition to receptor binding, it has also been proven that fetal tissues are suspected as "privileged targets of neoplastic ...
During continued fetal development, the early body systems, and structures that were established in the embryonic stage ... It is also during the third trimester that maternal activity and sleep positions may affect fetal development due to restricted ... The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten ... Fetal movement can become strong and be disruptive to the woman. The woman's navel will sometimes become convex, "popping" out ...
By the end of week 9, the embryonic heart has developed septa and valves, and has all four chambers. At this point, the fetal ... The embryonic left atrium remains as the trabecular left atrial appendage, and the embryonic right atrium remains as the right ... Heart development (also known as cardiogenesis) refers to the prenatal development of the heart. This begins with the formation ... In later stages of pregnancy, a simple Doppler fetal monitor can be used to quantify the fetal heart rate. During childbirth, ...
... starts with fertilization , in the germinal stage of embryonic development, and continues in fetal ... The development of the human embryo follows fertilization, and continues as fetal development. By the end of the tenth week of ... Fetal development is the third of the three stages of prenatal development, following from the initial germinal stage ( ... The very early stages of embryonic development are the same in all mammals. Later stages of development across all taxa of ...
... fetal development, and the risk of chronic disease". The Journal of Nutrition. 140 (3): 437-45. doi:10.3945/jn.109.116327. PMID ... The nutritional status of a mother during fetal development may also play a role, with one proposed mechanism being that of DNA ... The development of type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors.[25][28] While some of these ... Lifestyle factors are important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity and being overweight (defined by a ...
"Fetal Homicide Laws". Retrieved 2008-03-20.. *↑ Roche, Natalie E. (2004). "Therapeutic Abortion". Retrieved 2006-03- ... If it does not get the right number its development happens wrong (it does not grow right.) It may have many bad birth defects. ... Edmonds DK, Lindsay KS, Miller JF, Williamson E, Wood PJ (1982). "Early embryonic mortality in women". Fertil. Steril. 38 (4): ... Fetal Medicine: Basic Science and Clinical Practice (Elsevier Health Sciences 1999), page 835. ...
A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by week 8 of human fetal development. These are Leydig ... which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing into fallopian tubes and other female reproductive tract tissues ... Male prenatal development[edit]. Testes formation[edit]. During mammalian development, the gonads are at first capable of ... This includes the embryological development of the primary male sex organs, and the development of male secondary sex ...
Tooth development is the complex process by which teeth form from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth. Although ... and the periodontium must all develop during appropriate stages of fetal development. Primary (baby) teeth start to form ... a b A. R. Ten Cate, Oral Histology: Development, Structure, and Function, 5th ed. (Saint Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1998), pp. 86 ... A. R. Ten Cate, Oral Histology: Development, Structure, and Function, 5th ed. (Saint Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1998), p. 95. ISBN ...
embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis. • post-embryonic camera-type eye development. • positive regulation of T cell cytokine ... fetal liver/spleen, adult colon, pancreatic islet, and diffuse-type gastric cancer". Int. J. Oncol. 30 (3): 751-5. doi:10.3892/ ... embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • ... embryonic axis specification. • labyrinthine layer blood vessel development. • cell maturation. • Wnt signaling pathway. • ...
The brain type is predominant in adult brain and embryonic tissues, whereas the liver and muscle types are predominant in adult ... fetal)-type glycogen phosphorylase". J. Gastroenterol. 36 (7): 457-64. doi:10.1007/s005350170068. PMID 11480789.. ... recent developments". Current Pharmacological Design. 9 (15): 1177-89. doi:10.2174/1381612033454919. PMID 12769745.. ...
Embryonic development of animalsEdit. After cleavage, the dividing cells, or morula, becomes a hollow ball, or blastula, which ... clusters of cells into early embryo tissues that will each develop into multiple fetal and adult tissues later in development ( ... The competing explanation of embryonic development was epigenesis, originally proposed 2,000 years earlier by Aristotle. Much ... Carlson, Bruce M.; Kantaputra, Piranit N. (2014). "4 Molecular Basis for Embryonic Development". Human embryology and ...
This gene is involved in many facets of embryonic development and is important in the normal formation of many organs and ... Little, Melissa Helen (2015-08-06). Kidney Development, Disease, Repair and Regeneration. Academic Press. p. 269. ISBN ...
... embryonic and fetal stages of development have the same rights as humans in the neonatal stage and beyond. Doris Gordon of the ...
Jankovic J, Chen S, Le WD (2005). "The role of Nurr1 in the development of dopaminergic neurons and Parkinson's disease". ... "Targeted disruption of the Huntington's disease gene results in embryonic lethality and behavioral and morphological changes in ... The Htt gene encodes for the huntingtin protein which plays a role in normal development but its exact function remains unknown ... neurite outgrowth during development, and neuromuscular junction formation. The causal function loss in SMA is currently ...
in utero embryonic development. • embryonic placenta development. • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • positive ... As IGF2 promotes development of fetal pancreatic beta cells, it is believed to be related to some forms of diabetes mellitus. ... Fowden AL, Sibley C, Reik W, Constancia M (2006). "Imprinted genes, placental development and fetal growth". Hormone Research. ... skeletal system development. • cellular protein metabolic process. • insulin receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation ...
In mammals, the Y chromosome contains a gene, SRY, which triggers embryonic development as a male. The Y chromosomes of humans ... In 1996, it was found that male fetal progenitor cells could persist postpartum in the maternal blood stream for as long as 27 ... When such an X chromosome contributes to the child, the development will lead to a male, because of the SRY gene.[citation ... In Drosophila melanogaster, the Y chromosome does not trigger male development. Instead, sex is determined by the number of X ...
... variants are a part of the normal embryonic and fetal development. They may also be pathologic mutant forms of ... A variant hemoglobin, called fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2), is found in the developing fetus, and binds oxygen with greater ... As a result, fetal blood in the placenta is able to take oxygen from maternal blood. ... This means that the oxygen binding curve for fetal hemoglobin is left-shifted (i.e., a higher percentage of hemoglobin has ...
Harrison, K. L. (1979). "Fetal Erythrocyte Lifespan". Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 15 (2): 96-97. doi:10.1111/j. ... In 2008 it was reported that human embryonic stem cells had been successfully coaxed into becoming red blood cells in the lab. ... Red blood cells of mammals cells have nuclei during early phases of erythropoiesis, but extrude them during development as they ... Members of this order have clearly evolved a mode of red blood cell development substantially different from the mammalian norm ...
As the thymus is the organ of T-cell development, any congenital defect in thymic genesis or a defect in thymocyte development ... This is because sufficient T cells are generated during fetal life prior to birth. These T cells are long-lived and can ... The mouse embryonic fibroblasts were reprogrammed into thymic epithelial cells (TECs) by enforcing the expression of one ... The cortex and medulla play different roles in the development of T cells. Cells in the thymus can be divided into thymic ...
During embryonic development, the breast buds, in which networks of tubules are formed, are generated from the ectoderm.[21] ... Susan Blackburn (14 April 2014). Maternal, Fetal, & Neonatal Physiology. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 146-. ISBN 978-0-323- ... It occurs across several phases, including prenatal development, puberty, and pregnancy. At menopause, breast development ... no development will take place.[8][9] Moreover, most of the role of GH in breast development has been found to be mediated by ...
Specific events are dependent on threshold values for different tissues.[76] Because most embryonic development is outside the ... "Fetal maintenance and its evolutionary significance in the Amphibia: Gymnophiona". Journal of Herpetology. 11 (4): 379-386. ... The development of the young of Ichthyophis glutinosus, a species from Sri Lanka, has been much studied. The eel-like larvae ... It was the development of the amniotic egg, which prevents the developing embryo from drying out, that enabled the reptiles to ...
The most dramatic fetal development occurs in the last 3 months of pregnancy when 60% of fetal growth occurs. ... Exercise in excessively high temperatures has been suggested as being detrimental to pregnancy maintenance during the embryonic ... This led to the development of breeds such as the Thoroughbred, a horse taller than the Arabian and faster over the distances ... This concept, known as matching "form to function," has led to the development of not only different breeds, but also families ...
The chorion is the outermost fetal membrane around the embryo in mammals, birds and reptiles (amniotes). It develops from an ... During growth and development of the embryo, there is an increased need for oxygen. To compensate for this, the chorion and the ... The villi at the embryonic pole, which is in contact with the decidua basalis, increase greatly in size and complexity, and ... In humans and other mammals (excluding monotremes), the chorion is one of the fetal membranes that exist during pregnancy ...
Higher vertebrates do not develop gills, the gill arches form during fetal development, and lay the basis of essential ... as well as many other structures derived from the embryonic branchial pouches.[citation needed] Scientists have investigated ... Oogonia development in teleosts fish varies according to the group, and the determination of oogenesis dynamics allows the ... This process can also occur, but less frequently, in oocytes in other development stages. Some fish are hermaphrodites, having ...
Some hormones play a role in the development of cancer by promoting cell proliferation.[69] Insulin-like growth factors and ... Blastoma: Cancers derived from immature "precursor" cells or embryonic tissue.. Cancers are usually named using -carcinoma, - ... Some imaging procedures, such as MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging), CT scans, ultrasounds and mammograms with fetal shielding ... Winther H, Jorgensen JT (2010). "Drug-Diagnostic Co-Development in Cancer". Pharm Med. 24 (6): 363-75. doi:10.2165/11586320- ...
... and side effects in the embryonic and fetal stages of development. This oxidative damage may result in epigenetic or genetic ... The effects of carbon monoxide exposure are decreased later in fetal development during the fetal stage, but they may still ... More specifically, fetal exposure to rubella during weeks five to ten of development (the sixth week particularly) can cause ... Reyes, F. I.; Boroditsky, R. S.; Winter, J. S.; Faiman, C (1974). "Studies on human sexual development. II. Fetal and maternal ...
... a set of monozygotic twins will have about 360 genetic differences that occurred early in foetal development. However, these ... Sheep: (1996) From early embryonic cells by Steen Willadsen. Megan and Morag[19] cloned from differentiated embryonic cells in ... Typically during development genes are switched on and off, and the daughter cells gradually become differentiated into mature ... "Prenatal diagnosis of heterokaryotypic mosaic twins discordant for fetal sex". Prenat Diagn. 20 (12): 999-1003. PMID 11113914. ...
Two passages in the Qur'an describe the fetal development process: We created man from an essence of clay, then We placed him ... or embryonic stem cell research to benefit humankind using surplus blastocysts from fertility clinics.[28] ... "BBC - Religion & Ethics - When is the foetus 'alive'?: The stages of foetal development". Retrieved 2009-01-05.. ... Historical developmentEdit. From the 12th century, when the West first came to know more of Aristotle than his works on logic,[ ...
During fetal development, the migration path through which neural crest cells migrate is rich in HA.[26] HA is closely ... "Hyaluronic acid hydrogel for controlled self-renewal and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Fetal wound healingEdit. Lack of fibrous scarring is the primary feature of fetal wound healing. Even for longer periods, HA ... V. A prolonged presence of hyaluronic acid characterizes fetal wound fluid". Ann. Surg. 213 (4): 292-6. doi:10.1097/00000658- ...
... cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic ... Fetal tissue restores lost sight MedicalNewsToday. 28 October 2004 *^ "Stem cells used to restore vision". 28 April 2005 - via ... The use of embryonic stem cells has also been applied to tendon repair. The embryonic stem cells were shown to have a better ... Embryonic stem cell lines[edit]. Main article: Stem-cell controversy. There is widespread controversy over the use of human ...
Brocardo, Patricia S., Joana Gil-Mohapel, and Brian R. Christie (2011) "The Role of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum ... Clancy, Barbara, Barbara L. Finlay, Richard B. Darlington, and K.j.s. Anand (2007) "Extrapolating Brain Development from ... "Source Specificity of Early Calcium Neurotoxicity in Cultured Embryonic Spinal Neurons." The Journal of Neuroscience, 13 (5): ... "Hippocampal Cell Loss and Neurogenesis after Fetal Alcohol Exposure: Insights from Different Rodent Models." Brain Research ...
Preparing fetal neurons for delivery: crossing the placenta, maternal oxytocin reaches the fetal brain and induces a switch in ... heart development. • negative regulation of urine volume. • response to organic cyclic compound. • negative regulation of ... "Oxytocin induces differentiation of P19 embryonic stem cells to cardiomyocytes". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... This silences the fetal brain for the period of delivery and reduces its vulnerability to hypoxic damage.[53] ...
Embryonic and Fetal Development (2020) ☘ birth Humans have many unique features as sexually reproductive beings. Unlike single ... Embryonic and Fetal Development" Term Paper in a Bibliography:. APA Style. Human Reproduction: Conception, Embryonic and Fetal ... Human Reproduction: Conception, Embryonic and Fetal Development Term Paper. Pages: 7 (2413 words). · Bibliography Sources: 3 · ... Conception, embryonic and fetal development and birth. Humans have many unique features as sexually reproductive beings. Unlike ...
Embryonic and Fetal Development Female Fetal Death Finland Gestational Age Hospitalization Humans Infant care Infant mortality ... Embryonic and Fetal Development - physiology Fetal Growth Retardation - complications Gestational Age Hearing - physiology ... Embryonic and Fetal Development Female Fetus Humans Kidney Diseases Men Morals Pregnancy Trimesters Public Opinion Religion ... Embryonic and Fetal Development Female Fetus France Government Regulation Health facilities History Humans Informed consent ...
... and Abnormal Fetal Development in Cattle. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual. ... Learn about the veterinary topic of Embryonic Death, Abortion, ... Embryonic Death, Abortion, and Abnormal Fetal Development in ... Embryonic Death, Abortion, and Abnormal Fetal Development in Cattle By Jonathan Statham , MA, VetMB, DCHP, MRCVS, Bishopton ... The mechanism by which heat stress affects embryonic survival is complex. Heat stress can disrupt early embryonic development. ...
"Embryonic and Fetal Development" by people in this website by year, and whether "Embryonic and Fetal Development" was a major ... "Embryonic and Fetal Development" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Embryonic and Fetal Development" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Embryonic and Fetal Development". ...
Epidemiology & classification of the malformations ✓, terminology ✓, teratogenicity ✓, phase dependency ✓, organ development ... Learn more about the malformations during embryonic and fetal development and test your clinical knowledge with our review ... Malformations During Embryonic and Fetal Development Malformations During Embryonic and Fetal Development. Last update July 24 ... During the embryonic development of the organs, Gr. organogenesis (3rd - 8th week of development), many malformations can arise ...
Development of the vulva includes the following stages.. Embryonic or fetal development Both the male and the female fetus for ... The stages of pubic hair development are classified as Tanner stages of development. ... The development again gains acceleration during puberty when the female reproductive organs are exposed to female hormones like ... The hormones of the mother control their development. After this time the fetus begins to produce its own hormones and by the ...
Embryonic. and Fetal. Development. */genetics Embryonic. and Fetal. Development. */physiology. Coronary Disease/*etiology Fetal ... Embryonic. and Fetal. Development. /*drug effects Embryonic. and Fetal. Development. /*radiation effects Germ Cells/*drug ... Embryonic. and Fetal. Development. */genetics Embryonic. and Fetal. Development. */radiation effects Nervous System*/embryology ... Embryonic. and Fetal. Development. */*physiology. Embryonic. and Fetal. Development. */drug effects Tyrphostins*. Epidermal ...
Embryonic and Fetal Development - Pictures and Images. With DocCheck Pictures you can find more than 34165 medical images from ... "Embryonic and Fetal Development".. Click here to upload your own pictures, case studies, findings, surgeries etc. and share ...
Imikurire yumwana uri mu nda (Embryonic and fetal development) Umwangange M. Louise, impuguke mu buzima bwumwana uri mu nda ... Umwana atangira gukura rwose (fetal period begins). Amaso, amatwi, amaboko, ibiganza nintoki, amaguru, amavi, ibirenge namano ...
Embryonic and Fetal Development Resource Information The topic Embryonic and Fetal Development represents a specific ... Data Citation of the Topic Embryonic and Fetal Development. Copy and paste the following RDF/HTML data fragment to cite this ... Embryonic and Fetal Development,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent ... Embryonic and Fetal Development,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent ...
This video concerning the development of the Pulmonary Vasculature, is provided by the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute ( ... Morphology-The Embryonic, Foetal and Postnatal Development of the Pulmonary Vasculature. Share ... GlobalController.truncateTitle("Fgf10-positive cells represent a progenitor cell population during lung development and ... GlobalController.truncateTitle("Stimulation of vasculogenesis and leukopoiesis of embryonic stem cells by extracellular RNA", ...
Assessing the effects of low Boron diets on embryonic and fetal development in rodents using in vitro and in vivo model systems ... T1 - Assessing the effects of low Boron diets on embryonic and fetal development in rodents using in vitro and in vivo model ... Assessing the effects of low Boron diets on embryonic and fetal development in rodents using in vitro and in vivo model systems ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Assessing the effects of low Boron diets on embryonic and fetal development in ...
Here, we studied primary tissue samples to characterise human epicardium development. We reveal that the epicardium begins to ... human epicardium that may contribute to our understanding of congenital heart disease and have implications for the development ... The epicardium is essential for mammalian heart development. At present, our understanding of the timing and morphogenetic ... Characterisation of the human embryonic and foetal epicardium during heart development. Risebro CA., Vieira JM., Klotz L., ...
How is foetal tissue used in vaccine development?. Vaccine viruses are grown within foetal cell lines because they are human ... Why dont we try to use vaccines without these foetal embryonic cell lines?. The SARS CoV-2 pipeline is progressing at pandemic ... Even though foetal cells lines are used to grow vaccine viruses, the resultant vaccine does not contain these cells, fragments ... These same cell lines have continued to grow in laboratory conditions since this time and have been used in the development of ...
Fetal development: Data show that endometriosis can be present in a developing fetus, but pubertal estrogen levels are thought ... Embryonic cell growth: At times, embryonic cells lining the abdomen and pelvis develop into endometrial tissue within those ... Dietary choices have also been linked to the development of endometriosis. A study carried out in 2011 suggested that fruit ...
Chapter 20Human Development and Aging 20.1 Fertilization and Preembryonic Development 20.2 The Embryonic and Fetal Stages 20.3 ... 6.2 Bone Development and Metabolism 6.3 The Axial Skeleton 6.4 The Appendicular Skeleton 6.5 Joints Chapter 7The Muscular ... 4.6 Tissue Growth, Development, Repair, and Death Chapter 5The Integumentary System 5.1 The Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue 5.2 ...
... and in vitro embryonic development. Treatment of oocytes with curcumin during in vitro maturation (IVM) led to increased ... effect of curcumin on mouse embryonic stem cells and blastocysts and its association with defects in subsequent development. In ... and post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, curcumin induced a significant reduction in the rate of ... water containing 40 μM curcumin led to decreased oocyte maturation and in vitro fertilization as well as early embryonic ...
Embryonic spinal motor neurons are thought to depend for survival on unidentified factors secreted both by their peripheral ... Embryonic and Fetal Development * Extremities / embryology * Humans * Motor Neurons / cytology* * Nerve Growth Factors / ... Neurotrophins promote motor neuron survival and are present in embryonic limb bud Nature. 1993 May 20;363(6426):266-70. doi: ... Embryonic spinal motor neurons are thought to depend for survival on unidentified factors secreted both by their peripheral ...
However, even these advanced parthenogenones appear to die because of much reduced trophoblast and yolk sac development. ... Abnormal development of embryonic and extraembryonic cell lineages in parthenogenetic mouse embryos Dev Dyn. 1994 Sep;201(1):11 ... early in development. The spectrum of parthenogenones thus appears to reflect critical events in early development, whose ... Embryonic Development * Embryonic and Fetal Development* * Female * Genomic Imprinting * Gestational Age * Mice ...
Development of the tendon of todaro during the human embryonic and fetal periods. / Domènech‐Mateu, J. M.; Martínez‐Pozo, A.; ... Domènech‐Mateu JM, Martínez‐Pozo A, Arnó‐Palau A. Development of the tendon of todaro during the human embryonic and fetal ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Development of the tendon of todaro during the human embryonic and fetal periods ... title = "Development of the tendon of todaro during the human embryonic and fetal periods", ...
Taken together, recent insight into the regulation of mouse placental development has opened up new avenues for research that ... Given the close association between placental defects and abnormal cardiovascular and brain development, these functional nodes ... Given the close association between placental defects and abnormal cardiovascular and brain development, these functional nodes ... As such, adequate placental function is instrumental for developmental progression throughout intrauterine development. One of ...
... embryonic and fetal development; nervous system development and its wiring; the genesis of tissues and organ systems as well as ... embryonic and fetal development; nervous system development and its wiring; the genesis of tissues and organ systems as well as ... Complementing these areas is work on natural and induced Embryonic Stem Cells to understand disease processes in vitro in order ... Complementing these areas is work on Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs; patient-derived ...
... embryonic and fetal development; pediatrics; newborn diabetes mellitus; type 1; iron; embryonic and fetal development; ...
Erratum: Fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 in human embryonic and early fetal development (Matrix Biology (2002) 21 (637-646) PII: ... Fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 in human embryonic and early fetal development (Matrix Biology (2002) 21 (637-646) PII: ...
Epigenetic changes and disturbed neural development in a human embryonic stem cell-based model relating to the fetal valproate ... Epigenetic changes and disturbed neural development in a human embryonic stem cell-based model relating to the fetal valproate ... Epigenetic changes and disturbed neural development in a human embryonic stem cell-based model relating to the fetal valproate ... Epigenetic changes and disturbed neural development in a human embryonic stem cell-based model relating to the fetal valproate ...
Impact of fetal vs. maternal contributions of Bos indicus and Bos taurus genetics on embryonic and fetal development. In: ... Impact of fetal vs. maternal contributions of Bos indicus and Bos taurus genetics on embryonic and fetal development. Journal ... Impact of fetal vs. maternal contributions of Bos indicus and Bos taurus genetics on embryonic and fetal development. / Fontes ... title = "Impact of fetal vs. maternal contributions of Bos indicus and Bos taurus genetics on embryonic and fetal development", ...
produced from embryonic precursors seeded during fetal advancement. These. Supplementary Components1. produced from embryonic ... These fetal-derived macrophages keep themselves in the tissue through self-renewal, indie of bone tissue marrow hematopoiesis1 ... In some full cases, such as for example infection using the filarial nematode and in macrophages of their embryonic or mature ... Development of a High-Throughput Assay for Identifying Inhibitors Proudly powered by WordPress ...
The aim of this study was to know the embryonic and fetal development of the female rabbit genital system (Oryctolagus ... Knowing the characteristics of the embryonic and fetal development of the female rabbit genital system as well as the moment of ... Embryonic and Fetal Development Clinical aspect: Diagnosis Limits: Animals / Pregnancy Language: English Journal: Int. j. ... Sexual determination and differentiation during embryonic and fetal development of New Zealand rabbit females / Determinación y ...
Embryonic and Fetal DevelopmentEmbryonic Development • Energy Intake • Energy Metabolism • Environment • Enzymes • ... Nijhout, HF, Development and evolution of adaptive polyphenisms., Evolution and Development, vol. 5 no. 1 (January, 2003), pp. ... Davidowitz, G; DAmico, LJ; Nijhout, HF, Critical weight in the development of insect body size., Evolution and Development, ... 4) The development, genetics and evolution of complex traits. Complex traits are those whose variation is affected by many ...
Boron enhances early embryonic gene expressions and improves fetal development of rats.Nov 30, 2018. ... Additional Keywords : Dose Response, Embryonic Development, Gene Expression, Prenatal Epigenetic Programming. Problem ... Vitamin A deficiency may retard fetal lung development or influence the differentiation of critical cell lines.Nov 30, 1998. ... Sodium fluoride epigenetically impaired mouse oocyte maturation and embryonic development.Sep 01, 2014. ...
  • Reproductive timing, finding and recognizing mates, sperm and egg available at the same time must occur," and "the developing embryo and young must be cared for, often for years or decades" (Human reproduction and development, 2010, IUPUI). (
  • ICSI-generated mouse zygotes exhibit altered calcium oscillations, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-1 down-regulation, and embryo development. (
  • Comparison of embryonic development in cleavage stage mouse embryo biopsy between acid Tyrode's solution and laser assisted techniques. (
  • In the early 1960's foetal embryo fibroblast cells were first obtained from 2 elective terminations of pregnancy in order to grow vaccine viruses. (
  • The embryo definition is "the earliest stage of development from the time of the first cell division until birth. (
  • Neural development starts, the heart begins to beat and the embryo starts to move around eight weeks. (
  • Prenatal development , also called antenatal development , in humans, the process encompassing the period from the formation of an embryo , through the development of a fetus , to birth (or parturition ). (
  • In the mouse the first blood vessels are generated between embryonic days 6.5 to 9.5, a beating heart by E8.5, but a functional circulatory system is not achieved until E10, delaying the blood dispersal of HSCs into the embryo proper until E10.5 (Cumano et al. (
  • To evaluate how the inclusion of Bos indicus genotype influences early fetal development in cattle, a reciprocal embryo transfer approach was used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to generate 55 pregnancies over 2 consecutive years (n = 55). (
  • Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation. (
  • In human pregnancy, prenatal development, also known as antenatal development, is the development of the embryo following fertilization, and continued as fetal development. (
  • Given the possible substantial benefit of stem cell research on child health and development, the American Academy of Pediatrics believes that funding and oversight for human embryo and embryonic stem cell research should continue. (
  • A missed miscarriage is when embryonic death has occurred but there is not any expulsion of the embryo. (
  • Because the cells needed for research are best harvested at the blastocyst stage of development: about 5-6 days after fertilization when the embryo has developed into about 100 cells with an inner cell mass of 10-20 undifferentiated cells. (
  • Pregnancy, embryo-fetal development and nutrition: physiology around fetal programming. (
  • Prenatal development (from Latin natalis , meaning 'relating to birth') includes the development of the embryo and of the fetus during a viviparous animal's gestation . (
  • The development of the human embryo follows fertilization , and continues as fetal development . (
  • Embryonic stem cells are cultured cells that were originally collected from the inner cell mass of an embryo at the blastocyst stage of development (four days post fertilization ). (
  • At this point, the embryo floats around in the uterus until, at a later stage, it attaches to the uterine wall and gestational development continues. (
  • It is an embryo until the fetal stage of development which begins at 9 weeks after fertilization. (
  • To remove irrational emotional sentiment, let's begin by using proper nomenclature for stages of development (zygote, embryo, fetus, etc.) and wait until birth before using the terms "infant," "baby" or "child. (
  • Effects of heat stress on embryonic survival decrease as embryos advance in development. (
  • Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES. (
  • Possible role of interferon-tau on in vitro development of bovine embryos. (
  • The goal of the second study was to assess the effects of B on the in vitro development of rat postimplantation embryos. (
  • Study 4 tested the effects of low (0.04 μg B/g) and adequate (2.00 μg B/g) dietary B on the in vitro development of mouse preimplantation embryos. (
  • Previous studies have compared the general features of parthenogenetic and androgenetic development and determined the fate of uniparental cells in chimeras with normal embryos. (
  • We found that the failure of parthenogenones occurred at different times during early postimplantation development, generating a spectrum of concepti which had developed to different extents, with only a small fraction of the embryos reaching advanced somite stages. (
  • The effects and time course of a single injection of beta-bungarotoxin into E14 rat embryos were examined with an electron-microscopic study of development of the internal intercostal somatic nerve. (
  • The embryos of many animals appear similar to one another in the earliest stages of development and progress into their specialized forms in later stages. (
  • Many people throw around the idea that embryonic stem cells come from purposefully aborted embryos, but there's a lot of research to be done on this topic. (
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (
  • To Carson and others, the pronephros appeared to help early fish embryos survive, but then disappeared in development, only to reappear later. (
  • Carson used channel catfish embryos to document the development of the pronephros. (
  • however, it will consider papers that include in vitro studies where the source of the oocytes and/or development of the embryos beyond the blastocyst stage is part of the experimental design. (
  • When nonhuman mammalian development is compared with human development, the study subjects must be compared at the same developmental stage (fetal, perinatal, postnatal) When collected appropriately, data from experimental studies of nonhuman mammalian embryos elucidate important aspects of human facial development. (
  • The epicardium is essential for mammalian heart development. (
  • A key event in the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex is the generation of neuronal populations during embryonic life. (
  • Blood circulation enables regulated trafficking of HSCs from specific embryonic and extra-embryonic sites to the fetal liver, ending their developmental journey in the bone marrow (BM) where most of the definitive lifelong hematopoiesis is maintained (Orkin and Zon, 2008 ). (
  • The trophectoderm will eventually give rise to extra-embryonic structures, such as the placenta and the membranes. (
  • Its main functional component is the trophoblast, which is derived from extra-embryonic ectoderm. (
  • Special reproductive cells and structures must be constructed" and our sexual organs are specialized for this purpose in a manner that leaves the male sexual organs vulnerable to injury, and the female vulnerable throughout her pregnancy during a long gestation period (Human reproduction and development, 2010, IUPUI). (
  • Heat stress in cattle can cause early embryonic death and lower the herd pregnancy rate. (
  • There are 38 weeks of development post-conception (after fertilization of the egg cell), or 40 weeks of pregnancy (WOPs) post-menstruation (after the last period). (
  • During the first couple of months in the pregnancy calendar , your baby is in the embryonic stage. (
  • During this development stage in pregnancy, your unborn baby is especially vulnerable to the effects of teratogens or harmful environmental agents. (
  • Taken together, recent insights into the regulation of mouse placental development have opened up new avenues for research that will promote the study of human pregnancy conditions, notably those based on defects in placentation that underlie the most common pregnancy pathologies such as IUGR and pre-eclampsia. (
  • also referred to as fetal growth restriction, FGR) is a common pregnancy complication, affecting around 3-8% of pregnancies worldwide ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • In the most severe cases, IUGR can lead to embryonic lethality and miscarriage during pregnancy. (
  • Signs of this would be a loss of pregnancy symptoms and the absence of fetal heart tones found on an ultrasound . (
  • Also called an embryonic pregnancy . (
  • Join now to receive free weekly newsletters tracking your baby's development and yours throughout your pregnancy. (
  • In human pregnancy , prenatal development is also called antenatal development . (
  • In addition there are chapters on familial cancer and pregnancy-related topics such as fetal anomalies, teratogens, prenatal and pre-implantation diagnosis and non-invasive prenatal testing. (
  • It is now a fetus, the stage of development up until birth. (
  • Moreover, alcohol exposure during prenatal gestation determines a wide array of harmful effects on the developing fetus, collectively indicated as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). (
  • This book addresses the complexities of growth and maturation, structural and functional developments as well as differentiations of the human fetus. (
  • The data collected over many decades provides a deep insight into the growth and development of the human fetus, its aberrations and implications for understanding the intricacies and complexities of growth regulation up to twenty weeks of gestation. (
  • At this stage it is called a fetus as it continues growth and development. (
  • 2000 μM), reflecting a very low level of toxicity of BA on early mouse embryonic development. (
  • Transgene expression led to fetal lethality in offspring from heterozygous mating with two distinct phenotypes. (
  • ANG1 and TIE2-deficiency in mice lead to lethality at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) as a consequence of perturbed vessel organization and maturation. (
  • We used human embryonic stem cells, differentiating to neuroectodermal precursors, as amodel to investigate the modes of action of VPA. (
  • produced from embryonic precursors seeded during fetal advancement. (
  • In preliminary studies using inhibitory neuron precursors from embryonic rodent brains, we have demonstrated that this approach can relieve symptoms in animal models of Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. (
  • During preimplantation stages, differentiation occurs between precursors of embryonic and extraembryonic structures. (
  • However, Pearson and Tazawa ( 1999 ) recently compared heart rate changes during avian ontogeny and suggested that many altricial species may share similar patterns of cardiovascular maturation during early development. (
  • To review the recent data about eyelid morphogenesis, and outline a timeline for eyelid development from the very early stages during embryonic life till final maturation of the eyelid late in fetal life. (
  • The Tie receptors and their angiopoietin (Ang) ligands have important functions during embryonic vessel assembly and maturation and control adult vascular homeostasis. (
  • Ang-Tie signalling is essential during embryonic vessel assembly and maturation, and functions as a key regulator of adult vascular homeostasis. (
  • However, even these advanced parthenogenones appear to die because of much reduced trophoblast and yolk sac development. (
  • Often there is a gestational sac with or without a yolk sac, but there is an absence of fetal growth. (
  • Primitive hematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sac during early embryonic development. (
  • Hand embryology gross morphologic overview of upper limb development. (
  • Rugh also wrote a number of books, including: The Frog: Its Reproduction and Development (1951) Experimental Embryology (1962) The Dynamics of Development (1964) The Mouse: Its Reproduction and Development (1967) A Laboratory Manual of Vertebrate Embryology (1971) Rugh, Harriette (Sheldon) (1982). (
  • These form upon separation of totipotent cells of the zygote during its development into a blastocyst. (
  • Embryonic spinal motor neurons are thought to depend for survival on unidentified factors secreted both by their peripheral targets and by cells within the central nervous system. (
  • Even though foetal cells lines are used to grow vaccine viruses, the resultant vaccine does not contain these cells, fragments of these cells, or any DNA recognisable as human. (
  • During the manufacturing process, the foetal cells often burst when the vaccine virus grows, and the resulting vaccine virus is purified before being used in the final vaccine product. (
  • Animal studies on inner ear formation provide useful information on which molecular pathways are needed to regulate hair cells development and their innervation and thus may be helpful for treating inner ear diseases. (
  • To begin to define functional information for a small portion of chromosome 11 , deficiencies, duplications, and inversions were constructed in embryonic stem cells with sizes ranging from 1 Mb to 22 cM. (
  • therefore, somatic cells can usually tolerate genetic changes that would be very deleterious to an embryonic cell. (
  • Hematopoiesis is sustained by a renewable pool of stem cells that interacts with distinct, sequential and specific microenvironments during normal development and throughout adult life. (
  • Complementing these areas is work on natural and induced Embryonic Stem Cells to understand disease processes in vitro in order to develop cell replacement strategies for therapy. (
  • peritoneal macrophages of embryonic origins19, while shot of IL-4c and thioglycollate (Thio) induces the deposition of F480intCD206+PD-L2+MHCII+ cells, which are based on Ly6Chi inflammatory bloodstream monocytes19. (
  • Research and emerging treatments with stem cells today can be traced to a startling discovery 10 years ago when Shinya Yamanaka , MD, PhD, and his graduate student Kazutoshi Takahashi , PhD, reported a way to reprogram adult mouse cells and coax them back to their embryonic state - pluripotent stem cells. (
  • The National Institutes of Health defines induced pluripotent stem cells as somatic (adult) cells reprogrammed to enter an embryonic stem cell-like state by being forced to express factors important for maintaining the "stemness" of embryonic stem cells. (
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells have given us a window into human development unlike anything we had before," Kriegstein said. (
  • Despite differences in public opinion on this issue, a large majority of the public supports continued research using embryonic stem cells. (
  • In the past 10 years, significant progress has been made in basic and translational research using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), with specific implications for pediatric diseases such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, 1 bone marrow failure syndromes, 2 leukemia, 3 and congenital heart disease. (
  • 4 Although the fundamental principle of stem cell research remains the same (ie, the development of undifferentiated cells into committed cell lineages for the purpose of tissue renewal and repair), the science has evolved to encompass many new applications, including cell-based therapies 5 and drug screening. (
  • Stem cells drive embryonic and fetal development. (
  • Here, we review the main studies describing the effects of alcohol on different types of progenitor/stem cells including neuronal, hepatic, intestinal and adventitial progenitor cells, bone-marrow-derived stromal cell, dental pulp, embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells, and tumor-initiating cells. (
  • Why the focus on embryonic stem cells? (
  • Embryonic stem cells are what we call pluripotent which means they can be programmed to become any cell except egg or sperm. (
  • Because there is allegedly more potential with embryonic stem cells, especially looking at the natural state of adult vs. embryonic. (
  • In recent years the knowledge regarding glycosphingolipids in human embryonic stem cells has been extended by biochemical studies, which is the focus of this review. (
  • What are embryonic stem cells, and why has this topic become an important social and political issue? (
  • Until now, she's been in the embryonic stage of development, which is when cells form to become her brain and nervous system, her limbs, and all her major organs. (
  • The strategy is to use human embryonic stem cells to produce inhibitory nerve cells for transplantation and therapeutic modulation of neural circuits, an approach that may have widespread clinical application. (
  • The object of this proposal is to develop methods for producing unlimited numbers of exactly the right type of inhibitory nerve cell using human embryonic stem (ES) cells as the starting material. (
  • Finally, we are also testing whether artificially expressing key proteins that regulate gene expression and are required for inhibitory neuron production during brain development can more efficiently drive a high percentage of ES cells to differentiate into the desired cell type. (
  • This past year, we have made significant strides toward the production of inhibitory nerve cells and precursor (MGE) cells from human embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (
  • It is well believed that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs [ 1 ]) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs [ 2 ]) are of great potential use for tissue substitutes (for example, blood cells) and to cure various congenital disorders. (
  • In vitro induction of undifferentiated hESC to functionally mature blood cells may mimic the early hematopoietic development during human embryonic and fetal stages. (
  • So far until now, in vitro hESC-derived blood cells possess phenotypical maturity and partial functions while still more or less share embryonic/fetal characteristics, differing greatly from their adult counterparts. (
  • Layer I, also called the plexiform layer because of the richness in fibers and the paucity of cells, was initially described in the human fetal cerebrum ( Magini, 1888 ). (
  • In mammals, germ cells become segregated from non-germ cells (called somatic cells) during embryonic development and migrate to the gonads, where they form sperm or eggs. (
  • But in the recent research, Julang Li and colleagues have shown even post-embryonic somatic stem cells can also give rise to egg-like cells in vitro. (
  • The main objective of the production of these cells will be the facilitation of tissue oxygenation to support rapid embryonic growth. (
  • This primitive phase is transitory and the cells that are produced express embryonic globins, aren't pluripotent, and aren't capable of self-renewal. (
  • The formation of these cells occurs in the AGM later in development. (
  • Stem cells are subclassified as embryonic stem cells, embryonic germ cells, or adult stem cells. (
  • Embryonic germ cells are derived from the fetal gonads that arise later in fetal development. (
  • Approaching the problem from another direction, researchers hypothesized that embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells, under the right conditions, might be induced in vitro to produce a broad range of different tissues that could be utilized for transplantation. (
  • In the 1980s, studies on monkeys and rats showed that when fetal brain tissue rich in stem cells was implanted into the brains of diseased animals, there was a regeneration of functional brain cells and a reduction or elimination the symptoms of the disease . (
  • A better solution would be to isolate the embryonic stem cells, induce these cells to differentiate, and generate a population of dopamine producing cells. (
  • However, the mechanisms that trigger differentiation of embryonic stem cells into various specialized tissue types are not yet well understood, so it will require additional research before transplantable tissues derived from embryonic stem cells will be a reality. (
  • In addition to possible applications in transplantation, embryonic stem cells may be useful tools in other clinical disciplines. (
  • These cells represent a stage of development about which relatively little is known. (
  • It has also been suggested that embryonic stem cells might be used in gene therapy . (
  • If a population of embryonic stem cells containing a known, functional gene can be engineered, these cells might function as vectors to transfer the gene into target tissues. (
  • During early stages of prenatal development, the morphology of C-R cells in different species (lizard, mouse, rat, cat, monkey and human) are similar and could be described as mono- or bipolar horizontally oriented cells localized in close vicinity to the pial surface of the cortex. (
  • Adult cells altered to have properties of embryonic stem cells (induced pluripotent stem cells). (
  • By altering the genes in the adult cells, researchers can reprogram the cells to act similarly to embryonic stem cells. (
  • This new technique may help researchers avoid the controversies that come with embryonic stem cells, and prevent immune system rejection of the new stem cells. (
  • Keeping stem cells pluripotent ( While the ability of human embryonic. (
  • While the ability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to become any type of mature cell, from neuron to heart to skin and bone, is indisputably crucial to human development, no less important is the mechanism needed to maintain hESCs in their pluripotent state until such change is required. (
  • If so, said Willert, disrupting FZD7 function in cancer cells is likely to interfere with their development and growth just as it does in hESCs. (
  • In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. (
  • Programmed cell death is a potentially important mechanism that could alter the numbers and types of developing cortical cells during these early embryonic phases. (
  • While programmed cell death has been documented in other parts of the embryonic central nervous system, its operation has not been previously reported in the embryonic cortex because of the lack of cell death markers and the difficulty in following the entire population of cortical cells. (
  • Here, we have investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of dying cells in the embryonic cortex using an in situ endlabelling technique called 'ISEL+' that identifies fragmented nuclear DNA in dying cells with increased sensitivity. (
  • Dying cells were rare at embryonic day 10, but by embryonic day 14, 70% of cortical cells were found to be dying. (
  • This number declined to 50% by embryonic day 18, and few dying cells were observed in the adult cerebral cortex. (
  • Moreover, embryonic cell death could be an important factor enabling the selection of appropriate cortical cells before they complete their differentiation in postnatal life. (
  • ES cell-tetraploid (ES) mice are completely derived from embryonic stem cells and can be obtained at high efficiency upon injection of hybrid ES cells into tetraploid blastocysts. (
  • The standard protocol to derive mouse mutants currently requires the production of germ line chimeras from heterozygous targeted embryonic stem (ES) cells, followed by at least two breeding steps to obtain homozygous mutants ( 2 ). (
  • Recently, this technology was significantly improved through the discovery that ES cell lines derived from hybrid mouse strains support the development of viable ES mice at a 50-fold higher rate than inbred ES cells ( 4 ). (
  • The days and weeks following conception form a critical window within which the nutritional environment of the womb sets the tempo for fetal growth. (
  • Throughout this chapter, we will express embryonic and fetal ages in terms of weeks from fertilization, commonly called conception. (
  • This is the next crucial, main stage of fetal development, which comes about when the conception stage is successfully navigated. (
  • during this time the main site of fetal hematopoiesis are liver and the spleen. (
  • They act as a passageway for sperm to reach the oviduct and are the site of fetal development. (
  • Here, we studied primary tissue samples to characterise human epicardium development. (
  • In this hypothesis, the apparent tissue specific defects observed in parthenogenones arise as a consequence of the functional importance of certain tissues (like the trophoblast) early in development. (
  • How is foetal tissue used in vaccine development? (
  • The zebrafish AGM HSCs migrate to the caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT) that mirrors the functions of both fetal liver and placenta in mammals, providing transient niche to support definitive HSC expansion and differentiation. (
  • These fetal-derived macrophages keep themselves in the tissue through self-renewal, indie of bone tissue marrow hematopoiesis1. (
  • In some full cases, such as for example infection using the filarial nematode and in macrophages of their embryonic or mature bone tissue marrow origin19 irrespective. (
  • The tissue then remains embryonic. (
  • Provides foundations of human embryological development, with emphasis on tissue origin and its differentiation to various support tissues and organ systems. (
  • Initially most people, including scientists saw more value in embryonic stem cell research over adult. (
  • In fetal mice and rats, infrequent small canaliculi are present, but do not attain an adult appearance until several days postpartum ( 17 ). (
  • Knowing the characteristics of the embryonic and fetal development of the female rabbit genital system as well as the moment of sexual differentiation make it possible to establish bases for future research that address the physiology and pathology of these organs. (
  • Fred Nijhout is broadly interested in developmental physiology and in the interactions between development and evolution. (
  • Maternal-Fetal Thyroid Physiology: What are the steps involved in thyroid embryonic development? (
  • Maternal-Placental-Fetal Physiology - What Components Affecting Fetal Thyroid Development Cross the Placenta? (
  • The late phenotype fetuses were aborted by day 13.5 of development and displayed a weak heartbeat, defects of the adherence junctions in the heart with detachment of myofilaments and abnormal staining for the adherence junction component cadherin. (
  • Abnormal fetal development may result in abortion or in a calf that dies soon after birth. (
  • In all parthenogenones differentiation and proliferation of the trophectoderm and primitive endoderm lineages (both extraembryonic) was abnormal, and in all, even the best-developed parthenogenones, we observed similar deficiencies in the embryonic lineages, especially the mesoderm. (
  • We propose, therefore, that the failure of parthenogenones to develop to term is due to abnormal regulation of differentiation and proliferation in both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages. (
  • Given the close association between placental defects and abnormal cardiovascular and brain development, these functional nodes may also shed light onto the etiology of birth defects that co-occur with placental malformations. (
  • The achievement opened up a practical way - and in some critical cases, the only way - to directly study human "diseases in a dish," and track the early stages of both healthy and abnormal development. (
  • Close observation in the laboratory could provide a better understanding of normal development versus abnormal development and what triggers fetal demise. (
  • This fetal period is described both topically (by organ) and chronologically (by time) with major occurrences being listed by gestational age. (
  • Following fertilization the embryonic stage of development continues until the end of the 10th week ( gestational age ) (8th week fertilization age). (
  • Prenatal development starts with fertilization the first stage in embryogenesis which continues in fetal development until birth. (
  • Early development of hematopoietic system can be well defined by a series of waves from primitive hematopoiesis (early embryogenesis) to definitive ones (late fetal stages). (
  • But since the patient is actually a wall hiding any direct visual observation of the baby, both she and the expectant father rely on the obstetrician to keep them abreast of obstetrical "milestones," fertilization, implantation, embryonic development, the first, second, and third trimesters. (
  • It's a phenomenon referred to as embryonic diapause or delayed implantation. (
  • Atm and c-Abl cooperate in the response to genotoxic stress during nervous system development . (
  • Despite the presence of regulatory components from both arms of the autonomic nervous system, at day 12 [60% of the incubation period (60%I)] embryonic white leghorn chickens ( Gallus gallus ) possess only a tonic adrenergic stimulation of the cardiovascular system ( Crossley and Altimiras, 2000 ). (
  • 1970 ) Embryonic vertebrate central nervous system: revised terminology. (
  • Diagnosis is based on identification of the fungus through culture of the fetal or placental tissues, histologic examination of these tissues, or direct examination of cotyledons after clearing with potassium hydroxide solution. (
  • Accordingly, recent studies have revealed the possible relevance of alcohol exposure in impairing stem-cell properties, consequently affecting organ development and injury response in different tissues. (
  • Craniofacial development is an extraordinarily complex process that requires the orchestrated integration of multiple specialized tissues, such as the surface ectoderm, neural crest, mesoderm, and pharyngeal endoderm, in order to generate the central and peripheral nervous systems, axial skeleton, musculature, and connective tissues of the head and face. (
  • Formation during organogenesis (3rd-8th week of development) of the embryonic period (2nd-8th week of development), whereby the organ can completely or partially fail, or exhibit structural defects due to genetic or external factors (teratogens). (
  • During the embryonic development of the organs, Gr. organogenesis (3rd - 8th week of development) , many malformations can arise from many causes. (
  • 4) The development, genetics and evolution of complex traits. (
  • The authors extensively review major studies detailing human embryologic and fetal eyelid morphogenesis. (
  • 10 Traditionally created embryonic stem cell lines are needed to serve as a comparison with the newly developed lines to establish whether they are indeed equivalent to traditionally developed lines. (
  • Embryonic stem cell lines could aid in testing the effect of new drugs and investigating appropriate drug dosages, eliminating the need for human subjects. (
  • This discussion will be divided into three areas: (1) Anatomy of the reproductive tract, (2) estrous cycle, estrus and ovulation, and (3) embryonic and fetal development. (
  • At the early stages of embryonic development, the vertebrate face has a common plan. (
  • 1985 ) Changes in the numbers of optic nerve fibers during late prenatal and postnatal development in the albino rat. (
  • What maternal factors can affect fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis development by crossing the placenta? (
  • Table I shows the components affecting fetal thyroid development that cross the placenta. (
  • The placenta is a transient organ that is necessary for proper fetal development. (
  • Understanding the development of the structures of the face also requires knowledge of the pharyngeal or branchial arches. (
  • Embryonic somatic nerve destruction with beta-bungarotoxin. (
  • In this review, the historical work in domestic species leading up to the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), along with the practical applications of this technology, will be discussed. (
  • The development again gains acceleration during puberty when the female reproductive organs are exposed to female hormones like estrogen and there is appearance of the secondary sexual characters. (
  • Human Fetal Growth and Development - First and Second Trimesters is a pioneering work, stimulating further allied research in this area, and will be of interest to gynecologists, pediatricians, obstetricians, neonatologists, endocrinologists, reproductive and molecular biologists, and all students of medicine at all levels. (
  • Bigger doses cause more damage and the time of exposure is also a factor in the baby's development or if the baby will survive past the first trimester. (
  • With your baby's embryonic tail now gone (Mukhopadhyay et al 2012) , he's starting to look a bit more human. (
  • 6 , 7 Although these new applications are intriguing, they remain in the early stages of development, and additional research is needed to make the transition from bench to therapeutics. (
  • The very early stages of embryonic development are the same in all mammals . (
  • abstract = "This study covers the development of Todaro's tendon during human embryonic and fetal periods. (
  • Accuracy in estimating fetal urinary bladder volume using a modified ultrasound technique. (
  • OBJECTIVE: Fetal urine production at different gestational ages has been evaluated using ultrasound in several previous studies. (
  • The fetal urinary bladder was examined with ultrasound three times within 1 min and documented on videotape. (
  • The embryonic stage ends at around eight or nine weeks and if you were to get an ultrasound now, you'll notice your unborn child is starting to look like a human more and more each day. (
  • Your healthcare provider may arrange for an ultrasound around eight weeks, the end of the embryonic period. (
  • Umwana atangira gukura rwose (fetal period begins). (
  • The study confirms that sensory and motor neurons are much less able to survive axon degeneration on E14 than after the major period of normal cell death (which is nearly over by E18), and that the maintenance and continued development of the perineurium during E14-E16 depends on the presence of peripheral nerve axons. (
  • The next stage of development, from month 2 until birth , is the foetal period of development . (
  • The next period is that of fetal development where many organs become fully developed. (
  • The embryonic period in humans begins at fertilization (penetration of the egg by the sperm) and continues until the end of the 10th week of gestation (8th week by embryonic age). (
  • Week 5 is the start of the "embryonic period. (
  • During this period, embryonic emus exhibit a slight fall in resting heart rate (from 171 beats min -1 to 154 beats min -1 ) and a doubling of mean arterial pressure (from 1.2 kPa to 2.6 kPa). (
  • By the end of the embryonic period, all of the organ systems are structured in rudimentary form, although the organs themselves are either nonfunctional or only semi-functional. (
  • While you might think of child development as something that begins during infancy, the prenatal period is also considered an important part of the developmental process. (
  • Fetal period: ninth week to birth. (
  • Carnegie stage 23: end of embryonic period. (
  • During the postnatal period, the spleen is becomes a frequent site of EMH whereas, during the embryonic stages of hematopoiesis, it is only a minor factor. (
  • The period encompassing murine cerebral cortical neurogenesis was examined, from embryonic days 10 through 18. (
  • Cardiovascular responses (change in heart rate and arterial pressure) to graded levels of hypoxia were used as indicators of the embryonic emus' ability to respond to the environment as well as to determine the timing of onset of a functional chemoreflex. (
  • In contrast to embryonic murine specimens, a decline in BDNF expression from the apical to the basal turn of the cochlea could not be observed. (
  • Emphasis on recent developments in the application of biological knowledge that benefit humans and the environment. (
  • A fertilized egg implants into the uterine wall, but fetal development never begins. (
  • Although low dietary B significantly lowered maternal blood, liver, and bone B concentrations, it had no marked effects on fetal growth or development. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: the model described was efficient and caused symmetric fetal IUGR with decreased size of most organs, especially the liver, and changes in glycogen stores. (
  • Bile acid synthesis, turnover, and secretion are sparse in fetal liver, and rapidly increase postnatally ( 18 , 19 ), concomitant with hepatocyte polarization and development of a branched canalicular network. (
  • During fetal development, hematopoiesis occurs mainly in the fetal liver and in the spleen followed by localization to the bone marrow. (
  • Later, they migrate to the fetal liver where the majority of physiologic EMH takes place. (
  • ANG2 is dispensable for embryonic development, but mice that overexpress ANG2 have essentially the same phenotypes as ANG1- and TIE2-deficient mice. (
  • The first 2 weeks of prenatal development are referred to as the pre-embryonic stage. (
  • Prenatal development starts with fertilization , in the germinal stage of embryonic development, and continues in fetal development until birth . (
  • Different terms are used to describe prenatal development , meaning development before birth . (
  • ONE of the most common causes of human developmental disorders and fetal loss are chromosomal abnormalities such as inversions, duplications, deficiencies, translocations, and nondisjunction. (
  • In the event of a symmetrical double malformation , both foetuses have a complete set of organs, whereas with an asymmetrical malformation, the uneven allocation leads to allocation to the more developed autosite with the less developed parasite, the development of which can be restricted to a tumor-like attachment in the form of a teratoma at the lowest level. (