The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
A branch of embryology for the study of congenital malformations and developmental abnormalities.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Abnormal passage between the ESOPHAGUS and the TRACHEA, acquired or congenital, often associated with ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poland" is not a medical term or concept; it is a country located in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those!
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.

Spilling the beans on java 3D: a tool for the virtual anatomist. (1/116)

The computing world has just provided the anatomist with another tool: Java 3D, within the Java 2 platform. On December 9, 1998, Sun Microsystems released Java 2. Java 3D classes are now included in the jar (Java Archive) archives of the extensions directory of Java 2. Java 3D is also a part of the Java Media Suite of APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). But what is Java? How does Java 3D work? How do you view Java 3D objects? A brief introduction to the concepts of Java and object-oriented programming is provided. Also, there is a short description of the tools of Java 3D and of the Java 3D viewer. Thus, the virtual anatomist has another set of computer tools to use for modeling various aspects of anatomy, such as embryological development. Also, the virtual anatomist will be able to assist the surgeon with virtual surgery using the tools found in Java 3D. Java 3D will be able to fulfill gaps, such as the lack of platform independence, interactivity, and manipulability of 3D images, currently existing in many anatomical computer-aided learning programs.  (+info)

Zebrafish tbx-c functions during formation of midline structures. (2/116)

Several genes containing the conserved T-box region in invertebrates and vertebrates have been reported recently. Here, we describe three novel members of the T-box gene family in zebrafish. One of these genes, tbx-c, is studied in detail. It is expressed in the axial mesoderm, notably, in the notochordal precursor cells immediately before formation of the notochord and in the chordoneural hinge of the tail bud, after the notochord is formed. In addition, its expression is detected in the ventral forebrain, sensory neurons, fin buds and excretory system. The expression pattern of tbx-c differs from that of the other two related genes, tbx-a and tbx-b. The developmental role of tbx-c has been analysed by overexpression of the full-length tbx-c mRNA and a truncated form of tbx-c mRNA, which encodes the dominant-negative Tbx-c. Overexpression of tbx-c causes expansion of the midline mesoderm and formation of ectopic midline structures at the expense of lateral mesodermal cells. In dominant-negative experiments, the midline mesoderm is reduced with the expansion of lateral mesoderm to the midline. These results suggest that tbx-c plays a role in formation of the midline mesoderm, particularly, the notochord. Moreover, modulation of tbx-c activity alters the development of primary motor neurons. Results of in vitro analysis in zebrafish animal caps suggest that tbx-c acts downstream of early mesodermal inducers (activin and ntl) and reveal an autoregulatory feedback loop between ntl and tbx-c. These data and analysis of midline (ntl-/- and flh-/-) and lateral mesoderm (spt-/-) mutants suggest that tbx-c may function during formation of the notochord.  (+info)

Double-stranded RNA injection produces null phenotypes in zebrafish. (3/116)

Zebrafish is a simple vertebrate that has many attributes that make it ideal for the study of developmental genetics. One feature that has been lacking in this model system is the ability to disable specifically targeted genes. Recently, double-stranded RNA has been used to silence gene expression in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We have found that expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a microinjected plasmid vector can be suppressed in zebrafish embryos by the coinjection of a double-stranded RNA that is specifically targeted to GFP. To determine that double-stranded RNA can attenuate endogenous gene expression, single-cell zebrafish embryos were injected with double-stranded RNA specifically targeted to Zf-T and Pax6.1. We found that microinjection of double-stranded Zf-T RNA resulted in a high incidence of a phenotype similar to that of ntl. Furthermore, Zf-T gene expression could not be detected by in situ hybridization and the message was decreased by 75% by semiquantitative RT-PCR in 12-h embryos that had been injected with the double-stranded RNA. Expression of the zebrafish genes sonic hedgehog and floating head was altered in the embryos microinjected with the Zf-T double-stranded RNA in a manner that is remarkably similar to the zebrafish no-tail mutant. Microinjection of double-stranded RNA targeted to Pax6.1 was associated with depressed expression of Pax6. 1 and resulted in absent or greatly reduced eye and forebrain development, similar to the phenotype seen in mouse mutants. Simultaneous injection of Pax6.1 and Zf-T resulted in embryos lacking notochords, eyes, and brain structures.  (+info)

A treasure house of comparative embryology. (4/116)

The Embryo Collection of the Hubrecht Laboratory is a treasure house of comparative embryology. It is the largest and most important collection of its kind in the world, and consists of thousands of vertebrate embryos stored in alcohol, or prepared as histological sections. Many elusive species are included in the collection, some represented by complete developmental series. The accompanying archives offer a remarkable insight into the methods used to collect embryos form wild animals, as well as the motives behind the founders of the collection. Carefully maintained, documented and catalogued, the collection is available for study by all interested scientists. We argue that this collection is one of the greatest biodiversity resources in existence.  (+info)

Pieter Nieuwkoop's contributions to the understanding of meso-endoderm induction and neural induction in chordate development. (5/116)

Pieter Nieuwkoop, who died September 18, 1996, at age 79 in Utrecht, The Netherlands, is remembered by developmental biologists for his numerous research contributions and integrative hypotheses over the past 50 years, especially in the areas of neural induction, meso-endoderm induction, and germ cell induction in chordates. Most of his experimentation was done on the embryos of amphibia, the preferred vertebrate embryo of the early years of the 20th century. One of his last publications contains a comparison of the experimental advantages and disadvantages of anuran and urodele amphibians (Nieuwkoop, 1996). The significance of his findings and interpretations for developmental biology can be estimated from the fact that researchers of many laboratories worldwide continue to work on the phenomena he first described and to extend the hypotheses he first formulated. The aim of this article is to review Nieuwkoop's main contributions and to cite the recent extensions by others.  (+info)

Embracing complexity: organicism for the 21st century. (6/116)

Organicism (materialistic holism) has provided the philosophical underpinnings for embryology since the time of Kant. It had influenced the founders of developmental mechanics, and the importance of organicism to embryology was explicitly recognized by such figures as O. Hertwig, H. Spemann, R. Harrison, A. M. Dalq, J. Needham, and C. H. Waddington. Many of the principles of organicism remain in contemporary developmental biology, but they are rarely defined as such. A combination of genetic reductionism and the adoption of holism by unscientific communities has led to the devaluation of organicism as a fruitful heuristic for research. This essay attempts to define organicism, provide a brief history of its importance to experimental embryology, outline some sociologically based reasons for its decline, and document its value in contemporary developmental biology. Based on principles or organicism, developmental biology should become a science of emerging complexity. However, this does mean that some of us will have to learn calculus.  (+info)

Introducing the Spemann-Mangold organizer: experiments and insights that generated a key concept in developmental biology. (7/116)

The "organizer paper", published by Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold in 1924, initiated a new epoch in developmental biology. Also it marked the climax of Spemann's life-long research which began at the end of the nineteenth century. This introduction retraces some of the steps by which Spemann arrived at the organizer concept: The problem of amphibian lens induction including the so-called lens controversy, the early constriction experiments creating double headed malformations, and the homeo- and heteroplastic transplantations during gastrula stages of the newt. Furthermore this paper will--based on historical documents--repudiate some objections raised to the contribution of Spemann and Hilde Mangold to the discovery and interpretation of the organizer effect.  (+info)

Evolution of the organizer and the chordate body plan. (8/116)

The discovery of the organizer by Spemann and Mangold in 1924 raised two kinds of questions: those about the means of patterning the chordate body axis and those about the mechanisms of cell determination by induction. Some researchers, stressing the second, have suggested over the years that the organizer is poorly named and doesn't really organize because inducers act permissively, because they are not unique to the organizer, and because multipotent responsive cells develop complex local differentiations under artificial conditions. Furthermore, with the discovery of meso-endoderm induction in 1969, the possibility arose that this earlier induction generates as much organization as, or more than, does the organizer itself. Evidence is summarized in this article that the organizer does fulfill its title with regard to pattern formation: it adds greatly to embryonic organization by providing information about time, place, scale, and orientation for development by nearby members of the large multipotent competence groups surrounding the organizer. Embryos having smaller or larger organizers due to experimental intervention develop defective axial organization. Without an organizer the embryo develops no body axis and none of the four chordate characters: the notochord, gill slits, dorsal hollow nerve chord, and post-anal tail. For normal axis formation, the organizer's tripartite organization is needed. Each part differs in inducers, morphogenesis, and self-differentiation. The organizer is a trait of development of all members of the chordate phylum. In comparison to hemichordates, which constitute a phylum with some similarities to chordates, the chordamesoderm part is unique to the chordate organizer (the trunk-tail organizer). Its convergent extension displaces the gastrula posterior pole from alignment with the animal-vegetal axis and generates a new anteroposterior axis orthogonal to this old one. Once it has extended to full length, its signaling modifies the dorsoventral dimension. This addition to the organizer is seen as a major event in chordate evolution, bringing body organization beyond that achieved by oocyte organization and meso-endoderm induction in other groups.  (+info)

Embryology is the branch of biology that deals with the formation, growth, and development of an embryo. It is a scientific study that focuses on the structural and functional changes that occur during the development of a fertilized egg or zygote into a mature organism. Embryologists study the various stages of embryonic development, including gametogenesis (the formation of sperm and eggs), fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, neurulation, and organogenesis. They also investigate the genetic and environmental factors that influence embryonic development and may use this information to understand and prevent birth defects and other developmental abnormalities.

Histology is the study of the microscopic structure of tissues. It involves the examination of tissues at the level of individual cells and their organization into functional units. This field uses various staining techniques to visualize different cellular components, allowing for the identification and analysis of specific cell types, tissue architecture, and pathological changes. Histology is a fundamental discipline in anatomy, physiology, and pathology, providing essential information for understanding normal tissue function and disease processes.

Developmental biology is a branch of biological research that studies the processes by which organisms grow and develop from fertilized eggs (zygotes) to adults. This field of study encompasses understanding the genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and molecular mechanisms that guide the developmental trajectory of an organism, including cellular differentiation, pattern formation, morphogenesis, and growth control.

Developmental biology has important implications for understanding congenital disorders, regenerative medicine, and evolutionary biology. Researchers in this field use a variety of model organisms, such as fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), zebrafish (Danio rerio), mice (Mus musculus), and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), to investigate the fundamental principles that govern developmental processes. These insights can then be applied to understanding human development and disease.

Teratology is the study of abnormalities of growth and development, especially those that are caused by exogenous agents during pregnancy such as drugs, chemicals, infections, or radiation. These abnormalities may result in structural malformations, functional deficits, or behavioral disorders in the developing fetus. The term "teratology" is derived from the Greek word "teras," which means monster or marvel, and "logos," which means study. In medical contexts, teratology often refers to the production of monstrous or malformed offspring.

"History, 19th Century" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the historical events, developments, and figures related to the 1800s in various fields, including politics, culture, science, and technology. However, if you are looking for medical advancements during the 19th century, here's a brief overview:

The 19th century was a period of significant progress in medicine, with numerous discoveries and innovations that shaped modern medical practices. Some notable developments include:

1. Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine (1796): Although not strictly within the 19th century, Jenner's discovery laid the foundation for vaccination as a preventive measure against infectious diseases.
2. Germ theory of disease: The work of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and others established that many diseases were caused by microorganisms, leading to the development of antiseptic practices and vaccines.
3. Anesthesia: In 1842, Crawford Long first used ether as an anesthetic during surgery, followed by the introduction of chloroform in 1847 by James Simpson.
4. Antisepsis and asepsis: Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic practices in surgery, significantly reducing postoperative infections. Later, the concept of asepsis (sterilization) was developed to prevent contamination during surgical procedures.
5. Microbiology: The development of techniques for culturing and staining bacteria allowed for better understanding and identification of pathogens.
6. Physiology: Claude Bernard's work on the regulation of internal body functions, or homeostasis, contributed significantly to our understanding of human physiology.
7. Neurology: Jean-Martin Charcot made significant contributions to the study of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
8. Psychiatry: Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a new approach to understanding mental illnesses.
9. Public health: The 19th century saw the establishment of public health organizations and initiatives aimed at improving sanitation, water quality, and vaccination programs.
10. Medical education reforms: The Flexner Report in 1910 led to significant improvements in medical education standards and practices.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "history" in medical terms usually refers to the detailed account of a patient's symptoms, illnesses, and treatments received, which is used by healthcare professionals to understand their health status and provide appropriate care. It is not typically associated with a specific century like the 18th century.

If you are asking for information about the medical practices or significant developments in the field of medicine during the 18th century, I would be happy to provide some insight into that! The 18th century was a time of great advancement and change in the medical field, with many notable discoveries and innovations. Some examples include:

* The development of smallpox vaccination by Edward Jenner in 1796
* The discovery of oxygen by Joseph Priestley in 1774
* The invention of the thermometer by Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1714
* The publication of "An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae" by Edward Jenner in 1798, which helped to establish the concept of vaccination
* The founding of the Royal Society of Medicine in London in 1773
* The development of new surgical techniques and instruments, such as the use of tourniquets and catgut sutures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

Dental laboratories are specialized facilities where dental technicians create and manufacture various dental restorations and appliances based on the specific measurements, models, and instructions provided by dentists. These custom-made dental products are designed to restore or replace damaged, missing, or decayed teeth, improve oral function, and enhance the overall appearance of a patient's smile.

Some common dental restorations and appliances produced in dental laboratories include:

1. Dental crowns: Artificial caps that cover and protect damaged or weakened teeth, often made from ceramics, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of materials.
2. Dental bridges: Fixed or removable appliances used to replace one or more missing teeth by connecting artificial teeth (pontics) to adjacent natural teeth or dental implants.
3. Dentures: Removable prosthetic devices that replace all or most of the upper and/or lower teeth, providing improved chewing function, speech clarity, and aesthetics.
4. Orthodontic appliances: Devices used to correct malocclusions (improper bites) and misaligned teeth, such as traditional braces, clear aligners, palatal expanders, and retainers.
5. Custom dental implant components: Specialized parts designed for specific implant systems, which are used in conjunction with dental implants to replace missing teeth permanently.
6. Night guards and occlusal splints: Protective devices worn during sleep to prevent or manage bruxism (teeth grinding) and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD).
7. Anti-snoring devices: Mandibular advancement devices that help reduce snoring by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, preventing airway obstruction during sleep.
8. Dental whitening trays: Custom-fitted trays used to hold bleaching gel against tooth surfaces for professional teeth whitening treatments.
9. Specialty restorations: Including aesthetic veneers, inlays, onlays, and other customized dental solutions designed to meet specific patient needs.

Dental laboratories may be standalone facilities or part of a larger dental practice. They are typically staffed by skilled technicians who specialize in various aspects of dental technology, such as ceramics, orthodontics, implantology, and prosthodontics. Collaboration between dentists, dental specialists, and laboratory technicians ensures the highest quality results for patients undergoing restorative or cosmetic dental treatments.

Anatomy is the branch of biology that deals with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. In medicine, anatomy is the detailed study of the structures of the human body and its organs. It can be divided into several subfields, including:

1. Gross anatomy: Also known as macroscopic anatomy, this is the study of the larger structures of the body, such as the organs and organ systems, using techniques such as dissection and observation.
2. Histology: This is the study of tissues at the microscopic level, including their structure, composition, and function.
3. Embryology: This is the study of the development of the embryo and fetus from conception to birth.
4. Neuroanatomy: This is the study of the structure and organization of the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord.
5. Comparative anatomy: This is the study of the structures of different species and how they have evolved over time.

Anatomy is a fundamental subject in medical education, as it provides the basis for understanding the function of the human body and the underlying causes of disease.

Preimplantation Diagnosis (PID) is a genetic testing procedure performed on embryos created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), before they are implanted in the uterus. The purpose of PID is to identify genetic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities in the embryos, allowing only those free of such issues to be transferred to the uterus, thereby reducing the risk of passing on genetic diseases to offspring. It involves biopsying one or more cells from an embryo and analyzing its DNA for specific genetic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities. PID is often recommended for couples with a known history of genetic disorders or those who have experienced multiple miscarriages or failed IVF cycles.

Genetics is the scientific study of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms. It involves the analysis of how traits are passed from parents to offspring, the function of genes, and the way genetic information is transmitted and expressed within an organism's biological system. Genetics encompasses various subfields, including molecular genetics, population genetics, quantitative genetics, and genomics, which investigate gene structure, function, distribution, and evolution in different organisms. The knowledge gained from genetics research has significant implications for understanding human health and disease, as well as for developing medical treatments and interventions based on genetic information.

Comparative anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that deals with the study and comparison of the structures and functions of different species, including humans. It involves the examination of similarities and differences in the anatomy of various organisms to understand their evolutionary relationships and adaptations. This field helps scientists to understand the development and function of body structures, as well as the evolutionary history of different species. By comparing and contrasting the anatomy of different organisms, researchers can gain insights into the functions and workings of various bodily systems and how they have evolved over time.

Reproductive techniques refer to various methods and procedures used to assist individuals or couples in achieving pregnancy, carrying a pregnancy to term, or preserving fertility. These techniques can be broadly categorized into assisted reproductive technology (ART) and fertility preservation.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes procedures such as:

1. In vitro fertilization (IVF): A process where an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body in a laboratory dish, and then the resulting embryo is transferred to a woman's uterus.
2. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A procedure where a single sperm is directly injected into an egg to facilitate fertilization.
3. Embryo culture and cryopreservation: The process of growing embryos in a laboratory for a few days before freezing them for later use.
4. Donor gametes: Using eggs, sperm, or embryos from a known or anonymous donor to achieve pregnancy.
5. Gestational surrogacy: A method where a woman carries and gives birth to a baby for another individual or couple who cannot carry a pregnancy themselves.

Fertility preservation techniques include:

1. Sperm banking: The process of freezing and storing sperm for future use in artificial reproduction.
2. Egg (oocyte) freezing: A procedure where a woman's eggs are extracted, frozen, and stored for later use in fertility treatments.
3. Embryo freezing: The cryopreservation of embryos created through IVF for future use.
4. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: The freezing and storage of ovarian tissue to restore fertility after cancer treatment or other conditions that may affect fertility.
5. Testicular tissue cryopreservation: The collection and storage of testicular tissue in prepubertal boys undergoing cancer treatment to preserve their future fertility potential.

Reproductive medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and management of reproductive health disorders, including infertility, sexual dysfunction, and other reproductive system-related issues. It involves a multidisciplinary approach, combining expertise from various medical specialties such as obstetrics, gynecology, endocrinology, urology, and genetics.

Reproductive medicine encompasses several areas of focus, including:

1. Infertility treatment: Utilizing assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and other techniques to help individuals or couples conceive.
2. Contraception: Providing various methods for family planning, including hormonal contraceptives, barrier methods, and permanent sterilization procedures.
3. Sexual dysfunction: Addressing issues related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain through medical interventions, counseling, or surgical treatments.
4. Reproductive endocrinology: Managing hormonal imbalances affecting reproductive health, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and hypogonadism.
5. Genetic counseling and testing: Assessing the risk of inheritable genetic disorders and providing guidance on family planning options.
6. Menopause management: Offering treatments for symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes.
7. Fertility preservation: Providing options for individuals facing cancer treatment or other medical conditions that may impact their future fertility, including egg, sperm, and embryo freezing.
8. Adolescent reproductive health: Addressing the unique needs of adolescents related to sexual and reproductive health, including education, counseling, and preventative care.
9. Andrology: Focusing on male reproductive health, including issues related to sperm production, function, and genital abnormalities.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. "History" is a subject that refers to events, ideas, and developments of the past. It's not something that has a medical definition. However, if you're referring to the "21st century" in a historical context, it relates to the period from 2001 to the present. It's an era marked by significant advancements in technology, medicine, and society at large. But again, it doesn't have a medical definition. If you meant something else, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

A tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is an abnormal connection between the trachea (windpipe) and the esophagus (tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach). This congenital anomaly is usually present at birth and can vary in size and location. It can cause complications such as respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, and recurrent lung infections. TEF is often treated surgically to separate the trachea and esophagus and restore their normal functions.

Embryonic organizers are specialized cells or tissues in developing embryos that provide critical signals to guide the organization and development of surrounding cells and tissues. They play a crucial role in establishing the body plan and patterning of the organism during embryogenesis. A well-known example is the Spemann-Mangold organizer, first described in amphibians, which induces the formation of the neural tissue and organizes the surrounding tissues to form the body axis. Embryonic organizers have been identified in various animal models, including mammals, birds, and fish, and they are essential for normal embryonic development.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Embryo research refers to the scientific study and experimentation that involves human embryos. This research is conducted in order to gain a better understanding of human development during the earliest stages of life, as well as to investigate potential treatments for various diseases and conditions.

Human embryos used in research are typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures, in which sperm and eggs are combined in a laboratory dish to form an embryo. These embryos may be donated by individuals or couples who have undergone IVF treatments and have excess embryos that they do not plan to use for reproduction.

Embryo research can involve a variety of techniques, including stem cell research, genetic testing, and cloning. The goal of this research is to advance our knowledge of human development and disease, as well as to develop new treatments and therapies for a wide range of medical conditions. However, embryo research is a controversial topic, and there are ethical concerns surrounding the use of human embryos in scientific research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poland" is not a medical term. It is a country in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!

Medical societies are professional organizations composed of physicians, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals who share a common purpose of promoting medical research, education, and patient care. These societies can focus on specific medical specialties, such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for cancer specialists or the American College of Surgeons (ACS) for surgeons. They may also address broader issues related to healthcare policy, advocacy, and ethics. Medical societies often provide resources for continuing medical education, publish scientific journals, establish clinical practice guidelines, and offer networking opportunities for members.

Evolutionary embryology is the expansion of comparative embryology by the ideas of Charles Darwin. Similarly to Karl Ernst von ... Many principles of embryology apply to invertebrates as well as to vertebrates. Therefore, the study of invertebrate embryology ... James Wilberding, "Plato's Embryology," Early Science and Medicine 2015. Joseph Needham, A History of Embryology, Cambridge ... Joseph Needham, A History of Embryology, Cambridge 1959, pp. 37-60. Samuel Kottek, "Embryology in Talmudic and Midrashic ...
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Moore KL (2020). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (Eleventh ed.). Edinburgh. pp. 35-42. ISBN 978-0-323- ... Sadler TW (2010). Langman's medical embryology (11th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott William & Wilkins. pp. 50-51. ISBN ... Sadler TW (2010). Langman's medical embryology (11th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott William & Wilkins. p. 45. ISBN ...
... [1] Retrieved 5/21/14 Embryology[2] Retrieved 5/21/14 Comparative Embryology: The Vertebrate Body[3] ... Comparative embryology is the branch of embryology that compares and contrasts embryos of different species, showing how all ... Embryology Hall, Brian K. (1992). "5: Embryological archetypes and homology: establishing evolutionary embryology". ... in comparative embryology and in forging an evolutionary embryology. The grand schemes of animal classification that emerged ...
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Embryology at UNSW wwwpig/pigg/G7L Overview at nlm.nih.gov - online book Diagram at nlm.nih.gov - online book (Articles with ... Sadler, TW (2010). Langman's medical embryology (11th. ed.). Lippincott William & Wilkins. p. 294. ISBN 9780781790697. "Pontine ... short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Embryology, Embryology of nervous system). ...
Pansky, Ben (1982), "Chapter 12: Fertilization", Review of MEDICAL EMBRYOLOGY, LifeMap Discovery, archived from the original on ...
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14) Embryology at Temple parch98/ARCHII97/sld017 hednk-021-Embryo Images at University of North Carolina hednk-022-Embryo ... of human cell types derived from the germ layers Endocrine Glands Archived 2008-03-14 at the Wayback Machine Swiss embryology ( ...
... is a 1934 book by Joseph Needham. The book is based on lectures on Speculation, Observation, and ... A History of Embryology. By Joseph Needham, Sc.D. (Cambridge: At the University Press. 1934. Pp. xviii + 274. Price 15s. net.) ... https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/philosophy/article/history-of-embryology-by-joseph-needham-scd-cambridge-at-the- ...
In developmental biology, von Baer's laws of embryology (or laws of development) are four rules proposed by Karl Ernst von Baer ... While they were criticised in detail, they formed the foundation of modern embryology. The most important supporter of von ... ISBN 978-0-080-47124-2. Ospovat, D. (1976). "The influence of Karl Ernst von Baer's embryology, 1828-1859: A reappraisal in ... Barnes, M. Elizabeth (2014). "Karl Ernst von Baer's Laws of Embryology". The Embryo Project Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2020-10-04 ...
Embryology Authority (HFEA)". Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority (HFEA). Retrieved 14 July 2023. "Report of the ... but it was repealed by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008. In 2004, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology ... "Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990". www.opsi.gov.uk. "Code of Practice: 11. Donor recruitment, assessment and ... The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of ...
... 1990 Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Deceased Fathers) Act 2003 Human Fertilisation ... Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act can refer to the following acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom: ... and Embryology Act 2008, which updated and revised the 1990 Act This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the ... title Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
"Embryology Bill: The key points". BBC News Online. 9 May 2008. Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act at the Wellcome Trust Fox ... The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008 (c 22) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Act constitutes a ... "Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008: Department of Health". Department of Health (United Kingdom). 1 September 2009. ... doi:10.1111/j.1467-923X.2009.01959.x. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008, as amended from the National Archives. ...
The Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology (sometimes abbreviated as the IJAE) is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal ... of anatomy and embryology. It was established in 1901 by Giulio Chiarugi and is published by Firenze University Press. It is ...
... - Principal Terms Used Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 - Table of ... Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 - Abortion Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 - Section 28 Department of ... In 1990 the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 was passed. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, HFEA, ... The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It created the Human ...
The aims of the society are: to promote the understanding of reproductive biology and embryology to facilitate research and the ... The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) was founded in 1985 by Robert Edwards (University of ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority Assisted Human Reproduction Canada ... Embryology, International medical associations of Europe, Organizations established in 1985, 1985 establishments in Belgium). ...
The Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Deceased Fathers) Act 2003, section 4(2); the Human Fertilisation and Embryology ( ... The Act amended the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 to allow, among other things, a man to be listed in birth ... The Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Deceased Fathers) Act 2003 (c 24) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Explanatory notes to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Deceased Fathers) Act 2003. (Use dmy dates from April 2022, ...
Embryology. 10(47):1-5 Herbert McLean Evans Physicians University of California San Francisco "Katharine J. Scott Bishop - ...
His most important contributions were made in embryology with a series of four exhaustive memoirs on the development of the ... Wilh Bischoff WorldCat Identities Driesch, Hans Adolf Eduard (1911). "Embryology" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia ...
Morphology (department head: Angelika Kuhlmann Lüdeke, MD, MSc.), which handles anatomy, histology and embryology. For this ... This covers all subjects related to anatomy and neuroanatomy; histology; embryology; basic genetics; biochemistry and molecular ...
Fix; Dudek, Ronald W. (2005). Embryology. Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 35. ISBN 0-7817-5726-6. Kirby, ...
Fix, James D.; Dudek, Ronald W. (1998). Embryology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. p. 185. ISBN 0-683-30272-8. Fix, James D.; ... Dudek, Ronald W. (1998). Embryology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. p. 177. ISBN 0-683-30272-8. Swiss embryology (from UL, UB, ... Embryology of urogenital system, All stub articles, Developmental biology stubs). ...
Fix, James D.; Dudek, Ronald W. (1998). Embryology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. pp. 52. ISBN 978-0-683-30272-1. Q21.2 ...
Embryology. Fauna and Flora of the Bay of Naples [Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Naepel]. Monograph 35. Part I, Vol. II [Final ... Although initially planning to collect eggs from a variety of animals, he ended up studying the embryology of the squid Loligo ... Boletzky, S. (2000) "Adolf Naef: A biographical note." In: Naef A (1928) Cephalopoda Embryology. Fauna and Flora of the Bay of ... Naef also found that cephalopod embryology and paleontology were quite amenable to study. Although Naef professed no "special ...
Embryology. Which planets control which month of pregnancy. In spirit, a continuation of the ninth, which begins: "Know, O ...
Hill, M.A. (22 October 2016). "Sea Squirt Development". Embryology. University of New South Wales. Satoh N (2003). "The ...
Evolutionary embryology is the expansion of comparative embryology by the ideas of Charles Darwin. Similarly to Karl Ernst von ... Many principles of embryology apply to invertebrates as well as to vertebrates. Therefore, the study of invertebrate embryology ... James Wilberding, "Platos Embryology," Early Science and Medicine 2015. Joseph Needham, A History of Embryology, Cambridge ... Joseph Needham, A History of Embryology, Cambridge 1959, pp. 37-60. Samuel Kottek, "Embryology in Talmudic and Midrashic ...
Other articles where isolecithal yolk is discussed: yolk: …uniformly distributed yolk are termed isolecithal. This condition occurs in invertebrates and in all but the lowest mammals. Eggs with abundant yolk concentrated in one hemisphere of the egg are termed telolecithal. This occurs in many invertebrates and in all vertebrates lower than marsupial mammals. In arthropods, the yolk is…
Anatomy and Embryology. Usually, 4 parathyroid glands are situated posterior to the thyroid gland. A small number of patients ...
Embryology. By 5 weeks gestational age, the wolffian (ie, mesonephric) and the müllerian (ie, paramesonephric) ducts have ...
You have to enable JavaScript in your browsers settings in order to use the eReader.. Or try downloading the content offline. DOWNLOAD ...
Practical for both clinicians and researchers alike, Clinical Embryology brings together all of the need-to-know information ...
Embryology of Conjoined Twins. Identical twins develop when a single fertilized egg, also known as a monozygote, splits during ...
All about Langmans Medical Embryology by Dr. T.W. Sadler PhD. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for ... 110510 (1) Doodys Import 2017-2019 (1) embryology (1) Histology and embryology (1) PHGSH Print (1) QS604 (1) ... Langmans Medical Embryology (edition 2018). by Dr. T.W. Sadler PhD (Author). ... However, a basic knowledge of embryology is essential to the success of these strategies, and with this knowledge, every health ...
Embryology covers the structural and molecular events from conception to the layout of the body plan after about two months of ... Embryology covers the structural and molecular events from conception to the layout of the body plan after about two months of ... Embryology also presents the development of specific organs and the role development plays in determining the functions of ... Embryology uses primarily lecture to deliver content but some content is also discussed in labs. ...
Filed Under: Embryology· online course Tagged with: blood, books and videos, circulation, embryology, nervous system, online ... Filed Under: Embryology· online course Tagged with: books and videos, embryology, heart, nervous system, online course ... Filed Under: Embryology· online course Tagged with: books and videos, embryology, online course ... Filed Under: Embryology· online course Tagged with: books and videos, embryology, online course ...
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Division number 198 Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill - Fertility treatment requires male role model - rejected Absent ... Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill - Fertility treatment requires male role model - rejected. Division number 198 - in the ... A majority of MPs voted no on Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill - Fertility treatment requires male role model - rejected ...
IVF & Embryology jobs and resumes, fertility clinics, embryo pictures. ... CARE MSc in Clinical Embryology, UK. • IVI RMA Global Education. • ARTSMedia. • Cryolock Vitrification Devices. • CryoSentinel ... 1. Fellowship in Embryology by Medline Academics - Affiliated by Sri Siddhartha Academy of Higher Education [SSAHE] Tumkur 2. ...
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... the process of correcting this shameful historical record by documenting the objective scientific facts of human embryology ... Search ,, Home » Irving » Human Embryology and Church Teachings Human Embryology and Church Teachings Dianne N. Irving. ... Next Page: Human Embryology and Church Teachings 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 ...
Books by Samuel Webster Embryology at a Glance 9781118910801 John Wiley and Sons Ltd V9781118910801 ... Description for Embryology at a Glance Paperback. Embryology at a Glance is a highly illustrated and innovative introduction to ... Embryology at a Glance provides the perfect alternative to the overwhelming detail seen in conventional embryology texts. It ... Reviews for Embryology at a Glance Goodreads reviews for Embryology at a Glance. ...
IVF & Embryology jobs and resumes, fertility clinics, embryo pictures. ... CARE MSc in Clinical Embryology, UK. • IVI RMA Global Education. • ARTSMedia. • Cryolock Vitrification Devices. • CryoSentinel ... 9. Master of Science (MSc) in Clinical Embryology 10. In Vitro Micronucleus Test ...
Price Comparison 0781755719 - 9780781755719 - Langmans Essential Medical Embryology
Bioethicist, Dr David Jones, examines the ethical issues behind the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill.by dealing with ten ...
Embryology. The development of the external ear is a complex process that involves the merger of the 6 auricular hillocks. The ... Embryology of the External Ear. Babk Azizzadeh MD, Mark Murphy MD, and Calvin Johnson MD. Master Techniques in Facial ...
Start Over You searched for: Exhibit Tags embryology ✖ Remove constraint Exhibit Tags: embryology ... Embryology and the Organization of DNA in Higher Organisms, 1966-1976130 ...
Embryology and anatomy of Hirschsprung disease Jerry Long Hei Ha 1 , Vincent Chi Hang Lui 2 , Paul Kwong Hang Tam 3 ... Embryology and anatomy of Hirschsprung disease Jerry Long Hei Ha et al. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2022 Dec. ...
44 (01325) 380232 send email Evangelical Times, 3 Trinity Court, Faverdale North, Darlington, DL3 0PH ...
SWES (South West Embryology Summit). January 4, 2024 - January 7, 2024 The mission of The Southwest Embryology Summit is to ... SWES (South West Embryology Summit). Home , Events , Trade Shows , SWES (South West Embryology Summit) ...
... Schedule 6 - Amendments relating to parenthood in cases involving assisted ... Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill [HL]. Schedule 6 - Amendments relating to parenthood in cases involving assisted ... Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill [HL]. Schedule 6 - Amendments relating to parenthood in cases involving assisted ... Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill [HL]. Schedule 6 - Amendments relating to parenthood in cases involving assisted ...
Karl Ernst von Baer, a famous natural scientist and father of embryology, was born in the Russian Empire to the family of an ... Other researchers said that nothing new and important could have appeared in vertebrate embryology ever since von Baers study ... Russian natural scientist and father of embryology ...
Essentials of Oral Histology and Embryology: A Clinical Approach, 5th Edition uses a patient-centered approach in covering ... Quandaries in Science boxes explore the philosophical and scientific dilemmas associated with head and neck embryology and ... Essentials of Oral Histology and Embryology Elsevier eBook on VitalSource, 5th Edition. ... Essentials of Oral Histology and Embryology: A Clinical Approach, 5th Edition uses a patient-centered approach in covering ...
Langmans Medical Embryology. Posted on February 26, 2006 by singleton Long respected for its scientific authority, pedagogy, ... Posted in Embryology, Ethics, Format, Nonfiction, Public Policy, Science & Research, djvu , Leave a comment ... Molecular Embryology: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology). Posted on February 25, 2008 by singleton ... Posted in Biology, Cell Biology, Developmental Biology, Embryology, Format, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Research, pdf , ...
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"Embryology Course Photograph 1897". Embryo Project Encyclopedia (1897). ISSN: 1940-5030 http://embryo.asu.edu/handle/10776/1881 ...
  • The site claims: "The line drawings have been used with permission from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and are from the 6th and 7th editions of Langman's Medical Embryology by T.W. Sadler. (rutgers.edu)
  • As recently as the 18th century, the prevailing notion in western human embryology was preformation: the idea that semen contains an embryo - a preformed, miniature infant, or homunculus - that simply becomes larger during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Articles on Islamic "human embryology", such as the "Abstract" of one copied below, are typical, from countries around the world, and they come through my Google alert for "human embryo" from time to time. (lifeissues.net)
  • Embryo Images Normal and Abnormal Mammalian Development -- Embryo Images Normal and Abnormal Mammalian Development is a tutorial that uses scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) as the primary resource to teach mammalian embryology. (rutgers.edu)
  • The department's intention is to inspire, motivate and train a network of future leaders in clinical embryology throughout the world. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Students on the MSc in Clinical Embryology receive individual mentorship by the Course Director and other members of the course staff at regular intervals throughout the course and whenever required. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Graduates go on to pursue careers in clinical embryology, and further research activities in reproductive, biological and biomedical science, assisted reproduction, clinical academic work and industry. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This one year, residential, taught MSc provides graduate students, scientists and clinicians with highly advanced theoretical and practical understanding of human reproductive biology, embryology, infertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART) along with intensive 'hands-on' practical training in essential laboratory skills and the sophisticated gamete micromanipulation techniques associated with ART. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The IVFAustralia science team includes more than 50 scientists working in embryology, andrology and pathology. (ivf.com.au)
  • Additionally, embryology encompasses the study of congenital disorders that occur before birth, known as teratology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryology and teratology. (bvsalud.org)
  • As part of our ongoing improvements to patient care, a representative of the embryology laboratory may contact you on day three after your egg collection to inform you of the number of oocytes that have been fertilised and the development of these embryos. (ivf.com.au)
  • The scope the journal embraces articles of human and comparative anatomy, embryology, histology, histochemistry, neurology and functional aspects of eh anatomical sciences. (who.int)
  • Their shapes are evocative of cocoon-like forms, something also suggested by the series title, Embryology . (tate.org.uk)
  • With the word 'developmental' in the title, as you can imagine, there are lectures about embryology as part of the course. (biologists.com)
  • Established in 1893, the Embryology Course offers integrated lectures and laboratories that comprehensively cover the paradigms, problems, and technologies of modern developmental biology cast within a comparative framework of metazoan evolution. (hamiltonthorne.com)
  • We are proud to support this workshop by loaning the equipment to help support students in learning important embryology concepts and techniques in modern developmental biology! (hamiltonthorne.com)
  • There is a solution for the problems of students in the form of Larsen's human embryology, which explains all the developmental and growth changes in a straightforward way. (usmlemed.com)
  • Unfortunately this fake Islamic "human embryology" is surely being taught in all the Islamic schools, mosques, here, across Europe, and throughout all the Islamic countries across the Middle East, etc. (lifeissues.net)
  • As the aim of the lab section is to support and extend what is taught within the lectures we naturally include an embryology class too. (biologists.com)
  • We have four specialist embryology laboratories in Sydney, all accredited by the Reproductive Technology Accreditation Committee (RTAC) and operating seven days a week. (ivf.com.au)
  • UNSW Embryology -- An educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development. (rutgers.edu)
  • The objective of this article is to outline the embryology of the facial nerve and its common clinical implications. (freebookcentre.net)
  • Human Embryology and the Holy Quran: An Overview", International Journal of Health Sciences (2009). (lifeissues.net)
  • Another primer on the science can be found at this NHS page, Embryology Bill controversy . (thinkinganglicans.org.uk)
  • In this article, we are sharing with our audience the genuine PDF download of Larsen's Human Embryology PDF using direct links which can be found at the end of this blog post. (usmlemed.com)
  • Now before that we share the free PDF download of Larsen's Human Embryology PDF with you, let's take a look into few of the important details regarding this ebook. (usmlemed.com)
  • Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences users: Please also check out the Image/Video Databases @ Rutgers tab for Rutgers Libraries licensed resources covering embryology. (rutgers.edu)
  • No worries left for the medical student to clear the ambiguities regarding embryology kind of hectic subject. (usmlemed.com)
  • I've also noticed similar pro-Islamic human embryology articles creeping up lately on various other media resources, and am amazed that such fake "scientific" fraud -- F-R-A-U-D -- continues to be made available and presented as genuine science. (lifeissues.net)
  • Given these deadly and other unknown consequences resulting from and justified by the monumentally fake Islamic "human embryology" that has been and continues to be published, such fake "science" teachings should at least be removed from the NIH and other governmental and university educational websites or at least simultaneously refuted (as below). (lifeissues.net)
  • Veterinary Embryology and Animal Health Management Conference aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Veterinary Embryology and Animal Health Management Conference. (waset.org)
  • Last week, irked by what I saw as the use of wild exaggeration by church leaders in the embryology Bill debate, I challenged one of them - the Bishop of Durham - to justify one of his more outrageous claims. (thinkinganglicans.org.uk)
  • Anyhow, there has been much about the Embryology bill uttered by church people. (thurible.net)
  • Let's describe the features of this Larsen's human embryology to know better about this book. (usmlemed.com)
  • To know further about this human embryology book, let's have a deeper review of its other improved benefits. (usmlemed.com)
  • It also provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners, and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Veterinary Embryology and Animal Health Management Conference. (waset.org)
  • Embryology is a collection of objects of varying sizes, made of various rough-hewn fabrics and stuffed. (tate.org.uk)
  • Islam is a "theocracy", and thus "human embryology" is simply a sub-field of Islamic theology. (lifeissues.net)
  • Modern embryology developed from the work of Karl Ernst von Baer, though accurate observations had been made in Italy by anatomists such as Aldrovandi and Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance. (wikipedia.org)