Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Placenta Previa: Abnormal placentation in which the PLACENTA implants in the lower segment of the UTERUS (the zone of dilation) and may cover part or all of the opening of the CERVIX. It is often associated with serious antepartum bleeding and PREMATURE LABOR.Placenta Accreta: Abnormal placentation in which all or parts of the PLACENTA are attached directly to the MYOMETRIUM due to a complete or partial absence of DECIDUA. It is associated with POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE because of the failure of placental separation.Placenta, Retained: A placenta that fails to be expelled after BIRTH of the FETUS. A PLACENTA is retained when the UTERUS fails to contract after the delivery of its content, or when the placenta is abnormally attached to the MYOMETRIUM.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Embryo Loss: Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Chorionic Villi: The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Embryo Disposition: Utilization or disposal of an embryo that is fertilized but not immediately transplanted and resulting course of action.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Single Embryo Transfer: The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Ectogenesis: Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Placental Hormones: Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).Mice, Inbred ICRSea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Chorioamnionitis: INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Aborted Fetus: A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.Placental Extracts: Extracts prepared from placental tissue; they may contain specific but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Embryo Implantation, Delayed: Delay in the attachment and implantation of BLASTOCYST to the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The blastocyst remains unattached beyond the normal duration thus delaying embryonic development.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Viviparity, Nonmammalian: The capability of bearing live young (rather than eggs) in nonmammalian species. Some species of REPTILES and FISHES exhibit this.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Vitrification: The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Coriolaceae: A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
  • Molar pregnancy is part of a group of diseases classified as Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD), which originate in the placenta and may locally invade the uterus and metastasize . (ommegaonline.org)
  • We show that miRNA members of the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster, which are almost exclusively expressed in the human placenta, are packaged within trophoblast-derived exosomes and attenuate viral replication in recipient cells by the induction of autophagy. (pnas.org)
  • Simultaneously, the outermost trophoblast of the ectoplacental cone differentiated into secondary trophoblast giant cells that lie on the outside of the placenta, forming an interface with the maternal cells in the decidua. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The chicken embryo and CAM vessels are easily accessible after opening the egg whereas this proves to be much more difficult with mammalian embryos and vessels. (jove.com)
  • A new role for the placenta has been revealed by University of Manchester scientists who have identified sites which store, and gradually release, oxygen for newly formed embryos in the weeks after the baby's heart is developed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Half of what's now called the embryo will become your son or daughter, while the other half forms the placenta , your baby's lifeline - which channels nutrients and carries waste away until delivery. (whattoexpect.com)
  • The embryo now has three distinct layers of cells that will grow into specialized parts of your baby's body. (whattoexpect.com)
  • For a cell in an embryo, the secret to becoming part of the baby's body instead of the placenta is to contract more and carry on dancing, scientists at EMBL have found. (brightsurf.com)
  • Blood vessels gradually grow towards these cell groups, leading to the slow release of oxygen-laden red cells to the embryo and keeping it supplied until more efficient oxygen transfer becomes possible as maternal blood enters the placenta at the end of the third month. (eurekalert.org)
  • The placenta contains numerous terminal villi, small structures containing disordered networks of fetal capillaries that are surrounded by maternal blood. (brightsurf.com)
  • Fetal circulation involves three circulatory shunts: the ductus venosus , which allows blood from the placenta to bypass the liver , and the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale , which together allow blood to bypass the developing lungs . (umich.edu)
  • The vein returns the oxygenated blood from the placenta back to the right atrium of the fetal heart. (livestrong.com)
  • Bleeding can happen at any point, regardless of the position of the placenta. (bubhub.com.au)
  • Anterior and posterior placenta previa are sometimes used after ultrasound examination is preformed to further delineate the exact position of the placenta within the uterine cavity. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The chicken embryo and the blood-vessel rich chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a valuable in vivo model to investigate biomedical processes, new ultrasound pulsing schemes, or novel transducers for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and microbubble-mediated drug delivery. (jove.com)
  • Ex ovo chicken embryos and the blood-vessel rich chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) have proven to be a suitable model to investigate various biological and biomedical processes like embryogenesis, oncology, and drug delivery 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . (jove.com)
  • This is the frozen embryo transfer (FET) checklist for you need to read and take note of before heading back to the doc. (theluxuryspot.com)
  • I wish I had this (or frankly, some more experienced person to guide me) before starting my frozen embryo transfers as it would have saved me time, frustration, and money. (theluxuryspot.com)
  • If you froze your eggs, you're exactly the kind of girl who can expect to hear a doctor suggest a frozen embryo transfer - but you should know that you're signing up for additional hurdle rates (including just in the defrosting process), and gambling in higher risk ways on just how successful the fertilization of your eggs might be (forget about growing successful embryos into babies and beyond for now). (theluxuryspot.com)
  • About 25% of frozen embryo transfer fails are actually due to simple miscalculations in transfer timing . (theluxuryspot.com)
  • 3. Do not do a natural cycle frozen embryo transfer. (theluxuryspot.com)
  • There is a great importance of AH during frozen embryo cycles. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study focused on clinical and laboratory factors affecting the abnormal placentation, especially placenta praevia, in patients conceiving in the IVF programme. (hindawi.com)
  • The results confirm that neonates born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer had significantly higher mean birth weight than after fresh embryo transfer (ET). (hindawi.com)
  • Eligibility criteria: women age 18-42, cleavage-stage embryo transfer, less than seven IVF cycles with fresh embryo transfer, high quality embryos. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • From this point of view, single ET and ET in a spontaneous cycle should be encouraged in good prognosis patients in the future with more than two good quality embryos developed. (hindawi.com)
  • If your egg and your partner's sperm have joined successfully, your embryo is really there, although it's very small -- about the size of the head of a pin. (webmd.com)
  • A workshop for lesbians/single women contemplating use of egg, sperm or embryo donation or currently having treatment. (bionews.org.uk)
  • When they're injected into the body, they build up in the placenta or the womb, only releasing their drug cargo where it is needed. (tommys.org)
  • The team are now continuing their work, packaging up different drugs into their particles to see whether it can deliver drugs efficiently to the womb and placenta. (tommys.org)
  • Our scientists are studying why freezing an IVF embryo before it is transferred into the mother's womb could help to reduce these risks. (tommys.org)
  • When the placenta is torn from the womb lining and delivered as the afterbirth, strong uterine contractions compress the bleeding vessels, preventing catastrophic haemorrhage. (readersdigest.co.uk)
  • Complete placenta previa refers to the situation in which the placenta completely covers the opening from the womb to the cervix. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • A number of factors can increase the likelihood that the placenta will be located in the lower part of the womb and potentially cover the cervical opening. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The scientists show that as the placenta grows in the first few weeks, small groups of stem cells are formed from which primitive red blood cells arise. (eurekalert.org)
  • But the new technology may also help cut down on the amount of time that embryos have to spend in a synthetic environment while scientists test them for viability. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • Now a specialist team of scientists made up of mathematicians, physicists, physiologists and clinical consultants, have used 3D imaging to help model some of the complex processes performed by the placenta. (brightsurf.com)
  • UCLA scientists have discovered specific genetic changes in the placentas of women who gave birth to growth-restricted infants. (brightsurf.com)
  • It is known that genes inherited from ancient retroviruses are essential to the placenta in mammals, a finding to which scientists in the Laboratoire Physiologie et Pathologie Moleacuteculaires des Retrovirus Endogenes et Infectieux contributed. (brightsurf.com)
  • The mouse placenta has previously been shown to harbor B-cell progenitors ( Melchers, 1979 ). (biologists.org)
  • Then, during a short stint at University College of North Wales (now Bangor University), Tarkowski generated the first chimeric mouse embryos, which still serve as an important tool in biological research today. (the-scientist.com)
  • In the 1980s, Tarkowski developed a technique to analyze chromosome structure in mouse oocytes using an electric current to fuse two-cell embryos together. (the-scientist.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of IVF on lipid metabolism in the mouse placenta. (springer.com)
  • Two groups of mouse placentas, composed of control and IVF, were collected at embryonic day 18.5. (springer.com)
  • After lipidomic analysis, we present the first detailed overview of the effect of IVF on lipid metabolism, especially phospholipid profiles in the placenta in a mouse model. (springer.com)
  • flk-1, tek, and tie transcripts were detected sequentially at one-half day intervals starting at E7.0, suggesting that each of these RTKs play a unique role during vascularization of the mouse embryo. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest a possible dual role for VEGF which includes a chemotactic and/or a cellular maintenance role for VEGF during vascularization of the mouse embryo. (nih.gov)
  • Repeatable for longitudinal studies over gestation, rapid, and robust and with resolution down to 30 μm, studying mouse and rat embryos has never been easier. (visualsonics.com)
  • Mouse embryo and placenta showing oxygenation, using photoacoustic imaging . (visualsonics.com)
  • We have presented evidence for the dominance of the inactive X p in extraembryonic regions of 7.5- and 8.5-d mouse embryos heterozygous for Cattanach's translocation 3 in which the two X chromosomes could be readily identified 4 . (nature.com)
  • The expression of MHC-Ib protein was evaluated in embryos (D7) and in placentas using a FITC conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody anti-Qa-2. (usp.br)
  • The lack of a gene called LBP-1a in the mouse embryo prevents normal growth of blood vessels in the placenta. (news-medical.net)
  • 1983 ) Poly (A) length, cytoplasmic adenylation and synthesis of Poly (A)+RNA in early mouse embryos. (biologists.org)
  • 1978 ) Localisation and synthesis of alphafetoprotein in postimplantation mouse embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Bovine trophectoderm cell lines derived from SCNT and control embryos were analysed to compare with the in utero condition. (unesp.br)
  • Sequencing of the fragments generated nine consensus sequences, similar to the Ped gene and also to sequences obtained from bovine embryos. (usp.br)
  • Besides this, the chicken embryo and CAM vessels provide a heartbeat and a pulsating blood flow. (jove.com)
  • Although the chicken embryo and CAM are less suitable for long term experiments, they can be beneficial for short term in vivo experiments. (jove.com)
  • To increase visibility and controllability over the chicken embryo and CAM during experiments, it is important to take the egg content containing the embryo and CAM out of the eggshell 18 . (jove.com)
  • Done through photographs every five minutes and a special software program, Eeva can check for things like a non-uniform appearance or developmental profile, which helps to provide a precise and highly accurate recognition of healthy embryos earlier than the standard method. (growingyourbaby.com)