Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Placenta Previa: Abnormal placentation in which the PLACENTA implants in the lower segment of the UTERUS (the zone of dilation) and may cover part or all of the opening of the CERVIX. It is often associated with serious antepartum bleeding and PREMATURE LABOR.Placenta Accreta: Abnormal placentation in which all or parts of the PLACENTA are attached directly to the MYOMETRIUM due to a complete or partial absence of DECIDUA. It is associated with POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE because of the failure of placental separation.Placenta, Retained: A placenta that fails to be expelled after BIRTH of the FETUS. A PLACENTA is retained when the UTERUS fails to contract after the delivery of its content, or when the placenta is abnormally attached to the MYOMETRIUM.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Embryo Loss: Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Chorionic Villi: The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Embryo Disposition: Utilization or disposal of an embryo that is fertilized but not immediately transplanted and resulting course of action.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Single Embryo Transfer: The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Ectogenesis: Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Placental Hormones: Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).Mice, Inbred ICRSea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Chorioamnionitis: INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Aborted Fetus: A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.Placental Extracts: Extracts prepared from placental tissue; they may contain specific but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Embryo Implantation, Delayed: Delay in the attachment and implantation of BLASTOCYST to the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The blastocyst remains unattached beyond the normal duration thus delaying embryonic development.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Viviparity, Nonmammalian: The capability of bearing live young (rather than eggs) in nonmammalian species. Some species of REPTILES and FISHES exhibit this.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Vitrification: The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Coriolaceae: A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Placenta. 29 Suppl B: 152-9. PMID 18790328. doi:10.1016/j.placenta.2008.07.007.. ... A study in France between 1999 and 2011 came to the result that embryo freezing before administration of gonadotoxic agents to ... Arnon J, Meirow D, Lewis-Roness H, Ornoy A (2001). "Genetic and teratogenic effects of cancer treatments on gametes and embryos ... or embryos. As more than half of cancer patients are elderly, this adverse effect is only relevant for a minority of ...
ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.[page needed] Saito S (2001). "Cytokine cross-talk between mother and the embryo/placenta". J. Reprod. ... Chen explains the regulatory activity of LIF in human and murine embryos: "In conclusion, human preimplantation embryos express ... The expression of these transcripts indicates that preimplantation embryos may be responsive to LIF originating either from the ... embryo implantation, endometrial development, and trophoblast growth and differentiation by modulating the immune and endocrine ...
During the perinatal period, the embryo/fetus can contract the virus through the placenta. ... Because the embryo or fetus's nutrition is based on maternal protein, vitamin, mineral, and total caloric intake, infants born ... The environment in which the mother provides for the embryo/fetus is critical to its wellbeing well after gestation and birth. ... and time of exposure are all factors for the extent of the effect of a teratogen on an embryo or fetus. ...
Elizabeth M. Ramsey
Lambert, Bruce (4 July 1993). "Elizabeth M. Ramsey, 87, Expert On Human Embryo and Placenta". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 ... and embryologist known for pioneering the study of early human embryos and the structure and circulatory system of the placenta ... The Placenta of Laboratory Animals and Man, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975. ISBN 0-03-086121-7 Placental ... While performing an autopsy in 1934, she discovered a 14-day old human embryo, the earliest yet studied at the time. Later in ...
Vertically transmitted infection
The embryo and fetus have little or no immune function. They depend on the immune function of their mother. Several pathogens ... The main routes of transmission of vertically transmitted infections are across the placenta (transplacental) and across the ... Some infectious agents may be transmitted to the embryo or fetus in the uterus, while passing through the birth canal, or even ... Often, microorganisms that produce minor illness in the mother are very dangerous for the developing embryo or fetus. This can ...
Complications of pregnancy
Placenta praevia is when the placenta fully or partially covers the cervix. Multiples may become monochorionic, sharing the ... The embryo and fetus have little or no immune function. They depend on the immune function of their mother. Several pathogens ... The following problems occur in the fetus or placenta, but may have serious consequences on the mother as well. Ectopic ... Often microorganisms that produce minor illness in the mother are very dangerous for the developing embryo or fetus. This can ...
... including the placenta and umbilical cord. The placenta connects the developing embryo to the uterine wall to allow nutrient ... The umbilical cord is the connecting cord from the embryo or fetus to the placenta. ... where it begins to form the embryo and placenta. The first trimester carries the highest risk of miscarriage (natural death ... Early obstetric ultrasound, comparing the size of an embryo or fetus to that of a reference group of pregnancies of known ...
"Effect of ionizing radiations, including radioisotopes, on the placenta and embryo." Birth Defects, Orig. Article Ser. 1 (1965 ... Rugh, Roberts (1965). "Effect of ionizing radiations, including radioisotopes, on the placenta and embryo." Birth Defects, Orig ... "Can the mammalian embryo be killed by X‐irradiation?." Journal of Experimental Zoology 151.3 (1962): 227-243. Rugh, Roberts, et ... "Developmental Effects Resulting from Exposure to X-Rays: I. Effect on the Embryo of Irradiation of Frog Sperm." Proceedings of ...
On the outer side, the amniotic sac is connected to the yolk sac, the allantois and, via the umbilical cord, to the placenta. ... As the amniotic fold rises and fuses over the dorsal aspect of the embryo, the amniotic cavity is formed. At the beginning of ... Once the baby is pushed out of the mother's uterus, the umbilical cord, placenta, and amniotic sac are pushed out in the after ... It is a thin but tough transparent pair of membranes that hold a developing embryo (and later fetus) until shortly before birth ...
After five or six days it is much easier to determine which embryos will result in healthy live births. Knowing which embryos ... The trophoblast gives rise to the placenta. The name "blastocyst" arises from the Greek βλαστός blastos ("a sprout") and κύστις ... However at this stage of development it is very difficult to predict which embryos will develop best, and several embryos were ... Several implanted embryos helped to guarantee that there would be a developing fetus but it also led to the development of ...
Andean hairy armadillo
The trophectoderm will eventually give rise to extra-embryonic structures, such as the placenta and the membranes. The embryo ... In most successful pregnancies, the embryo implants 8 to 10 days after ovulation. The embryo, the extra-embryonic membranes ... The embryo spends the next few days traveling down the Fallopian tube. It starts out as a single cell zygote and then divides ... By the end of the tenth week of gestational age the embryo has acquired its basic form and is referred to as a fetus. The next ...
The trophectoderm will eventually give rise to extra-embryonic structures, such as the placenta and the membranes. The embryo ... In most successful pregnancies, the embryo implants 8 to 10 days after ovulation. The embryo, the extra-embryonic membranes ... By the end of the tenth week of gestational age the embryo has acquired its basic form and is referred to as a fetus. The next ... Prenatal development (from Latin natalis, meaning 'relating to birth') includes the development of the embryo and of the fetus ...
Cannabinoid receptor type 1
Saito S (2001). "Cytokine cross-talk between mother and the embryo/placenta". J. Reprod. Immunol. 52 (1-2): 15-33. doi:10.1016/ ... Chen explains the regulatory activity of LIF in human and murine embryos: "In conclusion, human preimplantation embryos express ... The expression of these transcripts indicates that preimplantation embryos may be responsive to LIF originating either from the ... "Expression of leukemia inhibitory factor and its receptor in preimplantation embryos". Fertil. Steril. 72 (4): 713-9. doi: ...
Amniotic epithelial cells
There are also large amounts of amniotic epithelial cells found in the placenta and can be found in upwards of 50-100 million ... In harvesting embryonic stem cells, a human embryo is destroyed. Many pro-life individuals associate this act with abortion and ... Amniotic epithelial cells are a form of stem cells extracted from the lining of the inner membrane of the placenta. Amniotic ... Because there is not a sufficient amount of amniotic epithelial cells extracted from a single term placenta to be use in ...
Placenta. 29 Suppl B: 152-9. doi:10.1016/j.placenta.2008.07.007. PMID 18790328. Courbiere B, Decanter C, Bringer-Deutsch S, ... A study in France between 1999 and 2011 came to the result that embryo freezing before administration of gonadotoxic agents to ... However, when in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservationis practised between or shortly after treatment, possible ... or embryos. As more than half of cancer patients are elderly, this adverse effect is only relevant for a minority of patients. ...
For the next 24 hours, connective tissue develops between the developing placenta and the growing embryo. This later develops ... At this time, the embryo usually consists of 50 cells. A blastocoele is a small cavity on the center of the embryo, and the ... Following this, a narrow line of cells appears on the surface on the embryo. Its growth makes the embryo undergo gastrulation, ... The embryo's nervous system is one of the first organic systems to grow. It begins growing in a concave area known as the ...
... how the embryo acquires oxygen without placenta and umbilical cord". Biology Letters. 8 (5): 721-724. doi:10.1098/rsbl. ... At first they are enclosed in an egg case while the developing embryos absorb the yolk. After hatching, the pups remain in the ... With no umbilical cord or placenta, the unborn pup relies on buccal pumping to obtain oxygen. Brood size is usually one or ...
Giant oceanic manta ray
... how the embryo acquires oxygen without placenta and umbilical cord". Biology Letters. 8 (5): 721-724. doi:10.1098/rsbl. ... At first, they are enclosed in an egg case and the developing embryos feeds on the yolk. After the egg hatches, the pup remains ... The brood size is usually one but occasionally two embryos develop simultaneously. The gestation period is thought to be 12-13 ...
... as mantas give live birth and embryos are not connected to their mother by umbilical cord or placenta as in many other animals ... how the embryo acquires oxygen without placenta and umbilical cord". Biology Letters. rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org. 8 (5): ... Manta ray embryos also breathe by buccal pumping, ...
Mifepristone blocks the hormone progesterone, causing the lining of the uterus to thin and preventing the embryo from ... stops the cytotrophoblastic tissue from growing and becoming a functional placenta. Misoprostol, a different kind of ... medication, causes the uterus to contract and expel the embryo through the vagina. ...
... including the placenta and umbilical cord. The placenta connects the developing embryo to the uterine wall to allow nutrient ... The umbilical cord is the connecting cord from the embryo or fetus to the placenta. After about ten weeks of gestational age, ... where it begins to form the embryo and placenta. The first trimester carries the highest risk of miscarriage (natural death of ... An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight weeks following conception, after which, the term fetus is used ...
TGF beta signaling pathway
Activin causes the transcription of mRNAs involved in gonadal growth, embryo differentiation and placenta formation. Nodal ... It is asymmetrically expressed in the left side of murine embryos and subsequently plays a role in left-right specification. ... signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell ...
The air space (7) provides the embryo with oxygen while it is hatching. This ensures that the embryo will not suffocate while ... Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals, with some ... The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that ... The eggshell (1) protects the crocodile embryo (11) and keeps it from drying out, but it is flexible to allow gas exchange. The ...
Utungisho katika wanyama, kamusi elezo huru
Male reproductive system
... high in estrogen secreted by the mother's ovaries and the placenta. If estrogen determined the gender, all embryos would become ... In the developing embryo if the testes are developed, it will produce and secrete male sex hormones during late embryonic ... a b The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - Embryo images nr 024 ... This sequence is understandable in light of the fact that both male and female embryos develop within the maternal environment ...
Human digestive system
Early in embryonic development, the embryo has three germ layers and abuts a yolk sac. During the second week of development, ... The stomach, originally lying in the midline of the embryo, rotates so that its body is on the left. This rotation also affects ... the embryo grows and begins to surround and envelop portions of this sac. The enveloped portions form the basis for the adult ...
Outline of obstetrics
Gynecology embryo embryology gestation hormone identical twin In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) labor, labour - see childbirth ... Placenta (journal) Reproduction (journal) Reproductive Sciences Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine Women & Health ... Amniotic fluid Amniotic sac Amnion Cervix Endometrium Fallopian tube Ovaries Pelvis Pelvic bone width Placenta Uterus - Also ... malpractice miscarriage or stillbirth obstetric fistula obstetric hemorrhage Pelvic girdle pain placenta praevia pre-eclampsia ...
This is what plant and animal embryos do as well as colonial choanoflagellates. ... Such fused cells are also involved in metazoan membranes such as those that prevent chemicals crossing the placenta and the ... "Cell differentiation and germ-soma separation in Ediacaran animal embryo-like fossils". Nature. 516: 238-241. doi:10.1038/ ...
Within the ovary, each ovule is born by a placenta or arises as a continuation of the floral apex. The placentas often occur in ... These develop into a megagametophyte (often called the embryo sac) within the ovule. The megagametophyte typically develops a ... The ovary (from Latin ovum meaning egg), is the enlarged basal portion which contains placentas, ridges of tissue bearing one ... The stalk attaching the ovule to the placenta is called the funiculus. ...
Evolution of mammals
The embryo attaches itself to the uterus via a large placenta via which the mother supplies food and oxygen and removes waste ... Embryos of bandicoots, koalas and wombats additionally form placenta-like organs that connect them to the uterine wall, ... The embryo is born at a very early stage of development, and is usually less than 2 in (5.1 cm) long at birth. It has been ... This suggests that the placenta was a later development.. *Five incisors in each side of the upper jaw. This number is typical ...
Embryo Transfer: This relatively new method involves flushing out the mare's fertilized embryo a few days following ... If the placenta is not removed from the stall after it is passed, a mare will often eat it, an instinct from the wild, where ... Effects of exercise on embryo recovery rates and embryo quality in the horse. Animal Repro. Sci. 94:395-397 ... "Embryo Transfer" Archived 2008-04-15 at the Wayback Machine. *^ Galli, Cesare, Roberto Duchi, Silvia Colleoni, Irina Lagutina, ...
Amniotic embryo. a=embryo, b=yolk, c=allantois, d=amnion, e=chorion ... Monochorionic twins are twins that share the same placenta. This occurs in 0.3% of all pregnancies, and in 75% of ... The chorion is the outermost fetal membrane around the embryo in mammals, birds and reptiles (amniotes). It develops from an ... It encloses the embryo and the rest of the embryonic system. The chorion is also present in insects. During growth and ...
Power, Michael L.; Schulkin, Jay (2012). The Evolution of the Human Placenta. JHU Press. pp. 68-. ISBN 978-1-4214-0870-5. .. ... This means the cells at the yolk's edge have cytoplasm continuous with that of the egg, which allows the yolk and embryo to ... 1) Shell; 2) Yolk; 3) Yolk Sac; 4) Allantois; 5) Embryo; 6) Amniotic Fluid; 7) Amniotic Membrane; and 8) Membrane ...
... fish have a structure analogous to the placenta seen in mammals connecting the mother's blood supply with that of the embryo. ... Each embryo develops in its own egg. Familiar examples of ovoviviparous fish include guppies, angel sharks, and coelacanths. ... Some viviparous fish exhibit oophagy, in which the developing embryos eat other eggs produced by the mother. This has been ... Intrauterine cannibalism is an even more unusual mode of vivipary, in which the largest embryos eat weaker and smaller siblings ...
Python embryos even have fully developed hind limb buds, but their later development is stopped by the DNA mutations in the ZRS ... nourishing their young through a placenta as well as a yolk sac, which is highly unusual among reptiles, or anything else ... Parthenogenesis is a natural form of reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. ...
... which give rise to the placenta and other tissues supporting the embryo) retain this early imprinted inactivation, and thus ... Inactivation occurs in the epiblast during gastrulation, which gives rise to the embryo. Inactivation occurs on a cellular ... Steps 1-4 can be studied in in vitro fertilized embryos, and in differentiating stem cells; X-reactivation happens in the ... imprinted inactivation of the paternally-derived X chromosome in 4-8 cell stage embryos. The extraembryonic ...
Rather than needing to harvest embryos or eggs, which are limited, the researchers can remove mesenchymal stem cells with ... yolk sac and placenta of different animals. These stem cells are thought to have more differentiating ability than their adult ... There is other stem cell research that does not involve the destruction of a human embryo, and such research involves adult ...
It appears that reduction of triplets, where each triplet is in its own placenta, to twins results in a lower risk of preterm ... "Risks of miscarriage or preterm delivery in trichorionic and dichorionic triplet pregnancies with embryo reduction versus ... In triplets where two of the fetuses share a placenta and each has its own amniotic sac, it appears, with less certainty, that ... Risks of the procedure include bleeding requiring transfusion, rupture of the uterus, retained placenta, infection, a ...
Catholic Church and abortion
... those which go on to form the placenta), does not constitute a direct act upon the developing embryo. Individual hospitals and ... Embryos. See also: Stem cell controversy. The Church considers the destruction of any embryo to be equivalent to abortion ... Abortion was viewed as a sin, but not as murder, until the embryo was animated by a human soul. In On Virginal Conception ... "The Tradition of Probabilism and the Moral Status of the Early Embryo" (PDF). Theological Studies. Retrieved 4 July 2017.. ...
If there is embryo transfer of more than 4 embryos, the risk has been quoted as 1 in 45. In natural conceptions, the ... placenta *Circumvallate placenta. *Monochorionic twins. *Placenta accreta. *Placenta praevia. *Placental abruption. *Twin-to- ... and technical factors in embryo transfer which may increase the risk for ectopic and heterotopic pregnancy. ...
Teratogen - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"The Embryo Project Encyclopedia. Arizona State University. ISSN 1940-5030. Retrieved February 14, 2016.. ... The placenta protects the fetus from many different viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens that cause infections. However, some ... pathogens can get through the placenta and infect the fetus. This is called vertical transmission. Some of these infections can ...
When the embryo is adequately developed it hatches, i.e. breaks out of the egg's shell. Some embryos have a temporary egg tooth ... This most commonly occurs through a placenta, found in most mammals. Similar structures are found in some sharks and in the ... so that this new individual develops into an embryo. In most animals the embryo is the sessile initial stage of the individual ... The egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point ...
FYI: Hydatidiform Moles | Debate Politics
With this conceptus the embryo (fetus, baby) does not develop at all but the placenta does grow but it is abnormal and forms ... With this conceptus the embryo (fetus, baby) does not develop at all but the placenta does grow but it is abnormal and forms ... With a partial mole, there may be some normal placenta and the embryo, which is abnormal, begins to develop. ... With a partial mole, there may be some normal placenta and the embryo, which is abnormal, begins to develop. ...
What is Placenta Accreta? - Definition from FertilitySmarts
Placenta accreta is a condition that occurs when the placenta attaches itself too deeply in the uterine wall. This is... ... What Are Your Options For Your Remaining Embryos? What You Should Know About Your IVF Lab ... Placenta Accreta Definition - What does Placenta Accreta mean? Placenta accreta is a condition that occurs when the placenta ... More severe forms of this condition are placenta increta and placenta percreta. In placenta increta, the placenta further ...
Research reveals the placenta's oxygen tanks for early embryos | EurekAlert! Science News
... oxygen for newly formed embryos in the weeks after the babys heart is developed. ... A new role for the placenta has been revealed by University of Manchester scientists who have identified sites which store, and ... The new research reveals how the early placenta solves the problem of supplying oxygen to the growing embryo in the second and ... They also found new levels of detail in the structures that link the blood supplies between placenta and embryo. ...
Placenta's oxygen tanks for early embryos revealed - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
The new research reveals how the early placenta solves the problem of supplying oxygen to the growing embryo in the second and ... They also found new levels of detail in the structures that link the blood supplies between placenta and embryo. The advance ... Placenta has shown how a complex network of cells develops in the placenta to extract this oxygen and supply it to the embryo. ... He said: "Early embryos are completely dependent on the mother for the supply of oxygen, and to identify the way in which it is ...
Singleton Pregnancy Outcomes after In Vitro Fertilization with Fresh or Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfer and Incidence of Placenta...
Singleton Pregnancy Outcomes after In Vitro Fertilization with Fresh or Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfer and Incidence of Placenta ... Placenta praevia was more common in IVF patients with fresh ET in a stimulated cycle than in patients with ET in a spontaneous ... It occurred more frequently in patients with transfer of 2 embryos. From this point of view, single ET and ET in a spontaneous ... The aim of the study was to compare the single pregnancy and neonate outcome after fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer in ...
Oxygen saturation in E14 mouse embryo and placenta | FUJIFILM VisualSonics
Can you see the products of the abortion (placenta, embryo, blood) and what should you do with them? - Women on Waves
Can you see the products of the abortion (placenta, embryo, blood) and what should you do with them? → ... Can you see the products of the abortion (placenta, embryo, blood) and what should you do with them? ... The (very small) embryo is usually passed within this blood and tissue in such a way that it goes unnoticed by the woman. ... At nine weeks, you might be able to find a sac in the blood and it is possible that you might see the embryo. With a pregnancy ...
TGFα Reactivates Imprinted Igf2 in the Parthenogenetic Mice Embryos and Placenta, Russian Journal of Genetics | 10.1007/s11177...
"TGFα Reactivates Imprinted Igf2 in the Parthenogenetic Mice Embryos and Placenta, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the ... TGFα Reactivates Imprinted Igf2 in the Parthenogenetic Mice Embryos and Placenta. Zadeh, J.; Penkov, L.; Klimov, E.; Platonov, ... TGFα Reactivates Imprinted Igf2 in the Parthenogenetic Mice Embryos and Placenta Zadeh, J.; Penkov, L.; Klimov, E.; Platonov, E ... TGFα Reactivates Imprinted Igf2 in the Parthenogenetic Mice Embryos and Placenta. ...
Adiponectin: A New Regulator of Female Reproductive System
4. Embryos and Placenta. Adiponectin system is suspected to take part in the maternal-foetus interactions. The elements of ... The effect of adiponectin on the embryos and placenta. The left side of the figure presents the expression of adiponectin ... In the human placenta, adiponectin system was found to be regulated by the cytokines (including TNFα, IFN-γ, and IL-6) and ... In the mice in vitro blastocyst culture, the influence of adiponectin resulted in an increased proportion of embryos with high ...
Rat Embryo, Placenta & Mammary WB : Zyagen, Life Science Products
Placenta & Mammary WB - Antibodies Kits, Reagents & Biochemical Tissue Sections RNA Products cDNA Products Genomic DNA Products ... Rat Embryo, Placenta & Mammary WB. Pregnancy-staged rat whole embryo, placenta, and mammary gland tissue Western blots are made ... Blots allow you to quantify changes in the protein expression in embryo, placenta, and mammary gland at different stages of ... Total protein is extracted from whole embryo, placenta, and mammary gland of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats. Pregnancy is ...
Mouse CD1 Embryo, Placenta, Mammary WB : Zyagen, Life Science Products
Placenta, Mammary WB - Antibodies Kits, Reagents & Biochemical Tissue Sections RNA Products cDNA Products Genomic DNA Products ... Mouse CD1 Embryo, Placenta, Mammary WB. Pregnancy-staged mouse whole embryo, placenta, and mammary gland tissue Western blots ... Total protein is extracted from whole embryo, placenta, and mammary gland of pregnant CD1 (ICR) mice. Pregnancy is precisely ... Home :: Premade Western Blots :: Mouse Tissue Western Blots :: Mouse CD1 Tissue Western blots :: Mouse CD1 Embryo, Placenta, ...
4 Weeks Pregnant Symptoms - Week 4 Pregnancy Signs, Cramping, Baby Development, and More
Placenta and embryo begin forming. While you may have just started to wonder whether youre pregnant, your soon-to-be baby has ... Before the placenta forms, you develop a yolk sac. This sac produces blood and helps to nourish your young embryo. ... Half of whats now called the embryo will become your son or daughter, while the other half forms the placenta, your babys ... Though your embryo is only a tiny dot, it has already started to differentiate into three layers, each with its own job ...
Mouse placenta is a major hematopoietic organ | Development
... placenta, yolk sac and caudal half of the embryo; from E10 to E17, placenta (free of umbilical cord), yolk sac and liver. The ... Placenta and yolk sac from 8- to 17-day-old (E8-E17) mouse embryos/fetuses were investigated for the presence of in vitro ... Scl also appeared in the 20 sp placenta, whereas it was already expressed in the embryo proper at 18 sp. Thus, both Runx1 and ... The GFP+ fetal component of the placenta was clearly distinguished from the maternal GFP- component in these embryos (Fig. 1). ...
Andrzej Tarkowski Dies | The Scientist Magazine®
... which states that the inner cells of an embryo give rise to the embryo proper while the outer cells become the placenta. This ... Conservation Biologist and Placenta Expert Kurt Benirschke Dies. Conservation Biologist and Placenta Expert Kurt Benirschke ... CRISPR Can Track Cellular History of a Mammalian Embryo. CRISPR Can Track Cellular History of a Mammalian Embryo. ... Tarkowski found that destroying one cell of a two-cell mouse embryo did not stop the mouse from developing normally, "a finding ...
Homing peptides: targeting drugs to the placenta | Tommy's
Tommys researchers are making use of homing peptides to deliver drugs directly to the placenta. This work could help to ... Drugs which could help prevent pregnancy complications cant reach the placenta effectively. ... Can freezing IVF embryos reduce pregnancy complications?. Babies conceived by IVF have a higher risk of complications and ... Understanding the causes of stillbirth by studying the placenta. *Understanding the link between inflammation, the placenta and ...
Is fetal growth restriction caused by failure of the placenta to adapt to nutrient demand? | Tommy's
In this study we will compare placentas from normal and Fetal Growth Restricted-affected pregnancies to identify what the ... Can freezing IVF embryos reduce pregnancy complications?. Babies conceived by IVF have a higher risk of complications and ... Comparing 2D and 3D MRI to study the placenta. Our scientists are developing new ways to use MRI scans to study the placenta, ... For the growth of the baby to proceed as normal, a placenta that functions as normal is crucial. If the placenta fails to ...
Placenta | human and animal | Britannica.com
Placenta, in zoology, the vascular (supplied with blood vessels) organ in most mammals that unites the fetus to the uterus of ... to a new organ, the placenta, formed from tissues of both the mother and the embryo: the uterine wall with its blood vessels ... animal reproductive system: Provisions for the developing embryo. …(trophonemata) that constitute a simple placenta (site of ... The condition is known as placenta praevia when the placenta lies over all or a portion of the internal opening of the cervix. ...
DNA methylation in the human placenta and fetal growth (Review)
Ethanol-exposed midgestation placentas and embryos were severely growth retarded when compared with the controls. The ... SGA and control placentas. -. No difference. H19. Yes. IUGR and control placentas. Hypomethylation. Increased. Koukoura et al, ... IUGR and control placentas. No difference. IGF2. Yes. IUGR and control placentas. Hypomethylation. Decreased. Koukoura et al, ... IUGR and control placentas. No difference. Increased. PHLDA2. Yes. IUGR and control placentas. Increased. McMinn et al, 2006 ( ...
Anatomical Models - Anatomy Teaching Models - Embryo Models - Fetus Models - Pregnancy Models
8 Individual Embryo & Fetus Models - 3B Smart Anatomy, Embryo Model, 1st Month - 3B Smart Anatomy, Embryo Model ... Embryo Models, Fetus Models, Pregnancy Models, Anatomy Set Pregnancy, Ovaries & Fallopian Tubes Model with Stages of ... The corrosion cast specimen of a human placenta is embedded in crystal-clear plastic. Placenta has detailed spatial portrayal ... NEW and exclusively with original 3B Scientific® anatomy models: Human Embryo Model, 25 times Life-Size - now enhanced with 3B ...
Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy. - PubMed - NCBI
K) Histological section of placenta of same embryo as shown in (J). The giant trophoblast is disappearing. (L) Histology of ... Embryo resorptions R12, R13 and R21. (A) R12 and R13, day 9. In R12, the embryo is no longer visible. In R13, the embryo is ... I) Histology of the same embryo as in (H). (J) Day 11. The placenta displays hyperechogenic calcification deposits (arrowheads ... The embryo has disappeared. (F) R7, day 9. The embryo and its membranes except for the Reicherts membrane have disappeared. ...
Placenta and Trophoblast: Methods and Protocols, Volume I by Michael J. Soares, Paperback | Barnes & Noble®
The Paperback of the Placenta and Trophoblast: Methods and Protocols, Volume I by Michael J. Soares at Barnes & Noble. FREE ... Methods for Studying Embryo Implantation and Uterine Biology. Methodologies to Study Implantation in Mice. Kaushik Deb, Jeff ... Phenotypic Analysis of the Placenta. Phenotypic Analysis of the Mouse Placenta. David R. C. Natale, Maja Starovic, and James C ... Placenta and Trophoblast: Methods and Protocols, Volume I. by Michael J. Soares (Editor), Joan S. Hunt (Editor)Michael J. ...
Copy of AP Bio- Regulation 2: Development by Amy Fansler on Prezi
Internal Development of a Dog Embryo. Yolk. Umbilicus/Placenta. The evolution of the amniotic egg. was a major adaptation that ... Frog embryo shown. Cork Cambium. -. Produces productive bark (. periderm. ). Cleavage in a frog embryo. Gastrulation in a sea ... embryo (intestine map shown). things get freaky, easy. Other. experiments. Funky Frog Fetuses:. By manipulating frog embryos ... onto another embryo leads to a duplication of the embryo in opposite polarity.. Limb Development:. Chicken limb development is ...
In vitro fertilization alters phospholipid profiles in mouse placenta | SpringerLink
... is associated with abnormal placenta formation and function. Currently, ... A role of lipid metabolism during cumulus-oocyte complex maturation: impact of lipid modulators to improve embryo production. ... Review: transport across the placenta of mice and women. Placenta. 2013;34(Suppl):S34-9. ... Chen, S., Wang, J., Wang, M. et al. In vitro fertilization alters phospholipid profiles in mouse placenta. J Assist Reprod ...
Placenta and Extraembryonic Membranes
... and one placenta. If the embryo splits early in the second week after the amniotic cavity has formed, the twins will have one ... Placenta. The placenta is a fetomaternal organ. The fetal portion of the placenta is known as the villous chorion. The maternal ... Placenta Previa. The fetus implants in such a way that the placenta or fetal blood vessels grow to block the internal os of the ... The placental membrane separates maternal blood from fetal blood. The fetal part of the placenta is known as the chorion. The ...
Kids' Health - Topics - Sexual reproduction - how babies are made - for kids
The place where the embryo plants itself is inside the uterus. The baby starts to grow, and other tissue grows into a placenta ... sperm; sexual; uterus; pregnant; placenta; umbilical; cord; reproduction; sex; baby; babies; foetus; fetus; embryo; intercourse ... first 2 months - embryo *3rd month to birth - fetus When your dads sperm and mums egg (ovum) got together, they each ... The umbilical cord is a soft bendy tube from the placenta to the navel (or tummy button) of the fetus. ...
Chorionic Villus Sampling for Prenatal Diagnosis | EmaxHealth
... the development stage of the embryo) and the location of the placenta. This is done so that CVS can be performed at the ... Embryo: a term that describes the developing baby from the moment of conception to the end of the eighth week of pregnancy. ... Placenta: Tissue that connects the woman and fetus. It provides nourishment to the fetus and takes away wastes from the fetus. ... During the CVS test, a small sample of cells (called chorionic villi) is taken from the placenta where it attaches to the wall ...
7 Things you didn't know about the placenta - Reader's Digest
Here are seven things you didnt know about the placenta. ... the placenta, or afterbirth, is a mere afterthought soon ... All had a common origin but the fact remains that the placenta is no longer embryo. ... The word placenta comes from the Latin word for "cake" and the placenta can be eaten in pills, pizzas and smoothies. Coleen ... Magenta placenta might best describe its appearance as it pulsates with a rich mixture of red and blue blood. Mother and ...
The Placenta, an Afterthought No Longer - The New York Times
This vulnerability, in turn, may transfer to the embryo, Dr. Bale said. Male fetuses typically are larger than females ... The placenta forms when cells from a fertilized egg secure a beachhead in the uterine lining. Ninety percent of the placenta is ... has found that the placenta of a male fetus is more vulnerable to external stress than the placenta of a female fetus. ... in female placentas than in males. (The more detailed analysis of gene expression published three weeks ago did not look at sex ...
USMLE Step 1 Review/Embryology - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Epiblast → embryo, amnion. Hypoblast → yolk sac. Trophoblast → syncytiotrophoblast + cytotrophoblast → placenta. Germ layers[ ... Primordial germ cells originate in yolk sac, then migrate along the embryos midline longitudinal axis to the gonadal ridge. ... cilia sweeps Shh to one side of the developing embryo to help signal this sidedness. In primary ciliary dyskinesia, the dynein ...
The Week contest: Tweets with TMI
Lizard - Wikipedia
Aberrant expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin proteins in placenta of bovine embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear...
Aberrant expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin proteins in placenta of bovine embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear ... Aberrant expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin proteins in placenta of bovine embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear ... Bovine trophectoderm cell lines derived from SCNT and control embryos were analysed to compare with the in utero condition. ... Immunohistochemistry revealed a different pattern of E-cadherin and total beta-catenin localisation in SCNT placentas compared ...
UterusIncreta and placenta percretaFetusAccretaOrganUterine wallPregnancyGrowth of the placentaImplantationUmbilical cordYolk sacFetusesVitroTrophoblastMammalian embryosImprinted genesDevelopsBaby'sRisk of placentaFunction of the placentaMaternal bloodChanges in the placentaSurface of the placentaBlood from the placentaPosition of the placentaOxygenChorioallantoicFrozen embryoPlacentationFresh embryo transferQuality embryosProteinsSpermAmniotic sacChorionGestationalNutrientsCorpus luteumMurineWombUterineFetal growthEpiblastScientistsMouseEarlyBovineGrowsChicken embryoDevelopmentalOvulationResearchersProgesterone
Increta and placenta percreta1
- With this conceptus the embryo (fetus, baby) does not develop at all but the placenta does grow but it is abnormal and forms lots of cysts and has no blood vessels. (debatepolitics.com)
- I am not sure why this site is talking about a fetus or a baby, as there is never a developing embryo to begin with. (debatepolitics.com)
- But a fetus is not the esame as an embryo. (debatepolitics.com)
- What is Placenta Accreta? (fertilitysmarts.com)
- Placenta accreta is a condition that occurs when the placenta attaches itself too deeply in the uterine wall. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- A woman diagnosed with placenta accreta will likely need a Caesarean section (C-section) to deliver the baby and may require a hysterectomy after the delivery. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- In placenta accreta, the placenta has attached too deeply in the uterine wall and cannot properly detach during delivery. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- Placenta accreta occurs in approximately 1 in 2500 pregnancies. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- However, these are not as common as placenta accreta, which accounts for 75% of all cases. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- Placenta accreta is likely caused by scarring in the uterine lining from a previous C-section or other uterine surgery. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- Once discovered, placenta accreta usually requires delivery by C-section and may result in the need for a hysterectomy after delivery. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- Left untreated, placenta accreta can lead to severe hemorrhage and is a life-threatening condition. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- This is problematic when it comes time for delivery and the placenta is inseparable from the uterine wall, causing severe blood loss. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- Normally during pregnancy, the placenta attaches to the uterine wall. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- After a baby is delivered, the placenta detaches from the uterine wall and passes through the birth canal. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- In placenta increta, the placenta further invades the uterine wall and attaches deep inside of it. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- The new research reveals how the early placenta solves the problem of supplying oxygen to the growing embryo in the second and third months of pregnancy, as it gradually takes over this role from the yolk sac. (eurekalert.org)
- The aim of the study was to compare the single pregnancy and neonate outcome after fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer in the in vitro fertilization programme (IVF). (hindawi.com)
- With a pregnancy of 8 or 9 weeks, the embryo is about 2,5 cm. (womenonwaves.org)
- Frequently, the embryo expelled during a medical abortion is not explicitly visible because it is passed together with other pregnancy tissue and blood 17 . (womenonwaves.org)
- Blots allow you to quantify changes in the protein expression in embryo, placenta, and mammary gland at different stages of pregnancy. (zyagen.com)
- the sign you've been waiting for: your little embryo starts to produce HCG - the just-for-pregnancy hormone that'll turn your pregnancy pee test positively positive. (whattoexpect.com)
- These data point to the placenta as a major hematopoietic organ that is active during most of pregnancy. (biologists.org)
- Drugs which could help prevent pregnancy complications can't reach the placenta effectively. (tommys.org)
- Can freezing IVF embryos reduce pregnancy complications? (tommys.org)
- NEW and exclusively with original 3B Scientific® anatomy models: Pregnancy Models Series, 8 Individual Embryo & Fetus Models - now enhanced with 3B Smart Anatomy. (3bscientific.com)
- Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- A muscular organ that is located in the female abdomen and contains and nourishes the developing embryo and fetus during pregnancy. (emaxhealth.com)
- The placenta may be dismissed as "afterbirth," deemed an afterthought in discussions about pregnancy and even relegated, literally, to the trash bin. (nytimes.com)
- During the course of human pregnancy, the placenta grows from a few cells into an organ weighing more than a pound. (nytimes.com)
- In placentas, the PCR resulted in amplification of eight fragments at different pregnancy stages. (usp.br)
- As cells divide and differentiate, the developing baby begins as a zygote, forms into a blastocyst, becomes an embryo and then transforms into a fetus, all in the first trimester of pregnancy. (livestrong.com)
- The new technology, shared by a team of investigators at the Pacific Fertility Center (USA) and at the Hewitt Fertility Center in Liverpool (UK) at Fertility 2013, will hopefully result in more favorable pregnancy outcomes and reduce the requirement to move more than one embryo at a time into the womb. (growingyourbaby.com)
- With further development and testing, this technique has the potential to help us allow more women to have single embryo transfer, the most effective method of decreasing the multiple pregnancy rate. (growingyourbaby.com)
- The objective of study is to assess the possible impact of assisted hatching on the implantation, pregnancy rate and delivery rate after transfer of vitrified-warmed human embryos. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The embryo implantation rate in assisted reproduction procedures is 20%, which leads to a low clinical pregnancy rate (35%), and even lower live birth rate (25%), per cycle started. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Embryos exposed to 300 μM ammonium are retarded by 1.5 days developmentally at Day 15 of pregnancy. (bioone.org)
- It is therefore essential that culture conditions for mammalian embryos are designed to minimize the buildup of ammonium to prevent abnormalities in embryo physiology, genetic regulation, pregnancy, and fetal development. (bioone.org)
- Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. (harvard.edu)
- The origin of the EST in the degu placenta and its migration to maternal vessels allows us to present this animal model for the study of pregnancy pathologies related to alterations in the migration of the extravillous trophoblast. (biomedsearch.com)
- According to a new study by a research group from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine , if a mother is exposed to stress during pregnancy, her placenta translates that experience to her fetus by altering levels of a protein that affects the developing brains of male and female offspring differently. (healthcanal.com)
- Most everything experienced by a woman during a pregnancy has to interact with the placenta in order to transmit to the fetus," said Tracy L. Bale , senior author on the paper and an associate professor in the Department of Animal Biology at Penn Vet. (healthcanal.com)
- Recently, elective single embryo transfer (eSET) has been adopted by ART centers worldwide as a means to reduce the multiple pregnancy rates ( 3 , 4 ). (medsci.org)
- From the very earliest stage of pregnancy, after the sperm fertilizes the egg, an embryo forms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Placenta previa is a complication of pregnancy in which the placenta (the organ that joins the mother and fetus and transfers oxygen and nutrients to the fetus) is implanted either near to or overlying the outlet of the uterus (womb). (emedicinehealth.com)
- What Week During Pregnancy Do the Early Symptoms and Signs of Placenta Previa Start? (emedicinehealth.com)
- Bleeding occurs at some time in most women with placenta previa, and it is the primary sign after the 20th week during pregnancy. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Placenta previa symptoms can be associated with other complications of pregnancy. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Women who have had placenta previa in one pregnancy are at greater risk for this complication in subsequent pregnancies. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Until the eighth week of pregnancy the conceptus is called an embryo, and after that time a fetus. (britannica.com)
- What many women don't know is that most of the progesterone produced during the last two trimesters of pregnancy is produced, not by the ovaries, but by the placenta! (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- As a pregnancy progresses, the placenta must produce an ever-increasing amount of progesterone until the birth of the baby, to support the fetus and the health of the mother. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
Growth of the placenta2
- The human placenta has evolved a unique and elegant solution to this problem, in which the process of supplying oxygen is intimately connected with growth of the placenta itself. (eurekalert.org)
- Delivering drugs in this way improved both the blood flow within the womb and the growth of the placenta. (tommys.org)
- Volume 1 provides readily reproducible protocols for studying embryo-uterine implantation, trophoblast cell development, and the organization and molecular characterization of the placenta. (barnesandnoble.com)
- Low embryo quality, poor endometrial receptivity, difficulties during the blastocyst hatching process are frequently denoted as the main reasons for the low implantation rate in humans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The artificial rupture or thinning of the zona pellucida before embryo transfer-assisted hatching (AH)-has been proposed to foster spontaneous hatching and improve embryo implantation rates. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Decidua basalis - This is the part of the decidua which is located basalolateral to the embryo after implantation. (wikipedia.org)
- This includes using cutting-edge technologies to identify key markers within umbilical cord blood (which flows from the baby to the placenta) and the baby's side of the placenta (where these signals would act). (tommys.org)
- Two large arteries in the umbilical cord radiate from the attachment of the cord on the inner surface of the placenta and divide into small arteries that penetrate outward into the depths of the placenta through hundreds of branching and interlacing strands of tissue known as villi . (britannica.com)
- Next time you look at your navel, consider that it was once where your umbilical cord plugged you into the amazing placenta. (readersdigest.co.uk)
- Both the umbilical cord and placenta are potential lifesavers during adult years, as treasure chests of stem cells that can be used to treat diseases such as leukaemia. (readersdigest.co.uk)
- The umbilical cord provides the pathway for fetal blood to flow to and from the placenta. (livestrong.com)
- It had been believed that the yolk sac contributed the bulk of oxygen at this stage but recent studies have shown that this gradually decreases in importance as the embryo ages. (eurekalert.org)
- Before the placenta forms, you develop a yolk sac. (whattoexpect.com)
- Placenta and yolk sac from 8- to 17-day-old (E8-E17) mouse embryos/fetuses were investigated for the presence of in vitro clonogenic progenitors. (biologists.org)
- At E8, between five and nine somite pairs (sp), placenta, yolk sac and embryonic body yielded no progenitors. (biologists.org)
- The first progenitors appeared at E8.5 at the stage of 15 sp in the yolk sac, 18 sp in the embryonic body, 20 sp in the placenta and only at E12 in the fetal liver (absent at E10, at E11 not determined). (biologists.org)
- However, the earliest of these progenitors (these yielding large, multilineage colonies) were 2-4 times more frequent in the placenta than in the yolk sac or fetal liver. (biologists.org)
- Thus, the fetal liver, which is a recognized site for amplification and commitment, has a very different hematopoietic developmental profile from placenta or yolk sac. (biologists.org)
- Yolk sac, fetal liver, thymus, spleen and bone marrow are the organs identified as carrying out this function in mammalian embryos ( Metcalf and Moore, 1971 ). (biologists.org)
- detected in the placenta, yolk sac, early embryo and fetal liver, every two days from E8 to E17. (biologists.org)
- 4) at each stage studied, high-proliferation-potential colony-forming cells (HPP-CFCs), which were able to give rise to subcolonies of the same type up to 60 days, were several times more frequent in placenta than in fetal liver or yolk sac. (biologists.org)
- The space between Reichert's membrane and inner yolk sac membrane was enlarged The growth retarded embryos exhibited bradycardia and ultimately cessation of heart beat. (nih.gov)
- The epithelium of the parietal yolk sac covers the placenta. (biomedsearch.com)
- Bovine in vitro produced embryos and placentas obtained from natural mating or cloning-derived fetuses had their RNA extracted. (usp.br)
- Mothers have long pregnancies, nourishing their fetuses through a placenta. (amnh.org)
- Blood flows preferentially to the placenta instead of the brain in fetuses of mothers with diabetes, reveals research presented today at EuroEcho-Imaging 2016. (brightsurf.com)
- Women carrying male fetuses are slightly slightly more likely to have placenta previa than women with female fetuses. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Here, we studied effect of transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) treatment in vitro (10 ng/ml at the morula stage) on the expression of Igf2/H19 locus in mice PE (9.5 days of gestation, 25 somites) and their placentas (PP). Using RT-PCR, we showed that TGFα reactivated maternally imprinted Igf2 gene in parthenogenetic embryos and placentas. (deepdyve.com)
- Studies on humans and rodents have clearly shown that in vitro fertilization (IVF) is associated with abnormal placenta formation and function. (springer.com)
- There are two very common concerns for couples that are considering in vitro fertilization: Unhealthy embryos result in failed pregnancies, which can lead to frustration, extra cost and even depression for IVF couples and multiple embryo transplants increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby. (growingyourbaby.com)
- When scientists take stem cells from embryos, these are usually extra embryos that result from in vitro fertilization (IVF). (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A small study by investigators from Harvard University suggests that cryopreserved embryo transfer (CET) is a strong independent risk factor for placenta accreta in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). (modernmedicine.com)
- We show that miRNA members of the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster, which are almost exclusively expressed in the human placenta, are packaged within trophoblast-derived exosomes and attenuate viral replication in recipient cells by the induction of autophagy. (pnas.org)
- Simultaneously, the outermost trophoblast of the ectoplacental cone differentiated into secondary trophoblast giant cells that lie on the outside of the placenta, forming an interface with the maternal cells in the decidua. (biomedsearch.com)
- The new research, published in the journal Placenta has shown how a complex network of cells develops in the placenta to extract this oxygen and supply it to the embryo. (eurekalert.org)
- Because the mouse chorioallantoic placenta develops by fusion of the allantois to the ectoplacental cone, we asked whether the placenta might participate in mouse fetal hematopoiesis and probed it for the presence of hematopoietic progenitors. (biologists.org)
- the hypoblast develops into the placenta. (medscape.com)
- The placenta also develops. (webmd.com)
- Also called tissue-specific or somatic stem cells, adult stem cells exist throughout the body from the time an embryo develops. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The naive early versions of preformation and epigenesis had to be given up when embryologists showed that the embryo develops by a series of complex but orderly and gradual transformations (see animal development). (britannica.com)
- A new role for the placenta has been revealed by University of Manchester scientists who have identified sites which store, and gradually release, oxygen for newly formed embryos in the weeks after the baby's heart is developed. (eurekalert.org)
- Half of what's now called the embryo will become your son or daughter, while the other half forms the placenta , your baby's lifeline - which channels nutrients and carries waste away until delivery. (whattoexpect.com)
- The embryo now has three distinct layers of cells that will grow into specialized parts of your baby's body. (whattoexpect.com)
- For a cell in an embryo, the secret to becoming part of the baby's body instead of the placenta is to contract more and carry on dancing, scientists at EMBL have found. (brightsurf.com)
Risk of placenta2
- Asian women have a slightly increased risk of placenta previa than women of other races, although the reason for this is unclear. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Does cryopreservation of embryos increase risk of placenta accreta? (modernmedicine.com)
Function of the placenta2
- Alteration of the methylation patterns of genes expressed in the placenta has recently been found to modify gene expression and subsequently impair function of the placenta. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The size, structural details and function of the placenta and developing embryo can all be measured over multiple gestational time-points without having to sacrifice your animal. (visualsonics.com)
- Blood vessels gradually grow towards these cell groups, leading to the slow release of oxygen-laden red cells to the embryo and keeping it supplied until more efficient oxygen transfer becomes possible as maternal blood enters the placenta at the end of the third month. (eurekalert.org)
- The placenta contains numerous terminal villi, small structures containing disordered networks of fetal capillaries that are surrounded by maternal blood. (brightsurf.com)
Changes in the placenta2
Surface of the placenta2
- By studying the postcode of the placenta, they have created molecules called 'homing peptides', which home and bind to the surface of the placenta or the blood vessels in the womb. (tommys.org)
- The purified and enriched blood in the capillaries of the villi is collected into fetal veins, which carry it back to the inner surface of the placenta and collect at the attachment of the cord to form the umbilical vein. (britannica.com)
Blood from the placenta2
- Fetal circulation involves three circulatory shunts: the ductus venosus , which allows blood from the placenta to bypass the liver , and the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale , which together allow blood to bypass the developing lungs . (umich.edu)
- The vein returns the oxygenated blood from the placenta back to the right atrium of the fetal heart. (livestrong.com)
Position of the placenta2
- He said: "Early embryos are completely dependent on the mother for the supply of oxygen, and to identify the way in which it is taken up and distributed is important for understanding more about these early stages of life. (eurekalert.org)
- Oxygen and food go into the embryo, CO2 and waste come out. (brainscape.com)
- The placenta transfers oxygen and nutrients from the mother's blood to the placenta and transfers waste products from the placenta's blood to the mother's blood. (livestrong.com)
- The two arteries carry blood pumped from the left ventricle of the fetal heart to the placenta to receive oxygen and nutrients from the mother. (livestrong.com)
- PHILADELPHIA - The mammalian placenta is more than just a filter through which nutrition and oxygen are passed from a mother to her unborn child. (healthcanal.com)
- Oyen and her team can then model how the blood flows through the capillaries of the placenta, bringing oxygen from the mother to the baby. (cam.ac.uk)
- This will aid understanding of why the placenta sometimes malfunctions and fails to bring enough oxygen to the baby, meaning its growth is restricted. (cam.ac.uk)
- The chicken embryo and the blood-vessel rich chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a valuable in vivo model to investigate biomedical processes, new ultrasound pulsing schemes, or novel transducers for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and microbubble-mediated drug delivery. (jove.com)
- Ex ovo chicken embryos and the blood-vessel rich chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) have proven to be a suitable model to investigate various biological and biomedical processes like embryogenesis, oncology, and drug delivery 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . (jove.com)
- This is the frozen embryo transfer (FET) checklist for you need to read and take note of before heading back to the doc. (theluxuryspot.com)
- I wish I had this (or frankly, some more experienced person to guide me) before starting my frozen embryo transfers as it would have saved me time, frustration, and money. (theluxuryspot.com)
- If you froze your eggs, you're exactly the kind of girl who can expect to hear a doctor suggest a frozen embryo transfer - but you should know that you're signing up for additional hurdle rates (including just in the defrosting process), and gambling in higher risk ways on just how successful the fertilization of your eggs might be (forget about growing successful embryos into babies and beyond for now). (theluxuryspot.com)
- About 25% of frozen embryo transfer fails are actually due to simple miscalculations in transfer timing . (theluxuryspot.com)
- 3. Do not do a natural cycle frozen embryo transfer. (theluxuryspot.com)
- There is a great importance of AH during frozen embryo cycles. (clinicaltrials.gov)
Fresh embryo transfer2
- The results confirm that neonates born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer had significantly higher mean birth weight than after fresh embryo transfer (ET). (hindawi.com)
- Eligibility criteria: women age 18-42, cleavage-stage embryo transfer, less than seven IVF cycles with fresh embryo transfer, high quality embryos. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In addition, proteins and enzymes that regulate the phospholipid biosynthesis were also altered in IVF placentas. (springer.com)
- These foot soldiers produce proteins that disarm the mother's defenses, destroy the smooth muscles that line her blood vessels and dilate and redirect the vessels to feed the embryo. (nytimes.com)
- If your egg and your partner's sperm have joined successfully, your embryo is really there, although it's very small -- about the size of the head of a pin. (webmd.com)
- A workshop for lesbians/single women contemplating use of egg, sperm or embryo donation or currently having treatment. (bionews.org.uk)
- The fetal portion of the placenta is known as the villous chorion . (umich.edu)
- This type of twins commonly has two amnions, one chorion, and one placenta. (umich.edu)
- If the embryo splits early in the second week after the amniotic cavity has formed, the twins will have one amnion, one chorion, and one placenta. (umich.edu)
- Evidence suggests that in normal pregnancies, the baby is able to signal to the mother to alter the amount of nutrients getting across, via the placenta. (tommys.org)
- This means that the transfer of nutrients by the placenta is insufficient for normal growth and FGR occurs.This study aims to examine the signals that baby produces in more detail. (tommys.org)
- It also prompts the endometrium to provide nutrients to the developing embryo. (healthline.com)
- Progranulin (acrogranin/PC cell-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) is expressed in the placenta, epidermis, microvasculature, and brain during murine development. (biomedsearch.com)
- We used in situ hybridization to investigate progranulin expression in murine embryos. (biomedsearch.com)
- When they're injected into the body, they build up in the placenta or the womb, only releasing their drug cargo where it is needed. (tommys.org)
- The team are now continuing their work, packaging up different drugs into their particles to see whether it can deliver drugs efficiently to the womb and placenta. (tommys.org)
- Our scientists are studying why freezing an IVF embryo before it is transferred into the mother's womb could help to reduce these risks. (tommys.org)
- When the placenta is torn from the womb lining and delivered as the afterbirth, strong uterine contractions compress the bleeding vessels, preventing catastrophic haemorrhage. (readersdigest.co.uk)
- Complete placenta previa refers to the situation in which the placenta completely covers the opening from the womb to the cervix. (emedicinehealth.com)
- A number of factors can increase the likelihood that the placenta will be located in the lower part of the womb and potentially cover the cervical opening. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Is fetal growth restriction caused by failure of the placenta to adapt to nutrient demand? (tommys.org)
- If the placenta fails to function, fetal growth restriction (FGR) may occur. (tommys.org)
- In this review, we briefly present the available evidence regarding the role of DNA methylation patterns of the placenta on aberrant fetal growth. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Furthermore, of those embryos that manage to implant, fetal growth is significantly impaired. (bioone.org)
- The scientists show that as the placenta grows in the first few weeks, small groups of stem cells are formed from which primitive red blood cells arise. (eurekalert.org)
- But the new technology may also help cut down on the amount of time that embryos have to spend in a synthetic environment while scientists test them for viability. (growingyourbaby.com)
- Now a specialist team of scientists made up of mathematicians, physicists, physiologists and clinical consultants, have used 3D imaging to help model some of the complex processes performed by the placenta. (brightsurf.com)
- UCLA scientists have discovered specific genetic changes in the placentas of women who gave birth to growth-restricted infants. (brightsurf.com)
- It is known that genes inherited from ancient retroviruses are essential to the placenta in mammals, a finding to which scientists in the Laboratoire Physiologie et Pathologie Moleacuteculaires des Retrovirus Endogenes et Infectieux contributed. (brightsurf.com)
- The mouse placenta has previously been shown to harbor B-cell progenitors ( Melchers, 1979 ). (biologists.org)
- Then, during a short stint at University College of North Wales (now Bangor University), Tarkowski generated the first chimeric mouse embryos, which still serve as an important tool in biological research today. (the-scientist.com)
- In the 1980s, Tarkowski developed a technique to analyze chromosome structure in mouse oocytes using an electric current to fuse two-cell embryos together. (the-scientist.com)
- The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of IVF on lipid metabolism in the mouse placenta. (springer.com)
- Two groups of mouse placentas, composed of control and IVF, were collected at embryonic day 18.5. (springer.com)
- After lipidomic analysis, we present the first detailed overview of the effect of IVF on lipid metabolism, especially phospholipid profiles in the placenta in a mouse model. (springer.com)
- flk-1, tek, and tie transcripts were detected sequentially at one-half day intervals starting at E7.0, suggesting that each of these RTKs play a unique role during vascularization of the mouse embryo. (nih.gov)
- These results suggest a possible dual role for VEGF which includes a chemotactic and/or a cellular maintenance role for VEGF during vascularization of the mouse embryo. (nih.gov)
- Repeatable for longitudinal studies over gestation, rapid, and robust and with resolution down to 30 μm, studying mouse and rat embryos has never been easier. (visualsonics.com)
- Mouse embryo and placenta showing oxygenation, using photoacoustic imaging . (visualsonics.com)
- We have presented evidence for the dominance of the inactive X p in extraembryonic regions of 7.5- and 8.5-d mouse embryos heterozygous for Cattanach's translocation 3 in which the two X chromosomes could be readily identified 4 . (nature.com)
- The expression of MHC-Ib protein was evaluated in embryos (D7) and in placentas using a FITC conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody anti-Qa-2. (usp.br)
- The lack of a gene called LBP-1a in the mouse embryo prevents normal growth of blood vessels in the placenta. (news-medical.net)
- 1983 ) Poly (A) length, cytoplasmic adenylation and synthesis of Poly (A)+RNA in early mouse embryos. (biologists.org)
- 1978 ) Localisation and synthesis of alphafetoprotein in postimplantation mouse embryos. (biologists.org)
- A new technology known as Eeva (Early Embryo Viability Assessment) may soon help with both of these concerns. (growingyourbaby.com)
- The technique of assisted hatching using partial zona pellucida dissection to create an artificial opening of the zona pellucida of early cleaved embryos. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Some of the head of an early embryo arises from the embryonic disk in front of the primitive knot. (britannica.com)
- In this type of reproduction, the embryo divides into several separate, identical parts at an early stage. (britannica.com)
- Early in its growth within the archegonium, the embryo produces a foot that penetrates the thallus and an apical meristem that elongates the rest of the horn-shaped sporophyte to rupture the thallus surface. (britannica.com)
- This is a remnant of the primitive gill of the early embryo, a reminder of our ancient fishy ancestors. (britannica.com)
- The pronephros, developing early in embryo formation, is the functional kidney of fish and amphibian larvae. (britannica.com)
- In situ hybridisation to early postimplantation embryos has revealed the expression patterns of these novel genes. (biologists.org)
- Besides this, the chicken embryo and CAM vessels provide a heartbeat and a pulsating blood flow. (jove.com)
- Although the chicken embryo and CAM are less suitable for long term experiments, they can be beneficial for short term in vivo experiments. (jove.com)
- To increase visibility and controllability over the chicken embryo and CAM during experiments, it is important to take the egg content containing the embryo and CAM out of the eggshell 18 . (jove.com)
- Tommy's researchers are making use of 'homing peptides' to deliver drugs directly to the placenta. (tommys.org)
- Researchers funded by Tommy's have developed a way to target drugs straight to the placenta, so that there is no risk of harm to the unborn child. (tommys.org)
- Our researchers are studying the effects of tiny particles found in fruit and vegetables on the placenta. (tommys.org)
- In this project, our researchers are using cutting-edge techniques to study the placenta. (tommys.org)
- In the third, researchers created mini-placentas , three-dimensional clusters of cells, or organoids, that mimic the real thing in the lab, and can be used as models for studying it. (nytimes.com)
- During the testing phase, both teams of researchers tested 298 embryos from 30 different women. (growingyourbaby.com)
- The food estrogen zearalenone migrates through the placenta, as researchers were able to demonstrate for the first time. (newswise.com)
- The researchers showed that the placenta produces metabolic products that are about a factor 70 more estrogenic than zearalenone. (newswise.com)
- The adrenal glands and the placenta can also produce progesterone. (healthline.com)
- Once the placenta has formed, it also produces progesterone. (healthline.com)
- Eventually, the placenta becomes to primary producer of progesterone. (healthline.com)
- Which is to say, that any drop in progesterone levels could result in the loss of the embryo. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- It therefore comes as no surprise that after the birth of the baby and the loss of the placenta, progesterone production and levels drop very suddenly - no placenta, no progesterone, or very little. (safemenopausesolutions.com)