The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.
Delay in the attachment and implantation of BLASTOCYST to the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The blastocyst remains unattached beyond the normal duration thus delaying embryonic development.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A serine endopeptidase found primarily in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. It has specificity for cleavage of a variety of substrates including PRORENIN, pro-membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, and NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULE L1.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.
An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Utilization or disposal of an embryo that is fertilized but not immediately transplanted and resulting course of action.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain cedrelanolide.
Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Artificial implanted lenses.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.
Surgical insertion of cylindric hydraulic devices for the treatment of organic ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.

An ultrastructural study of implantation in the golden hamster. II. Trophoblastic invasion and removal of the uterine epithelium. (1/2169)

Sixty six implantation sites from 18 golden hamsters were examined with light and electron microscopy between 4 and 5 1/2 days of pregnancy (post-ovulation). At 4 days some blastocysts began to invade the uterine epithelium, with trophoblastic processes penetrating and engulfing portions of the uterine epithelium. The majority of epithelial cells appeared normal before invasion, although at two implantation sites three or four adjoining epithelial cells were necrotic before penetration by the trophoblast. In general the epithelial cells were degenerating at the time the trophoblast invaded the epithelium. Inclusions, representing portions of the engulfed epithelium, and varying in size and electron density, were present throughout the invading trophoblast cells at 4 1/2 and 5 days of pregnancy. At 5 1/2 days the uterine epithelium had disappeared and the embryo was now almost completely surrounded by blood lacunae.  (+info)

Molecular control of the implantation window. (2/2169)

Human endometrium is the end organ of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Therefore, endometrium is susceptible to changes in the cases of infertility that originate from disturbances in the normal functioning of this axis. In addition, some cases of unexplained infertility may be due to altered endometrial function. This disturbed endometrial function may originate from lesions in the molecular repertoire that are crucial to implantation. Human endometrium becomes receptive to implantation by the blastocyst within a defined period during the menstrual cycle. The duration of this so-called 'endometrial receptivity' or 'implantation' period seems to span from few days after ovulation to several days prior to menstruation. Successful implantation results from a co-ordinated series of events that would allow establishment of a timely dialogue between a receptive endometrium and an intrusive blastocyst. The members of the molecular repertoire that make endometrium receptive to implantation are gradually being recognized. Among these are the cytokines, integrins, heat shock proteins, tastin and trophinin. In addition, the expression of a second set of genes including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and ebaf, may be the appropriate signal for the closure of the 'implantation window', for making the endometrium refractory to implantation and for preparing it for the menstrual shedding.  (+info)

Utero-ovarian interaction in the regulation of reproductive function. (3/2169)

The physiological regulation of fertile reproductive cycle in mammals depends on interactions between hypothalamus-pituitary, ovarian and uterine stimuli. Over the past 20 years, much has been learned about the interrelation between the affluent and effluent lymph and vascular drainage in and around both ovarian and uterine tissues. An essential feature in the regulation of the fertile cycle is the functional status of the ovary, particularly the corpus luteum. During the time of implantation and the early pregnancy, an active corpus luteum is essential. As human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is important in the maintenance of the corpus luteum, we investigated if it was produced by the cyclic endometrium. Immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization reactions were performed but neither identified the presence of HCG during the proliferative phase. Positive staining and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-HCG) mRNA were observed during the secretory phase in the glandular cells of the endometrium. The results were confirmed by Western blotting of secretory phase endometrium extracts and assessment of the functional secretory capacity of primary endometrial cultures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigations showed a positive result in the secretory phase. We postulate that, based on the very close morphological interrelation between the uterus and the ovary, the beta-HCG of the endometrium is the primary factor for the maintenance of the corpus luteum and early pregnancy.  (+info)

Role of proteases in implantation. (4/2169)

Implantation of the embryo into the endometrium is a critical step in the establishment of pregnancy and the failure of embryos to implant is a major limiting factor in the success of reproductive technologies. Furthermore, one or more of the molecules of importance at implantation could provide a suitable target for post-coital contraception. While there is considerable species variation in the extent to which the trophoblast invades the maternal endometrium and makes contact with the maternal blood supply, many of the molecular mechanisms are conserved among species. Three families of protease are involved in the matrix degradation required for implantation: the cysteine, serine and matrix metalloproteinases. Other proteases are required for the activation of regulatory molecules. Although trophoblast from all species appears to have a high invasive potential, this is limited by the presence of partner protease inhibitors, the presence of which provides restraint to this invasion. It is the balance between the proteases and their inhibitors at any focal point that determines the site and extent of trophoblast invasion. This review examines the literature regarding proteases and their inhibitors at early implantation sites across a range of species with very different forms of placentation and evaluates their common features and their dissimilarities.  (+info)

Expression of calcium binding protein D-9k messenger RNA in the mouse uterine endometrium during implantation. (5/2169)

To investigate the molecular mechanisms of implantation, we constructed a cDNA library of mouse uteri enriched with pregnancy-induced genes by subtractive hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One of the isolated clones was the cDNA for the calcium binding protein D-9k (Cabp9k), which is considered to regulate intracytoplasmic concentration and transport of free calcium ions. Northern blot and in-situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that the Cabp9k mRNA was expressed in the endometrial epithelia, both luminal and glandular, in the uterus at the time of implantation. On pregnancy day 5 it was detected in the luminal, but not in the glandular, epithelia. In the oophorectomized adult mice, progesterone enhanced Cabp9k mRNA expression in the uterus, whereas oestrogen did not. Consistent with this, a nucleotide change was identified in the first intron of mouse Cabp9k gene corresponding to the oestrogen responsive element in the rat Cabp9k gene. Transfer of embryos into the uterine cavity of pseudopregnant mice reduced the expression of Cabp9k mRNA in the glandular epithelium, suggesting that Cabp9k mRNA expression is also regulated by embryonal signal(s). These findings demonstrated that Cabp9k mRNA is expressed in the endometrial epithelia during the implantation period under the control of progesterone and the presence of embryo, and suggest that CaBP9k plays a role in implantation by regulating the local calcium concentrations.  (+info)

Intraperitoneal insemination of the guinea pig with synchronized estrus induced by progesterone implant. (6/2169)

Female guinea pigs with synchronized ovulation by means of implantation of progesterone-filled tubing (P-tube) followed by a progesterone injection, were inseminated by intraperitoneal injection with sperm suspension. First, to obtain the optimum conditions for insemination, the females were inseminated singly over the range of 1-10 x 10(7) spermatozoa before and after the synchronized ovulation. The incidence of conception and implantation was 100% in the females given more than 5 x 10(7)/animal at 9:00 h on the 5th day after removal of the P-tube. Second, the reproductive ability of the inseminated females under this optimal condition was observed throughout the pregnancy to delivery. Inseminated females had a mean +/- S.D. gestation period of 68.7 +/- 0.5 days, a litter size of 2.8 +/- 0.6 pups and body weight of 110 +/- 14 g. These data were comparable to those of naturally-mated females. Our findings suggest that the artificial insemination by intraperitoneal injection in combination with the synchronized estrus technique is very useful for production control in a small colony of guinea pigs.  (+info)

Matrilysin activity in the rat uterus during the oestrous cycle and implantation. (7/2169)

The objective of this study was to follow changes in the activity of the small matrix metalloproteinase matrilysin (MMP-7) in the rat uterus during the oestrous cycle and embryo implantation. Matrilysin was extracted from rat uteri, partially purified and separated into active and latent forms. The two forms of the enzyme were quantified at all stages of the oestrous cycle and after oestradiol and progesterone treatment. The activity was also measured during the first 7 days of pregnancy. Both latent and active forms of MMP-7 reached a peak during the pro-oestrous stage of the cycle; the concentrations were three times higher than at dioestrus and metoestrus. In rats treated with 0.1 mg oestradiol at metoestrus, both latent and active forms of the enzyme increased by more than two-fold after 24 h. In rats treated at pro-oestrus with 0.4 mg progesterone, there was a 70% increase in latent MMP-7, but no change in the active form. The highest concentrations of MMP-7 were observed on the first day of pregnancy. Between days 3 and 7 of pregnancy, the concentrations were relatively constant and comparable to the low concentrations at dioestrus. Enzyme activities were not different at implantation sites compared with remote sites.  (+info)

Regulated expression of cadherin-11 in human extravillous cytotrophoblasts undergoing aggregation and fusion in response to transforming growth factor beta 1. (8/2169)

Transforming growth factor beta 1 is believed to be a key regulator of extravillous cytotrophoblast invasion during the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition, this growth factor has been shown to regulate cellular differentiation and fusion in cultured extravillous cytotrophoblasts. To date, the cellular mechanisms by which transforming growth factor beta 1 promotes these developmental processes remain poorly understood. Recent studies indicate that the expression of the novel cadherin subtype, known as cadherin-11, is associated with the terminal differentiation and fusion of villous cytotrophoblasts isolated from the human term placenta and human myoblasts in vitro. In this study, cadherin-11 mRNA and protein expression were examined in primary cultures of human extravillous cytotrophoblasts cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of transforming growth factor beta 1 using northern and western blot analysis, respectively. Transforming growth factor beta 1 was shown to increase cadherin-11 mRNA and protein expression in these cultured extravillous cytotrophoblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Cadherin-11 was further localized to the large cellular aggregates and multinucleated cells that formed in response to increasing concentrations of transforming growth factor beta 1 using immunocytochemistry. Collectively, these observations suggest that the morphogenetic effects of transforming growth factor beta 1 on cultured extravillous cytotrophoblasts are mediated, at least in part, by an increase in cadherin-11 expression. This study not only adds to the understanding of the cellular mechanisms by which transforming growth factor beta 1 promotes trophoblast differentiation and fusion but provides useful insight into the cell biology of the cadherins.  (+info)

There are several reasons why an embryo may not survive, including:

1. Immunological factors: The mother's immune system may reject the embryo, leading to its death.
2. Hormonal imbalance: An imbalance of hormones can disrupt the development of the embryo and lead to its demise.
3. Chromosomal abnormalities: The embryo may have an abnormal number of chromosomes, which can prevent it from developing properly.
4. Infections: Certain infections, such as group B strep or Listeria, can cause the embryo to fail to develop.
5. Maternal health issues: Chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes or hypertension, can increase the risk of embryo loss.
6. Smoking and drug use: Smoking and drug use have been linked to an increased risk of embryo loss.
7. Age: Women over 35 may be at a higher risk of embryo loss due to age-related factors.
8. Poor egg quality: The quality of the eggs used for fertilization can affect the success of the pregnancy.
9. Embryo fragmentation: The embryos may be damaged during the transfer process, leading to their failure to develop.
10. Uterine abnormalities: Abnormalities in the shape or structure of the uterus can increase the risk of embryo loss.

Embryo loss can be a traumatic experience for couples trying to conceive. It is essential to seek medical advice if there are multiple instances of embryo loss, as it may indicate an underlying issue that needs to be addressed.

There are several types of fallopian tube diseases, including:

1. Hydrosalpinx: A condition in which the fallopian tubes become filled with fluid, leading to inflammation and scarring.
2. Salpingitis: An inflammation of the fallopian tubes, often caused by bacterial or fungal infections.
3. Tubal pregnancy: A rare condition in which a fertilized egg implants in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
4. Ectopic pregnancy: A condition in which a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, often in the fallopian tube.
5. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): An infection of the reproductive organs in the pelvis, which can cause scarring and damage to the fallopian tubes.
6. Endometriosis: A condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, often affecting the fallopian tubes.
7. Adenomyosis: A condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, often affecting the fallopian tubes.
8. Fimbrial tumors: Rare growths that can occur in the fallopian tubes, often benign but can be cancerous.
9. Mullerian duct anomalies: Congenital abnormalities of the fallopian tubes and other reproductive organs.
10. Oophoritis: Inflammation of the ovaries, which can affect the fallopian tubes.

Fallopian tube diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including hysterosalpingography (HSG), laparoscopy, and ultrasound. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and can include antibiotics for infections, surgery to remove blockages or scar tissue, or assisted reproductive technology such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) if the fallopian tubes are damaged or blocked.

Aortic valve stenosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including aging, calcium buildup, or congenital heart defects. It is typically diagnosed through echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options for aortic valve stenosis include medications to manage symptoms, aortic valve replacement surgery, or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), which is a minimally invasive procedure.

In TAVR, a thin tube is inserted through a blood vessel in the leg and guided to the heart, where it delivers a new aortic valve. This can be performed through a small incision in the chest or through a catheter inserted into the femoral artery.

While TAVR has become increasingly popular for treating aortic valve stenosis, it is not suitable for all patients and requires careful evaluation to determine the best course of treatment. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of TAVR with a healthcare provider to determine the appropriate treatment plan for each individual patient.

There are many different approaches to weight loss, and what works best for one person may not work for another. Some common strategies for weight loss include:

* Caloric restriction: Reducing daily caloric intake to create a calorie deficit that promotes weight loss.
* Portion control: Eating smaller amounts of food and avoiding overeating.
* Increased physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, such as walking, running, swimming, or weightlifting, to burn more calories and build muscle mass.
* Behavioral modifications: Changing habits and behaviors related to eating and exercise, such as keeping a food diary or enlisting the support of a weight loss buddy.

Weight loss can have numerous health benefits, including:

* Improved blood sugar control
* Reduced risk of heart disease and stroke
* Lowered blood pressure
* Improved joint health and reduced risk of osteoarthritis
* Improved sleep quality
* Boosted mood and reduced stress levels
* Increased energy levels

However, weight loss can also be challenging, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are not effective in the long term and can lead to nutrient deficiencies and other negative health consequences. Instead, it is important to focus on making sustainable lifestyle changes that can be maintained over time.

Some common misconceptions about weight loss include:

* All weight loss methods are effective for everyone.
* Weight loss should always be the primary goal of a fitness or health program.
* Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are a good way to lose weight quickly.
* Weight loss supplements and fad diets are a reliable way to achieve significant weight loss.

The most effective ways to lose weight and maintain weight loss include:

* Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is high in nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training.
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels.
* Aiming for a gradual weight loss of 1-2 pounds per week.
* Focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale.

It is important to remember that weight loss is not always linear and can vary from week to week. It is also important to be patient and consistent with your weight loss efforts, as it can take time to see significant results.

Overall, weight loss can be a challenging but rewarding process, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. By focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale, you can achieve a healthy weight and improve your overall quality of life.

Coronary restenosis is a common complication after coronary interventions, such as angioplasty or stenting. It is estimated that up to 20% of patients may experience restenosis within six months after treatment. If left untreated, restenosis can lead to chest pain, heart attack, or even death.

Treatment options for coronary restenosis include repeat angioplasty or stenting, medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers, or bypass surgery. It is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their symptoms and undergo regular follow-up appointments to prevent or diagnose restenosis early on.

Researchers Identify Protein Essential for Embryo Implantation NIH funded study has implications for understanding disorders of ... "This information helps us understand how the interplay of hormones prepares the uterus to host and support the embryo as it ... The researchers also discovered that, at the time of implantation, Hand2 was expressed in uterine cells that lie beneath the ... The uterine epithelial cells then stop multiplying, mature, and become receptive to the embryo. ...
Illuminating the "Black Box" of Progesterone-Dependent Embryo Implantation Using Engineered Mice. Maurya VK, DeMayo FJ, Lydon ... Particular functions of estrogen and progesterone in establishment of uterine receptivity and embryo implantation. Ozturk S, ... 90 YEARS OF PROGESTERONE: New insights into progesterone receptor signaling in the endometrium required for embryo implantation ... 90 YEARS OF PROGESTERONE: New insights into progesterone receptor signaling in the endometrium required for embryo implantation ...
Although genetically engineered mice have served as valuable in vivo models to study both embryo implantation and pregnancy ... Three-dimensional ultrasonographic uterine vascularization and embryo implantation]. Kupesic S. Kupesic S. J Gynecol Obstet ... A total of 12 dams were imaged with HFUS with approximately 100 embryos examined per embryonic day. For the post-implantation ... With HFUS imaging followed by 3-D reconstruction, we were able to precisely quantify embryo implantation site number and ...
The pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly higher in the ZIFT group (42.1% and 11.7%) than in the UET group (21.0 ... and uterine embryo transfer (UET). The zygote was transferred by laparoscopy into the fallopian tube 24 hours after oocyst ... out a prospective randomized trial on 220 couples with nontubal factor infertility to compare pregnancy rates and implantation ... The implantation rate was calculated by dividing the total number of gestation sacs by the total number of transferred embryos. ...
How is the implantation conducted? ➤ The first signs of successful fertilization. ➤ IVF - as a method of embryo implantation ... Embryo implantation is the introduction of a fertilized egg or full-fledged embryo into the inner layer of the uterus. The ... Embryo implantation with IVF. If, for any reason there are genetic failures, hormonal problems, the implantation process is ... Where does implantation take place. Most often, the embryo is attached to the upper part of the uterus along the front or back ...
Failed embryo implantation , Learn about all the factors that contribute to IVF failure , Dr. Melina Stasinou ... What does "failed embryo implantation" mean?. Repeated embryo implantation failure is determined when transferred embryos fail ... Failed Embryo Implantation: What Factors Affect It?. Successful embryo implantation is characterized as multifactorial. ... There are numerous factors that can impair the implantation of the embryo after an embryo transfer procedure in IVF. ...
How to support IMPLANTATION to get pregnant. Today were talking about one of the MOST important pieces to conception… ... How to know if I have implantation issues ?. In this weeks Fertility TV episode, Ill be guiding you through some key points ...
Regulators of human implantation / edited by Carlos Simón and Antonio Pellicer. by Simón, Carlos , Pellicer, Antonio. ... The World Health Organization initiative on implantation research : [articles in Contraception on results of research supported ... by a joint WHO/Rockefeller Foundation initiative on implantation]. by UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, ...
Human pre-implantation embryo; Inner cell mass; Lineage specification; Pseudotime; WGCNA; scRNA-seq ... Integrative analysis of single-cell embryo data reveals transcriptome signatures for the human pre-implantation inner cell mass ... As the source of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), inner cell mass (ICM) can form all tissues of the embryo proper, however, its ... Integrative analysis of single-cell embryo data reveals transcriptome signatures for the h ...
Preimplantation embryo. Conception to implantation. Postimplantation embryo. Implantation to 8 weeks of pregnancy. ...
The last 5 years have seen huge advancements in genetic screening of embryos in IVF. Who should consider and what are the ... Who Should Do Pre-Implantation Genetic Testing. Genetic testing on embryos may well become part of the standard IVF protocol in ... Risks of Genetic Testing to the Embryo. In order to test an embryo, a few cells need to be removed from the embryo. This has ... The problem with Day 5 testing is that it may mean missing the implantation window, but since success with frozen embryo ...
A new test analyzes the proteins and small-molecule metabolites in the fluid surrounding each embryo and compares the resulting ... but two-thirds of such embryos fail to implant. ... typically rely on a visual assessment of the embryos when ... The test improves implantation rates up to 30 percent. That means doctors can transfer fewer embryos, reducing the chances of ... Doctors who perform in vitro fertilization typically rely on a visual assessment of the embryos when deciding which ones to ...
It prevents ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of an embryo.. It is different from medical methods of termination, ...
Mean number of 2 PN or cleaved embryos per patient. 7.6. Implantation rate per embryo transferred (%). 18.7. ... In ART, the risk of multiple births correlates to the number of embryos transferred. Multiple births occurred in 17 of 55 live ... In patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization/embryo transfer given Ovidrel® subcutaneously to trigger ovulation, the results ... program such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Ovidrel® PreFilled Syringe is also indicated for the induction of ...
"WNK1 regulates embryo implantation in mice through the phosphatase PP2A". Mentor: Francesco DeMayo, Ph.D.. Lab: Reproductive & ... "WNK1 in the Uterus: A Previously Undescribed Role In Mediating Implantation". Study Section: Endocrinology. Mentor: Dr. ...
The number of embryo implantation is largest in the sham operation group, followed by VEGF-BMSCs group, BMSCs group, and the ... The fertility testing was done to assess the embryo implantation efficiency. ,i,Results,/i,. VEGF-BMSCs transplantation ... Embryo Implantation after VEGF-BMSCs/BMSCs Transplantation. Embryo implantation efficiency is the best index to assess the ... which are essential for embryo implantation [42]. A vitro study observed the embryo attachment to endometrial epithelial cell ...
Here we show that Nanog-but not Oct4-is monoallelically expressed in early pre-implantation embryos. Nanog then undergoes a ... Pluripotency is established through genome-wide reprogramming during mammalian pre-implantation development, resulting in the ... The initial expression of Nanog, but not Oct4, is monoallelic in early pre-implantation embryos before formation of the ... Here we show that Nanog-but not Oct4-is monoallelically expressed in early pre-implantation embryos. Nanog then undergoes a ...
Embryo Implantation. Endometriosis--genetics. Genomics. Infertility, Female Publication Types: Lecture. Webcast Rights: This is ...
The team built on a previous approach that used single-cell sequencing to screen for chromosomal abnormalities in embryos from ... Next, they analyzed the embryos for implantation. Instead of relying on just one base call to determine whether the embryo ... In this case, the IVF cycle produced four embryos, two of which had the disease-causing mutation. One of those two embryos also ... Alternatively an embryo that is created during the IVF process that ends up with the disease causing SNV could also be used as ...
embryo implantation (en) seinale transdukzio. positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation (en) positive regulation of ...
Embryo Implantation [‎1]‎. Emergencies [‎2250]‎. emergency [‎2]‎. Emergency Medical Services [‎1804]‎. Emergency Responders [‎ ...
What is a Good First hCG Level after Embryo Transfer?. Jul 11 ... Implantation Failure in IVF - Why Does It Happen?. Dec 09 * ...
Chapter 14 Implantation of the Human Embryo By Russell A. Foulk. 8903 downloads ...
The Process of Implantation of Embryos in Primates. Implantation is a process in which a developing embryo, moving as a ... Without these changes implantation will not occur, and the embryo sloughs off during menstruation. Such implantation is unique ... The Embryo Project Encyclopedia Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction.. User menu ... A germ layer is a group of cells in an embryo that interact with each other as the embryo develops and contribute to the ...
Implantation describes the series of processes from embryo adhesion to the endometrium, invasion of the embryo into the ... These findings suggest that HIFα plays functional roles in embryo implantation. ... study the effect of CSE on endometrial stromal decidualization and the effect of CSE-HIF on fertility and embryo implantation ... HIF2alpha in the uterine stroma permits embryo invasion and luminal epithelium detachment. J. Clin. Investig. 2018, 128, 3186- ...
... and culture of pre-implantation embryos *Develop germline and somatic gene editing tools, including technologies that allow for ... pre-implantation embryo culture, in vitro fertilization, inducible transgene technologies, and ovarian stimulation protocols ... development of pre-implantation protocols, standardization of semen collection and freezing, developing molecular genetic tools ... development of pre-implantation protocols, standardization of semen collection and freezing, developing molecular genetic tools ...
MeSH Terms: Adolescent; Adult; Embryo Implantation*; Female; Fertilization; Fertilization in Vitro; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; ... Associations between male urinary phenol concentrations and fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth ... embryo quality, implantation, and live birth.Male-female couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intrauterine ...
... embryo oviductal transport; blastocyst implantation; post-implantation embryonic growth; and placental development [16,17,18,19 ... embryo oviductal transport; blastocyst implantation; post-implantation embryonic growth; and placental development [16,17,18,20 ... Because blastocyst-stage embryos (days 5 to 7) are more likely to implant than cleavage-stage (day 2 or 3) embryos, fewer ... resulting in reduced implantation rates in women undergoing embryo transfer IVF [122]. It has been found that women experience ...
Histone chaperone APLF level dictate implantation of mouse embryo. J Cell Sci. 134(1)*Google Scholar ...
  • A 4.5-5-day-old embryo consists of 32 cells, from which an embryonic vesicle with fluid (blastocyst) is subsequently formed. (
  • On the outer shell of the blastocyst - the trophoblast - outgrowths appear that destroy the zona pellucida of the egg, and after a couple of hours, thanks to them, the embryo grows into the wall of the endometrium. (
  • First, an implantation fossa is formed, and then the blastocyst is completely immersed in the thickness of the endometrium. (
  • According to Dr. Jessica Mann, with Reproductive Science Center of New Jersey and our guest on this week's Creating a Family show, there are significant advantages to doing a biopsy on a Day 5 embryo (blastocyst) over doing a biopsy on a Day 3 embryo. (
  • 5. Blastocyst implantation: the adhesion cascade. (
  • The NIH modified the definition to say that human embryonic stem cells "are cells that are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage human embryos, are capable of dividing without differentiating for a prolonged period in culture, and are known to develop into cells and tissues of the three primary germ layers. (
  • Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage. (
  • The researchers also discovered that, at the time of implantation, Hand2 was expressed in uterine cells that lie beneath the surface layer of epithelial cells. (
  • The uterine epithelial cells then stop multiplying, mature, and become receptive to the embryo. (
  • With the aforementioned as historical backdrop, this review focuses on a selection of key advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which progesterone, through its nuclear receptor (the progesterone receptor), drives the development of endometrial receptivity, a transient uterine state that allows for embryo implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. (
  • We carried out a prospective randomized trial on 220 couples with nontubal factor infertility to compare pregnancy rates and implantation rates after zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) and uterine embryo transfer (UET). (
  • On the 5th day, the future embryo enters the uterine cavity, where it continues its development from the 5th to the 7th day from the moment of fertilization. (
  • 17. Trophoblast-uterine interactions in the first days of implantation: models for the study of implantation events in the human. (
  • A small amount of spotting associated with the normal implantation of the embryo into the uterine wall, is called implantation bleeding. (
  • This information helps us understand how the interplay of hormones prepares the uterus to host and support the embryo as it grows," said Dr. Milan Bagchi. (
  • Embryo implantation is the introduction of a fertilized egg or full-fledged embryo into the inner layer of the uterus. (
  • From our article you will learn how and when the egg enters the uterus, what symptoms of embryo implantation can be found, and how this process proceeds with IVF. (
  • Most often, the embryo is attached to the upper part of the uterus along the front or back wall. (
  • In total, the path from fertilization to implantation of the egg into the wall of the uterus takes 7-11 days. (
  • Doctors who perform in vitro fertilization typically rely on a visual assessment of the embryos when deciding which ones to transfer into the uterus, but two-thirds of such embryos fail to implant. (
  • 3. Recent molecular approaches to elucidate the mechanism of embryo implantation: trophinin, bystin, and tastin as molecules involved in the initial attachment of blastocysts to the uterus in humans. (
  • 9. Trophinin expression in the mouse uterus coincides with implantation and is hormonally regulated but not induced by implanting blastocysts. (
  • 19. Molecular interactions between embryo and uterus in the adhesion phase of human implantation. (
  • After a brief incubation period, the embryo is placed into the uterus, where it may implant and initiate a pregnancy. (
  • The implantation of the egg fertilized by this process takes place at a precise spot in the female reproductive system: it descends into the uterus via a Fallopian tube and lodges in the body of the uterus where it soon literally implants itself by insertion into the thickness of the mucosa and of the muscle, once the placenta has been formed and with the aid of the latter. (
  • If the implantation of the fertilized egg takes place, for example, in the Fallopian tubes instead of in the uterus, pregnancy will be interrupted. (
  • In the paragraph dealing with the implantation of the egg in the maternal uterus, we shall see the reasons why distinguished Arabists who lack a scientific background have made such blunders. (
  • The Qur'an sets out by stressing the successive transformations the embryo undergoes before reaching its destination in the maternal uterus. (
  • A thin endometrium often means impaired endometrial receptivity, which has been well recognized as a critical factor in implantation failure [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • A number of studies suggested that a minimal endometrial thickness of 6 mm is required for embryo implantation [ 5 ]. (
  • Repeated embryo implantation failure is determined when transferred embryos fail to implant following several in vitro fertilization treatment cycles. (
  • Bacterial or viral infections of the endometrium may contribute to the failure of the embryo to implant. (
  • According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, PGD can help parents decide which embryos to implant. (
  • In that time, I've interviewed hundred of expert on hundreds of topics, but of all these topics, I think the biggest changes I've seen in these past 8 years has been in the area of genetic testing of embryos for in vitro fertilization. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Over the last couple of years, researchers have demonstrated that a next-generation sequencing-based approach to detect chromosomal aneuploidies in embryos before they are implanted as part of an in vitro fertilization cycle can increase the success of IVF at a reasonable price. (
  • The Short-read Transpore Rapid Karyotyping (STORK) test can detect extra or missing chromosomes (i.e., aneuploidy) using samples collected from prenatal tests, such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, as well as tissue obtained from miscarriage and biopsies from pre-implantation embryos produced using in vitro fertilization (IVF). (
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF) involves combining an egg and sperm within a laboratory setting to create an embryo. (
  • Embryos are placed into the woman's womb 3 to 5 days after egg retrieval and fertilization. (
  • Using the mouse as a paradigm, we study the developmental biology of gametogenesis, fertilization and pre-implantation embryogenesis. (
  • We investigate molecular mechanisms used by germ cell-specific factors to promote spermatogenesis in males and folliculogenesis in females that ensure fertilization and sustain pre-implantation development. (
  • If, for any reason there are genetic failures, hormonal problems, the implantation process is disrupted, and pregnancy does not occur for more than a year, you can turn to assisted reproductive technologies. (
  • Not only have there been improvements to genetic screening, but also to the cryopreservation techniques for embryos (embryo freezing) that allow for later testing. (
  • The term mosaicism describes the presence of more than one genetic make up of the embryo. (
  • Currently, embryos must be frozen while genetic tests are run and analyzed before implantation. (
  • Genetic diagnosis of embryos prior to implantation brings screening to an even earlier stage than the fetal. (
  • Couples who have a high risk of passing a genetic (hereditary) disorder to a child may consider pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). (
  • Laboratory scientists remove a single cell or cells from each embryo and screen the material for specific genetic disorders. (
  • The problem with Day 5 testing is that it may mean missing the implantation window, but since success with frozen embryo transfers now rivals fresh transfers and may even be better, this is less of a problem. (
  • Unused embryos may be frozen and implanted or donated at a later date. (
  • Cytochrome c release from mitochondria of early postimplantation murine embryos exposed to 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, heat shock, and staurosporine. (
  • Although genetically engineered mice have served as valuable in vivo models to study both embryo implantation and pregnancy progression, such studies usually require sacrifice of parous mice for subsequent phenotypic analysis. (
  • The pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly higher in the ZIFT group (42.1% and 11.7%) than in the UET group (21.0% and 7.8%) ( P (
  • The ability of tubal transfer of an embryo to produce pregnancy and live birth was first demonstrated in a non-human primate model [1]. (
  • These symptom expressions are caused not by the implantation, but by the production of chorionic gonadotropin that begins after it, which contributes to its preservation at an early stage of pregnancy. (
  • Analysis of hCG, examination from 5-7 weeks and ultrasound in the early stages will help to identify the fact of implantation and pregnancy. (
  • Then, the appropriate IVF plan should be designed to achieve pregnancy using other available methods to enhance the implantation chances of the embryo. (
  • That means doctors can transfer fewer embryos, reducing the chances of an undesired multiple pregnancy. (
  • 18. Implantation-dependent expression of trophinin by maternal fallopian tube epithelia during tubal pregnancies: possible role of human chorionic gonadotrophin on ectopic pregnancy. (
  • A molar pregnancy involves the growth of abnormal tissue instead of an embryo. (
  • If an embryo sticks to (implants) in the lining of the womb and grows, pregnancy results. (
  • Pluripotency is established through genome-wide reprogramming during mammalian pre-implantation development, resulting in the formation of the naive epiblast. (
  • Formation of pluripotent stem cells in the mammalian embryo depends on the POU transcription factor Oct4. (
  • As the source of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), inner cell mass (ICM) can form all tissues of the embryo proper, however, its role in early human lineage specification remains controversial. (
  • 10. Molecular interactions at the maternal-embryonic interface during the early phase of implantation. (
  • When genes encoding members of the complex are ablated, embryos do not progress beyond the 2-cell stage, do not activate the embryonic genome and are uniformly infertile. (
  • My thanks to Dr. Jessica Mann for the info on the risks of PGS to the infertility patient, the embryo, and the child. (
  • [1] It has been suggested that recombinant human LIF might help to improve the implantation rate in women with unexplained infertility. (
  • 16. Galectin-7 acts as an adhesion molecule during implantation and increased expression is associated with miscarriage. (
  • The study team compared STORK to standard methods by testing 218 samples that included tissue from miscarriage, chorionic villi, amniotic fluid and trophectoderm biopsies, which are used to evaluate embryos before IVF implantation. (
  • No maternal or embryo/fetal effects were observed at 0.1% BBP (0.182 g/kg/day). (
  • At 1.25% BBP and 2.0%, significant maternal and embryo/fetal effects were observed, including greater than 90% prenatal mortality. (
  • It is expected that embryo biopsies on Day 5 will result in less risk to the embryos. (
  • Day 3 biopsies have been shown to potentially disturb embryo development and may lead to poor growth in culture. (
  • The doctor inserts a thin tube (catheter) containing the embryos into the woman's vagina, through the cervix , and up into the womb. (
  • The exact number of embryos transferred is a complex issue that depends on many factors, especially the woman's age. (
  • In that trial, the researchers have been using MALBAC to amplify the genomes of single cells from embryos and then sequence them at low coverage to screen for chromosomal abnormalities. (
  • Here it exists merely as a narrow, tubular diverticulum of the hind-gut, and never assumes the form of a vesicle outside the embryo. (
  • Each failed implantation should be thoroughly investigated and it must be determined which of the above-mentioned factors are responsible for its failure. (
  • Implantation Failure in IVF - Why Does It Happen? (
  • when the hind-gut is developed the allantois is carried backward with it and then opens into the cloaca or terminal part of the hind-gut: it grows out into the body-stalk, a mass of mesoderm which lies below and around the tail end of the embryo. (
  • LIF is normally expressed in the trophectoderm of the developing embryo, with its receptor LIFR expressed throughout the inner cell mass . (
  • Regulators of human implantation / edited by Carlos Simón and Antonio Pellicer. (
  • Integrative analysis of single-cell embryo data reveals transcriptome signatures for the human pre-implantation inner cell mass. (
  • 4. An integrated view of L-selectin and trophinin function in human embryo implantation. (
  • 13. Cell adhesion molecules in human embryo implantation. (
  • 15. Trophinin: what embryo implantation teaches us about human cancer. (
  • 20. Trophoblast cell activation by trophinin ligation is implicated in human embryo implantation. (
  • Once the embryo begins to be observable to the naked eye, it looks like a small mass of flesh at the centre of which the appearance of a human being is at first indistinguishable. (
  • The NIH notes that although the Guidelines pertain primarily to the donation of embryos for the derivation of hESCs, one Section also applies to certain uses of both hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells. (
  • There are numerous factors that can impair the implantation of the embryo after an embryo transfer procedure in IVF. (
  • What is a Good First hCG Level after Embryo Transfer? (
  • The process of gastrulation allows for the formation of the germ layers in metazoan embryos, and is generally achieved through a series of complex and coordinated cellular movements. (
  • However, if you have undergone several IVFs without success, you should refer to an experienced obstetrician-gynecologist with further expertise in recurrent implantation failures. (
  • If its further development be traced in the bird, it is seen to project to the right side of the embryo, and, gradually expanding, it spreads over its dorsal surface as a flattened sac between the amnion and the serosa, and extending in all directions, ultimately surrounds the yolk. (
  • The amnion is a membranous sac which surrounds and protects the embryo. (
  • A major arbiter of this constricted window of opportunity is the zona pellucida matrix that surrounds ovulated eggs and pre-implantation embryos. (
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (
  • Our fertility laboratory features many of the brightest minds in reproductive medicine - including 30 scientists, PhD's, embryologists, and lab technicians who focus exclusively on ways to improve embryo development and success rates. (
  • 1. Molecular basis of embryo implantation. (
  • The fertility testing was done to assess the embryo implantation efficiency. (
  • A new test analyzes the proteins and small-molecule metabolites in the fluid surrounding each embryo and compares the resulting metabolic profile with that of a healthy embryo. (
  • When first formed the amnion is in contact with the body of the embryo, but about the fourth or fifth week fluid ( liquor amnii ) begins to accumulate within it. (
  • Failed embryo implantation occurs frequently. (
  • This may lead to reporting a normal result when the embryo is abnormal or vice versa. (
  • In each case, one partner carried a monogenic disease-causing single-nucleotide variant and the researchers used PGS/PGD to select chromosomally normal embryos free of the SNV. (
  • Within about 5 days, a normal embryo has several cells that are actively dividing. (
  • Laboratory staff will regularly check the embryo to make sure it is growing properly. (
  • Here we show that Nanog -but not Oct4 -is monoallelically expressed in early pre-implantation embryos. (
  • The hormone is produced by chorionic cells within a day after implantation. (
  • In order to test an embryo, a few cells need to be removed from the embryo. (
  • Previously, we also showed that cells within the day 9 mouse embryo are differentially sensitive/resistant to the cell death-inducing potential of HS, 4-CP, and As. (
  • Failed Embryo Implantation: What Factors Affect It? (
  • Determining the factors that make implantation difficult is the A's and Z's for your next IVF attempt. (
  • 8. Implantation mechanisms: insights from the sheep. (
  • Previously, we showed that the cell death induced in day 9 mouse embryos by three teratogens, hyperthermia (HS), 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-CP), and sodium arsenite (As), is apoptotic in nature involving the activation of caspase-3, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and DNA fragmentation. (
  • p53 regulated LIF has been shown to facilitate implantation in the mouse model and possibly in humans. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Embryo implantation. (
  • The World Health Organization initiative on implantation research : [articles in Contraception on results of research supported by a joint WHO/Rockefeller Foundation initiative on implantation]. (
  • However, there no formal criteria defining the number of IVF cycles or the number of embryos transferred after each attempt. (
  • So far, the data has not shown a detrimental effect on the embryo. (
  • This causal relationship is supported by data showing that procaspase-3 and -2 can be activated in vitro by the addition of cytochrome c to a S-100 fraction prepared from control day 9 embryos. (
  • 6. Trophinin and tastin, a novel cell adhesion molecule complex with potential involvement in embryo implantation. (
  • in the youngest embryo which has been studied the amnion was already present as a closed sac (Figs. 24 and 32), and, as indicated on page 46, appears in the inner cell-mass as a cavity. (
  • They sequence the genomes of the couple and the affected parent to 2x coverage, which the researchers reported is sufficient to detect the disease-causing SNV as well as a panel of SNPs that could be used for verification in the embryo. (
  • With the formation of the amnion the embryo is, in most animals, entirely separated from the chorion, and is only again united to it when the allantoic mesoderm spreads over and becomes applied to its inner surface. (
  • Disorders of blood coagulation which impair blood circulation at the time of implantation. (
  • With time, the embryo may "self correct", but patient have no way of knowing if that will happen. (
  • More than one embryo may be placed into the womb at the same time, which can lead to twins, triplets, or more. (
  • Successful embryo implantation is characterized as multifactorial . (

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