Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Ferrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Rodenticides: Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.Radionuclide Ventriculography: Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Gated Blood-Pool Imaging: Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).IodobenzenesDNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Olfactory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tax Exemption: Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.Income Tax: Tax on the net income of an individual, organization, or business.Awards and PrizesClick Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Viral Structures: The structural parts of the VIRION.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.AcetalsEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cycloparaffins: Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Isaac Lowthian Bell In 1863, Bell exhibited "several pounds" of the recently discovered element thallium when the British ... and in the production of other chemicals such as the newly discovered element thallium. He was a director of major companies ... The Manufacture of Thallium, British Association, 1864. The present state of the manufacture of iron in Great Britain, and its ... On Thallium. London: John Murray. pp. 34-36. Equivalent to £3 million in 2004, adjusted for RPI. Bell, Isaac Lowthian:The ...
nlm.nih.gov Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-08- ... "Polymorphism of cesium and thallium halides". Acta Crystallographica. 4 (6): 487. doi:10.1107/S0365110X51001641. Lidin, p. 620 ... Melnikov, P; Zanoni, LZ (June 2010). "Clinical effects of cesium intake". Biological trace element research. 135 (1-3): 1-9. ...
ISBN 0-19-855370-6. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ... ISBN 0-08-037941-9. Anthony John Downs (1993). Chemistry of aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium. Springer. ISBN 0-7514- ... Indium and Thallium: Chemical Patterns and Peculiarities, Simon Aldridge, Anthony J. Downs, wiley, 2011, ISBN 978-0-470-68191-6 ...
The usual isotopes for such studies are either Thallium-201 or Technetium-99m. The history of nuclear cardiology began in 1927 ... Lauer, Michael S. (27 August 2009). "Elements of Danger - The Case of Medical Imaging". New England Journal of Medicine. 361 (9 ... A comparison with thallium-201 and coronary angiography". Giornale italiano di cardiologia. 22 (7): 795-805. PMID 1473653. ... By the mid 1970s, scientists and clinicians alike began using thallium-201 as the radioisotope of choice for human studies. ...
J. Locke (1902). "On some double suphates of thallic thallium and caesium". American Chemical Journal. 27: 281. Greenwood, N. N ... Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. Bell, Chichester ... or thallium(I), or a compound cation such as ammonium (NH+ 4), methylammonium (CH 3NH+ 3), hydroxylammonium (HONH+ 3) or ... monohydrates such as thallium plutonium sulfate and anhydrous alums (yavapaiites). These classes include differing, but ...
It appears that some elements have a different isotopic mix per source. For example, thallium in igneous rock has more lighter ... Thallium81Tl​204.38 Lead82Pb​207.2 Bis-muth83Bi​208.98 Polo-nium84Po​[209] Asta-tine85At​[210] Radon86Rn​[222] ... 2013 (all elements listed):. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure ... Primordial From decay Synthetic Border shows natural occurrence of the element Standard atomic weight Ar, std(E)[1]. *Ca: ...
Greenwood, N. N. and Earnshaw, A. Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd ed.; Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd: Oxford ... Ball, W. "The nitrites of thallium, lithium, caesium, and rubidium". Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions [Online] ...
Most or some elements in each category share a range of other properties; a few elements have properties that are either ... Beryllium has the lowest known value (0.0476) amongst elemental metals; indium and thallium each have the highest known value ( ... which would of course be isotopes of known elements but would not be neighbors of the irradiated element."[emphasis added] In ... The allotropy of the elements, Oldbourne Press, London Adler D 1969, 'Half-way elements: The technology of metalloids', book ...
Elements found in small amounts include cadmium, mercury, and thallium. Elements found in trace amounts include americium, ... Up to 60 elements can be found in complex electronics. As of 2013, Apple has sold over 796 million iDevices (iPod, iPhone, iPad ... "Chemical fact sheet: Thallium". Spectrum Laboratories. Archived from the original on 21 February 2008. Retrieved 2 February ... "Contamination by trace elements at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India" (PDF). Chemosphere. 76: 9-15. doi:10.1016/j. ...
These toxic elements of local concern include boron, cadmium, selenium, and thallium. There are over 500 historic mining ... Arsenic and mercury, are the biggest threats exposing potentially toxic elements which are often found with deposits of gold ...
Downs, Anthony J.; Pulham, Colin R. (1994-01-01). "The hydrides of aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium: a re-evaluation". ... Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 227-33. ISBN 0-08- ... Group 13 hydrides are chemical compounds containing group 13-hydrogen bonds (elements of group 13: boron, aluminium, gallium, ... indium, thallium). The simplest series has the chemical formula XH3, with X representing any of the boron family. The great ...
Thallium is the heaviest stable element in group 13 of the periodic table. At the bottom of the periodic table, the inert pair ... Being the first period 8 element, the undiscovered element ununennium (element 119) is predicted to be the next alkali metal ... Various tests eliminated the possibility of the unknown element being thorium, radium, lead, bismuth, or thallium. The new ... Nevertheless, while the elements in group 14 and beyond tend to form discrete anionic clusters, group 13 elements tend to form ...
Several elements were discovered by spectroscopic means, such as helium, thallium, and cerium. Spectral lines also depend on ... Broadening due to local conditions is due to effects which hold in a small region around the emitting element, usually small ... These series exist across atoms of all elements and the Rydberg-Ritz combination principle is a formula that predicts the ... pattern of lines to be found in all atoms of the elements. For this reason, the NIST spectral line database contains a column ...
Gordievsky claimed that he was poisoned with thallium by "rogue elements in Moscow". He accused MI6 of forcing Special Branch ...
Howe, HE 1968a, 'Thallium' in CA Hampel (ed.), The encyclopedia of the chemical elements, Reinhold, New York, pp. 706-711 ... he elements of groups 3-12 are the d-block elements. These elements are also commonly referred to as the transition elements, ... 12 elements are commonly referred to as the transition elements, the group 12 elements are not always included.[54] The group ... Applicable elements[edit]. Scatter plot of electronegativity values and melting points for metals (up to fermium, element 100) ...
Other toxic elements such as arsenic, cadmium, and thallium were formerly used in phosphor manufacture. Modern halophosphate ...
Greenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365- ... On some double sulphates of thallic thallium and caesium. American Chemical journal. 1902, 27: 281.. ... or thallium(I), or a compound cation such as ammonium (NH+. 4), methylammonium (CH3NH+. 3), hydroxylammonium (HONH+. 3) or ...
For elements above lead in atomic number, the decay chain typically ends with an isotope of lead or bismuth. Bismuth itself ... decays to thallium, but the decay is so slow as to be practically negligible. In many cases, individual members of the decay ...
The Carlin type deposits show enrichment in the elements gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, thallium and barium. This enrichment ...
These elements were made by cold fusion reactions (bombarding targets such as thallium, lead, and bismuth around the closed ... Two isotopes of element 117 were synthesised, decaying to element 115 and then element 113: 249 97Bk + 48 20Ca → 297117* → ... The first report of element 113 was in August 2003, when it was identified as an alpha decay product of element 115. Element ... Using Mendeleev's nomenclature for unnamed and undiscovered elements, nihonium should be known as eka-thallium. In 1979 IUPAC ...
ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. Heiserman, David L. (1992). "Element 50: Tin". Exploring Chemical Elements and their Compounds. New York: ... ISBN 1-56676-661-3. Dehaas, W.; Deboer, J.; Vandenberg, G. (1935). "The electrical resistance of cadmium, thallium and tin at ... Alloying elements such as copper, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, and silver increase its hardness. Tin tends rather easily to form ... Tin is a chemical element with symbol Sn (from Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 ...
High amount of hafnium, holmium and thallium also allows retaining some of the δ phase at room temperature. Neptunium is the ... David A. Young (11 September 1975). "Phase Diagrams of the Elements" (PDF). Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. ... The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. New York: Reinhold Book Corporation. p. 544. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list ( ... only element that can stabilize the α phase at higher temperatures. Titanium, hafnium and zirconium stabilize the β phase at ...
... this series includes the following elements: actinium, bismuth, lead, polonium, radium, radon and thallium. All are present, at ... Plus radium (element 88). While actually a sub-actinide, it immediately precedes actinium (89) and follows a three-element gap ... this series includes the following elements: astatine, bismuth, lead, polonium, protactinium, radium, radon, thallium, and ... All the elements created more than 4.5 billion years ago are termed primordial, meaning they were generated by the universe's ...
His first important discovery was that of the element thallium, announced in 1861, and made with the help of spectroscopy. By ... discovered a previously unknown element with a bright green emission line in its spectrum and named the element thallium, from ... "The discovery of the elements: XVI. The rare earth elements". Journal of Chemical Education. 9 (10): 1751-1773. Bibcode: ... Crookes' attention had been attracted to the vacuum balance in the course of his research into thallium. He soon discovered the ...
Mercury (element),Mercury (element) [[Thallium,Thallium [[Lead,Lead [[Bismuth,Bismuth [[Polonium,Polonium [[Astatine,Astatine ... "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac- ...
Thallium (af græsk θαλλός, thallos, dvs. "en grøn kvist")[7] blev opdaget i 1861 ved hjælp af flammespektroskopi.[8] Navnet skyldes thalliums klare grønne spektrallinje.[9] Efter offentliggørelsen af en forbedret flammespektroskopi-metode udviklet af Robert Bunsen og Gustav Kirchhoff[10] og opdagelsen af cæsium og rubidium i hhv. 1859 og 1860 blev flammespektroskopi en anerkendt metode til bestemmelse af mineralers og kemiske produkters bestanddele. William Crookes og Claude-Auguste Lamy begyndte begge at bruge metoden. Crookes benyttede den til at undersøge selenforbindelser fra blykammeret på en svovlsyrefabrik ved Abberode i Harzen for tellur. Prøverne til sine undersøgelser af selencyanid havde han modtaget nogle år forinden.[11][12] I 1862 lykkedes det Crookes at isolere små mængder af det nye grundstof thallium og måle egenskaberne for nogle af dets forbindelser.[13] Claude-Auguste Lamy benyttede et ...
Thallium (81Tl) has 37 isotopes with atomic masses that range from 176 to 212. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes and 204Tl is the most stable radioisotope with a half-life of 3.78 years. 207Tl, with a half-life of 4.77 minutes, has the longest half-life of naturally occurring radioisotopes.. Thallium-202 (half-life 12.23 days) can be made in a cyclotron[2] while thallium-204 (half-life 3.78 years) is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium in a nuclear reactor.[3]. In the fully ionized state, the isotope 205Tl becomes beta-radioactive, decaying to 205Pb,[4] but 203Tl remains stable.. ...
... (Greek θαλλός, thallos, meaning "a green shoot or twig")[22] was discovered by flame spectroscopy in March 1861.[23] The name comes from thallium's bright green spectral emission lines.[24] After the publication of the improved method of flame spectroscopy by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff[25] and the discovery of caesium and rubidium in the years 1859 to 1860, flame spectroscopy became an approved method to determine the composition of minerals and chemical products. William Crookes and Claude-Auguste Lamy both started to use the new method. William Crookes used it to make spectroscopic determinations for tellurium on selenium compounds deposited in the lead chamber of a sulfuric acid production plant near Tilkerode in the Harz mountains. He had obtained the samples for his research on selenium cyanide from August Hofmann years earlier.[26][27] By 1862, Crookes was able to isolate small quantities of the new element and determine the properties of ...
Thallium sulfate, like all thallium compounds, is very toxic. This is because the size of the thallium ion is very similar to the size of the potassium ion. After it goes into the cells, it cannot be used like potassium is used and so kills the cell. It also gets absorbed through the skin. Eating more than 1/2 gram can kill. It gets deposited in the kidney, liver, brain, and similar places. It has been blamed for the extinction of the Brown Fish Owl. ...
Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell, 1st Baronet, FRS (18 February 1816 - 20 December 1904) was a Victorian ironmaster and Liberal Party politician from Washington, County Durham, in the north of England. He was described as being "as famous in his day as Isambard Kingdom Brunel". Bell was an energetic and skilful entrepreneur as well as an innovative metallurgist. He was involved in multiple partnerships with his brothers to make iron and alkali chemicals, and with other pioneers including Robert Stirling Newall to make steel cables. He pioneered the large-scale manufacture of aluminium at his Washington works, conducting experiments in its production, and in the production of other chemicals such as the newly discovered element thallium. He was a director of major companies including the North Eastern Railway and the Forth Bridge company, then the largest bridge project in the world. He was a wealthy patron of the arts, commissioning the architect Philip Webb, the ...
Thallium (af græsk θαλλός, thallos, dvs. "en grøn kvist")[7] blev opdaget i 1861 ved hjælp af flammespektroskopi.[8] Navnet skyldes thalliums klare grønne spektrallinje.[9] Efter offentliggørelsen af en forbedret flammespektroskopi-metode udviklet af Robert Bunsen og Gustav Kirchhoff[10] og opdagelsen af cæsium og rubidium i hhv. 1859 og 1860 blev flammespektroskopi en anerkendt metode til bestemmelse af mineralers og kemiske produkters bestanddele. William Crookes og Claude-Auguste Lamy begyndte begge at bruge metoden. Crookes benyttede den til at undersøge selenforbindelser fra blykammeret på en svovlsyrefabrik ved Abberode i Harzen for tellur. Prøverne til sine undersøgelser af selencyanid havde han modtaget nogle år forinden.[11][12] I 1862 lykkedes det Crookes at isolere små mængder af det nye grundstof thallium og måle egenskaberne for nogle af dets forbindelser.[13] Claude-Auguste Lamy benyttede et ...
Thallium (81Tl) has 37 isotopes with atomic masses that range from 176 to 212. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes and 204Tl is the most stable radioisotope with a half-life of 3.78 years. 207Tl, with a half-life of 4.77 minutes, has the longest half-life of naturally occurring radioisotopes.. Thallium-202 (half-life 12.23 days) can be made in a cyclotron[2] while thallium-204 (half-life 3.78 years) is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium in a nuclear reactor.[3]. In the fully ionized state, the isotope 205Tl becomes beta-radioactive, decaying to 205Pb,[4] but 203Tl remains stable.. ...
... (Greek θαλλός, thallos, meaning "a green shoot or twig")[22] was discovered by flame spectroscopy in March 1861.[23] The name comes from thallium's bright green spectral emission lines.[24] After the publication of the improved method of flame spectroscopy by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff[25] and the discovery of caesium and rubidium in the years 1859 to 1860, flame spectroscopy became an approved method to determine the composition of minerals and chemical products. William Crookes and Claude-Auguste Lamy both started to use the new method. William Crookes used it to make spectroscopic determinations for tellurium on selenium compounds deposited in the lead chamber of a sulfuric acid production plant near Tilkerode in the Harz mountains. He had obtained the samples for his research on selenium cyanide from August Hofmann years earlier.[26][27] By 1862, Crookes was able to isolate small quantities of the new element and determine the properties of ...
Thallium sulfate, like all thallium compounds, is very toxic. This is because the size of the thallium ion is very similar to the size of the potassium ion. After it goes into the cells, it cannot be used like potassium is used and so kills the cell. It also gets absorbed through the skin. Eating more than 1/2 gram can kill. It gets deposited in the kidney, liver, brain, and similar places. It has been blamed for the extinction of the Brown Fish Owl. ...
... is the sodium salt of the coordination compound of formula [Fe(CN)6]4−. In its hydrous form, Na4Fe(CN)6 · 10 H2O (sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate), it is sometimes known as yellow prussiate of soda. It is a yellow crystalline solid that is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. The yellow color is the color of ferrocyanide anion. Despite the presence of the cyanide ligands, sodium ferrocyanide has low toxicity (acceptable daily intake 0-0.025 mg/kg body weight[2]). The ferrocyanides are less toxic than many salts of cyanide, because they tend not to release free cyanide.[3] However, like all ferrocyanide salt solutions, addition of an acid can result in the production of hydrogen cyanide gas, which is toxic. ...
... is the name of the anion [Fe(CN)6]4−. Salts of this coordination complex give yellow solutions. It is usually available as the salt potassium ferrocyanide, which has the formula K4Fe(CN)6. [Fe(CN)6]4− is a diamagnetic species, featuring low-spin iron(II) center in an octahedral ligand environment. Although many salts of cyanide are highly toxic, ferro- and ferricyanides are less toxic because they tend not to release free cyanide.[1] It is of commercial interest as a precursor to the pigment Prussian blue and, as its potassium salt, an anticaking agent.. ...
The reducing agent in this reaction is ferrocyanide ([Fe(CN)6]4−). It donates an electron, becoming oxidized to ferricyanide ([Fe(CN)6]3−). Simultaneously, the oxidizer chlorine is reduced to chloride. Strong reducing agents easily lose (or donate) electrons. An atom with a relatively large atomic radius tends to be a better reductant. In such species, the distance from the nucleus to the valence electrons is so long that these electrons are not strongly attracted. These elements tend to be strong reducing agents. Good reducing agents tend to consist of atoms with a low electronegativity, the ability of an atom or molecule to attract bonding electrons, and species with relatively small ionization energies serve as good reducing agents too. "The measure of a material to oxidize or lose electrons is known as its oxidation potential".[1] The table below shows a few reduction potentials that could easily be changed to oxidation potential by simply reversing the sign. Reducing agents can be ...
Within two weeks after the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (14 October 1806),[10] Napoleon's Grande Armée had pursued the defeated Royal Prussian Army to Pasewalk in Prussian Pomerania.[11] The provincial capital Stettin (now Szczecin), one of twenty Prussian fortresses,[12] capitulated on 29 October[11] making Kolberg, which at that time had about 5,000 inhabitants,[13] the province's only fortress remaining in Prussian hands.[14] Pierre Thouvenout was appointed French governor of Pomerania and sent his envoy Mestram to accept Kolberg's expected capitulation and take control of it.[15] On 8 November 1806, Mestram met with the Prussian commander of Kolberg Louis Maurice de Lucadou (Ludwig Moritz von Lucadou) before its walls.[15] Lucadou's refusal to hand over the fortress came as a surprise to the French generals and the Prussian administration in Stettin, who had already pledged allegiance to the French; it further led part of the defeated Prussian army to take refuge in Kolberg and reinforce the ...
Thallium Thallium: A metallic element having the symbol Tl and the atomic number 81 and an atomic weight of about 204. Thallium ... Thallium poisoning Thallium poisoning: Poisoning with the element thallium which enters the environment primarily from coal- ... The major source of exposure to thallium for most people is ... * Thallium scan Thallium scan: A method of examining the heart ... Radioactive thallium is injected into the bloodstream and serves as a tracer. The tracer attaches to certain cells and... ...
Like lead, thallium is a soft, low-melting element of low tensile strength. Freshly cut thallium has a metallic lustre that ... Thallium (Tl), chemical element, metal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group) of the periodic table, poisonous and of limited ... Thus, thallium, unlike the other boron group elements, predominantly forms singly charged thallium salts having thallium in the ... Like lead, thallium is a soft, low-melting element of low tensile strength. Freshly cut thallium has a metallic lustre that ...
11.85 at 20°C; valence +1 or +3. Thallium is a soft, malleable, lustrous silver-gray ... metallic chemical element; symbol Tl; at. no. 81; interval in which at. wt. ranges 204.382-204.385; m.p. 303.5°C; b.p. about ... thallium thăl´ēəm [key], metallic chemical element; symbol Tl; at. no. 81; interval in which at. wt. ranges 204.382-204.385; m. ... Thallium is widely distributed in nature, but the only minerals rich in the element are crooksite and lorandite. It is also ...
Thallium Nanoparticles Tl bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term ... Related Elements. 81 Tl 204.383300000 Thallium See more Thallium products. Thallium (atomic symbol: Tl, atomic number: 81) is a ... Product Name: Thallium Nanoparticles. Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. TL-M-03-NP , TL-M-04 ... The thallium atom has a radius of 170 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 196 pm. Thallium was discovered by Sir William Crookes ...
Thallium Bromide TlBr bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term ... Related Elements. 81 Tl 204.383300000 Thallium See more Thallium products. Thallium (atomic symbol: Tl, atomic number: 81) is a ... Thallium Bromide Synonyms. Thallous bromide, thallium(I) bromide, thallium (ous) bromide, thallium(+1) bromide ... Product Name: Thallium Bromide. Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. TL-BR-02 , TL-BR-03 , TL- ...
To see a rotating video of (almost) any of the samples of Thallium from The Elements, click it below. Links will open in a new ... The Elements By Theodore Gray. Photographs by Theodore Gray and Nick Mann. BUY THE BOOK. ...
... element names in many languages, most known nuclides and technical terms are linked to their definitions. ... Comprehensive information for the element Thallium - Tl is provided by this page including scores of properties, ... Latin: Thallium*Czech: Thallium*Croatian: Talij*French: Thallium*German: Thallium - s*Italian: Tallio*Norwegian: Thallium* ... Periodic Table of Elements. Element Thallium - Tl. Comprehensive data on the chemical element Thallium is provided on this page ...
ICP Single Element Standards. Reagecon offers an comprehensive range of ICP Single Element Standards. Products are produced in ... Reagecon Thallium Standard for ICP, ICP-MS 10,000 µg/mL (10,000 ppm) in 2-5% Nitric Acid (HNO₃) ... Reagecon Thallium Standard for ICP, ICP-MS 10,000 µg/mL (10,000 ppm) in 2-5% Nitric Acid (HNO₃) ... Reagecon Thallium Standard for ICP, ICP-MS 100 µg/mL (100 ppm) in 2-5% Nitric Acid (HNO₃) ...
Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium ... Thallium stress test[edit]. A thallium stress test is a form of scintigraphy, where the amount of thallium in tissues ... See also: Category:Thallium compounds.. Thallium(III)[edit]. Thallium(III) compounds resemble the corresponding aluminium(III) ... Thallium also occurs as a trace element in iron pyrite, and thallium is extracted as a by-product of roasting this mineral for ...
Make research projects and school reports about thallium easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Two naturally occurring isotopes of thallium exist, thallium-203 and thallium-205. Isotopes are two or more forms of an element ... Thallium is a heavy, bluish-white metal that resembles lead, element 82. Thallium is very soft and melts easily. It is soft ... Thallium is a rather uncommon element. Still, some of its compounds have important applications. For example, thallium sulfate ...
element.title ]] Forschungsschwerpunkte Sorption von Thallium an Illit und Birnessit und Thalliumverhalten in Böden. ... Thallium sorption onto manganese oxides The sorption of thallium (Tl) onto manganese (Mn) oxides critically influences its ... Thallium adsorption onto illite We investigated the adsorption of Tl+ onto purified Illite du Puy (IdP). Distribution ... Wick, S.; Peña, J.; Voegelin, A. (2019) Thallium sorption onto manganese oxides, Environmental Science and Technology, 53(22), ...
Element Description. Thallium was discovered spectroscopically and is named for its green spectral line. It has a metallic ... Thallium is very soft and malleable, inelastic, and heavy. It occurs as a mixture of two isotopes. ... THALLIUM (81Tl204.3833). Select a form or compound to view products. ...
"81 Thallium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ "49 Indium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. ... "Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ a b c "Lavoisier 1789 - 33 elements". Elementymology & Elements Multidict. ... 22 elements). Discoveries during the age of enlightenment. (25 elements). Scientific and industrial revolutions (24 elements). ... "Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers, ...
Thallium. 7300Cdc-pdf. ELEMENTS by ICP. Thiobencarb. 5601Cdc-pdf. ORGANONITROGEN PESTICIDES Now available in NMAM 5th edition ...
Chemistry in its Element - Thallium with Henry Nicholls, Freelance Science Journalist. During World War I, Agatha Christie ... Subsequent work on the chemistry of thallium showed it to have similar properties to several other elements, including silver, ... Thallium bromide-iodide crystals have also been used in infrared detectors. The addition of metals like thallium to glass can ... Today, thallium is of greatest use to the electronics industry. In particular, the conductivity of thallium sulphide alters on ...
Other elements discussed include boron, gallium, indium, and thallium. The trends in density and melting point as you go down ... Aluminum and the Elements of Group 13. This book describes the properties of aluminum that at one time made it more valuable ... this group are described and demonstrated by the interesting ways these elements and their compounds are used. ... Other elements discussed include boron, gallium, indium, and thallium. The trends in density and melting point as you go down ...
Each PerkinElmer Thallium (Tl) Pure Grade Atomic Spectroscopy Calibration Standard is supplied with a comprehensive Certificate ... Thallium (Tl) Pure Single-Element Standard, 1,000 µg/mL, 2% HNO3, 500 mL * ...
Trace elements from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check availability and place orders. ... Thallium 0.001101 %. 7440-28-0. -. More info... Thallium * Product no: BCR-354 ...
Find out information about Element 81. metallic chemical element; symbol Tl; at. no. 81; interval in which at. wt. ranges ... Element 83, Element 69, Element 18, Element 88. thallium. (thăl`ēəm), metallic chemical element; symbol Tl; at. no. 81; ... thallium. (redirected from Element 81). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.. Related to Element 81: Element 89, ... Thallium displays the most geochemical similarity to K, Rb, and Cs, as well as to Pb, Ag, Cu, and Bi. (SeeDISPERSED ELEMENT and ...
... often classified as main group elements rather than as transition elements. The Periodic Table is an important predictive tool ... The chemistry of various groups of elements is then discussed. The book incorporates a valuable chapter on inorganic polymers, ... forms the basis for describing the trends and variations in the chemistry of the elements. Introductory material covers the ... and p-block elements, together with a brief chapter on the chemistry of zinc, cadmium and mercury, ...
dashed borders: at least one isotope naturally arise from decay of other chemical elements and no isotopes are older than the ... This article shows periodic tables with the location of the chemical elements. They are sorted by atomic number. Follow the ... solid borders: at least one isotope is older than the Earth (Primordial elements) ... 1Natural lanthanides are also known as "rare earths" or "rare-earth elements". ...
thallium (chemical element). This Lithuanian entry was created from the translations listed at thallium. It may be less ...
Resource on Trace Elements and Metals in Soils This highly anticipated fourth edition of the bestselling Trace Elements in ... Thallium Chapter 19 Elements of Group I4 (Previously Group IVa) Silicon Germanium ... Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, Fourth Edition illustrates why trace elements behavior in soil controls their transfer in ... providing a good overview as to drivers of element availability such as pH, organic matter, interactions with other elements ...
  • In the presence of water and oxygen (or simply air), some elements - lithium , sodium , potassium , rubidium , cesium , strontium and barium - react rapidly, even dangerously to give the hydroxides. (wikidoc.org)
  • Because of this high toxicity, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends against the use of thallium in rodent and insect poisons. (medicinenet.com)
  • no. 102) 1.Thallium - toxicity I.Series ISBN 92 4 151102 8 (NLM Classification: QV 618) ISSN 0259-7268 The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. (inchem.org)
  • When ingested, thallium is a systemic poison that can produce multiple organ toxicity involving the gastrointestinal, neurologic, and cardiovascular systems. (corrosion-doctors.org)
  • In 1973 , the Wprld Health Organization recommended that thallium sulfate use as a rodenticide be discontinued because of its toxicity, and use in the United States for this purpose has been banned since 1975 . (corrosion-doctors.org)
  • Treatment of thallium toxicity consists of initial stabilization, prevention of absorption, enhanced elimination, and antidotal therapy (see Treatment and Medication ). (medscape.com)
  • Thallium has a similar ionic radii to potassium (Tl 0.147 nm vs K 0.133 nm), which is one principle behind its toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Key enzymes involved in thallium toxicity include pyruvate kinase and succinate dehydrogenase. (medscape.com)
  • The sorption of thallium (Tl) onto manganese (Mn) oxides critically influences its environmental fate and geochemical cycling and is also of interest in water treatment. (eawag.ch)
  • See DISPERSED ELEMENT and DISPERSED-ELEMENT ORE. ) It migrates readily in the biosphere and is sorbed from natural waters by coals, clays, and manganese hydroxides. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, the +1 state, which is far more prominent in thallium than the elements above it, recalls the chemistry of alkali metals , and thallium(I) ions are found geologically mostly in potassium-based ores, and (when ingested) are handled in many ways like potassium ions (K + ) by ion pumps in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the alkali metals, thallium is concentrated in the upper part of the earth's crust, the granite layer, where its average content is 1.5 × 10 -4 percent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1981. The determination of cadmium, copper, lead and thallium in human liver and kidney tissue by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after enzymatic digestion. (cdc.gov)
  • The main aim of this review was to summarize the recent data regarding the actual level of thallium content in environmental niches and to elucidate the most significant sources of thallium in the environment. (springer.com)
  • Studies on embryo toxic effects of thallium using the whole embryo culture technique. (cdc.gov)
  • 1981. Intake and health effects of thallium among a population living in the vicinity of a cement plant emitting thallium containing dust. (cdc.gov)
  • There are few data in humans on the cardiovascular effects of thallium following inhalation. (cdc.gov)
  • Among the distinctive effects of thallium poisoning are hair loss and painful, usually ascending, peripheral neuropathy such as extreme pain, paresthesia, and weakness in distal extremities. (corrosion-doctors.org)
  • The biochemical research on the cellular effects of thallium is extensive, but few data exist in humans. (medscape.com)
  • Production of heavier elements, from carbon to the very heaviest elements, proceeded by stellar nucleosynthesis, and these were made available for later solar system and planetary formation by planetary nebulae and supernovae, which blast these elements into space. (conceptdraw.com)
  • 1979. Quantitative trace analysis of thallium in biological material. (cdc.gov)
  • This highly anticipated fourth edition of the bestselling Trace Elements in Soils and Plants reflects the explosion of research during the past decade regarding the presence and actions of trace elements in the soil-plant environment. (routledge.com)
  • Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, Fourth Edition illustrates why trace elements' behavior in soil controls their transfer in the food chain, making this book an invaluable reference for agronomists, soil and plant scientists, nutritionists, and geochemists. (routledge.com)
  • Trace elements contamination in sediment is regarded as the global crisis with a large share in developing countries like China. (springer.com)
  • This experimental study contributes to a better understanding of the geochemistry and prevention of trace element contamination in sediments from Lanmuchang area. (springer.com)
  • Availability of trace elements in stream water and sediment samples were assessed. (springer.com)
  • Smelting and mining discharges constituted the primary anthropogenic sources of trace elements in the study area. (springer.com)
  • Every PerkinElmer Pure Plus standard is supplied with a comprehensive Certificate of Analysis which reports actual measured values in the final solution of both the major analyte and up to 68 trace element impurities at ppt levels. (perkinelmer.com)
  • A specialist and pioneer in essential and toxic elemental testing since 1972, Doctor's Data has been validated as a supplier of trace element results for the certification of a hair reference material to the European Commission Joint Research Centre. (doctorsdata.com)
  • Thallium is toxic even at very low concentrations and tends to accumulate in the environment once it enters the food chain. (springer.com)
  • The Toxic Element Clearance Profile is a toxic exposure test which measures urinary excretion of a diverse range of potentially harmful elements. (gdx.net)
  • The Toxic Element Clearance Profile offers an advanced, comprehensive assessment of toxic and potentially toxic elements excreted in the urine. (gdx.net)
  • The Toxic Element Clearance Profile assesses urinary excretion of toxic elements acquired through either chronic or acute exposure. (gdx.net)
  • The toxic exposure test enables practitioners to effectively monitor the progress of detoxification regimens and nutrient element status during treatment. (gdx.net)
  • Adomako D, Nyarko B, Dampare S et al (2008) Determination of toxic elements in waters and sediments from River Subin in the Ashanti region of Ghana. (springer.com)
  • This is an ideal test for patients suspected of toxic element exposure. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • Doctor's Data offers a Hair Elements profile containing essential and toxic elements and a Hair Toxic Element Exposure profile containing an expanded lineup of toxic metals. (doctorsdata.com)
  • Hair element analysis provides important information which, in conjunction with symptoms and other laboratory values, can assist the physician with an early diagnosis of physiological disorders associated with aberrations in essential and toxic element metabolism. (doctorsdata.com)
  • Scalp hair is easy to sample, and because it grows an average of one to two cm per month, it contains a "temporal record" of element metabolism and exposure to toxic elements. (doctorsdata.com)
  • Toxic elements may be 200 to 300 times more highly concentrated in hair than in blood or urine. (doctorsdata.com)
  • Toxic metals and essential element status can be assessed in urine, blood, feces and hair. (doctorsdata.com)
  • RBC element analysis is also useful for the assessment of ongoing or very recent exposure to specific toxic elements that accumulate preferentially in erythrocytes. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • It is important to keep in mind that elevated levels of the toxic elements in these cells reflect only recent or ongoing exposure and do not provide information about the net retention of the metals in the body. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • Replacement and maintenance of adequate levels of essential nutrients can markedly reduce the apparent adverse "side effects" associated with the use of detoxification agents, per se, and the general effects of mobilization of toxic elements. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • Meeting the demand for critical minerals (rare earth elements, platinum group elements, nickel cobalt) is increasingly difficult in the 21st century due to resource depletion and geopolitical factors. (springer.com)
  • It goes on to describe the agronomy of "metal crops," and opportunities for incorporating agromining into rehabilitation and mine closure, including test-cases of nickel, cobalt, selenium, thallium, rare earth elements and PGEs. (springer.com)
  • He discusses the newest applications of the elements in the fields of astronomy, aviation, and computer technology-from nanomedicine's use of platinum to battle cancer to the role of lithium in powering Tesla cars. (oup.com)
  • Nutrient elements including magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper and selenium are obligatory co-factors for hundreds of important enzymes and also are essential for the normal functions of vitamins. (doctorsdata.com)