Cardiac Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical activity and characteristics of the HEART; MYOCARDIUM; and CARDIOMYOCYTES.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Electrophysiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms or their parts involved in generating and responding to electrical charges .Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging: Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Tachycardia, Supraventricular: A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional: Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.Accessory Atrioventricular Bundle: Extra impulse-conducting tissue in the heart that creates abnormal impulse-conducting connections between HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Neurophysiology: The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Bundle of His: Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Refractory Period, Electrophysiological: The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Epicardial Mapping: Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels: A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.Pleural Cavity: Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Optogenetics: The combination of genetic and optical methods in controlling specific events with temporal precision in targeted cells of a functioning intact biological system.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Electrodiagnosis: Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels: A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.Tachycardia, Paroxysmal: Abnormally rapid heartbeats with sudden onset and cessation.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Tachycardia, Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry: Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Atrial Flutter: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).KCNQ Potassium Channels: A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.Purkinje Fibers: Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Long QT Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.Tachycardia, Ectopic Atrial: Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.Calcium Channels, T-Type: A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Membrane Transport Modulators: Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Magnetocardiography: The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Electric Countershock: An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Autonomic Agents: Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.Median Neuropathy: Disease involving the median nerve, from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical features include weakness of wrist and finger flexion, forearm pronation, thenar abduction, and loss of sensation over the lateral palm, first three fingers, and radial half of the ring finger. Common sites of injury include the elbow, where the nerve passes through the two heads of the pronator teres muscle (pronator syndrome) and in the carpal tunnel (CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME).Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.PhenylenediaminesTelemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)KCNQ1 Potassium Channel: A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Mice, Inbred C57BLInterneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Electrical Synapses: Specialized junctions between NEURONS which connect the cytoplasm of one neuron to another allowing direct passage of an ion current.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Syncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)Channelopathies: A variety of neuromuscular conditions resulting from MUTATIONS in ION CHANNELS manifesting as episodes of EPILEPSY; HEADACHE DISORDERS; and DYSKINESIAS.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Receptors, Purinergic P2X2: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X2 subunits. The P2X2 subunits also have been found associated with P2X3 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.GABA-A Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Glycine Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.GABA Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Cholinergic Agents: Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Radiation ProtectionCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Synaptic Potentials: The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Coronary Sinus: A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.

Effect of electrotonic potentials on pacemaker activity of canine Purkinje fibers in relation to parasystole. (1/18018)

Isolated false tendons excised form dog hearts were mounted in a three-chamber tissue bath. Isotonic sucrose solution was perfused in the central chamber to provide a region of depressed conductivity between the fiber segments in chambers 1 and 3, which were perfused with Tyrode's solution. The electrotonic influence of spontaneous or driven responses evoked in chamber 3 during the first half of the spontaneous cycle of a chamber 1 peacemaker delayed the next spontaneous discharge. This effect changed to acceleration when the chamber 3 segment fired during the second half of the spontaneous cycle. We found that subthreshold depolarizing current pulses 50-300 msec applied across the sucrose gap caused similar degrees of delay or acceleration. Furthermore, hyperpolarizing currents caused the reverse pattern. The results indicate that the discharge pattern of a parasystolic focus may be altered by the electrotonic influence of activity in the surrounding tissue. The significance of these findings is considered in relation to the mechanism of production of parasystolic rhythms.  (+info)

The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs. (2/18018)

The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity.  (+info)

Characterization of elementary Ca2+ release signals in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons. (3/18018)

Elementary Ca2+ release signals in nerve growth factor- (NGF-) differentiated PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons, functionally analogous to the "Ca2+ sparks" and "Ca2+ puffs" identified in other cell types, were characterized by confocal microscopy. They either occurred spontaneously or could be activated by caffeine and metabotropic agonists. The release events were dissimilar to the sparks and puffs described so far, as many arose from clusters of both ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs). Increasing either the stimulus strength or loading of the intracellular stores enhanced the frequency of and coupling between elementary release sites and evoked global Ca2+ signals. In the PC12 cells, the elementary Ca2+ release preferentially occurred around the branch points. Spatio-temporal recruitment of such elementary release events may regulate neuronal activities.  (+info)

Differential effects of a segment of slow conduction on reentrant ventricular tachycardia in the rabbit heart. (4/18018)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare differential effects of a segment of slow conduction during ventricular tachycardia (VT) due to depression of the action potential and electrical uncoupling. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 33 Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts, a ring of anisotropic left ventricular subepicardium was created by a cryoprocedure. Reentrant VT was produced by incremental pacing. Slow conduction in a segment of the ring was created by selective perfusion of the LAD with 10 mmol/L potassium or 0.75 mmol/L heptanol. As a result, VT cycle length increased from 193+/-34 to 235+/-37 ms (potassium) and 227+/-42 ms (heptanol). Reset curves were made by applying premature stimuli proximal to the area of depressed conduction. In a ring of uniform anisotropic tissue, the reset curve was almost completely flat. Electrical uncoupling of part of the ring (nonuniform anisotropy) resulted in a mixed reset curve. In both substrates, early premature beats failed to terminate VT. Depression of part of the ring by increasing K+ resulted in a completely sloped reset curve, indicating a gap of partial excitability. Under these conditions, in 19 of 24 hearts, premature beats terminated VT by conduction block in the high K+ area. CONCLUSIONS: The nature of the area of slow conduction determines the type of reset response and the ability to terminate VT.  (+info)

Gabapentin suppresses ectopic nerve discharges and reverses allodynia in neuropathic rats. (5/18018)

Repetitive ectopic discharges from injured afferent nerves play an important role in initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is effective for treatment of neuropathic pain but the sites and mechanisms of its antinociceptive actions remain uncertain. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that therapeutic doses of gabapentin suppress ectopic afferent discharge activity generated from injured peripheral nerves. Mechanical allodynia, induced by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats, was determined by application of von Frey filaments to the hindpaw. Single-unit afferent nerve activity was recorded proximal to the ligated sciatic nerve site. Intravenous gabapentin, in a range of 30 to 90 mg/kg, significantly attenuated allodynia in nerve-injured rats. Furthermore, gabapentin, in the same therapeutic dose range, dose-dependently inhibited the ectopic discharge activity of 15 injured sciatic afferent nerve fibers through an action on impulse generation. However, the conduction velocity and responses of 12 normal afferent fibers to mechanical stimulation were not affected by gabapentin. Therefore, this study provides electrophysiological evidence that gabapentin is capable of suppressing the ectopic discharge activity from injured peripheral nerves. This action may contribute, at least in part, to the antiallodynic effect of gabapentin on neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Intestinal prokinesia by two esters of 4-amino-5-chloro-2- methoxybenzoic acid: involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 receptors and dissociation from cardiac effects in vivo. (6/18018)

In five fasting, conscious dogs, we compared the prokinetic action of two selective 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonists with low affinity for 5-HT3 receptors ML10302 (2-piperidinoethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) and SR59768 (2-[(3S)-3-hydroxypiperidino]ethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) in the duodenum and jejunum, using cisapride as a reference compound. Heart rate and rate-corrected QT (QTc) also were monitored to assess whether or not the cardiac effects of cisapride are shared by other 5-HT4 receptor agonists. Both ML10302 and SR59768 dose-dependently stimulated spike activity in the duodenum with similar potencies (dose range, 3-300 nmol/kg i.v.; ED50 values: 24 and 23 nmol/kg i.v., respectively), mimicking the effect of cisapride (30-3000 nmol/kg i.v.). The maximal effect was achieved with the dose of 100 nmol/kg i.v. for both compounds. Similar findings were obtained in the jejunum. Atropine and GR125487 (1-[2-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl-methyl 5-fluoro-2-methoxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist), at doses having no effect per se, antagonized intestinal prokinesia by maximal doses of ML10302 and SR59768. Neither ML10302 nor SR59768 had any effect on heart rate or QTc at any of the doses tested, whereas cisapride, at the highest dose (3000 nmol/kg), induced tachycardia and lengthened the QTC (p <.01). In conclusion, ML10302 and SR59768 share with cisapride a similar prokinetic action in the canine duodenum and jejunum in vivo. This effect is mediated by pathways involving activation of 5-HT4 and muscarinic receptors. Unlike cisapride, which induces tachycardia and prolongs the QTc by a mechanism probably unrelated to 5-HT4 receptor activation, ML10302 and SR59768 are devoid of cardiac effects in this model.  (+info)

Nonlinear tension summation of different combinations of motor units in the anesthetized cat peroneus longus muscle. (7/18018)

The purpose of this study was to examine the linearity of summation of the forces produced by the stimulation of different combinations of type identified motor units (MUs) in the cat peroneus longus muscle (PL) under isometric conditions. The muscle was fixed at its twitch optimal length, and the tension produced by the single MU was recorded during 24- and 72-Hz stimulation. The summation analysis was first carried out for MUs belonging to the same functional group, and then different combinations of fast fatigable (FF) MUs were added to the nonfatigable slow (S) and fatigue resistant (FR) group. The tension resulting from the combined stimulation of increasing numbers of MUs (measured tension) was evaluated and compared with the linearly predicted value, calculated by adding algebraically the tension produced by the individual MUs assembled in the combination (calculated tension). Tension summation displayed deviations from linearity. S and FR MUs mainly showed marked more than linear summation; FF MUs yielded either more or less than linear summation; and, when the FF units were recruited after the S and FR MUs, less than linear summation always occurred. The magnitude of the nonlinear summation appeared stimulus frequency dependent for the fatigable FF and FI group. The relationship between measured tension and calculated tension for each MU combination was examined, and linear regression lines were fitted to each set of data. The high correlation coefficients and the different slope values for the different MU-type combinations suggested that the nonlinear summation was MU-type specific. The mechanisms of nonlinear summations are discussed by considering the consequences of internal shortening and thus the mechanical interactions among MUs and shifts in muscle fiber length to a more or less advantageous portion of single MU length-tension curves.  (+info)

Regulation of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel by coexpression of G(alpha s) in Xenopus oocytes. (8/18018)

Activation of G(alpha s) via beta-adrenergic receptors enhances the activity of cardiac voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels of the L-type, mainly via protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation. Contribution of a PKA-independent effect of G(alpha s) has been proposed but remains controversial. We demonstrate that, in Xenopus oocytes, antisense knockdown of endogenous G(alpha s) reduced, whereas coexpression of G(alpha s) enhanced, currents via expressed cardiac L-type channels, independently of the presence of the auxiliary subunits alpha2/delta or beta2A. Coexpression of G(alpha s) did not increase the amount of alpha1C protein in whole oocytes or in the plasma membrane (measured immunochemically). Activation of coexpressed beta2 adrenergic receptors did not cause a detectable enhancement of channel activity; rather, a small cAMP-dependent decrease was observed. We conclude that coexpression of G(alpha s), but not its acute activation via beta-adrenergic receptors, enhances the activity of the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel via a PKA-independent effect on the alpha1C subunit.  (+info)

  • Based on information gathered during an electrophysiology study, Massachusetts General Hospital physicians can diagnose your particular arrhythmia and select the appropriate treatment. (massgeneral.org)
  • The high growth in Asia-Pacific can be attributed to the factors such as rising aging population, improved healthcare infrastructure, growing emphasis of healthcare multinational companies on emerging markets and high demand for electrophysiology devices from this region. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • A cardiac electrophysiology study ( EP test or EP study ) is a minimally invasive procedure that tests the electrical conduction system of the heart to assess the electrical activity and conduction pathways of the heart . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac electrophysiology is the science of elucidating, diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart . (wikipedia.org)
  • An electrophysiology (EP) study is a test that records the electrical activity and the electrical pathways of your heart . (webmd.com)
  • When people seek emergency care for shortness of breath, a routine electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) enhanced by artificial intelligence (AI) is better than standard blood tests at determining if the cause is heart failure, according to new research published today in Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, an American Heart Association journal. (news-medical.net)
  • Corrigan Minehan Heart Center physicians use electrophysiology (EP) studies to better understand the heart's electrical system. (massgeneral.org)
  • Emily Sohn, Washington Post , "Everyone has heart palpitations, but for some it can be serious," 7 Mar. 2018 In AFib-which affects as many as 3% of the population, with most cases occurring in those over 65-the electrophysiology of the heart is out of whack, and its two upper chambers (the atria) fibrillate, or quiver, instead of contracting fully. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Our electrophysiologists (heart rhythm specialists) are national leaders in pediatric electrophysiology. (childrensnational.org)
  • The Heart Rhythm Society, the Pediatric & Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES), and the Society of Invasive Cardiovascular Professionals (SICP) partnered with the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) to develop the Cardiac Electrophysiology Accreditation . (hrsonline.org)
  • As the leaders in heart rhythm care, they approved an initiative to develop a voluntary accreditation program that will provide a method by which facilities performing cardiac electrophysiology procedures can document their commitment to quality patient care. (hrsonline.org)
  • The UCSF Cardiac Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Service is known worldwide for expert evaluation and treatment of patients with a variety of heart rhythm disorders. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • With a history of innovation, UCSF's electrophysiology service has played a leading role in the tremendous advances recently made in assessing and treating abnormal heart rhythms. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Electrophysiology is used to diagnose and follow progression of disorders affecting vision similar to the manner electrocardiograms (ECGs) are used to monitor heart disease. (utah.edu)
  • Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center's operating room includes the latest imaging technology, cardiac electrophysiology mapping and ablation equipment, and all equipment needed for open heart surgery. (ucsd.edu)
  • An electrophysiology study is a test where electrode wires are passed through a blood vessel and into your heart. (epnet.com)
  • Bressan, M. Optical Electrophysiology in the Developing Heart. (mdpi.com)
  • Thomas K, Goudy J, Henley T, Bressan M. Optical Electrophysiology in the Developing Heart. (mdpi.com)
  • My focus is on the cell membrane, skeletal muscle, lungs, heart and general electrophysiology . (wyzant.com)
  • When you choose Adventist for your heart rhythm care, you gain access to the experienced electrophysiology specialists who perform thousands of procedures each year. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • The Orlando Health Heart Institute's Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Center provides one of Florida's most sophisticated and accurate diagnostic tools. (orlandohealth.com)
  • Through the course students will gain a thorough grounding in science of cardiac electrophysiology and will learn how to apply core principles to the management of heart rhythm. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The scientific basis of arrhythmogenesis and the normal electrophysiology of the heart will also be learnt. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • We use the latest electrophysiology tests, heart imaging techniques, and other exams to identify the cause and location of your arrhythmia with precision. (nyp.org)
  • The group is active in advanced electrophysiology procedures, peripheral vascular interventions, structural heart disease and advanced non-invasive imaging including CT, MRI, and Echo. (healthecareers.com)
  • The electrophysiology lab at CentraCare Heart & Vascular Center has received accreditation by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC), making it the first in Minnesota and seventh in the world to earn this recognition. (centracare.com)
  • North America Electrophysiology Market Outlook to 2020 is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. (pitchengine.com)
  • To view the table of contents and know more details please visit North America Electrophysiology Market Outlook to 2020 report. (pitchengine.com)
  • This month we're excited to share a couple of customer applications of our technology, including wearable technology to assist people with low vision, and a system for electrode positioning in electrophysiology research. (constantcontact.com)
  • A coil electrode for use in an electrophysiology probe includes a first material having a relatively high radiopacity and a second material having a relatively high resiliency. (google.com)
  • The visual electrophysiology tests are objective and non-invasive and are compiled using ISCEV standards. (upmc.com)
  • Genetically targeted optical electrophysiology in intact neural circuits. (nih.gov)
  • work in the field of retinal electrophysiology. (britannica.com)
  • There are one, perhaps two positions for a Postdoctoral Research Associate in Retinal Electrophysiology in the laboratories of friends of Webvision, Dr. Maureen McCall and Dr. Ron Gregg at the University of Louisville ( Ophthalmology & Biochemistry/Molecular Biology Departments). (utah.edu)
  • Cognitive Electrophysiology group investigates cognitive processes that underlie the episodic memory, and the brain activity that supports it. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/858229310 Title: Cognitive electrophysiology of attention : signals of the mind Author: George R Mangun Publisher: Burlington : Elsevier Science, 2014. (worldcat.org)
  • Cognitive Electrophysiology of Attention explores the fundamental mechanisms of attention and related cognitive functions from cognitive neuroscience perspectives. (worldcat.org)
  • Trihealth, Cincinnati.com , "Collaborative treatment helps Pete get moving after AFib," 4 May 2018 With age, people tend to get more premature beats, added Hugh Calkins, director of the electrophysiology lab at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore. (merriam-webster.com)
  • It includes the anatomy and physiology of the conduction system, 12 Lead ECG interpretation as it pertains to electrophysiology, electrophysiology of cardiac muscle, cardiac pharmacology, electrophysiology technology and the signals seen at a baseline EP study in sinus rhythm. (bcit.ca)
  • Moreover, growing healthcare funding for electrophysiology devices in North America and Europe has also propelled the growth of electrophysiology market. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • The high growth in this region can be attributed to the rapidly increasing aging population, growing focus of multinational companies on emerging markets, improving and modernizing healthcare infrastructure, and high demand of electrophysiology devices. (pitchengine.com)
  • Classical electrophysiology techniques involve placing electrodes into various preparations of biological tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical electrophysiology involves placing electrodes into various preparations of biologic tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • U.S. electrophysiology market dominated the global industry with around 32% market share in 2017 and is estimated to show lucrative growth during the forecast period. (openpr.com)