Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Electrophoresis, Microchip: A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.Acrylic ResinsChromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.AcrylatesAcrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.TritiumProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Rosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under conditions in which the components, such as PROTEINS, being separated can remain in their naturally folded state.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.MercaptoethanolImmunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.SepharoseNucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Collodion: A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Silver Staining: The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.GlucosamineEpitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Photofluorography: The photography of images produced on a fluorescent screen by X-rays.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Dimethyl Suberimidate: The methyl imidoester of suberic acid used to produce cross links in proteins. Each end of the imidoester will react with an amino group in the protein molecule to form an amidine.Imidoesters: Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.EsterasesGlycoside HydrolasesChromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Sulfhydryl Reagents: Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Protein PrecursorsRotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).

The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout. (1/40341)

1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (2/40341)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

A protein-glucan intermediate during paramylon synthesis. (3/40341)

A sodium deoxycholate extract containing glucosyltransferase activity was obtained from a particulate preparation from Euglena gracilis. It transferred glucose from UDP-[14C]glucose into material that was precipitated by trichloroacetic acid. This material released beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan oligosaccharides into solution on incubation with weak acid, weak alkali and beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucosidase. The products of the incubation of the deoxycholate extract with UDP-[14C]glucose were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Radioactive bands were obtained that had the properties of beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan covalently linked to protein by a bond labile to weak acid. High-molecular-weight material containing a beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan was also shown to be present by gel filtration. The bond linking glucan to aglycone is possibly a pyrophosphate linkage. It is proposed that in Euglena gracilis beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan (paramylon) is synthesized on a protein primer.  (+info)

Lack of genic similarity between two sibling species of drosophila as revealed by varied techniques. (4/40341)

Acrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed on the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase in sixty isochromosomal lines of Drosophila persimilis from three geographic populations. Sequential electrophoretic analysis using varied gel concentrations and buffers revealed twenty-three alleles in this species where only five had been described previously. These new electrophoretic techniques also detected a profound increase in divergence of gene frequencies at this locus between D. persimilis and its sibling species D. pseudoobscura. The implications of these results for questions of speciation and the maintenance of genetic variability are discussed.  (+info)

Genetic heterogeneity within electrophoretic "alleles" of xanthine dehydrogenase in Drosophila pseudoobscura. (5/40341)

An experimental plan for an exhaustive determination of genic variation at structural gene loci is presented. In the initial steps of this program, 146 isochromosomal lines from 12 geographic populations of D. pseudoobscura were examined for allelic variation of xanthine dehydrogenase by the serial use of 4 different electrophoretic conditions and a head stability test. The 5 criteria revealed a total of 37 allelic classes out of the 146 genomes examined where only 6 had been previously revealed by the usual method of gel electrophoresis. This immense increase in genic variation also showed previously unsuspected population differences between the main part of the species distribution and the isolated population of Bogota population. The average heterozygosity at the Xdh locus is at least 72% in natural populations. This result, together with the very large number of alleles segregating and the pattern of allelic frequencies, has implications for theories of genetic polymorphism which are discussed.  (+info)

Isolation and complete covalent structure of liver microsomal paraoxonase. (6/40341)

Paraoxonase (PON1) is a serum esterase exclusively associated with high-density lipoproteins; it might confer protection against coronary artery disease by destroying pro-inflammatory oxidized lipids in oxidized low-density lipoproteins. Here I show that rabbit liver microsomes contain a PON analogue (MsPON) and report the isolation and complete covalent structure of MsPON. In detergent-solubilized microsomes, MsPON co-purifies with the microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP) complex. MsPON was separated from the complex and purified to homogeneity under non-denaturing conditions. Automated sequence analysis of intact MsPON and peptides obtained from enzymic and chemical cleavages led to the elucidation of the complete covalent structure of MsPON. The protein is a single polypeptide consisting of 350 residues. The sequence of rabbit liver microsomal MsPON is 60% identical with that of rabbit serum PON1, and 84% identical with the sequence predicted by a human cDNA of unknown function, designated PON3. MsPON has a hydrophobic segment at the N-terminus that might serve to anchor the protein to the microsomal membrane or to the MTP complex. Unlike in the serum enzyme, two potential N-glycan acceptor sites in MsPON are not glycosylated. An absence of N-glycans was also indicated in the rabbit liver MTP. MsPON has a single free cysteine residue at position 38 and a disulphide bond between Cys-279 and Cys-348. The microsomal enzyme lacks three residues at the N-terminus that are present in the serum protein. MsPON lacks four residues at the C-terminus that are present in the rabbit serum protein but absent from human serum PON1. On the basis of the observation that MsPON displays a high degree of similarity with serum PON1, it is proposed that MsPON might have a function related to that of PON1 in serum high-density lipoprotein complexes.  (+info)

Characterization and partial purification of a novel neutrophil membrane-associated kinase capable of phosphorylating the respiratory burst component p47phox. (7/40341)

The phosphorylation of p47phox is widely viewed as an important step in the activation of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase system. The exact nature of the kinase(s) responsible remains to be elucidated. We show here that such a kinase was detected on neutrophil membranes activated by either PMA or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. This enzyme is not intrinsic to the neutrophil membrane and could be eluted with 0.5 M NaCl. The kinase activity was partially purified and was found not to be due to the presence of previously suggested kinases, including protein kinase C isotypes, mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B. Gel filtration and renaturation in substrate gels suggest a molecular mass of between 45 and 51 kDa. The kinase activity was independent of calcium and lipids but was potently inhibited by staurosporine. Treatment with protein phosphatase 2Ac suggested that the kinase was activated by serine/threonine phosphorylation. Phosphopeptide maps indicated that the kinase phosphorylated p47phox on similar sites to those found in vivo. These results indicate that activation of neutrophils by PMA results in the activation of a membrane-associated kinase that may play a part in the regulation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase through its ability to phosphorylate p47phox.  (+info)

A novel class of protein from wheat which inhibits xylanases. (8/40341)

We have purified a novel class of protein that can inhibit the activity of endo-beta-1,4-xylanases. The inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Soisson) is a glycosylated, monomeric, basic protein with a pI of 8.7-8.9, a molecular mass of 29 kDa and a unique N-terminal sequence of AGGKTGQVTVFWGRN. We have shown that the protein can inhibit the activity of two family-11 endo-beta-1, 4-xylanases, a recombinant enzyme from Aspergillus niger and an enzyme from Trichoderma viride. The inhibitory activity is heat and protease sensitive. The kinetics of the inhibition have been characterized with the A. niger enzyme using soluble wheat arabinoxylan as a substrate. The Km for soluble arabinoxylan in the absence of inhibitor is 20+/-2 mg/ml with a kcat of 103+/-6 s-1. The kinetics of the inhibition of this reaction are competitive, with a Ki value of 0.35 microM, showing that the inhibitor binds at or close to the active site of free xylanase. This report describes the first isolation of a xylanase inhibitor from any organism.  (+info)

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mungbean protein isolate (MPI) on the potential possibility of water binding agent and as a substrate for the microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) in myofibrillar protein. Cooking loss (CL,%), gel strength (GS, gf), sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were measured. The addition of MPI reduced CL, indicating that it has a water binding capacity during cooking. The major protein band (53 kDa) of MPI appeared when MPI was mixed with MP, but it disappeared when MTGase was incorporated. MPI treatment changed the endothermic peaks as compared with those of CTL. MTGase (1%) mediated pork MP increased CL and GS (P , 0.05), and reduced peak temperatures with vanishing of endothermic intensity at 1st and 3rd peaks, suggesting the structural changes of protein gelation. In microstructures, MTGase treatment showed a finely stranded ...
Infection of barley leaves by powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) causes increased dark respiration, par tof which is associated with active host responses to infection, and a consequence of which is reduced plant growth. The pathogen cannot be grown separately from the host. Therefore, in order to examine those changes in respiratory activity peculiar to the host, attempts were made to isolate protoplasts from infected tissues, and from healthy controls. Isolation of useful numbers (, 106cm−6) of viable mesophyll protoplasts from infected tissues was possible with one among several batches of commercial Cellulysin tested; on analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), this batch contained a low molecular weight protein at 20.1 kDa not found in other batches. In all isolated protoplasts, total respiration increased with the age of the source-leaf, but within 24 h of inoculation respiration was stimulated by infection. Protoplasts from ...
To determine whether there is diversity among clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori in Chinese patients with peptic ulcer disease, 40 strains of H. pylori were isolated from antral biopsy specimens obtained at the gastroenterology clinic of Xiangya Hospital from January 1996 to June 1998. Total protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and DNA diversity by polymerase chain reaction-random amplified polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD) fingerprinting were performed with these isolates. All the isolates from peptic ulcer disease were relatively homogeneous in protein profiles, but they showed a great DNA sequence diversity by PCR-RAPD fingerprinting. In Chinese patients H. pylori demonstrated an enormous diversity. The diversity among clinical isolates of H. pylori could be distinctly demonstrated and this observation will be helpful in the management of intrafamilial and recurrent H. pylori infection. PCR-RAPD fingerprinting is an efficient method of distinguishing
Background: Prawns and shrimp certainly are a regular cause of sea food allergy mediated by IgE antibodies. adjustments. Quickly the shell and meats of each varieties had been combined in 1 M phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2) and extracted overnight in 4 °C under regular blending. The homogenates had been centrifuged at 14 000 rpm at 4 °C for a quarter-hour. The supernatants had been sterile-filtered lyophilised and kept at after that ?20 °C until make use of. For preparation of the boiled extracts the homogenates of the prawns were boiled for 5 minutes before extraction as described above. The protein concentration of each extract was decided using the Total Protein Kit (Sigma-Aldrich UK) and bovine serum albumin as a standard. SDS-PAGE of prawn extracts Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed as described by Nakano et al. (17) with some modifications. The samples of the extracts were heated at 97 °C for 4 minutes and Precision Plus Protein ...
article{9ffe9df9-5a4c-440c-bdd1-534be5ba851a, abstract = {We report a case of a 5-year-old child who suffered an oral allergy syndrome and lip angiedema after eating grapes. We obtained a positive prick test with commercial grape extract and a positive prick-by-prick test with pulp and peel of fresh white grape (Moscatel variety) and pulp and peel of blue grape. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting revealed specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in the patients serum against a 94,000 molecular-weight antigenic band. Lip open challenge was positive.}, author = {Rodriguez, Angel and Trujillo, María Jesús and Matheu, Victor and Baeza, María Luisa and Zapatero, Lidia and Martinez, Maribel}, issn = {0905-6157}, language = {eng}, number = {5}, pages = {289--290}, publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell}, series = {Pediatric Allergy and Immunology}, title = {Allergy to grape: a case report}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3038.2001.00064.x}, volume ...
The giardins are a family of approximately 30000 Mr structural proteins found in microribbons attached to microtubules in the disc cytoskeleton of Giardia. After examining the solubility of giardins in various agents, a method has been developed to extract these polypeptides and subsequently precipitate them selectively. The giardin chains are soluble in 10 mM-HEPES/EDTA buffer at high pH and low ionic strength, but become insoluble in 10 mM-MES/EDTA buffer at pH 6.7 when the ionic strength is raised above 50 mM salt. By dialysing giardin extracts in turn against dissociating and reassembly buffers, the purification is obtained of a subset of giardin chains identified by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as the cytoskeleton bands 14a, 14b and 15. The structures forming under assembly conditions are all composed of fine filaments, 2-3 nm in diameter. Filaments after the first cycle of assembly are found in bundles, narrow ribbons of two or three filaments, and large ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An electrophoretic difference between surface and secreted IgM of murine splenocytes. AU - Melcher, U.. AU - Uhr, J. W.. PY - 1973. Y1 - 1973. N2 - μ chains on the surface of murine splenocytes are more heterogeneous on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis than both secreted and intracellular μ chains labeled with [3H]tyrosine. No difference in heterogeneity among cell surface, secreted, or intracellular L chains was detected. The possible role of carbohydrate in μ chain heterogeneity is discussed.. AB - μ chains on the surface of murine splenocytes are more heterogeneous on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis than both secreted and intracellular μ chains labeled with [3H]tyrosine. No difference in heterogeneity among cell surface, secreted, or intracellular L chains was detected. The possible role of carbohydrate in μ chain heterogeneity is discussed.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0015816392&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
misc{eca87be0-f7fa-474e-a1e5-8de2cbfa3eba, abstract = {In order to identify the protein responsible for a dopamine peroxidizing activity, previously described in human normal and parkinsonian substantia nigra by our group, we developed non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions, mimicking the characteristic colour in vitro reaction, resulting from cyclic oxidation of dopamine (DA). After separating protein mixtures from human normal midbrain homogenates on two sets of identical native gels, one gel set was subjected to specific activity staining by using DA and hydrogen peroxide. An activity red/orange band appeared in midbrain tissue lanes, similarly to the lane where commercial horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was present as control of peroxidative activity. The second set of gels, stained with Coomassie Blue, showed other, not enzymatically active protein bands. Mass spectrometry analysis of the bands containing the activity and the corresponding Coomassie Blue bands revealed ...
The present invention relates to a method for detection of protein using a counter-dye composition, on polyacrylamide gels, and the counter-dye composition for detection of protein on polyacrylamide gels. More specifically, the present invention relates to a method for detection of protein in a high sensitivity on polyacrylamide gels in a rapid and simple manner, comprising the step of staining the polyacrylamide gels with a counter-dye composition containing an acidic organic dye and a basic organic dye, and the counter-dye composition for detection of protein on polyacrylamide gels.
SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis is a technique to separate proteins according to elctrophoretic mobility - a function of polypeptide chain length or protein mass). SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis can also be used to separate DNA and RNA molecules.. SDS stands for sodium dodecyl sulfate. "SDS is an anionic detergent that disrupts non-covalent interactions in native proteins." SDS is used to create denaturing conditions to separate proteins by molecular weight and also confers negative charge to the proteins in proportion to its mass. By denaturing the proteins with SDS, proteins can be separated by their mass alone; without SDS, other molecular properties, such as a charge and shape, would interfere with the separation process (proteins that are strongly negative, for example, would move faster down a gel, even if they were larger, without SDS). In addition, a loading dye is introduced that helps bind the protein to the gel and make it more recognizable when exposed by UV ...
1. The identification, isolation and characterisation of a mammalian mRNA required choice of a cell type which synthesises only one or a few proteins. The mammalian reticulocyte synthesises globin almost exclusively. This cell type can be isolated in large quantities and has low endogenous ribonuclease activity, thus making it a suitable system for the isolation of large amounts of undegraded RNA. Preliminary experiments indicated that the reticulocyte RNA component sedimenting at 9s had many of the characteristics expected of the globin mRNAs. 2. The characterisation of an mRNA which can only be labelled to a small extent in vivo and which is only about l of the total RNA requires the development of large-scale isolation procedures. Preliminary experiments designed to circumvent the difficulty of labelling reticulocyte 9s RNA in vivo involved the isolation of uridine-9s RNA from cultures of 14 day mouse embryo liver cells. The technique of preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was ...
The Novex® NuPAGE® SDS-PAGE Gel System is a revolutionary high-performance polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system that simulates the denaturing conditions of the traditional Laemmli system (Tris-glycine SDS-PAGE gels) without using SDS detergent. NuPAGE® SDS-PAGE Gels use a unique buffer formulation that maintains a low operating pH during electrophoresis. This eliminates the
Analysis of Mutant SOD1 Electrophoretic Mobility by Blue Native Gel Electrophoresis; Evidence for Soluble Multimeric Assemblies. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This new edition is almost a completely new text, with eight of the ten chapters written by new authors. It presents the most reliable methods for essential procedures such as one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, preparative gel electrophoresis, and peptide mapping, complete with the latest refinements of the procedures. In addition, it describes major new techniques developed since the previous edition.
I am planning to run a Blue Native gel, followed by electroblotting for Western analysis. I have read that the Coomassie blue that binds proteins in Blue Native electrophoresis interferes with protein transfer to a membrane. Yet, there are many reports of transfer from BN gels. Does anyone have experience with this procedure who could give me some tips? And is it possible that a nitrocellulose membrane presents more of a problem than PVDF? Thanks for any help. Nora Plesofsky ...
Novex Tris-Glycine polyacrylamide gel chemistry is based on the Laemmli system (1) with minor modifications for maximum performance in the pre-cast format. These gels do not contain SDS and can therefore be used to accurately separate both Morenative and denatured proteins. Novex Tris-Glycine Gels provide reproducible separation of a wide range of proteins into well-resolved bands ...
SDS-PAGE analysis of recombinant NCAM and FGFR1 proteins. Coomassie blue-stained gel of His-tagged soluble proteins expressed in 293-EBNA cells. The positions o
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Poly-Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, or SDS-PAGE, is a widely-used technique for separating mixtures of proteins based on their size...
A computer-implemented method, computer program product, and system for detecting anomalous behavior of computing devices are provided. The computer-implemented method for detecting anomalous behavior of computing devices may include establishing a network of computing devices; receiving shared data from the networked devices; determining device behavior; predicting future device behavior, detecting anomalous device behavior, and sending an alert in response to a detection of anomalous device behavior.
By way of example, females endure a higher extent of endothelial and smooth muscle dysfunc tion in contrast with men. Hence, it has been suggested the endothel
Does anyone have any hints for transferring proteins from non- denaturing poly-acrylamide gels to nitro-cellulose? I have been transferring multi-protein/DNA complexes from EMSA gels with varying success, and I am wondering whether or not a step such as soaking the shift gel in SDS prior to transfer would aid the transfer. ANy other hints. Thank you. Dave ...
Shop online for a wide selection of Alfa Aesar Laemmli SDS Sample Buffer, reducing, 6X For protein sample preparation to be used in the Laemmli SDS-PAGE system
Id like to know if somebody has found the same problem when running big proteins (about 100KDa) in PAGE. I use a really specific antibody to develop western blot and Ive detected that: when I use an 8%-acrilamide gel, this protein appears with his specific size, 100KDa; BUT when I use a 10%-acrilamide gel, my before-specific-antibody now detects a really intensiv band, but very much faster (lower size) than before!! I cant understand this. Ive just studied a lot of conditions, like frozen samples, lesser boiling time, changing lysis buffer, ect ...
Identity tests rely on the genetic differences among individuals. The most informative genetic markers for the genetic characterization of people are variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci...
Referenced from the main protocol, any comments about the protocol should be made here; i.e. how it was developed. Any comments added should be signed (by adding *~~~~: in front) and explained. Links to FAQs/tips provided by other sources such as the manufacturer or other websites would be best made here ...
十二烷基硫酸钠聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳,也称SDS-PAGE,是一种被广泛使用,仅根据分子量大小来分离蛋白质混合物的技术。 阴离子去污剂SDS,在变性的线性蛋白表面沿长度均匀分布使其带电。 将它们上样到聚丙烯酰胺凝胶后,...
コンテンツ --, ,div id=Content, ,h2,AFM,/h2, ,img src=http://openwetware.org/images/7/76/SANY0194.JPG alt=AFM width=580 height=400/, ,p, ,img src=http://openwetware.org/images/1/1b/SANY0195.JPGwidth=200 height=180/,   AFM enables us to observe nano size structures composed of DNA. Make an observation sample. We put an observation object on a mica for five minutes and wash it in buffer. (Tris/Tris-HCL 20 mM Mg,sup,2+,/sup, 12.5 mM pH = 7.4) ,/p, ,h2, Electrophoresis,/h2, ,p,,img src=http://openwetware.org/images/8/88/SANY0197.JPG alt=AFM width=580 height=400/,   We can see whether constructing DNA structures is achieved or not by Electrophoresis. It also informs us of DNA length of approximately.,/br,   The electrophoretic condition is cf. Result & Method.,/font,,/p, ,h2, How to create micelle,/h2, ,p,,img src=http://openwetware.org/images/1/17/%E8%B6%85%E9%9F%B3%E6%B3%A2%E3%83%9B%E3%83%A2%E3%82%B8%E3%83%8A%E3%82%A4%E3%82%B6%E3%83%BC.jpg alt=soni ...
Sodium, Electrophoresis, Escherichia, Escherichia Coli, Family, Flexibility, Inhibition, Muscle, Mutagenesis, PH, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Polymerization, Polymers, Report, Serpins, Site-directed Mutagenesis, Skeletal Muscle, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, Temperature
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Proteins are separated based on their size and charge with gel electrophoresis. Polyacrylamide gel is typically used and with the presence of an electrical field, the proteins molecules are mobilize
Since the New Bands Panel was launched early this year, weve reviewed more than 80 bands and counting. The vast majority are unsigned, but weve also seen a number of our alums begin to enjoy some greatly deserved success as the months have gone on.. To celebrate some of the great talents weve discovered along the way, we asked our panellists to vote for their favourite acts to date.. We then got those bands to agree to offer up one of their tracks as a free download for the month of December, so today we can present to you our end-of-year playlist, The Best of the FFS New Bands Panel 2010. The downloads will be available either until our download limit has run out or until December 31st comes - whichever is first - so get cracking. You can download each track individually, or skip to the bottom to get them all in one. The voting took place a few weeks ago now, so no doubt some of the acts weve come across since will have to make do with a spot on the 2011 list, but for now, take a listen. ...
Electrophoresis is a technique of isolating and visually identifying different biomolecules. This is done by passing an electrical current through the gel to separate charged molecules of different weights. If the molecule youre interested in isnt common enough, its band will be virtually invisible and difficult to measure.. DNA and RNA can be amplified somewhat before running electrophoresis, but it isnt practical to do this with proteins. Therefore, a large tissue sample is needed to run these assays. This can limit the usefulness of the technique, especially in medical analysis. Its virtually impossible to run electrophoresis on samples from a single cell; flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry are more commonly used to assess cell-by-cell expression of proteins. A technique called PCR is excellent at precisely measuring tiny amounts of RNA.. ...
Christian Hogdohm Gel Electrophoresis I. Introduction: A typical electrophoresis has five major parts: the electrical current, DNA, RNA, or protein
Gel Electrophoresis, Agarose, Agarose additive, UV transparent sheets, permeable support mesh, drying frames, rapid coomassie stain, gel box, etc - Page H10
Felicioli R., Garzelli B., Vaccari A., Melfi D., Balestreri E. Activity Staining of Protein Inhibitors of Proteases on Gelatin-Containing Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. In: Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 244 (1) pp. 176 - 179. Elsevier, 1997 ...
To achieve a robust approach for capturing a 3D model from a single 2D picture, this approach uses a well trained human brain to capture the broader idea of the object. This broader idea is captured using what is called the 3-Sweep method, where three sweeps give vital queues for computer to process. Following this, the energy of these queues are in some way minimized to fit along the major axis of the object. In this intelligent combination of two different procedures, a highly robust techique is realized ...
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Armaly M F. Control and sample RNAs are separated Onlnie a denaturing polyacryl gel by electrophoresis and, after visualization, the discrete bands are compared side by side.
Polyacrylamide Market was valued at US$4.09 billion in 2014, is anticipated to reach US$6.68 billion by 2023, expanding at a CAGR of 5.6% from 2015 to 2023
Bovine Normal Tissue: Liver, 1 mg. Tissue total protein is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and presents a consistent pattern on SDS-PAGE analysis.
Human Adult Normal Tissue: Liver, 0.5 mg. Tissue total protein is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and presents a consistent pattern on SDS-PAGE analysis.
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Blotting Western / N / S products, including electroblotting, software and systems on SelectScience.
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Electrophoresis products, including gels, gel tanks, and readers on SelectScience.
A Northern Blot is a method by which RNA is identified. After being subject to electrophoresis (usually gel electrophoresis) and being transferred to a ...
14:30, 27 October 2010 (diff , hist) N File:Sm133 fam.jpg ‎ (Ladder description from invitrogen. This ladder was used in all the gels run, in case not labeled, please refer to this image for the information.) (top) ...
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Ардчилсан намын гишүүдэд илгээх ил захидал Ардчилсан намын гишүүн Та бид ардчиллын түүхэнд цоо шинэ хуудас нээж чадлаа. Ардчилсан намын 85 мянган гишүүн бүртгүүлж Ардчилсан намын даргаа сонгон, улс
แอลกลูต้าอาโมนิ โภชนาทำให้รุ่งเรืองขึ้นพื้นผิว รูขุมขนพร้อมด้วยผิวหนัง ไวท์เทนนิ่ง เกี่ยวข้อง ธรรมชาติ สารสกัดที่มี เป็นผล แล้วก็ปราศจากสารเหลืออยู่ ซูพีเรียใน ภายในเพียง วิตามินซีดูดซึมเข้าสู่การปฏิบัติ เตรียมความพร้อม ช่วย ถือ ผิว ไวท์เทนนิ่ง ว่า ผิว ดวงอาทิตย์ เสถียรภาพ ช่วย การ ที่นอน ปลายขาวผิวสวยไม่โทรม กำจัด ริ้วรอยลายดำสิว คำแนะนำ ...
TTCTTGAAGA CGAAAGGGCC TCGTGATACG CCTATTTTTA TAGGTTAATG TCATGATAAT AATGGTTTCT TAGACGTCAG GTGGCACTTT TCGGGGAAAT GTGCGCGGAA CCCCTATTTG TTTATTTTTC TAAATACATT CAAATATGTA TCCGCTCATG AGACAATAAC CCTGATAAAT GCTTCAATAA TATTGAAAAA GGAAGAGTAT GAGTATTCAA CATTTCCGTG TCGCCCTTAT TCCCTTTTTT GCGGCATTTT GCCTTCCTGT TTTTGCTCAC CCAGAAACGC TGGTGAAAGT AAAAGATGCT GAAGATCAGT TGGGTGCACG AGTGGGTTAC ATCGAACTGG ATCTCAACAG CGGTAAGATC CTTGAGAGTT TTCGCCCCGA AGAACGTTTT CCAATGATGA GCACTTTTAA AGTTCTGCTA TGTGGCGCGG TATTATCCCG TGTTGACGCC GGGCAAGAGC AACTCGGTCG CCGCATACAC TATTCTCAGA ATGACTTGGT TGAGTACTCA CCAGTCACAG AAAAGCATCT TACGGATGGC ATGACAGTAA GAGAATTATG CAGTGCTGCC ATAACCATGA GTGATAACAC TGCGGCCAAC TTACTTCTGA CAACGATCGG AGGACCGAAG GAGCTAACCG CTTTTTTGCA CAACATGGGG GATCATGTAA CTCGCCTTGA TCGTTGGGAA CCGGAGCTGA ATGAAGCCAT ACCAAACGAC GAGCGTGACA CCACGATGCC TGCAGCAATG GCAACAACGT TGCGCAAACT ATTAACTGGC GAACTACTTA CTCTAGCTTC CCGGCAACAA TTAATAGACT GGATGGAGGC GGATAAAGTT GCAGGACCAC TTCTGCGCTC GGCCCTTCCG GCTGGCTGGT TTATTGCTGA TAAATCTGGA ...
TAATACGACT CACTATAGGG AGACCACAAC GGTTTCCCTC TAGAAATAAT TTTGTTTAAC TTTAAGAAGG AGATATACCA TGGCTCACCA CCACCACCAC CATATGACGC ATCACGCATT GATCGAAGCG GCGAAGGCCG CGCGCGAAAA GGCCTACGCG CCGTATTCGA ACTTCAAGGT CGGCGCGGCG CTCGTGACGA ACGACGGCAA GGTCTTCCAC GGCTGCAACG TCGAGAACGC GTCGTACGGG CTGTGCAATT GCGCGGAGCG CACCGCCTTG TTTTCTGCGC TCGCGGCGGG CTACCGGCCG GGCGAGTTCG CGGCGATCGC GGTCGTCGGC GAGACGCACG GGCCGATCGC GCCGTGCGGC GCGTGCCGGC AGGTCATGAT CGAGCTCGGC AAGCCGACGC TCGAAGTCGT GTTGACGAAC ATGCAGGGCG ACGTGCGCGT GACGAGCGCG GGTGACCTGC TGCCGGACGC GTTCTATCTG GCGTGATGAG TAAGATAGGA TCCGGCTGCT AACAAAGCCC GAAAGGAAGC TGAGTTGGCT GCTGCCACCG CTGAGCAATA ACTAGCATAA CCCCTTGGGG CCTCTAAACG GGTCTTGAGG GGTTTTTTGC TGAAAGGAGG AACTATATCC GGATATCCAC AGGACGGGTG TGGTCGCCAT GATCGCGTAG TCGATAGTGG CTCCAAGTAG CGAAGCGAGC AGGACTGGGC GGCGGCCAAA GCGGTCGGAC AGTGCTCCGA GAACGGGTGC GCATAGAAAT TGCATCAACG CATATAGCGC TAGCAGCACG CCATAGTGAC TGGCGATGCT GTCGGAATGG ACGATATCCC GCAAGAGGCC CGGCAGTACC GGCATAACCA AGCCTATGCC TACAGCATCC AGGGTGACGG TGCCGAGGAT ...
岡山 熟女 不倫 伊豆せセフレ 人妻紹介センター掲示板 土浦熟女出会い 八女市人妻エロ 付き合わない セフレ 掲示板 千葉 人妻 出会いサイト 不倫 山口 セフレ 募集 - 岡山 熟女 不倫 伊豆せセフレ 人妻紹介センター掲示板 土浦熟女出会い 八女市人妻エロ 付き合わない セフレ 掲示板 千葉 人妻 出会いサイト 不倫 山口 セフレ 募集おみみん 札幌 セックス岡山 熟女 不倫 伊豆せセフ … 続きを読む 岡山 熟女 不倫 伊豆せセフレ 人妻紹介センター掲示板 土浦熟女出会い ... ...
这只是一个游戏,或者说一个挑战。我们希望人们能体会到监视社会强大的追缉能力、对私人空间史无前例的侵犯。永远消失是基本不可能的,如果你能保持三个月内完全隐身,你就可以写一本书记录这个神奇的过程。我保证,它一定是非常棒的出版物
这只是一个游戏,或者说一个挑战。我们希望人们能体会到监视社会强大的追缉能力、对私人空间史无前例的侵犯。永远消失是基本不可能的,如果你能保持三个月内完全隐身,你就可以写一本书记录这个神奇的过程。我保证,它一定是非常棒的出版物
岡山 熟女 不倫 伊豆せセフレ 人妻紹介センター掲示板 土浦熟女出会い 八女市人妻エロ 付き合わない セフレ 掲示板 千葉 人妻 出会いサイト 不倫 山口 セフレ 募集 - 岡山 熟女 不倫 伊豆せセフレ 人妻紹介センター掲示板 土浦熟女出会い 八女市人妻エロ 付き合わない セフレ 掲示板 千葉 人妻 出会いサイト 不倫 山口 セフレ 募集おみみん 札幌 セックス岡山 熟女 不倫 伊豆せセフ … 続きを読む 岡山 熟女 不倫 伊豆せセフレ 人妻紹介センター掲示板 土浦熟女出会い ... ...
ශ්‍රී ලංකා පදනම් ආයතනයට අනුබද්ධිතව ශ්‍රී ලංකා සිනමා පාසල පසුගිය මැයි 22 වැනිදා ආරම්භ විය. මෙම අවස්ථාවට චිත්‍රපට සංස්ථා සභාපතිනි අනූෂා ගෝකුල, ශ්‍රී ලංකා පදනමේ සභාපති, සරත් කෝන්ගහගේ, මහාචාර්ය කාලෝ ෆොන්සේකා, රවීන්ද්‍ර රන්දෙණිය, බුද්ධදාස විතානාච්චි, ජැක්සන් ඇන්තනි, සබීතා පෙරේරා ඇතුළු කලාකරුවන් ද ප්‍රංශ සහ බ්‍රිතාන්‍ය තානාපති කාර්යාල නිලධාරීන් පිරිසක් ද සහභාගි වූහ. මෙම සිනමා පාසලේ
Работа в открытом космосе - довольно опасное занятие, связанное с большим риском для
Признанный убыточным отечественный поисковик Спутник ещё летом находился на грани
The (Chilean) flat oyster, Ostrea chilensis, is native to New Zealand and the west coast of South America. It is a commercially important species in New Zealand because of its exquisite taste that attracts premium prices. This thesis describes the first isolation and partial charcterisation of an oyster haemolymph calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein. This protein chiletin was originally isolated from oyster haemolymph by binding to the agarose-galactan matrix of a Sepharose column. Chiletin was predominantly composed of a 24 kilodalton (kDa) band when examined with one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions and a 12 kDa band with reduction of disulphide bonds. The N-terminal sequence of the 24 kDa band was determined to be IAGPGWEKYN. This sequence was not homologous to any known protein. Examination of isolated chiletin with two-dimensional protein analysis gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of three (~12 kDa) ...
About 10% of the Chinese population are chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Thus, the development of a highly efficient process for the preparation of a vaccine based on a recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is very important to the Chinese national immunization program. To this end, the ion exchange chromatography recovery of CHO-HBsAg from a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line was shown to increase from about 55 to 80% by the addition of 1% poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 10,000) to the mobile phase. Furthermore, based on analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the intact glycoprotein form of CHO-HBsAg was completely preserved by the addition of PEG. In the absence of PEG the glycoprotein form of CHO-HBsAg was also spread out into the high salt elution fraction. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography with on-line multiangle-laser-light scattering (HPSEC-MALLS) analysis was performed to monitor the status of the ...
SUMMARY: Fourteen strains of Streptococcus mutans serotype c were examined for their cell-surface protein antigens in terms of hydrophobicity, M r and immunochemical specificities. Thirteen strains were hydrophobic, while strain GS-5 was markedly hydrophilic as compared to the other strains tested. Cell-surface protein antigens were then analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western immunoblotting. A protein antigen of M r 190000 (PAc) was found in cell extracts and culture supernatants of all the hydrophobic strains. Neither culture supernatant nor cell extract of strain GS-5 contained PAc. Strain GS-5, however, produced extracellularly a large amount of a protein of M r 155000 (PAGS-5) which reacted with rabbit anti-PAc serum. Immunodiffusion analysis showed that PAGS-5 lacked a part of the antigenic moieties in the PAc molecule. SDS-PAGE and radioimmunoassay showed a small amount of PAGS-5 on the cell surface of strain GS-5. These findings suggest that
The effects of anoxic submergence (16 h at 15°C) on cellular mRNA contents were assessed in five organs of anoxia tolerant turtles Trachemys scripta elegans. Poly(A)+ RNA was extracted from liver, red and white skeletal muscle, kidney and heart of control and anoxic turtles, as well as from heart and kidney of turtles allowed 24 h aerobic recovery (at 15°C) after anoxia exposure. Poly(A)+ RNA content increased by 30% in white muscle from anoxic turtles relative to control animals but was unchanged by metabolic state in other organs. Extracted mRNA was translated in vitro in a wheat germ lysate system and the 35S-labelled polypeptides that were produced were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Overall translational activity of the mRNA pool [cpm 35S-methionine incorporated per microgram poly(A)+ RNA] was altered by anoxia exposure in three organs, increasing by 38 and 18% in liver and kidney and decreasing by 42% in red muscle. Anoxia exposure also led to ...
The isolation of a salt-soluble homogeneous elastin from the aortas of lathyritic chicks by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and salt precipitation is described. These new techniques, as well as some previously published by other workers, were evaluated with the help of antiserum raised in sheep against insoluble chick elastin. The purified elastin was very basic and behaved in a predictable manner in coacervation studies. The protein migrated in sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gels as a single band moving slightly faster than pyruvate kinase (mol.wt. 57000).. ...
A novel immunogenic antigen, the 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6), from short-term culture filtrates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography by use of fast protein liquid chromatography. The antigen focused at two different pIs of 4.0 and 4.5 during isoelectric focusing, and each of these components separated into three spots ranging from 4 to 6 kDa during two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The apparent differences in molecular masses or pIs of these isoforms were not due to posttranslational glycosylation. The molecular weight of the purified native protein was determined by applying gel filtration and nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and found to be 24 kDa. ESAT-6 is recognized by the murine monoclonal antibody HYB 76-8, which was used to screen a recombinant lambda gt11 M. tuberculosis DNA library. A phage expressing a gene product recognized by ...
Protein electrophoresis is a method for analysing the proteins in a fluid or an extract. The electrophoresis may be performed with a small volume of sample in a number of alternative ways with or without a supporting medium: SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (in short: gel electrophoresis, PAGE, or SDS-electrophoresis), free-flow electrophoresis, electrofocusing, isotachophoresis, affinity electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, counterelectrophoresis, and capillary electrophoresis. Each method has many variations with individual advantages and limitations. Gel electrophoresis is often performed in combination with electroblotting immunoblotting to give additional information about a specific protein. Because of practical limitations, protein electrophoresis is generally not suited as a preparative method. SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, describes a collection of related techniques to separate proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility (a ...
Escherichia coli IMP dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.14) was purified by affinity chromatography on immobilized nucleotides. The enzyme binds to agarose-bound 8-(6-aminohexyl)-AMP, N6-(6-aminohexyl)-AMP and 8-(8-amino-octyl)-IMP but not to immobilized NAD+ or Cibacron Blue F3G-A. AMP proved to be an effective eluent. A large-scale purification scheme in which 8-(6-aminohexyl)-AMP-agarose was used resulted in a homogeneous preparation of IMP dehydrogenase. The enzyme was also purified by immunoprecipitation with monospecific antisera. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, N-terminal amino acid analysis and tryptic finger-printing demonstrated that IMP dehydrogenase comprises identical subunits of mol.wt. 58000. Trypsin and Pronase cleave the 58000-mol.wt. subunit into peptides of mol.wts. 42000 and 14000, with a concomitant decrease in enzyme activity. These observations rationalize much of the contradictory data on the subunit composition of the enzyme found in the literature. ...
Methods for microbial classification are not always capable of distinguishing between isolates at the species level. We have previously characterised four Ferroplasma isolates that were ,98.9% similar at the 16S rDNA level, the isolates showed marked phenotypic differences, and one isolate was borderline on the 70% species boundary from DNA-DNA similarity data. In this study we have used statistical comparisons of two-dimensional polyacylamide gel electrophoresis gels for classification of closely related isolates. From the protein profile similarities an un-rooted tree was constructed that was congruent with a tree derived from DNA-DNA similarities.. ...
Any type of data that can be translated into a densitometric curve is considered a fingerprint type in the BioNumerics and GelCompar II software. This includes commonly used genotyping methods employing agarose or polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis (PFGE, rep-PCR, RAPD, PCR-DGGE, etc.), in which case the data are usually imported as two-dimensional gel images (bitmaps). Another major group consists of capillary electrophoresis profiles such as AFLP, ARISA, T-RFLP, etc. Here, the raw electropherograms generated by an automated sequencer (genetic analyzer) or derived peak table text files can be imported. Finally, any other profile (generated e.g. by gas chromatography, HPLC or spectrophotometry) that can be seen as peaks or bands, can be analyzed as a fingerprint.
Any type of data that can be translated into a densitometric curve is considered a fingerprint type in the BioNumerics and GelCompar II software. This includes commonly used genotyping methods employing agarose or polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis (PFGE, rep-PCR, RAPD, PCR-DGGE, etc.), in which case the data are usually imported as two-dimensional gel images (bitmaps). Another major group consists of capillary electrophoresis profiles such as AFLP, ARISA, T-RFLP, etc. Here, the raw electropherograms generated by an automated sequencer (genetic analyzer) or derived peak table text files can be imported. Finally, any other profile (generated e.g. by gas chromatography, HPLC or spectrophotometry) that can be seen as peaks or bands, can be analyzed as a fingerprint.
What is Electrophoresis Gel? Definition of Electrophoresis Gel. Electrophoresis Gel FAQ. Learn more about Electrophoresis Gel. Electrophoresis Gel facts.
An apparent receptor for the egg peptide speract (Gly-Phe-Asp-Leu-Asn-Gly-Gly-Gly-Val-Gly) was identified by covalently coupling a radiolabeled speract analogue to intact spermatozoa and was then purified by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography and preparative gel electrophoresis after solubilization with Lubrol PX. The purified, crosslinked protein was digested with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease and a resultant peptide, purified from polyacrylamide slab gel slices, was shown to have the amino acid sequence Val-Ser-Ala-Pro-Phe-Asp-Leu-Glu-Ala-Pro-Phe-Ile-Ile-Asp-Gly-Ile. Polyclonal antiserum, generated against a synthetic peptide that corresponded to the above sequence, immunoprecipitated the radiolabeled crosslinked protein and reacted with a Mr 77,000 protein on immunoblots, demonstrating that the sequenced peptide originated from the apparent receptor. A clone containing a 2.5-kilobase insert was subsequently isolated from a sea urchin testis cDNA library that contained DNA sequences encoding an ...
An apparent receptor for the egg peptide speract (Gly-Phe-Asp-Leu-Asn-Gly-Gly-Gly-Val-Gly) was identified by covalently coupling a radiolabeled speract analogue to intact spermatozoa and was then purified by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography and preparative gel electrophoresis after solubilization with Lubrol PX. The purified, crosslinked protein was digested with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease and a resultant peptide, purified from polyacrylamide slab gel slices, was shown to have the amino acid sequence Val-Ser-Ala-Pro-Phe-Asp-Leu-Glu-Ala-Pro-Phe-Ile-Ile-Asp-Gly-Ile. Polyclonal antiserum, generated against a synthetic peptide that corresponded to the above sequence, immunoprecipitated the radiolabeled crosslinked protein and reacted with a Mr 77,000 protein on immunoblots, demonstrating that the sequenced peptide originated from the apparent receptor. A clone containing a 2.5-kilobase insert was subsequently isolated from a sea urchin testis cDNA library that contained DNA sequences encoding an ...
The goal of this research was to isolate and identify the thermostable alkaline protease producing bacteria among several native Iranian microorganisms. At the end of screening program, a Bacillus subtilis BP-36 strain producing thermophilic alkaline protease was isolated from a hot spring in Ardebil province. The target enzyme was purified using a one-step Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) protocol involving 22% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG)-10,000, and 18% (w/w) citrate with a yield of 39.7%, specific activity of 2600 U/mg and purification factor of 4.8. It was shown to have a molecular weight of 40 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purified thermophile enzyme was stable in alkaline pH range (9.0-11.0) with the optimum pH of 9.0. It was highly stable at 60 °C and retained 100% activity even after 90 minutes, suggesting that it belong to the family of thermophilous. Collectively, our obtained data revealed that the thermophilic protease produced by B.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of nuclear phosphoproteins of Novikoff hepatoma and regenerating liver.: Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Blood platelets are important components of hemostasis, contributing to healing of wounds by forming thrombi and to the initiation of repair processes. They are also involved, however, in the...
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women, and rated the second most common cancer and a significant cause of death in females in the Sudan. This study aims to identify tumor protein that elicits humoral immune responses in breast cancer patient in comparison to tissues from healthy individuals as well as from normal tissues of the cancer patient. Serum samples and breast cancer tissue specimens were collected from breast cancer patients (n = 9) and from healthy individuals (n = 5) at Khartoum Teaching Hospital. Breast cancer tissues were homogenized in PBS, centrifuged and the supernatants were lysed in 2X SDS-PAGE sample buffer. The preparation then boiled and the resulting supernatants were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis. Total proteins were separated on SDS-PAGE and transferred to the nitrocellulose paper, then analyzed by immunoblotting for total proteins and serum antibodies using serum from patients
The [35S]methionine-labeled proteins released in the medium conditioned by normal and transformed mouse fibroblasts have been analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Three major proteins, fibronectin, procollagens, and a protein with a molecular weight of 45,000 (45K protein) have been identified. The 45K protein, which has not yet been described, accounts for about 30% of the proteins released by control 3T3 fibroblasts or mouse embryo cultures. Quantitation of the radioactivity incorporated by the 45K protein indicated a 10- to 15-fold decrease in 3T3 fibroblasts transformed by Kirsten, Abelson, or Rous sarcoma viruses. The amounts of fibronectin and procollagens released in the medium by transformed cells were also reduced by factors of 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Pulse chase experiments have shown that the decreased level of the 45K protein in the medium of transformed cells cannot be explained by a reduced rate of secretion or by extracellular proteolytic ...
Mouse lymphocyte H-2 and Ia glycoproteins have been analyzed with a two-dimensional (2-D) acrylamide gel electrophoresis technique, in which proteins are separated first according to their charge in isoelectrofocusing gels and then according to their size in sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. Individual polypeptide chains from radiolabeled cells are resolved as discrete spots on autoradiograms of the gels, forming patterns which are characteristic of the proteins in the sample. 2-D gels of H-2K, H-2D, and Ia glycoproteins immunoprecipitated from 35S-methionine-labeled cells reveal that these proteins exist in the cells as complex arrays of molecules heterogeneous in both size and charge. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination of lymphocyte surfaces labels only subsets of the total H-2 and Ia molecules with 125I, indicating that some of the molecules may represent cytoplasmic precursors of the cell surface proteins. This theory is supported by the kinetics of labeling of various spots in ...
The [35S]methionine-labeled proteins released in the medium conditioned by normal and transformed mouse fibroblasts have been analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Three major proteins, fibronectin, procollagens, and a protein with a molecular weight of 45,000 (45K protein) have been identified. The 45K protein, which has not yet been described, accounts for about 30% of the proteins released by control 3T3 fibroblasts or mouse embryo cultures. Quantitation of the radioactivity incorporated by the 45K protein indicated a 10- to 15-fold decrease in 3T3 fibroblasts transformed by Kirsten, Abelson, or Rous sarcoma viruses. The amounts of fibronectin and procollagens released in the medium by transformed cells were also reduced by factors of 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Pulse chase experiments have shown that the decreased level of the 45K protein in the medium of transformed cells cannot be explained by a reduced rate of secretion or by extracellular proteolytic ...
Tankan, Rajani, Vasant Patil, Prasanna Aithal (2014) Clinical study on different procedures of nasya with bhringaraja taila in khalitya (alopecia). [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
A subset of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to the aromatic anticonvulsants phenytoin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital have circulating antibodies that recognize members of the rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A subfamily. These antibodies do not recognize related human CYP3A proteins despite the high degree of structural similarity. To investigate the relationship between P450-mediated drug metabolism and the development of anti-P450 antibodies, we initiated epitope mapping studies by screening a library of fusion proteins constructed from rat CYP3A1 with an anti-CYP3A1-positive patient serum sample. Positive signals from colony lifts were confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, and a 26-amino acid sequence corresponding to amino acids 342-367 of the CYP3A1 protein (NKAPPTY-DTVMEMEYLDMVLNETLRL) was identified as containing the epitope recognized by IgG3 antibodies in this serum sample. By subjecting inserts from two clones into a second ...
A cytosolic insulin-sensitive serine kinase has been purified to apparent homogeneity in parallel from livers of control or acutely insulin-treated rats. The kinase is labile and requires rapid purification for stability. The kinase migrates as a band of apparent Mr = 90,000 on denaturing gels and elutes as a monomer on Superose 12 gel filtration. After sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and renaturation, the 90-kDa band presumed to be the kinase shows kinase activity toward myelin basic protein in situ. Substrates of the kinase include Leu-Arg-Arg-Ala-Ser-Leu-Gly (Kemptide), ribosomal protein S6, S6 peptide, a proline-rich peptide substrate, microtubule-associated protein 2, and myelin basic protein. The kinase also phosphorylates histones H1 and H2B, but does not autophosphorylate to a significant stoichiometry. The activity of the kinase is inhibited by fluoride, glycerophosphate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, p-nitrophenol, heparin, quercetin, poly-L-lysine, and potassium phosphate
Photographs of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels with annotation of the spots of identified proteins. The left image shows a silver-stained gel of embryo chi
A curved-surface cassette/gel system is disclosed in which the walls of a cassette and the major surfaces of a slab-shaped electrophoresis gel in the cassette coact to substantially exclude liquid or gas from between either wall and the major surfaces of the gel. Exclusion is accomplished by exerting a normal force at all points on the walls of the cassette and at all points on the major surfaces of the gel. A curvature may be present in at least one wall of the cassette and in at least one major surface of the cassette. A cassette headpiece may be divided by septa which form an edge seal with the slab gel. The spaces formed between the septa function as wells into which sample materials may be placed.
MODEL RELEASED. Protein analysis. Technician using a proteomics imaging system to analyse proteins isolated by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). SDS-PAGE is used to analyse the protein composition of cells and tissues. A sample has SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate) added to it, which denatures it and applies an overall negative charge. It is then placed into a gel that has an electrical current passed through it, which separates the samples proteins based on their differences in size and charge. Photographed at Dundee University in Dundee, Scotland. - Stock Image C001/8753
Medox-Bio electrophoretic systems are designed to suit various applications related to Nucleic acid separation, Protein seperation, Immuno protein separation and Protein transfer in laboratories. These computer designed systems are made out of well-polished and clear Plexiglass sheets fused together by using high-strength specific adhesives.
A first step in characterizing a protein often involves determining its molecular weight. From this information, different proteins may be compared and the number of amino acid residues in a protein can be determined. Here, students determine the molecular weight of two unknown proteins by comparing their electrophoretic migration with the migration of standard proteins. The protein standards and unknowns have been pre-stained so that your students can follow ...
Nurkhamidah, S. and Woo, E. M. (2011), Effects of crystallinity and molecular weight on crack behavior in crystalline poly(L-lactic acid). J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 122: 1976-1985. doi: 10.1002/app.34021 ...
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a widely used method to study short DNA fragments in solution. It is, however, a relative method requiring length markers to assess mobility, shape, flexibility, and molecularity of the DNA structures of interest. In recent literature we have encountered the use of oligo(dT) fragments as the native PAGE length markers. We show here that this practice is inadequate because oligo(dT) migration is strongly retarded in native polyacrylamide gels. This conclusion is qualitatively true irrespective of the conditions of electrophoresis, oligo(dT) length, and gel concentration. Depending on their length, oligo(dT) fragments migrate 2-4 times slower than that would correspond to their nucleotide number. This leads to erroneous conclusions, e.g., determination of the number of associated molecules in guanine quadruplexes or other DNA complexes. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved ...
Dissociative effect of Nutlin-3a, Nutlin-3b, and RO-5963 on the preformed p53·MDM2 complex. Representative electrophoresis polyacrylamide gels in nondenaturing conditions for the analysis of the dissociation power of the inhibitors tested. (A) The reaction mixture containing 25 M p53·MDM2 complex, treated in the absence (lane 3) or in the presence (lanes 4-14) of 0.040, 0.060, 0.080, 0.12, 0.33, 0.67, 1.33, 3.33, 6.67, 33.33, and 333.33 μM Nutlin-3a, respectively, were run on a 12% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel. Thirty micromolar MDM2 and p53 was run alone in lanes 1 and 2, respectively. (B) As in (A), but using Nutlin-3b, at concentration of (lanes 4-14) of 1.33, 6.67, 13.33, 20.00, 66.67, 133.33, 266.67, 333.33, 400.00, 833.33, and 1666.67 μM. p53 and MDM2 (25 μM both) were run alone in lanes 1 and 2, respectively. (C) As in (A), but using RO-5963, at concentration of 0.10, 0.21, 0.42, 0.83, 1.67, 3.33, 8.33, 16.67, 33.33, 166.67, and 333.33 μM (lanes 4-14), respectively. (D) The ...
Browse Sigma-Aldrichs SDS-PAGE to find products in Acrylamides, Buffers, Detergents, Gel Casting Reagents, Gel Cross-Linkers, Gel Loading Reagents, Ready-to Use Gels, Reducing Agents, TruPAGE Precast Gels, Urea
Results. The levels of BD were most influenced by methods 2 and 3, and remained almost unchanged when the method 1 was used. The lag-time of 99mTc-LDL produced by method 2 doubled but it was decreased by 23% when the method 3 was employed. No change in the lag-time compared to the native LDL was observed with the method 1. The TBARS levels were 3-5 fold higher than in native LDL when methods 1 and 2 were used, but 33% lower in products made by the method 3. The number of thiol groups increased 3 fold in method 1, was only slightly elevated in method 3, but reduced in method 2 compared to native LDL. NH2-groups were increased with all three labeling procedures, but this increase was not considered significant. REM was altered only in products obtained by methods 1 (1.5× increase) and by method 2 (1.25× increase). No fragmentation of Apo B using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE) electrophoresis was observed by 99mTc-LDL produced in any of the methods. The increase of lipid ...
Of 14 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis selected from 956 isolates from soil samples from Brazil, 12 were toxic to larvae of Aedes fluviatilis and two were nontoxic. Nine of the 14 strains were serotyped as subspecies israelensis (serotype 14), one as subspecies kurstaki (serotype 3a 3b) one as subspecies morrisoni (serotype 8a 8b) and three did not agglutinate any antisera. Electrophoresis of whole cell proteins showed that all subsp. israelensis strains formed a homogeneous group which included two non-typable toxic strains, and could be readily distinguished from reference strains toxic for lepidoptera or coleoptera ...
In other words, if you want to be drunk and anti-social and violent until all hours after the OFarrell Government proposals have been passed, all you need to do is pick the right venue in the right inner Sydney precinct. Sure, you can agree or disagree with Robertsons overall stance on the issue, but you cant deny that he too has a point there.. News Limiteds David Penberthy has offered his usual "boofhead libertarianism" schtick in response. The shorter Penbo: dont blame alcohol, blame the idiots who get violent after a few drinks: you and me are entitled to get pissed as much as we want so long as we dont "coward punch" anyone. This is the kind of mentality I would ordinarily expect to find at the bar of an RSL after (yep) a few drinks, not splashed all over the HTML and news print produced by Australias largest media company. But then I remember that this is News Limited we are talking about, and that by definition, even companies touting cow manure have a target market. There are some ...
Scrub typhus is an acute and febrile infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative α-proteobacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi from the family Rickettsiaceae that is widely distributed in Northern, Southern and Eastern Asia. In the present study, we analysed the serum proteome of scrub typhus patients to investigate specific clinical protein patterns in an attempt to explain pathophysiology and discover potential biomarkers of infection. Serum samples were collected from three patients (before and after treatment with antibiotics) and three healthy subjects. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed to identify differentially abundant proteins using quantitative proteomic approaches. Bioinformatic analysis was then performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Proteomic analysis identified 236 serum proteins, of which 32 were differentially expressed in normal subjects, naive scrub typhus patients and
In this study, the potential use of Moringa oleifera as a clotting agent of different types of milk (whole, skim, and soy milk) was investigated. M. oleifera seed extract showed high milk-clotting activity followed by flower extract. Specific clotting activity of seed extract was 200 times higher than that of flower extract. Seed extract is composed by four main protein bands (43.6, 32.2, 19.4, and 16.3 kDa). Caseinolytic activity assessed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and tyrosine quantification, showed a high extent of casein degradation using M. oleifera seed extract. Milk soy cheese was soft and creamy, while skim milk cheese was hard and crumbly. According to these results, it is concluded that seed extract of M. oleifera generates suitable milk clotting activity for cheesemaking. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report comparative data of M. oleifera milk clotting activity between different types of soy milk.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Schwann Cell Surface Proteins and Glycoproteins. AU - Pleasure, David E. AU - Hardy, Mattie. AU - Kreider, Barbara. AU - Stern, Janet. AU - Doan, Hung. AU - Shuman, Sandra. AU - Brown, Spencer. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - Abstract: To identify surface sialoglycoproteins of rat Schwann cells and to compare molecular weights of these sialoglycoproteins with those present in rat peripheral nervous system myelin, we prepared Schwann cells from sciatic nerves of 1-3‐day‐old rats and cultured them in monolayer. Surface sialoglycoproteins of the cultured cells were tritium‐labeled by the periodateborohydride procedure and compared with sialoglycoproteins of adult rat peripheral nervous system myelin by fluorography following polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Three radioactive bands with apparent molecular weights of 114,000-132,000, 105,000-115,000, and 44,000-56,000 were observed in both the Schwann cell and myelin preparations. Bands of ...
A lectin from Delonix regia (DRL) seeds was purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 followed by ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl- Sepharose and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 column. Hemagglutinating activity was monitored using rat erythrocytes. DRL showed no specificity for human erythrocytes of ABO blood groups. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a single protein in the presence of 0.1 M of dithiothreitol (DTT) and in nonreducing conditions. Native-PAGE showed that DRL is a monomer with a molecular mass of about 12 kDa, as determined by denaturing gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography. An amino acid composition revealed the absence of cysteine residues, the presence of 1 mol methionine/mol protein and a high proportion of acidic amino acids and glycine. The N-terminal sequence of DRL was determined by Edman degradation, and up to 16 amino acid residues showed more than 90% homology ...
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related obligatory intracellular apicomplexan parasites that invade and multiply in almost all mammalian host cells. They cause disease in immunocompromised animals, abortion in the intermediates host and great economic losses to the farming industry. However, there are several biological differences between these parasites, including host range, zoonotic capacity, transmission, virulence and definitive host. What causes these biological differences is not well understood. To fully understand these biological differences, the host-parasite interactions of these parasites have been investigated in this study using several different approaches at the molecular level. Due to the importance of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and multiple protein complexes (MPCs) in host-parasite interactions, blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) was used to study T. ...
We report a methodology for the isolation of peroxisome membranes from the yeast Candida tropicalis pK233 grown on oleic acid, and the characterization of the polypeptide and lipid compositions of these membranes. Peroxisomes purified in either sucrose or Nycodenz gradients are treated with Tris-HCl (pH 8.5) and then with sodium carbonate (pH 11.5) to yield a final peroxisome membrane preparation (hereafter called peroxisome membranes). Electron microscopy revealed peroxisome membranes that are approximately 8.1 nm thick, have a typical trilaminar appearance, and form either flattened sheets or whorled structures. Peroxisome membranes contain 3.1% and 2.2% of the total protein of sucrose- and Nycodenz-gradient-purified peroxisomes, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed three predominant polypeptide bands of 34 (PMP 34), 29 (PMP 29), and 24 (PMP 24) × 10(3) Mr in peroxisome membranes. Immunoblotting with an antiserum to PMP 24 showed that PMP ...
Research Corridor has published a new research study titled "Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis and Forecast, 2017 - 2025". The Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns market report studies current as well as future aspects of the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market based upon factors such as market dynamics, key ongoing trends and segmentation analysis. Apart from the above elements, the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market research report provides a 360-degree view of the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns industry with geographic segmentation, statistical forecast and the competitive landscape.. Browse the complete report at http://www.researchcorridor.com/ion-exchange-chromatography-columns-market/. Geographically, the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market report comprises dedicated sections centering on the regional market revenue and trends. The Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns market has been segmented on the ...
Objective: The composition of the salivary interface (pellicle) between dental restorations and oral mucosa may be critical to the biocompatibility of the restoration. The purpose of this study was to examine the molecular composition of the salivary pellicle on nickel-chromium alloy in vivo. Method and materials: The molecular components of nickel-chromium pellicle was examined with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses. Results: Only limited numbers of salivary proteins were found to participate in the formation of nickel-chromium pellicle in vivo. Salivary amylase and secretory immunoglobulin A were among the proteins identified in the pellicle. Conclusion: In vivo, nickel-chromium pellicle consists of selectively adsorbed salivary proteins. Because both salivary amylase and secretory immunoglobulin A are antimicrobial proteins, it is possible that they play a role in modulating the microbial flora on the nickel-chromium prosthesis ...
... is a powerful tool used to analyze RNA samples. When polyacrylamide gel is denatured after ... Polyacrylamide gels are composed of a stacking gel and separating gel. Stacking gels have a higher porosity relative to the ... Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is a technique widely used in biochemistry, forensic chemistry, genetics, molecular ... Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is a method of separating molecules based on the ...
Resolution of multiple ribonucleic acid species by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Biochemistry (1967) volume 6(6):1818-27. ... for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA, such as TBE buffer (borate buffered tris-hydroxymethylaminomethonium)[17 ... Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, D. Tietz, ed., Springer-Verlag ISBN 3-540-63959-4 (1998) ... enclosed bait stations and spot treatments using gel formulations).[39] ...
"SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)". Gainesville, FL: EnCor Biotechnology Inc. 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2010. " ... Although electrophoresis was used to separate proteins before Laemmli's work, he made significant improvements to the method. ...
51 (1): 91013-7. "Denaturing Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of DNA & RNA". Electrophoresis. National Diagnostics. Retrieved ... These denaturants have been employed to make Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis gel (DGGE), which promotes denaturation of ...
... in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis; and in polyacrylamide gels. Camillo Golgi perfected silver staining for the study ... Later it was adapted to polyacrylamide gels used in SDS-PAGE, and also for staining DNA or RNA. The glycosylations of ... H. Blum, H. Beier, H. J. Gross: Improved silver staining of plant protein, RNA & DNA in PAA gels. In: Electrophoresis. 8, 1987 ... Samples have been run on a 5% polyacrylamide gel and visualized using silver staining. RBC membrane proteins separated by SDS- ...
"Purification of oligonucleotides using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis". Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. ... The fully formed target structures can be verified using native gel electrophoresis, which gives size and shape information for ... Strands can be purified by denaturing gel electrophoresis if needed, and precise concentrations determined via any of several ... Methods: Chory, J.; Pollard, J. D. (1 May 2001). "Separation of small DNA fragments by conventional gel electrophoresis". ...
"Denaturing Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of DNA & RNA". Electrophoresis. National Diagnostics. Retrieved 13 October 2016. ... These denaturants have been employed to make Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis gel (DGGE), which promotes denaturation of ...
"Grass cultivar identification by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis". New Zealand Journal of ...
It was discovered by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 2-D fingerprinting in an attempt to study the accumulation of small ... I. Characterization by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fingerprint analysis". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 248 (14 ...
Altschul, A. M.; Evans, W. J. (1967). "Zone electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gel". Methods in Enzymology. Methods in ... They soaked the gel in a dye solution containing methanol, acetic acid and water. As the dye stained the polyacrylamide gel as ... This property can be used to separate proteins or protein complexes using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non- ... The first report of the use of the "G" form of the dye to visualise protein bands in polyacrylamide gels came in 1967, where ...
Issaq, J. Haleem & T. D. Veenstra (2008). "Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE): advances and ... The first method fractionates whole proteins via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The first-dimension of 2D gel is ... and the second-dimension is SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This dimension separates the protein according ... Gel spots identified on a 2D Gel are usually attributable to one protein. If the identity of the protein is desired, usually ...
"Equilibria and kinetics of lac repressor-operator interactions by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis". Nucleic Acids Res. 9 (23 ... An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) or mobility shift electrophoresis, also referred as a gel shift assay, gel ... move through the gel is determined by their size and charge, and to a lesser extent, their shape (see gel electrophoresis). The ... DNA complexes during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis". Nucleic Acids Research 22(23): 5054-5059. doi: 10.1093/nar/22.23.5054 ...
It has been tested and recommended for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Usage above 20 mM in mammalian cell culture work is ... Thomas, J; Hodes, ME (1981). "A new discontinuous buffer system for the electrophoresis of cationic proteins at near-neutral pH ...
Another method that is common is polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Both methods require amplification of all loci of ... Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is one method which has met these criteria and is recommended by the EMQN. ... "Diagnosis of five spinocerebellar ataxia disorders by multiplex amplification and capillary electrophoresis". The Journal of ...
Resolution of multiple ribonucleic acid species by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Biochemistry (1967) volume 6(6):1818-27 ... for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA, such as TBE buffer (borate buffered tris-hydroxymethylaminomethonium) or ... Nucleic Acids Research (1981) Volume 9(13): 3015-3027 Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, D. Tietz, ed., Springer-Verlag ISBN 3-540- ... enclosed bait stations and spot treatments using gel formulations). The Indonesian Directorate of Consumer Protection warns of ...
The acronym expands to "sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis." Ninfa, Alexander; Ballou, David; Benore, ... In this way, the difference in mobility of the polypeptide chains in the gel can be attributed solely to their size as opposed ... Dodecyl sulfate molecule has two negative charges at the pH value used for electrophoresis, this will lead the net charge of ... and for denaturing proteins in preparation for electrophoresis in the SDS-PAGE technique. In the case of the SDS-PAGE ...
Structural characterization of proteins separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis". J Biol Chem. 270 (11 ...
Run both samples side by side on a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The portion of DNA template without protein will be cut ... the labelled DNA fragments are detected by a capillary electrophoresis device instead of being run on a polyacrylamide gel. If ... A region of interest is amplified between the linker and a gene-specific primer, and when run on a polyacrylamide gel, will ... Note: Maxam-Gilbert chemical DNA sequencing can be run alongside the samples on the polyacrylamide gel to allow the prediction ...
Other techniques, such as activity staining assays with the use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tritium-based ... "Polyphenol oxidase activity staining in polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels". J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods. 34 (2): 155-9. doi: ...
... reliably separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), visualized by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, and their ... "The reliability of molecular weight determinations by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis". J. Biol. Chem. 244 ( ... "The reliability of molecular weight determinations by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis". This technique ...
"Equilibria and kinetics of lac repressor-operator interactions by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis". Nucleic Acids Research. ... "gel shift" assay, which is used to detect and estimate the affinity of protein-nucleic acid complexes. He made many other ...
Proteins are commonly separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE). For this technique, ... These include liquid chromatography mass spectrometry along with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or ... "Neuroproteomics - the Tasks Lying Ahead." Electrophoresis 27 (2006): 2819-2829. Butcher, James. "Neuroproteomics Comes of Age ... proteins are run across an immobile gel with a pH gradient until they stop at the point where their net charge is neutral. ...
Snider, R. D.; Kramer, C. L. (1974). "Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and numerical taxonomy of Taphrina caerulescens and ...
... monophosphate phosphodiesterase in rat cerebellum by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 284 (1 ...
... is used as a destaining agent in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Direct-methanol fuel cells are unique in their ... Similarly, the alcohol can be gelled to reduce risk of leaking or spilling, as with the brand "Sterno". ...
... or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis diagnose only taeniasis and not cysticercosis. Radiological tests, such as X-ray, CT ...
... monophosphate phosphodiesterase in rat cerebellum by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 284 (1): 220- ...
Aebersold R, Leavitt J (1990). "Sequence analysis of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: towards an ... integrated protein database". Electrophoresis. 11 (7): 517-27. doi:10.1002/elps.1150110702. PMID 2226408. Shisheva A, Südhof TC ...
Further, the consumption of acrylamide monomer has increased in various sectors such as ore processing, gel electrophoresis, ... Growing demand for polyacrylamide is boosting the growth of the market.. *On the basis of end-use, the waste and wastewater ... Acrylamide monomer is majorly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamide which is further used in wastewater treatment, thereby ... regulations aimed to limit the waste produced by industrial and municipal plants has boosted the demand for polyacrylamide. ...
Further, the consumption of acrylamide monomer has increased in various sectors such as ore processing, gel electrophoresis, ... Growing demand for polyacrylamide is boosting the growth of the market.. *On the basis of end-use, the waste and wastewater ... Global Acrylamide Monomer Market Driven by Rising Demand for Polyacrylamide. Print This Article Share it With Friends ... Acrylamide monomer is majorly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamide which is further used in wastewater treatment, thereby ...
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool used to analyze RNA samples. When polyacrylamide gel is denatured after ... Polyacrylamide gels are composed of a stacking gel and separating gel. Stacking gels have a higher porosity relative to the ... Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is a technique widely used in biochemistry, forensic chemistry, genetics, molecular ... Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is a method of separating molecules based on the ...
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Poly-Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, or SDS-PAGE, is a widely-used technique for separating mixtures of ... Poly-Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis utilizes a hydrogel made from polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide is a polymer that forms a very ... Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Poly-Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, or SDS-PAGE, is a widely-used technique for separating mixtures of ... When electrophoresis is complete, the cassette is removed and opened to expose the gel. The gel can then be stained with a ...
Anatomical context of Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. *Associations of Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel with chemical ... Disease relevance of Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. *Psychiatry related information on Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide ... Polyacrylamide Gel with chemical compounds. *Results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) ... High impact information on Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. *Chemical compound and disease context of Electrophoresis, ...
BN-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis[edit]. Similar to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, blue native-polyacrylamide gel ... SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis is a technique to separate proteins according to elctrophoretic mobility - a function of ... Structural Biochemistry/Proteins/Purification/SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. From Wikibooks, open books for an open ... SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis can also be used to separate DNA and RNA molecules. ...
DNA Gel ElectrophoresisPrevious Video Bacterial Transformation: The Heat Shock Method…Next Video ...
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. From OpenWetWare. Revision as of 10:29, 17 June 2009 by Michael A. Speer. (talk , contribs) ... Retrieved from "https://openwetware.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Polyacrylamide_gel_electrophoresis&oldid=316389" ...
India ink staining after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in conjunction with Western blots for ... peptide mapping of proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ... 100 femtomoles of protein loaded onto the gel. Finally, the use of India Ink in conjunction with Western blot analysis is also ...
Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the separation of proteins in the range from 1 to 100 kDa ... A discontinuous sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) system for the separation of proteins in ... This is of special importance when large amounts of protein are to be loaded onto preparative gels. The omission of glycine and ... Proteins above 30 kDa are already destacked within the sample gel. Thus a smooth passage of these proteins from sample to ...
... Dopson, Mark Umeå ... In this study we have used statistical comparisons of two-dimensional polyacylamide gel electrophoresis gels for classification ... Archaea/classification/*genetics, Archaeal Proteins/*genetics, Electrophoresis; Gel; Two-Dimensional/*methods, Phylogeny ...
... of sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable Staphylococcus aureus bacteriolytic enzymes by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.. M Sugai, T ... of sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable Staphylococcus aureus bacteriolytic enzymes by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. ... of sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable Staphylococcus aureus bacteriolytic enzymes by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. ... of sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable Staphylococcus aureus bacteriolytic enzymes by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. ...
The Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) kit contains gel, dyes, buffers, pigments, electrophoresis hardware and molecular ... The technique is called as Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). Electrophoresis is frequently used ... Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) is a typical technique for isolating proteins by electrophoresis. In this technique a ... The negative Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) uses separation based on size and shape of micro molecules. The negative ...
What is SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis? Meaning of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis medical term. What does SDS- ... Looking for online definition of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the Medical Dictionary? SDS-polyacrylamide gel ... SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis , definition of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by Medical dictionary https:// ... The SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out by the method of Laemmli [29] under reduced and non-reduced ...
Görg, A., Boguth, G., Obermaier, C., Posch, A., and Weiss, W. (1995) Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with ... Marcus K., Meyer H.E. (2004) Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis for Platelet Proteomics. In: Gibbins J.M., ... Improved staining of proteins in polyacrylamide gels including isoelectric focusing gels with clear background at nanogram ... Postelectrophoretic staining of proteins separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using SYPRO dyes. Electrophoresis 17 ...
Electrophoresis 1991-5-1 A new multiphasic buffer system for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ... A novel multiphasic buffer system for high resolution sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of dansylated ... thus making it applicable to gel electrophoresis of a larger spectrum of rapidly migrating species, such as sodium dodecyl ... The system, based on Jovins theory of multiphasic zone electrophoresis, allows complete stacking and destacking of proteins/ ...
Budowle B., Giusti A.M., Allen R.C. (1990) Analysis of PCR Products (pMCT118) by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. In: ... Southern E. M. (1975) Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J. Mol. Biol. 98: ... Hochstrasser, D., Patchornik, A., Merril, C. (1988) Development of polyacrylamide gels that improve the separation of proteins ... Polymerase chain reaction amplification products separated on rehydratable polyacrylamide gels and stained with sifver. ...
The Use of SDS-polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis to Assess Purification Procedures of Three Potyviruses Infecting ... and resuspension buffers on virus yield and purity by using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), so as to ...
BioProduct : Electrophoresis : polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis : Novex 4-20% Tris-Glycine Gel. Previous Next ... Novex Tris-Glycine polyacrylamide gel chemistry is based on the Laemmli system (1) with minor modifications for maximum ... These gels do not contain SDS and can therefore be used to accurately separate both Morenative and denatured proteins. Novex ... Tris-Glycine Gels provide reproducible separation of a wide range of proteins into well-resolved bands. ...
Separation of ferritin dimer, trimer and tetramer by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and their identification by ... trimer and tetramer by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and their identification by electron microscopy. Biochem ...
Global SDS Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) Market to Surpass US$ 559 Mn by end of 2025 from a market valuation of ... are some of the key players in the global market for SDS Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. Several key companies are ... For more information about the global SDS Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis market, connect with the team of analysts at ... Key Players in SDS Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Market. Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., General Electric Company (GE ...
Global Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) Market Research Report 2016 is a market research report available at US $2900 ... 5.3 Global Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) Price by Type (2011-2016). 5.4 Global Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis ( ... United States Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) Market Report 2016. Global Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) ... 8 Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) Manufacturing Cost Analysis. 8.1 Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) Key Raw ...
Determination of molecular weights of plant viral protein subunits by poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis ... Molecular weights of poly phenol oxidase isozymes of tea shoots determined by the poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis method. ... Molecular weights of glutenin and gliadin poly peptides estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis ... Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis estimation of protein subunit molecular weights using ...
Diffusion and displacement coefficients may be modified by varying the gel concentration, the intensity of the incident UV ... radiation and the temperature at which the gel is run. The device is an major advance over current technology since it provides ... for a significant reduction in size of the micro-electrophoresis apparatus and a significant cost savings. ... "Photodefined polyacrylamide gels" are polyacrylamide gels that are polymerized by exposure of at least a part of the gel to a ...
Analysis of Candida albicans antigens by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. CLODAGH ... Analysis of Candida albicans antigens by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting ... Analysis of Candida albicans antigens by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting ... Analysis of Candida albicans antigens by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting ...
  • Dansylated proteins/peptides were detected by their fluorescence either directly within the gel or following electroblotting into anion-exchange or polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Nondansylated proteins/peptides were either detected within the gel by colloidal Coomassie staining or by electroblotting into polyvinylidene difluoride membranes, followed by colloidal gold staining. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Fluorescamine-modified peptides, ranging in size from 3 to 215 amino acids, have been examined in a variety of buffer systems between pH 2.3 and 9.8 and gel concentrations varying between 4% and 16% acrylamide. (unab.cl)
  • Similar peptides were examined by high-voltage paper electrophoresis and detected by Fluorescamine. (unab.cl)
  • Less bacteriolytic activity could be detected in gels containing S. aureus, although three bands were found in culture supernatants and LiCl extracts and cell membranes contained one major band, P13. (asm.org)
  • For transfer of proteins from 10% or 13% gels to PVDF membranes semi-dry transfer can also be used. (protocol-online.org)
  • The device is an major advance over current technology since it provides for a significant reduction in size of the micro-electrophoresis apparatus and a significant cost savings. (google.com)
  • By product type, gels are likely to represent the largest segment with more than 56% value share in next few years, among which precast gels sub-segment will dominate with a value share of more than 62% by 2025 end. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Nucleic acids however, remain negative at any pH used for electrophoresis and in addition carry a fixed negative charge per unit length of molecule, provided by the PO4 group of each nucleotide of the the nucleic acid. (uct.ac.za)
  • The detection limit with the use of DRC and He as transport gas was 0.07 mug Se g(-1) gel with single hole drilling and 0.15 mug Se g(-1) gel for ablation with translation. (ugent.be)
  • The optimization allowed a 12-fold gain of the S/N ratio during ablation of gels and a 3.5-fold gain in the ablation of blots in comparison with the method using an essentially similar system published by the reference lab. (elsevier.com)
  • The gain of S/N by increasing ablation surface using the high repetition rate laser was not as spectacular as expected (2.5-fold for the gels and 1.5-fold for the blots) as the background noise increased considerably when a larger surface is ablated due to selenoproteins peak tailing. (elsevier.com)
  • Consequently, both the direct determination of the molecular masses of the gel-separated LPS glycoforms and sequence analyses using ESI-MS/MS were possible. (diva-portal.org)
  • Dunn, M. J. (1992) The analysis of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels for the construction of protein databases, in Microcomputer in Biochemistry: A Practical Approach (Bryce, C. F. A., ed. (springer.com)
  • SDS, a strong ionic detergent, can solubilize even the most hydrophobic membrane proteins by attacking the hydrophobic core itself, which ultimately denatures the protein and can be used in a procedure known as SDS polyacrylmide-gel electrophoresis. (wikibooks.org)
  • This study identifies conditions allowing differentiation of all three enzymes using simple in-gel zymographic assays. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For this purpose, two interlaboratory reference samples were prepared: glutathione peroxidase band in the gel and on the membrane, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • This technique is rapid, sensitive and capable of high resolution compared to Gel-Electrophoresis because it can give a distinct band with as little as 0.1 micrograms of the protein when stained with Coomassie Blue and proteins that differ by 2% can still be separated. (wikibooks.org)
  • By comparing the relative ratio of the distance traveled by each protein to the length of the gel (Rf) one can make conclusions about the relative molecular weight of the proteins, where the length of the gel is determined by the distance traveled by a small molecule like a tracking dye. (wikipedia.org)
  • A simple way of determining relative molecular weight by electrophoresis (M r) is to plot a standard curve of distance migrated vs. log10MW for known samples, and read off the log Mr of the sample after measuring distance migrated on the same gel. (uct.ac.za)